Summary: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.

Top Publications

  1. Bergman G, Fan T, McFetridge J, Sen S. Efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in preventing fractures in elderly women: a meta-analysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26:1193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Medline and EMBASE were searched for controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) against placebo with or without background calcium supplementation in the treatment of ..
  2. Salehpour A, Hosseinpanah F, Shidfar F, Vafa M, Razaghi M, Dehghani S, et al. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D? supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women. Nutr J. 2012;11:78 pubmed publisher
    ..1 years, BMI 29.8 ± 4.1 kg/m²) were randomly allocated into two groups: vitamin D (25 ?g per day as cholecalciferol) and placebo (25 ?g per day as lactose) for 12 weeks...
  3. Garcia Lopes M, Pillar R, Kamimura M, Rocha L, Canziani M, Carvalho A, et al. Cholecalciferol supplementation in chronic kidney disease: restoration of vitamin D status and impact on parathyroid hormone. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;61:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to test the effect of a protocol of cholecalciferol supplementation on the restoration of vitamin D status and on parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in patients ..
  4. Alvarez J, Zughaier S, Law J, Hao L, Wasse H, Ziegler T, et al. Effects of high-dose cholecalciferol on serum markers of inflammation and immunity in patients with early chronic kidney disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:264-9 pubmed publisher
    Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory and immune-regulating properties. We aimed to determine if high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation for 1 year in subjects with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) improved circulating markers of ..
  5. Benaboud S, Urien S, Thervet E, Prie D, Legendre C, Souberbielle J, et al. Determination of optimal cholecalciferol treatment in renal transplant recipients using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;69:499-506 pubmed publisher
    No information on optimal cholecalciferol dosing in kidney transplant patients is currently available because the time-course of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration has never been investigated...
  6. Salehpour A, Shidfar F, Hosseinpanah F, Vafa M, Razaghi M, Amiri F. Does vitamin D3 supplementation improve glucose homeostasis in overweight or obese women? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Diabet Med. 2013;30:1477-81 pubmed publisher
    ..9 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to the vitamin D3 group (25 ?g/day as cholecalciferol tablets) or the placebo group...
  7. Giacomet V, Vigano A, Manfredini V, Cerini C, Bedogni G, Mora S, et al. Cholecalciferol supplementation in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency: effects on vitamin D status and T-cell phenotype: a randomized controlled trial. HIV Clin Trials. 2013;14:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test whether cholecalciferol supplementation can improve vitamin D status and affect the T-cell phenotype in HIV-infected youth with ..
  8. Muindi J, Adjei A, Wu Z, Olson I, Huang H, Groman A, et al. Serum vitamin D metabolites in colorectal cancer patients receiving cholecalciferol supplementation: correlation with polymorphisms in the vitamin D genes. Horm Cancer. 2013;4:242-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Cholecalciferol (D(3)) supplementation results in variable increases in serum 25(OH)D(3) levels, however, the influence of genetic polymorphisms on these variable responses is unclear...
  9. Gallagher J, Peacock M, Yalamanchili V, Smith L. Effects of vitamin D supplementation in older African American women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:1137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Because absorption and metabolism of oral vitamin D absorption is similar in both groups, lower levels of serum 25OHD in African Americans must be due to lower production of vitamin D in skin. ..

More Information


  1. Marckmann P, Agerskov H, Thineshkumar S, Bladbjerg E, Sidelmann J, Jespersen J, et al. Randomized controlled trial of cholecalciferol supplementation in chronic kidney disease patients with hypovitaminosis D. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:3523-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment consisted of 40,000 IU of cholecalciferol orally per week...
  2. Yiu Y, Yiu K, Siu C, Chan Y, Li S, Wong L, et al. Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplement on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis. 2013;227:140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In patients with type 2 DM, 12 weeks oral supplementation of vitamin D did not significantly affect vascular function or serum biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. HKCTR-867, ..
  3. Beilfuss J, Berg V, Sneve M, Jorde R, Kamycheva E. Effects of a 1-year supplementation with cholecalciferol on interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects. Cytokine. 2012;60:870-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We also proposed that the intervention with high dose of cholecalciferol may have effect on the cytokine levels and result in corresponding changes in the measures of insulin ..
  4. Wood A, Secombes K, Thies F, Aucott L, Black A, Mavroeidi A, et al. Vitamin D3 supplementation has no effect on conventional cardiovascular risk factors: a parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:3557-68 pubmed publisher
    ..6 (10.8) mm Hg. Improving vitamin D status through dietary supplementation is unlikely to reduce CVD risk factors. Confounding of seasonality should be recognized and addressed in future studies of vitamin D. ..
  5. Larsen T, Mose F, Bech J, Hansen A, Pedersen E. Effect of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter months in patients with hypertension: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:1215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In people living at northern latitudes diminished cholecalciferol synthesis in the winter increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency...
  6. Huang Y, Yu H, Lu J, Guo K, Zhang L, Bao Y, et al. Oral supplementation with cholecalciferol 800 IU ameliorates albuminuria in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50510 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D levels between those with micro- and those with macroalbuminuria, and to determine whether low dose cholecalciferol increases vitamin D levels and ameliorates albuminuria.
  7. Sainaghi P, Bellan M, Nerviani A, Sola D, Molinari R, Cerutti C, et al. Superiority of a high loading dose of cholecalciferol to correct hypovitaminosis d in patients with inflammatory/autoimmune rheumatic diseases. J Rheumatol. 2013;40:166-72 pubmed publisher
    To compare 3 different cholecalciferol supplementation regimens in patients with rheumatic diseases...
  8. Armas L, Andukuri R, Barger Lux J, Heaney R, Lund R. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D response to cholecalciferol supplementation in hemodialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7:1428-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reports the pharmacokinetics of 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to 10,333 IU cholecalciferol given weekly in subjects on chronic dialysis...
  9. Hewitt N, O Connor A, O Shaughnessy D, Elder G. Effects of cholecalciferol on functional, biochemical, vascular, and quality of life outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8:1143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This randomized controlled trial examined effects of cholecalciferol supplementation in patients on hemodialysis...
  10. Gabbay M, Sato M, Finazzo C, Duarte A, Dib S. Effect of cholecalciferol as adjunctive therapy with insulin on protective immunologic profile and decline of residual ?-cell function in new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166:601-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of vitamin D3 on cytokine levels, regulatory T cells, and residual ?-cell function decline when cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 administered therapeutically) is given as adjunctive therapy with insulin in new-onset type 1 ..
  11. Bang U, Kolte L, Hitz M, Schierbeck L, Nielsen S, Benfield T, et al. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males: results of a clinical trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:658-64 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers...
  12. Abrams S, Hawthorne K, Chen Z. Supplementation with 1000 IU vitamin D/d leads to parathyroid hormone suppression, but not increased fractional calcium absorption, in 4-8-y-old children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no significant effects of this change on calcium absorption occurred. This trial was registered at as NCT 00868738. ..
  13. Logan V, Gray A, Peddie M, Harper M, Houghton L. Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation is more effective than vitamin D2 in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status over the winter months. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:1082-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No intervention-related changes in PTH were observed. Daily supplementation of vitamin D3 was more effective than D2; however, the functional consequence of the differing metabolic response warrants further investigation. ..
  14. Yao L, Wang T, Persia M, Horst R, Higgins M. Effects of vitamin D(3) -enriched diet on egg yolk vitamin D(3) content and yolk quality. J Food Sci. 2013;78:C178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..experiment was conducted using Hy-Line W-36 laying hens (19-wk old) to investigate the impact of feeding cholecalciferol-enriched diets on egg yolk quality...
  15. Delanaye P, Weekers L, Warling X, Moonen M, Smelten N, Médart L, et al. Cholecalciferol in haemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, proof-of-concept and safety study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013;28:1779-86 pubmed publisher
    The role of cholecalciferol supplementation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients has been questioned...
  16. Kaste S, Qi A, Smith K, Surprise H, Lovorn E, Boyett J, et al. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation provides no added benefit to nutritional counseling to improve bone mineral density in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61:885-93 pubmed publisher
    ..density (LS-BMD) in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation...
  17. Alvarez J, Law J, Coakley K, Zughaier S, Hao L, Shahid Salles K, et al. High-dose cholecalciferol reduces parathyroid hormone in patients with early chronic kidney disease: a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:672-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to determine whether high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation for 1 y in early CKD is sufficient to maintain optimal vitamin D status (serum 25-..
  18. Diamond T, Wong Y, Golombick T. Effect of oral cholecalciferol 2,000 versus 5,000 IU on serum vitamin D, PTH, bone and muscle strength in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24:1101-5 pubmed publisher
    Treatment of vitamin D deficiency for 3 months with oral cholecalciferol 5,000 IU daily was more effective than 2,000 IU daily in achieving optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations...
  19. Masoumi A, Goldenson B, Ghirmai S, Avagyan H, Zaghi J, Abel K, et al. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 interacts with curcuminoids to stimulate amyloid-beta clearance by macrophages of Alzheimer's disease patients. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;17:703-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Human macrophages are a new paradigm for testing immune therapies for AD. ..
  20. Motrich R, van Etten E, Depovere J, Riera C, Rivero V, Mathieu C. Impact of vitamin D receptor activity on experimental autoimmune prostatitis. J Autoimmun. 2009;32:140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Introduction of more powerful analogs, or combinations with anti-T-cell reagents may represent therapeutic solutions for these group of patients. ..
  21. Fisk C, Theobald H, Sanders T. Fortified malted milk drinks containing low-dose ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol do not differ in their capacity to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy men and women not exposed to UV-B. J Nutr. 2012;142:1286-90 pubmed publisher
    Uncertainty remains regarding the efficacy of low intakes of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 or D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 or D3) provided in food to increase serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) metabolite concentrations when UV-B ..
  22. Salum E, Kampus P, Zilmer M, Eha J, Butlin M, Avolio A, et al. Effect of vitamin D on aortic remodeling in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:58 pubmed publisher
    ..Male Wistar rats (n = 30) were randomly assigned to control untreated, diabetic untreated, and diabetic + cholecalciferol groups...
  23. Hackman K, Gagnon C, Briscoe R, Lam S, Anpalahan M, Ebeling P. Efficacy and safety of oral continuous low-dose versus short-term high-dose vitamin D: a prospective randomised trial conducted in a clinical setting. Med J Aust. 2010;192:686-9 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy and safety of a 10-day, high-dose v a 3-month, continuous low-dose oral cholecalciferol course in a vitamin D deficient population...
  24. Cipriani C, Romagnoli E, Scillitani A, Chiodini I, Clerico R, Carnevale V, et al. Effect of a single oral dose of 600,000 IU of cholecalciferol on serum calciotropic hormones in young subjects with vitamin D deficiency: a prospective intervention study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4771-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effect of a single massive dose of cholecalciferol on calcium metabolism at 3, 15, and 30 d, compared to baseline...
  25. Bucharles S, Barberato S, Stinghen A, Gruber B, Piekala L, Dambiski A, et al. Impact of cholecalciferol treatment on biomarkers of inflammation and myocardial structure in hemodialysis patients without hyperparathyroidism. J Ren Nutr. 2012;22:284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cholecalciferol supplementation on biomarkers of mineral metabolism, inflammation, and cardiac function in a group of HD ..
  26. Wagner D, Hanwell H, Schnabl K, Yazdanpanah M, Kimball S, Fu L, et al. The ratio of serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) to 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) is predictive of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) response to vitamin D(3) supplementation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;126:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The 24,25:25VD(3) ratio may therefore have clinical utility as a marker for VD(3) catabolism and a predictor of serum 25VD(3) response to VD(3) supplementation. ..
  27. Heaney R, Recker R, Grote J, Horst R, Armas L. Vitamin D(3) is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..For neither was there evidence of sequestration in fat, as had been postulated for doses in this range. Given its greater potency and lower cost, D3 should be the preferred treatment option when correcting vitamin D deficiency. ..
  28. Bartosik Psujek H, Tabarkiewicz J, Pocinska K, Stelmasiak Z, Rolinski J. Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D on monocyte-derived dendritic cells in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2010;16:1513-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, inhibits the secretion of IL 23/12p40 and increases the secretion of CCL2. The data suggest that one of the mechanisms of the beneficial action of vitamin D3 in multiple sclerosis may be associated with its influence on DCs. ..
  29. Soliman A, Adel A, Wagdy M, Al Ali M, ElMulla N. Calcium homeostasis in 40 adolescents with beta-thalassemia major: a case-control study of the effects of intramuscular injection of a megadose of cholecalciferol. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2008;6 Suppl 1:149-54 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the cholecalciferol uptake required to achieve or maintain any given serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol level is not well known, ..
  30. Glendenning P, Chew G, Seymour H, Gillett M, Goldswain P, Inderjeeth C, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in vitamin D-insufficient hip fracture patients after supplementation with ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol. Bone. 2009;45:870-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the equipotency of ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol supplementation in this patient group has not been studied in a randomized trial using high-performance ..
  31. Kuwabara A, Tsugawa N, Tanaka K, Fujii M, Kawai N, Mukae S, et al. Improvement of vitamin D status in Japanese institutionalized elderly by supplementation with 800 IU of vitamin D(3). J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2009;55:453-8 pubmed
    ..Daily supplementation of 800 IU vitamin D(3) was considered effective in the institutionalized elderly with minimal chance of sun exposure, but further studies with longer duration are necessary. ..
  32. Slominski A, Janjetovic Z, Fuller B, Zmijewski M, Tuckey R, Nguyen M, et al. Products of vitamin D3 or 7-dehydrocholesterol metabolism by cytochrome P450scc show anti-leukemia effects, having low or absent calcemic activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9907 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified novel secosteroids that are excellent candidates for anti-leukemia therapy with 20(OH)D3 deserving special attention because of its relatively high potency and lack of calcemic activity. ..
  33. Zhang Z, Ding X, Tong J, Li B. Partial rescue of the phenotype in 1?-hydroxylase gene knockout mice by vitamin D3 injection. Endocr Res. 2011;36:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..25-Hydroxyvitamin D can mediate effects in the absence of conversion to 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was confirmed in this study. ..
  34. Glendenning P, Zhu K, Inderjeeth C, Howat P, Lewis J, Prince R. Effects of three-monthly oral 150,000 IU cholecalciferol supplementation on falls, mobility, and muscle strength in older postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants received either oral cholecalciferol 150,000 IU every 3 months (n?=?353) or an identical placebo (n?=?333)...
  35. Solomon J, Gianforcaro A, Hamadeh M. Vitamin D3 deficiency differentially affects functional and disease outcomes in the G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29354 pubmed publisher
    ..Vitamin D(3) deficiency improves early disease severity and delays disease onset, but reduces performance in functional outcomes following disease onset, in the high-copy G93A mouse. ..
  36. Fakih M, Andrews C, McMahon J, Muindi J. A prospective clinical trial of cholecalciferol 2000 IU/day in colorectal cancer patients: evidence of a chemotherapy-response interaction. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:1333-8 pubmed
    ..Alternative vitamin D(3) dosing schedules need further investigation in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. ..
  37. Khazai N, Judd S, Jeng L, Wolfenden L, Stecenko A, Ziegler T, et al. Treatment and prevention of vitamin D insufficiency in cystic fibrosis patients: comparative efficacy of ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, and UV light. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2037-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to assess the relative efficacy of three modes of vitamin D therapy: cholecalciferol (D3), ergocalciferol (D2), and UV light in raising or maintaining 25(OH)D levels above 30 ng/ml...
  38. Zhu J, DeLuca H. Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase - Four decades of searching, are we there yet?. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;523:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Six cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP27A1, CYP2R1, CYP2J2/3, CYP3A4, CYP2D25 and CYP2C11) catalyzing the initial 25-hydroxylation step are reviewed, and their physiological relevance as vitamin D 25-hydroxylases in vivo is discussed. ..
  39. von Hurst P, Stonehouse W, Coad J. Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in South Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient - a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:549-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Optimal vitamin D concentrations for reducing IR were shown to be 80-119 nmol/l, providing further evidence for an increase in the recommended adequate levels. Registered Trial No. ACTRN12607000642482. ..
  40. Luo C, Wong J, Brown M, Hooper M, Molyneaux L, Yue D. Hypovitaminosis D in Chinese type 2 diabetes: lack of impact on clinical metabolic status and biomarkers of cellular inflammation. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2009;6:194-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients identified as 25 OH vitamin D deficient (<or= 50 nmol/L) received cholecalciferol 2,000 IU daily for three months...
  41. Bischoff Ferrari H, Dawson Hughes B, Platz A, Orav E, Stähelin H, Willett W, et al. Effect of high-dosage cholecalciferol and extended physiotherapy on complications after hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:813-20 pubmed publisher
    ..program) vs standard PT (supervised 30 min/d during acute care plus no home program; single-blinded), and to cholecalciferol therapy, 2000 vs 800 IU/d (double-blinded)...
  42. Téllez Pérez A, Alva Murillo N, Ochoa Zarzosa A, López Meza J. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) differentially regulates antimicrobial peptide expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells: implications during Staphylococcus aureus internalization. Vet Microbiol. 2012;160:91-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on S...
  43. Gupta R, Sharma U, Gupta N, Kalaivani M, Singh U, Guleria R, et al. Effect of cholecalciferol and calcium supplementation on muscle strength and energy metabolism in vitamin D-deficient Asian Indians: a randomized, controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010;73:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a paucity of similar data in young individuals. To study the effect of cholecalciferol and calcium supplementation on muscle strength and energy metabolism in young individuals...
  44. Bastie C, Gaffney Stomberg E, Lee T, Dhima E, Pessin J, Augenlicht L. Dietary cholecalciferol and calcium levels in a Western-style defined rodent diet alter energy metabolism and inflammatory responses in mice. J Nutr. 2012;142:859-65 pubmed publisher (NWD1) reflecting dietary patterns linked to elevated colon cancer incidence (higher fat, lower cholecalciferol, calcium, methyl donors, fiber), or NWD1 with elevated cholecalciferol and calcium (NWD2) from weaning...
  45. Murillo G, Nagpal V, Tiwari N, Benya R, Mehta R. Actions of vitamin D are mediated by the TLR4 pathway in inflammation-induced colon cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;121:403-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, less active vitamin D metabolites, cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), have gained considerable attention as promising agents against IBD-related ..
  46. Aloia J, Bojadzievski T, Yusupov E, Shahzad G, Pollack S, Mikhail M, et al. The relative influence of calcium intake and vitamin D status on serum parathyroid hormone and bone turnover biomarkers in a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group, longitudinal factorial design. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:3216-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased habitual calcium intake lowered markers of bone turnover. Acute ingestion of a calcium load lowered PTH and bone turnover markers. Additional intake of 100 microg/d vitamin D(3) did not lower PTH or markers of bone turnover. ..
  47. Munetsuna E, Nakabayashi S, Kawanami R, Yasuda K, Ohta M, Arai M, et al. Mechanism of the anti-proliferative action of 25-hydroxy-19-nor-vitamin D(3) in human prostate cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 2011;47:209-18 pubmed publisher
  48. Park C, Hill K, Elble A, Martin B, DiMeglio L, Peacock M, et al. Daily supplementation with 25 ?g cholecalciferol does not increase calcium absorption or skeletal retention in adolescent girls with low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Nutr. 2010;140:2139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..After the first metabolic balance period, participants received 25 ?g/d cholecalciferol supplementation for 4 wk...
  49. Grimnes G, Figenschau Y, Almås B, Jorde R. Vitamin D, insulin secretion, sensitivity, and lipids: results from a case-control study and a randomized controlled trial using hyperglycemic clamp technique. Diabetes. 2011;60:2748-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Vitamin D supplementation to apparently healthy subjects with insufficient serum 25(OH)D levels does not improve insulin sensitivity or secretion or serum lipid profile. ..
  50. Binkley N, Gemar D, Engelke J, Gangnon R, Ramamurthy R, Krueger D, et al. Evaluation of ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol dosing, 1,600 IU daily or 50,000 IU monthly in older adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:981-8 pubmed publisher
    Whether ergocalciferol (D(2)) and cholecalciferol (D(3)) are equally effective to increase and maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration is controversial...
  51. Svoren B, Volkening L, Wood J, Laffel L. Significant vitamin D deficiency in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr. 2009;154:132-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Because individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus possess multiple risk factors for skeletal fragility, ensuring vitamin D sufficiency throughout childhood and adolescence in this population seems especially warranted. ..
  52. Janjetovic Z, Zmijewski M, Tuckey R, DeLeon D, Nguyen M, Pfeffer L, et al. 20-Hydroxycholecalciferol, product of vitamin D3 hydroxylation by P450scc, decreases NF-kappaB activity by increasing IkappaB alpha levels in human keratinocytes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5988 pubmed publisher
  53. Brunner R, Wactawski Wende J, Caan B, Cochrane B, Chlebowski R, Gass M, et al. The effect of calcium plus vitamin D on risk for invasive cancer: results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) calcium plus vitamin D randomized clinical trial. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:827-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The interactions are only suggestive given multiple testing considerations. The low vitamin D dose provided, limited adherence, and lack of serum 25(OH)D values should be considered when interpreting these findings. ..