Summary: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.

Top Publications

  1. Piñera Haces C, Izquierdo Ortiz M, Martin de Francisco A, Garcia Unzueta M, Lopez Hoyos M, Toyos C, et al. Double treatment with paricalcitol-associated calcifediol and cardiovascular risk biomarkers in haemodialysis. Nefrologia. 2013;33:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to evaluate whether there is a benefit of combination therapy with 25OHD, calcifediol and a VDRA, oral paricalcitol, on bone-mineral metabolism and inflammatory markers, compared to single ..
  2. Cashman K, Fitzgerald A, Viljakainen H, Jakobsen J, Michaelsen K, Lamberg Allardt C, et al. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adolescent white girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:549-55 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) of adolescent girls (mean age: 11.3 y) at northern latitudes (>55°N) are 8.3 and 18.6 ?g/d, respectively. This trial was registered at as NCT00267540. ..
  3. Galler A, Tran J, Krammer Lukas S, Holler U, Thalhammer J, Zentek J, et al. Blood vitamin levels in dogs with chronic kidney disease. Vet J. 2012;192:226-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether lower vitamin D and folate concentrations in dogs with CKD justify supplementation has to be evaluated in future studies. ..
  4. Bischoff Ferrari H, Dawson Hughes B, Stöcklin E, Sidelnikov E, Willett W, Edel J, et al. Oral supplementation with 25(OH)D3 versus vitamin D3: effects on 25(OH)D levels, lower extremity function, blood pressure, and markers of innate immunity. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:160-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Demetriou E, Travison T, Holick M. Treatment with 50,000 IU vitamin D? every other week and effect on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D?, 25-hydroxyvitamin D?, and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a clinical setting. Endocr Pract. 2012;18:399-402 pubmed publisher
    ..This treatment program is an appropriate and effective strategy to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency. ..
  6. Rosen C, Abrams S, Aloia J, Brannon P, Clinton S, Durazo Arvizu R, et al. IOM committee members respond to Endocrine Society vitamin D guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These concerns focus on target serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, the definition of vitamin D deficiency, and the question of who constitutes a population at risk vs. the general population. ..
  7. Tolppanen A, Fraser A, Fraser W, Lawlor D. Risk factors for variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D? and D? concentrations and vitamin D deficiency in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..K. cohort. Despite some overlap, there are differences in potential confounding structures for associations of 25(OH)D? and 25(OH)D? with health outcomes. These should be accounted for in future studies. ..
  8. Tuohimaa P, Lou Y. Optimal serum calcidiol concentration for cancer prevention. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:373-81 pubmed
    ..Multiple daily dosing of cholecalcipherol or skin patches could best provide an optimal dosing and stable serum concentration. Alternatively, narrow-band UV-B lamps are a possible optimal solution, when given by trained personnel. ..
  9. Kalra P, Das V, Agarwal A, Kumar M, Ramesh V, Bhatia E, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on neonatal mineral homeostasis and anthropometry of the newborn and infant. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:1052-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences were still evident at 9 months. We conclude that both 1500 ?g and two doses of 3000 ?g vitamin D? had a beneficial effect on infant anthropometry, the larger dose also improving CB ALP and maternal 25(OH)D...

More Information


  1. Davies J, Chang Y, Snowden H, Chan M, Leake S, Karpavicius B, et al. The determinants of serum vitamin D levels in participants in a melanoma case-control study living in a temperate climate. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22:1471-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Inherited variation in genes such as GC is a strong factor, and carriers of variant alleles may therefore require higher levels of supplementation. ..
  2. Barchetta I, Carotti S, Labbadia G, Gentilucci U, Muda A, Angelico F, et al. Liver vitamin D receptor, CYP2R1, and CYP27A1 expression: relationship with liver histology and vitamin D3 levels in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or hepatitis C virus. Hepatology. 2012;56:2180-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that vitamin D/VDR system may play a role in the progression of metabolic and viral chronic liver damage. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;56:2180-2187). ..
  3. Williams D, Fraser A, Sayers A, Fraser W, Hingorani A, Deanfield J, et al. Associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood: cross-sectional findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1563-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations of 25(OH)D(2) with cardiovascular risk factors were in mixed directions. It is necessary to see whether these associations are replicated in large prospective studies. ..
  4. REESE P, Bloom R, Feldman H, Huverserian A, Thomasson A, Shults J, et al. Changes in vitamin D binding protein and vitamin D concentrations associated with liver transplantation. Liver Int. 2012;32:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies of the effects of vitamin D status on diverse transplant complications are needed. ..
  5. LaClair R, Hellman R, Karp S, Kraus M, Ofner S, Li Q, et al. Prevalence of calcidiol deficiency in CKD: a cross-sectional study across latitudes in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45:1026-33 pubmed
    ..015). This cross-sectional cohort study found a high prevalence of calcidiol deficiency and insufficiency in patients with moderate and severe CKD not on dialysis therapy regardless of geographic location. ..
  6. Hill K, McCabe G, McCabe L, Gordon C, Abrams S, Weaver C. An inflection point of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D for maximal suppression of parathyroid hormone is not evident from multi-site pooled data in children and adolescents. J Nutr. 2010;140:1983-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Slominski A, Janjetovic Z, Fuller B, Zmijewski M, Tuckey R, Nguyen M, et al. Products of vitamin D3 or 7-dehydrocholesterol metabolism by cytochrome P450scc show anti-leukemia effects, having low or absent calcemic activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9907 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified novel secosteroids that are excellent candidates for anti-leukemia therapy with 20(OH)D3 deserving special attention because of its relatively high potency and lack of calcemic activity. ..
  8. Ahn J, Albanes D, Berndt S, Peters U, Chatterjee N, Freedman N, et al. Vitamin D-related genes, serum vitamin D concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:769-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from the most comprehensive evaluation of serum vitamin D and its related genes to date suggest that tag SNPS in the 3' UTR of VDR may be associated with risk of prostate cancer in men with low vitamin D status. ..
  9. Ruiz Irastorza G, Egurbide M, Olivares N, Martinez Berriotxoa A, Aguirre C. Vitamin D deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence, predictors and clinical consequences. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008;47:920-3 pubmed publisher
    ..HCQ prevented vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was related to a higher degree of fatigue. Vitamin D levels had no relation with SLE severity. ..
  10. Zbytek B, Janjetovic Z, Tuckey R, Zmijewski M, Sweatman T, Jones E, et al. 20-Hydroxyvitamin D3, a product of vitamin D3 hydroxylation by cytochrome P450scc, stimulates keratinocyte differentiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:2271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These data imply that the previously unreported pathway of vitamin D3 metabolism by P450scc may have wider biological implications depending, for example, on the extent of adrenal gland or cutaneous metabolism. ..
  11. Hosseinpanah F, Rambod M, Hossein nejad A, Larijani B, Azizi F. Association between vitamin D and bone mineral density in Iranian postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26:86-92 pubmed
    ..However, BMD was associated inversely with LnPTH only in femoral neck but not in the other sites. This study did not show any association between 25(OH)D and BMD in free-living Iranian postmenopausal women. ..
  12. Sita Lumsden A, Lapthorn G, Swaminathan R, Milburn H. Reactivation of tuberculosis and vitamin D deficiency: the contribution of diet and exposure to sunlight. Thorax. 2007;62:1003-7 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that other factors are contributing to vitamin D deficiency in patients with TB and suggest abnormal handling of this vitamin. ..
  13. Maunsell Z, Wright D, Rainbow S. Routine isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for simultaneous measurement of the 25-hydroxy metabolites of vitamins D2 and D3. Clin Chem. 2005;51:1683-90 pubmed
    ..The assay has been in use for 9 months and has been used to assay more than 6000 routine samples. ..
  14. Chen H, McCoy L, Schleicher R, Pfeiffer C. Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2) in human serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its comparison to a radioimmunoassay method. Clin Chim Acta. 2008;391:6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This high throughput candidate reference method requires minimal sample preparation and is suitable for routine use for analysis of vitamin D status. ..
  15. Targher G, Bertolini L, Padovani R, Zenari L, Scala L, Cigolini M, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and carotid artery intima-media thickness among type 2 diabetic patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65:593-7 pubmed
    ..Further investigation into whether vitamin D may play a role in the prevention of atherosclerosis appears to be warranted. ..
  16. Bitetto D, Fabris C, Falleti E, Fornasiere E, Fumolo E, Fontanini E, et al. Vitamin D and the risk of acute allograft rejection following human liver transplantation. Liver Int. 2010;30:417-44 pubmed publisher
    ..02). Early vitamin D(3) supplementation was independently associated with a lack of ACR (P<0.05). These results suggest that vitamin D may favour immune tolerance towards the liver allograft. ..
  17. McGrath J, Scragg R, Chant D, Eyles D, Burne T, Obradovic D. No association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level and performance on psychometric tests in NHANES III. Neuroepidemiology. 2007;29:49-54 pubmed
    ..While it remains to be seen if chronic exposure to low 25(OH)D levels alters brain function in the long term, this cross-sectional study suggests that 25(OH)D levels do not influence neurocognitive performance. ..
  18. Heaney R, Armas L, Shary J, Bell N, Binkley N, Hollis B. 25-Hydroxylation of vitamin D3: relation to circulating vitamin D3 under various input conditions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:1738-42 pubmed
    ..However, at supraphysiologic inputs, large quantities of vitamin D(3) are stored as the native compound, presumably in body fat, and are slowly released to be converted to 25(OH)D. ..
  19. Liu K, Meng H, Tang X, Xu L, Zhang L, Chen Z, et al. Elevated plasma calcifediol is associated with aggressive periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum calcifediol was demonstrated to be potentially associated with periodontal disease...
  20. Viljakainen H, Natri A, Kärkkäinen M, Huttunen M, Palssa A, Jakobsen J, et al. A positive dose-response effect of vitamin D supplementation on site-specific bone mineral augmentation in adolescent girls: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled 1-year intervention. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:836-44 pubmed
    ..However, the positive effects were noted with the CB method but not with IT. ..
  21. Lewis J, Elder P. Serum 25-OH vitamin D2 and D3 are stable under exaggerated conditions. Clin Chem. 2008;54:1931-2 pubmed publisher
  22. Glendenning P, Taranto M, Noble J, Musk A, Hammond C, Goldswain P, et al. Current assays overestimate 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and underestimate 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 compared with HPLC: need for assay-specific decision limits and metabolite-specific assays. Ann Clin Biochem. 2006;43:23-30 pubmed
    ..Treatment with vitamin D2 may not be accurately monitored with any of the three commercial assays studied. Clinicians and biochemists who continue to use 25(OH)D assays need to be urgently informed of these issues. ..
  23. Need A, O Loughlin P, Horowitz M, Nordin B. Relationship between fasting serum glucose, age, body mass index and serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;62:738-41 pubmed
    ..006). Fasting serum glucose increased as 25(OH)D levels fell throughout the range of serum 25(OH)D measured but the greatest increase was observed in those with 25(OH)D below 40 nmol/l. ..
  24. Sadlier D, Magee C. Prevalence of 25(OH) vitamin D (calcidiol) deficiency at time of renal transplantation: a prospective study. Clin Transplant. 2007;21:683-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the prevalence of 25(OH) vitamin D (calcidiol) deficiency/insufficiency at the time of renal transplant is very high. The clinical effects of this deficiency/insufficiency deserve further study. ..
  25. Roth H, Schmidt Gayk H, Weber H, Niederau C. Accuracy and clinical implications of seven 25-hydroxyvitamin D methods compared with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a reference. Ann Clin Biochem. 2008;45:153-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there will still remain differences in the accuracy of methods utilizing sample purification before final quantification or immunological reaction when compared with those methods without separate sample purification. ..
  26. Cutolo M, Otsa K. Review: vitamin D, immunity and lupus. Lupus. 2008;17:6-10 pubmed
    ..Treatment of vitamin D deficiency could be particularly important in SLE patients due to concomitant insults on their tissues such as bone, and in view of the possible immunomodulatory effects exerted by vitamin D. ..
  27. Dalgård C, Petersen M, Schmedes A, Brandslund I, Weihe P, Grandjean P. High latitude and marine diet: vitamin D status in elderly Faroese. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:914-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, even in a population with a high intake of marine food, the northern latitude causes a low vitamin D status. Efforts to improve vitamin D status in this population are warranted. ..
  28. Ruohola J, Laaksi I, Ylikomi T, Haataja R, Mattila V, Sahi T, et al. Association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and bone stress fractures in Finnish young men. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:1483-8 pubmed
    ..Considering the obvious need of additional vitamin D in prevention of stress fractures, the effects of vitamin D fortification of foods and supplementation will be subjects of interest for future research. ..
  29. Isidro M, Ruano B. Biochemical effects of calcifediol supplementation in mild, asymptomatic, hyperparathyroidism with concomitant vitamin D deficiency. Endocrine. 2009;36:305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-seven patients were included in this study. Calcifediol was started at a dose of 480-960 IU/24 h (8-16 microg/24 h) and adjusted up to a maximum of 960 IU/24 h (16 ..
  30. Jorde R, Figenschau Y. Supplementation with cholecalciferol does not improve glycaemic control in diabetic subjects with normal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Eur J Nutr. 2009;48:349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed in larger groups of subjects with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, who also exhibit low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. ..
  31. Saenger A, Laha T, Bremner D, Sadrzadeh S. Quantification of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) and D(3) using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry and examination of reference intervals for diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;125:914-20 pubmed
    ..This LC-MS/MS method provides a rapid, accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective alternative to other methods for detection of 25(OH)D(2) and 25(OH)D(3) at nanomolar concentrations. ..
  32. Leino A, Turpeinen U, Koskinen P. Automated measurement of 25-OH vitamin D3 on the Roche Modular E170 analyzer. Clin Chem. 2008;54:2059-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, large between-method variation was observed in individual patient samples. Use of serum rather than plasma is preferred owing to the higher results observed with plasma samples. ..
  33. Ritter C, Armbrecht H, Slatopolsky E, Brown A. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3) suppresses PTH synthesis and secretion by bovine parathyroid cells. Kidney Int. 2006;70:654-9 pubmed
    ..Clotrimazole enhanced 24-hydroxylase mRNA induction, presumably by inhibiting catabolism of 25(OH)D(3). In conclusion, 25(OH)D(3) suppresses PTH synthesis by parathyroid cells, possibly by direct activation of the VDR. ..
  34. Peng X, Vaishnav A, Murillo G, Alimirah F, Torres K, Mehta R. Protection against cellular stress by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in breast epithelial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:1324-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that there is a significant protective role for 25(OH)D(3) against cellular stress in the breast epithelial cells and these effects may be mediated by altered miRNA expression. ..
  35. Hewison M, Burke F, Evans K, Lammas D, Sansom D, Liu P, et al. Extra-renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in human health and disease. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;103:316-21 pubmed
    ..Data suggest that local synthesis of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) may be a preferred mode of response to antigenic challenge in many tissues. ..
  36. Cigolini M, Iagulli M, Miconi V, Galiotto M, Lombardi S, Targher G. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and prevalence of cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:722-4 pubmed
  37. Heaney R. Barriers to optimizing vitamin D3 intake for the elderly. J Nutr. 2006;136:1123-5 pubmed
    ..The age-related decline in cutaneous input, taken together with the UL, creates a substantial barrier to the deployment of public health strategies to optimize vitamin D status in the elderly. ..
  38. Peng X, Hawthorne M, Vaishnav A, St Arnaud R, Mehta R. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 is a natural chemopreventive agent against carcinogen induced precancerous lesions in mouse mammary gland organ culture. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;113:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that 25(OH)D(3) could serve as a non-toxic natural chemopreventive agent for further development for breast cancer prevention. ..
  39. Lange C, Bojunga J, Ramos Lopez E, von Wagner M, Hassler A, Vermehren J, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and a CYP27B1-1260 promoter polymorphism are associated with chronic hepatitis C and poor response to interferon-alfa based therapy. J Hepatol. 2011;54:887-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and CYP27B1-1260 promoter polymorphism leading to reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with failure to achieve SVR in HCV genotype 1, 2, and 3 infected patients. ..
  40. McGrath J, Eyles D, Pedersen C, Anderson C, Ko P, Burne T, et al. Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of schizophrenia: a population-based case-control study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of the substantial public health implications of this finding, there is an urgent need to further explore the effect of vitamin D status on brain development and later mental health. ..
  41. Ajibade D, Dhawan P, Fechner A, Meyer M, Pike J, Christakos S. Evidence for a role of prolactin in calcium homeostasis: regulation of intestinal transient receptor potential vanilloid type 6, intestinal calcium absorption, and the 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) 1alpha hydroxylase gene by prolactin. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2974-84 pubmed publisher
  42. Patel S, Farragher T, Berry J, Bunn D, Silman A, Symmons D. Association between serum vitamin D metabolite levels and disease activity in patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:2143-9 pubmed
    ..This association needs to be examined in other cohorts of patients with early IP, as well as in longitudinal studies. If confirmed, the clinical response to vitamin D supplementation should be examined in early IP. ..
  43. Stavroulopoulos A, Cassidy M, Porter C, Hosking D, Roe S. Vitamin D status in renal transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2007;7:2546-52 pubmed
    ..In conclusion 25-OHD was low in virtually all of our renal transplant recipients and may aggravate secondary hyperparathyroidism, but its correction may be difficult in patients with hypercalcaemia. ..
  44. Tripathi S, Gibney E, Gehr T, King A, Beckman M. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in African American kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2008;85:767-70 pubmed publisher
    ..01) and alkaline phosphatase level was positively associated with intact PTH levels (P<0.002). Vitamin D(3) deficiency and insufficiency is present in most of the African American kidney transplant patients. ..
  45. Mata Granados J, Luque de Castro M, Quesada Gomez J. Inappropriate serum levels of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels in healthy Spanish adults: simultaneous assessment by HPLC. Clin Biochem. 2008;41:676-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also uphold the need for simultaneous measurement of fat-soluble vitamins as a valuable tool in clinical practice as well as in epidemiological studies for awareness and correction. ..
  46. Dong Y, Stallmann Jorgensen I, Pollock N, Harris R, Keeton D, Huang Y, et al. A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D3 supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4584-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations in response to the 2000 IU/d supplementation are negatively modulated by adiposity. ..
  47. Negri A. Proximal tubule endocytic apparatus as the specific renal uptake mechanism for vitamin D-binding protein/25-(OH)D3 complex. Nephrology (Carlton). 2006;11:510-5 pubmed
  48. Lai J, Lucas R, Clements M, Harrison S, Banks E. Assessing vitamin D status: pitfalls for the unwary. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:1062-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Newer assays using alternative biological samples to determine the circulating 25(OH)D have been proposed and advances in the genetics of vitamin D and the role of vitamin D-binding protein may improve future assay accuracy. ..
  49. Zhou S, Leboff M, Glowacki J. Vitamin D metabolism and action in human bone marrow stromal cells. Endocrinology. 2010;151:14-22 pubmed publisher
  50. Newton Bishop J, Beswick S, Randerson Moor J, Chang Y, Affleck P, Elliott F, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are associated with breslow thickness at presentation and survival from melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:5439-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with melanoma, and those at high risk of melanoma, should seek to ensure vitamin D sufficiency. Additional studies are needed to establish optimal serum levels for patients with melanoma. ..
  51. Lagunova Z, Porojnicu A, Lindberg F, Hexeberg S, Moan J. The dependency of vitamin D status on body mass index, gender, age and season. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:3713-20 pubmed
    ..The results of the study suggest that 1 in 3 women and 1 in 2 men with BMI > or = 40 are vitamin D deficient. ..
  52. Eyles D, Anderson C, Ko P, Jones A, Thomas A, Burne T, et al. A sensitive LC/MS/MS assay of 25OH vitamin D3 and 25OH vitamin D2 in dried blood spots. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;403:145-51 pubmed publisher
  53. Stoffels K, Overbergh L, Giulietti A, Verlinden L, Bouillon R, Mathieu C. Immune regulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in human monocytes. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:37-47 pubmed
    ..Combined activation of the JAK-STAT, p38 MAPK, and NF-kappaB pathways is necessary, with C/EBPbeta most probably being the essential transcription factor controlling immune-mediated transcription. ..