lithocholic acid

Summary

Summary: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.

Top Publications

  1. Matsubara T, Yoshinari K, Aoyama K, Sugawara M, Sekiya Y, Nagata K, et al. Role of vitamin D receptor in the lithocholic acid-mediated CYP3A induction in vitro and in vivo. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:2058-63 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lithocholic acid (LCA) strongly enhanced the activities of the CYP3A4 reporter gene, which contained multiple nuclear receptor ..
  2. Goldberg A, Richard V, Kyryakov P, Bourque S, Beach A, Burstein M, et al. Chemical genetic screen identifies lithocholic acid as an anti-aging compound that extends yeast chronological life span in a TOR-independent manner, by modulating housekeeping longevity assurance processes. Aging (Albany NY). 2010;2:393-414 pubmed
    ..Our screen identifies lithocholic acid (LCA) as one of such molecules...
  3. Tan K, Wood G, Yang M, Ito S. Participation of nuclear factor (erythroid 2-related), factor 2 in ameliorating lithocholic acid-induced cholestatic liver injury in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:1111-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Lithocholic acid (LCA), the most toxic bile acid, induces cholestatic liver injury in rodents...
  4. Burstein M, Kyryakov P, Beach A, Richard V, Koupaki O, Gomez Perez A, et al. Lithocholic acid extends longevity of chronologically aging yeast only if added at certain critical periods of their lifespan. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:3443-62 pubmed publisher
  5. Peric M, Koglin S, Dombrowski Y, Gross K, Bradac E, Ruzicka T, et al. VDR and MEK-ERK dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in keratinocytes by lithocholic acid. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:3183-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) is a ligand of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and can carry out in vivo functions of vitamin D3...
  6. Chae S, Jin C, Shin J, Son S, Kim T, Lee S, et al. Biochemical, pharmaceutical and therapeutic properties of long-acting lithocholic acid derivatized exendin-4 analogs. J Control Release. 2010;142:206-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we explored the potentials of lithocholic acid (LCA)-modified exendin-4 derivatives as novel long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists...
  7. Ruiz Gaspa S, GuaNabens N, Enjuanes A, Peris P, Martinez Ferrer A, de Osaba M, et al. Lithocholic acid downregulates vitamin D effects in human osteoblasts. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010;40:25-34 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been proposed that retained substances such as bile acids may produce a damaging effect on bone cells. This study analyses the effects of lithocholic acid (LCA) on cell survival and vitamin D metabolism in human osteoblasts (hOB).
  8. Han Y, Haraguchi T, Iwanaga S, Tomotake H, Okazaki Y, Mineo S, et al. Consumption of some polyphenols reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the secondary bile acids of risk factors of colon cancer. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8587-90 pubmed publisher
    ..to examine the effect of dietary polyphenols on fecal secondary bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the risk factors of colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet...
  9. Beilke L, Aleksunes L, Holland R, Besselsen D, Beger R, Klaassen C, et al. Constitutive androstane receptor-mediated changes in bile acid composition contributes to hepatoprotection from lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:1035-45 pubmed publisher
    ..CAR-null) mice before and during induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sun J, Mustafi R, Cerda S, Chumsangsri A, Xia Y, Li Y, et al. Lithocholic acid down-regulation of NF-kappaB activity through vitamin D receptor in colonic cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;111:37-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Lithocholic acid (LCA), a secondary bile acid, is a vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the hormonal form of vitamin D, is involved in the anti-inflammatory action through VDR...
  2. Wistuba W, Gnewuch C, Liebisch G, Schmitz G, Langmann T. Lithocholic acid induction of the FGF19 promoter in intestinal cells is mediated by PXR. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:4230-5 pubmed
    To study the effect of the toxic secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) on the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) in intestinal cells and to characterize the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) response of the FGF19 promoter ..
  3. Lu Y, Heydel J, Li X, Bratton S, Lindblom T, Radominska Pandya A. Lithocholic acid decreases expression of UGT2B7 in Caco-2 cells: a potential role for a negative farnesoid X receptor response element. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005;33:937-46 pubmed
    ..natural human farnesoid X receptor (hFXR) ligand, chenodeoxycholic acid, as well as the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid, derived from chenodeoxycholic acid...
  4. Giorgio C, Hassan Mohamed I, Flammini L, Barocelli E, Incerti M, Lodola A, et al. Lithocholic acid is an Eph-ephrin ligand interfering with Eph-kinase activation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18128 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified lithocholic acid (LCA) as a competitive and reversible ligand inhibiting EphA2-ephrinA1 interaction (Ki =? 49 µM)...
  5. Araya Z, Wikvall K. 6alpha-hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid by CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1438:47-54 pubmed
    ..selective cytochrome P450 inhibitors were used to study the hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. Recombinant expressed CYP3A4 was the only enzyme that was active towards these bile acids and the enzyme ..
  6. Beilke L, Aleksunes L, Olson E, Besselsen D, Klaassen C, Dvorak K, et al. Decreased apoptosis during CAR-mediated hepatoprotection against lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice. Toxicol Lett. 2009;188:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..compounds known to activate CAR prior to induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA)...
  7. Lucangioli S, Castano G, Contin M, Tripodi V. Lithocholic acid as a biomarker of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy during ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. Ann Clin Biochem. 2009;46:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, bile acid profile, especially lithocholic acid (LCA) analysis is a more sensitive and specific biomarker for differential diagnosis of this pathology and ..
  8. Khan A, Chow E, Porte R, Pang K, Groothuis G. The role of lithocholic acid in the regulation of bile acid detoxication, synthesis, and transport proteins in rat and human intestine and liver slices. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:80-90 pubmed publisher
    The effects of the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA), a VDR, FXR and PXR ligand, on the regulation of bile acid metabolism (CYP3A isozymes), synthesis (CYP7A1), and transporter proteins (MRP3, MRP2, BSEP, NTCP) as well as ..
  9. Adachi R, Honma Y, Masuno H, Kawana K, Shimomura I, Yamada S, et al. Selective activation of vitamin D receptor by lithocholic acid acetate, a bile acid derivative. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:46-57 pubmed
    ..The toxic bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) induces its metabolism through VDR interaction...
  10. Ishizawa M, Matsunawa M, Adachi R, Uno S, Ikeda K, Masuno H, et al. Lithocholic acid derivatives act as selective vitamin D receptor modulators without inducing hypercalcemia. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) is an additional physiological ligand for VDR, and its synthetic derivative, LCA acetate, is a potent ..
  11. Katona B, Cummins C, Ferguson A, Li T, Schmidt D, Mangelsdorf D, et al. Synthesis, characterization, and receptor interaction profiles of enantiomeric bile acids. J Med Chem. 2007;50:6048-58 pubmed
    ..In this study, we report the first synthesis of enantiomeric lithocholic acid (ent-LCA, ent-1) and chenodeoxycholic acid (ent-CDCA, ent-2) via ent-testosterone (3)...
  12. Jehle J, Staudacher I, Wiedmann F, Schweizer P, Becker R, Katus H, et al. Regulation of apoptosis in HL-1 cardiomyocytes by phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 and protection by lithocholic acid. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167:1563-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, administration of lithocholic acid (LCA) protected against apoptosis by increasing EphA2 protein levels and decreasing EphA2 phosphorylation...
  13. Radominska Pandya A, Chen G. Photoaffinity labeling of human retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta) with 9-cis-retinoic acid: identification of phytanic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and lithocholic acid as ligands for RXRbeta. Biochemistry. 2002;41:4883-90 pubmed
    ..Oleic acid, arachidonic acid, and butyric acid did not interact. However, the bile acid lithocholic acid competed efficiently with 9-cis-RA for the binding site...
  14. Hofmann A. Detoxification of lithocholic acid, a toxic bile acid: relevance to drug hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Rev. 2004;36:703-22 pubmed
    b>Lithocholic acid, a monohydroxy, secondary bile acid, is formed by bacterial 7-dehydroxylation of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and of the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)...
  15. Nehring J, Zierold C, DeLuca H. Lithocholic acid can carry out in vivo functions of vitamin D. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10006-9 pubmed
    The physiological ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). Lithocholic acid (LCA), a bile acid implicated in the progression of colon cancer, was recently shown to bind to VDR with low affinity and increase ..
  16. Fickert P, Fuchsbichler A, Marschall H, Wagner M, Zollner G, Krause R, et al. Lithocholic acid feeding induces segmental bile duct obstruction and destructive cholangitis in mice. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:410-22 pubmed
    We determined the mechanisms of hepatobiliary injury in the lithocholic acid (LCA)-fed mouse, an increasingly used model of cholestatic liver injury...
  17. Staudinger J, Goodwin B, Jones S, Hawkins Brown D, MacKenzie K, LaTour A, et al. The nuclear receptor PXR is a lithocholic acid sensor that protects against liver toxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3369-74 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that PXR is activated by the toxic bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) and its 3-keto metabolite...
  18. Jurutka P, Thompson P, Whitfield G, Eichhorst K, Hall N, Dominguez C, et al. Molecular and functional comparison of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and the novel vitamin D receptor ligand, lithocholic acid, in activating transcription of cytochrome P450 3A4. J Cell Biochem. 2005;94:917-43 pubmed
    ..A newly recognized VDR ligand is the carcinogenic bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA)...
  19. Yu J, Lo J, Huang L, Zhao A, Metzger E, Adams A, et al. Lithocholic acid decreases expression of bile salt export pump through farnesoid X receptor antagonist activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31441-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations indicate that FXR plays an important role in BSEP gene expression and that FXR ligands may be potential therapeutic drugs for intrahepatic cholestasis. ..
  20. Kitada H, Miyata M, Nakamura T, Tozawa A, Honma W, Shimada M, et al. Protective role of hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase in lithocholic acid-induced liver toxicity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17838-44 pubmed
    Supplement of 1% lithocholic acid (LCA) in the diet for 5-9 days resulted in elevated levels of the marker for liver damage aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities in both farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-null and wild-..
  21. Goldberg A, Beach A, Davies G, Harkness T, LeBlanc A, Titorenko V. Lithocholic bile acid selectively kills neuroblastoma cells, while sparing normal neuronal cells. Oncotarget. 2011;2:761-82 pubmed
    ..We recently found in yeast cellular models of aging that lithocholic acid (LCA) extends longevity...
  22. Toda T, Ohi K, Kudo T, Yoshida T, Ikarashi N, Ito K, et al. Ciprofloxacin suppresses Cyp3a in mouse liver by reducing lithocholic acid-producing intestinal flora. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2009;24:201-8 pubmed
    ..b>Lithocholic acid (LCA)-producing bacteria in the feces as well as hepatic level of taurine conjugate of LCA were significantly ..
  23. Yu X, Sun J, Wang Y, Zhou Y. Biomarkers of unstable angina pectoris and yangxin decoction intervention: An exploratory metabonomics study of blood plasma. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6998 pubmed publisher
    ..that the serum levels of 5 potential metabolic markers, namely, ceramide, glycocholic acid, allocholic acid, lithocholic acid, and leukotriene (LT) B4, were significantly higher in the intervention group than those in the control group...
  24. Bansal S, Lau A. Fast and sensitive quantification of human liver cytosolic lithocholic acid sulfation using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016;1011:171-8 pubmed publisher
    Detoxification of lithocholic acid (LCA) to lithocholic acid sulfate (LCA-S) is catalyzed by sulfotransferases, mainly SULT2A1...
  25. Alemi F, Poole D, Chiu J, Schoonjans K, Cattaruzza F, Grider J, et al. The receptor TGR5 mediates the prokinetic actions of intestinal bile acids and is required for normal defecation in mice. Gastroenterology. 2013;144:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, or oleanolic acid (a selective agonist of TGR5) to the mucosa of tgr5-wt mice caused oral contraction and ..
  26. van Gorkom B, van der Meer R, Karrenbeld A, van Der Sluis T, Zwart N, Termont D, et al. Calcium affects biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis after right hemicolectomy. Eur J Clin Invest. 2002;32:693-9 pubmed
    ..2%, P = 0.03) and decreased the percentages of cholic acid (from 10.3 +/- 4.7% to 5.8 +/- 2.7%, P = 0.05) and lithocholic acid (from 26.7 +/- 3.4% to 23.9 +/- 2.9%, P = 0.04)...
  27. Ma L, Harrell W, Davis J. Stabilizing guanosine-sterol ion channels with a carbamate to urea modification in the linker. Org Lett. 2009;11:1599-602 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of a bis-urea lithocholamide linker within a guanosine-sterol dimer resulted in formation of large and stable ion channels. The channels were longer-lived than those formed by the corresponding bis-carbamate. ..
  28. Fukiya S, Arata M, Kawashima H, Yoshida D, Kaneko M, Minamida K, et al. Conversion of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into their 7-oxo derivatives by Bacteroides intestinalis AM-1 isolated from human feces. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;293:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid into their 7-oxo derivatives, 7-oxo-deoxycholic acid (7-oxo-DCA) and 7-oxo-lithocholic acid, respectively. Thus, B...
  29. Han S, Chiang J. Mechanism of vitamin D receptor inhibition of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene transcription in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:469-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a potent endogenous vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand. In cholestasis, LCA levels increase in the liver and intestine...
  30. Siviero I, Ferrante S, Meio I, Madi K, Chagas V. Hepatobiliary effects of cholic and lithocholic acids: experimental study in hamsters. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24:325-31 pubmed
    ..In this paper we evaluated toxic effects produced by ingestion of cholic acid, a trihydroxy bile acid, and lithocholic acid, a monohydroxy bile acid in the hepatobiliary system of a hamster during gestational and perinatal periods...
  31. Morgan W, Nk T, Ding Y. The use of High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography to determine the role of membrane lipid composition in bile salt-induced kidney cell damage. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2008;57:70-3 pubmed
    ..In obstructive liver disease bile salts are known to accumulate in and damage specific kidney cells. High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was used to determine the membrane lipid composition of a range of kidney cells...
  32. Raufman J, Cheng K, Zimniak P. Activation of muscarinic receptor signaling by bile acids: physiological and medical implications. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1431-44 pubmed
    ..Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors may suggest new treatments for conditions that result from such interactions...
  33. Termén S, Tollin M, Rodriguez E, Sveinsdóttir S, Johannesson B, Cederlund A, et al. PU.1 and bacterial metabolites regulate the human gene CAMP encoding antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in colon epithelial cells. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:3947-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we here demonstrate that lithocholic acid enhances CAMP transcription, and does so additively with butyrate...
  34. Stedman C, Robertson G, Coulter S, Liddle C. Feed-forward regulation of bile acid detoxification by CYP3A4: studies in humanized transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11336-43 pubmed
    ..to BDL or sham surgery prior to sacrifice on days 3, 6, and 10, and others were injected with intraperitoneal lithocholic acid (LCA) or vehicle alone...
  35. Whittingham J, Jonassen I, Havelund S, Roberts S, Dodson E, Verma C, et al. Crystallographic and solution studies of N-lithocholyl insulin: a new generation of prolonged-acting human insulins. Biochemistry. 2004;43:5987-95 pubmed
    ..N-Lithocholic acid acylated insulin [Lys(B29)-lithocholyl des-(B30) human insulin] has been crystallized and the structure ..
  36. Teixeira J, Gil G. Cloning, expression, and regulation of lithocholic acid 6 beta-hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:21030-6 pubmed
    ..was determined by transient expression of its cDNA in transfected COS cells and was found to hydroxylate lithocholic acid at position 6 beta. CYP3A10 RNA is 50-fold higher in males than in female hamsters...
  37. Zhou H, Liu X, Zhang Y, Ma X. Preparation and characterization of nanoaggregates self-assembled by lithocholic acid and N-trimethyl modified chitosan derivatives. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2010;10:2304-13 pubmed
    A novel kind of chitosan derivatives (CS-LA-TM) were synthesized by grafting hydrophobic molecules of lithocholic acid (LA) and quaternization...
  38. Tan K, Yang M, Ito S. Activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-2 like) factor 2 by toxic bile acids provokes adaptive defense responses to enhance cell survival at the emergence of oxidative stress. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;72:1380-90 pubmed
    ..hepatocytes) and intestinal (C2bbe1, a Caco-2 subclone) cells, we demonstrated that toxic bile acids, such as lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid, induced the nuclear factor (erythroid-2 like) factor 2 (Nrf2) target genes, ..
  39. Kakiyama G, Sadakiyo S, Iida T, Mushiake K, Goto T, Mano N, et al. Chemical synthesis of 24-beta-D-galactopyranosides of bile acids: a new type of bile acid conjugates in human urine. Chem Phys Lipids. 2005;134:141-50 pubmed
    ..The structures of the bile acid acyl galactosides were confirmed by measuring several (1)H-(1)H and (1)H-(13)C shift correlated 2D NMR. ..
  40. He H, Gao L, Deng Q, Ma W, Tang C, Qiu W, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 4,4-dimethyl lithocholic acid derivatives as novel inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:7237-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we recognized lithocholic acid (LCA) as a natural inhibitor against PTP1B (IC(50)=12.74 ?M) by a vertical screen for the first time...
  41. Tognolini M, Incerti M, Pala D, Russo S, Castelli R, Hassan Mohamed I, et al. Target hopping as a useful tool for the identification of novel EphA2 protein-protein antagonists. ChemMedChem. 2014;9:67-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Lithocholic acid (LCA), a physiological ligand for the nuclear receptor FXR and the G-protein-coupled receptor TGR5, has been recently described as an antagonist of the EphA2 receptor, a key member of the ephrin signalling system involved ..
  42. Horie A, Akimoto M, Tsumura H, Makishima M, Taketani T, Yamaguchi S, et al. Induction of differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells in primary culture in response to lithocholic acid acetate, a bile acid derivative, and cooperative effects with another differentiation inducer, cotylenin A. Leuk Res. 2008;32:1112-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Lithocholic acid (LCA) acetate induced the differentiation of human leukemia cells...
  43. Owen B, Milona A, van Mil S, Clements P, Holder J, Boudjelal M, et al. Intestinal detoxification limits the activation of hepatic pregnane X receptor by lithocholic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:143-9 pubmed publisher
    The intestinal-derived secondary bile acid (BA) lithocholic acid (LCA) is hepatotoxic and is implicated in the pathogenesis of cholestatic diseases...
  44. Fukumori S, Murata T, Taguchi M, Hashimoto Y. Rapid and drastic induction of CYP3A4 mRNA expression via vitamin D receptor in human intestinal LS180 cells. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2007;22:377-81 pubmed
    ..In addition, short-time (6 h) treatment of LS180 cells with cytotoxic secondary bile acids, lithocholic acid (LCA) and 3-keto-LCA also significantly induced the mRNA expression of CYP3A4...
  45. Lin C, Umemoto A, Seraj M, Mimura S, Monden Y. Effect of bile acids on formation of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in colostomized F344 rat colon. Cancer Lett. 2001;169:121-6 pubmed
    ..numbers of ACF per colon in rats given cholic acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), lithocholic acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) were 160.8, 118.2, 227.8, 150.7 and 87...
  46. Suzuki Y, Doukyu N, Aono R. Lithocholic acid side-chain cleavage to produce 17-keto or 22-aldehyde steroids by Pseudomonas putida strain ST-491 grown in the presence of an organic solvent, diphenyl ether. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998;62:2182-8 pubmed
    ..Strain ST-491 grown on 0.5% lithocholic acid catabolized approximately 30% of the substrate as a carbon source, and transiently accumulated in the medium ..
  47. Cheng K, Chen Y, Zimniak P, Raufman J, Xiao Y, Frucht H. Functional interaction of lithocholic acid conjugates with M3 muscarinic receptors on a human colon cancer cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1588:48-55 pubmed
    b>Lithocholic acid (LA) conjugates interact with M3 receptors, the muscarinic receptor subtype that modulates colon cancer cell proliferation...
  48. Sonoda J, Xie W, Rosenfeld J, Barwick J, Guzelian P, Evans R. Regulation of a xenobiotic sulfonation cascade by nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13801-6 pubmed
    ..receptor PXR (pregnane X receptor) protects the body from hepatotoxicity of secondary bile acids such as lithocholic acid (LCA) by inducing expression of the hydroxylating cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A and promoting detoxification...
  49. Bansal S, Chai S, Lau A. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for quantifying 3-ketocholanoic acid: Application to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent lithocholic acid 3-oxidation assay. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016;1023-1024:1-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Lithocholic acid (LCA), a hepatotoxic and carcinogenic bile acid, is metabolized to 3-ketocholanoic acid (3-KCA) by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)...
  50. Matern H, Heinemann H, Legler G, Matern S. Purification and characterization of a microsomal bile acid beta-glucosidase from human liver. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:11261-7 pubmed
    ..Immunoinhibition and immunoprecipitation studies using antibodies prepared against lysosomal glucocerebrosidase showed no cross-reactivity with microsomal beta-glucosidase suggesting that these two enzymes are antigenically unrelated. ..
  51. Kakiyama G, Tamegai H, Iida T, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Goto T, et al. Isolation and chemical synthesis of a major, novel biliary bile acid in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus): 15alpha-hydroxylithocholic acid. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:2682-92 pubmed
    ..that 15alpha-hydroxylithocholic acid is synthesized in the wombat hepatocyte by 15alpha-hydroxylation of lithocholic acid that was formed by bacterial 7alpha-dehydroxylation of CDCA in the distal intestine...
  52. Gustafsson J, Alvelius G, Bjorkhem I, Nemeth A. Bile acid metabolism in extrahepatic biliary atresia: lithocholic acid in stored dried blood collected at neonatal screening. Ups J Med Sci. 2006;111:131-6 pubmed
    b>Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a potent hepatotoxic compound. Fetal LCA may have a role in the pathogenesis of neonatal cholestasis/extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA). Fetal liver efficiently hydroxylates LCA in several positions...
  53. Song S, Feng L, Song A, Hao J. Room-temperature super hydrogel as dye adsorption agent. J Phys Chem B. 2012;116:12850-6 pubmed publisher
    Supramolecular hydrogels were prepared in the mixtures of a chiral amphiphilic lithocholic acid (LCA) and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyldimethylamine oxide (C(12)DMAO), in water...