glycodeoxycholic acid


Summary: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Top Publications

  1. Turkyilmaz S, Alhan E, Ercin C, Kural Vanizor B, Kaklikkaya N, Ates B, et al. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on pancreatitis in rats. J Surg Res. 2008;145:19-24 pubmed
    ..the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats...
  2. Thakur R, Mallick A, Chakraborty A. Photophysical and photodynamical study of fluoroquinolone drug molecule in bile salt aggregates. Photochem Photobiol. 2012;88:1248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The quenching order is in accordance with hydrophobicity indices of bile salt. ..
  3. Ellis E, Axelson M, Abrahamsson A, Eggertsen G, Thörne A, Nowak G, et al. Feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis in primary human hepatocytes: evidence that CDCA is the strongest inhibitor. Hepatology. 2003;38:930-8 pubmed
    ..100 micromol/L) significantly decreased formation of cholic acid (CA) to 44% +/- 4% of controls and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) decreased formation of CA to 67% +/- 11% of controls...
  4. Kanai S, Kitani K, Sato Y. The nature of choleresis induced by deoxycholate and its conjugates in the rabbit. Jpn J Physiol. 1989;39:907-18 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that the choleresis induced by conjugated deoxycholates in rabbits requires an explanation other than CHR of deoxycholate. ..
  5. Foitzik T, Mithöfer K, Ferraro M, Fernandez Del Castillo C, Lewandrowski K, Rattner D, et al. Time course of bacterial infection of the pancreas and its relation to disease severity in a rodent model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Ann Surg. 1994;220:193-8 pubmed
    ..for 6 hours (mild AP), or a combination of intravenous cerulein with an intraductal infusion of 10-mM glycodeoxycholic acid (0.2 mL for 2 min for moderate AP, 0.5 mL for 10 min for severe AP)...
  6. Holm R, Nicolajsen H, Hartvig R, Westh P, Ostergaard J. Complexation of tauro- and glyco-conjugated bile salts with three neutral beta-CDs studied by ACE. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:3745-52 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that displacement of drug substances from beta-CD inclusion complexes is likely to occur in the small intestine where BS are present potentially influencing drug bioavailability. ..
  7. Hu M, Wu H, Chao C, Yang L, Xiong S, Zhuang Z, et al. [Pre- and post-operative changes in serum levels of glycocholic acid and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and their clinical significance in patients with cholelithiasis]. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1997;22:162-4 pubmed
  8. De Boever P, Wouters R, Verstraete W. Combined use of Lactobacillus reuteri and soygerm powder as food supplement. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2001;33:420-4 pubmed
    The survival of Lactobacillus reuteri when challenged with glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA) and soygerm powder was investigated. Moreover, the impact of Lact...
  9. Foitzik T, Bassi D, Schmidt J, Lewandrowski K, Fernandez Del Castillo C, Rattner D, et al. Intravenous contrast medium accentuates the severity of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in the rat. Gastroenterology. 1994;106:207-14 pubmed
    ..intravenous cerulein hyperstimulation plus time- and pressure-controlled intraductal infusion of saline or glycodeoxycholic acid. At 7 hours, control and pancreatitis animals received intravenous ionic CM, nonionic CM, or saline...

More Information


  1. Bottari E, Festa M. Composition of aqueous solutions containing sodium glycocholate and glycodeoxycholate. Ann Chim. 2005;95:791-802 pubmed
    ..Analogy and difference with aggregates formed by the two bile anions separately are discussed. ..
  2. Czerny B, Teister M, Juzyszyn Z, Kaminski A, Pawlik A. Effect of tamoxifen and raloxifene on the conjugation of bile acids with taurine and glycine in ovariectomized rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2006;58:435-8 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study suggest that tamoxifen and raloxifene increase the concentrations of conjugated bile acids in bile. ..
  3. Hackert T, Sperber R, Hartwig W, Fritz S, Schneider L, Gebhard M, et al. P-selectin inhibition reduces severity of acute experimental pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2009;9:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..AP was induced in rats by glycodeoxycholic acid (GDOC) intraductally and by cerulein infusion...
  4. Khurana S, Raina H, Pappas V, Raufman J, Pallone T. Effects of deoxycholylglycine, a conjugated secondary bile acid, on myogenic tone and agonist-induced contraction in rat resistance arteries. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32006 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that BAs alter vasomotor responses, an effect favoring reduced SVR. These findings are likely pertinent to vascular dysfunction in cirrhosis and other conditions associated with elevated serum BAs. ..
  5. Au K, Lee M, Siu Y. Ca2+-mediated activation of human erythrocyte membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;978:197-202 pubmed
    ..While Km(ATP) of the stimulated ATPase remained unchanged, a significant drop in the free-Ca2+ concentration for half-maximal activation of the enzyme was observed. ..
  6. Kalyoncu N, Alhan E, Ercin C, Kural B. Effects of dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase on acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Hepatogastroenterology. 2006;53:597-602 pubmed
    ..of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase (ER-34122) on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats...
  7. Webster C, Usechak P, Anwer M. cAMP inhibits bile acid-induced apoptosis by blocking caspase activation and cytochrome c release. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;283:G727-38 pubmed
  8. de Petris G, Festa M, Galantini L, Giglio E, Leggio C, Pavel N, et al. Sodium glycodeoxycholate and glycocholate mixed aggregates in gas and solution phases. J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:7162-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Alhan E, Kaklikkaya N, Deger O, Ercin C. Effects of combined nutritional therapy on acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats in the early phase of the disease. Eur Surg Res. 2004;36:33-8 pubmed
    ..of enteral nutrition along with parenteral nutrition on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats in the early phase of disease...
  10. Coreta Gomes F, Vaz W, Wasielewski E, Geraldes C, Moreno M. Quantification of cholesterol solubilized in bile salt micellar aqueous solutions using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. Anal Biochem. 2012;427:41-8 pubmed publisher
    In this work, we develop a methodology to quantitatively follow the solubilization of cholesterol on glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) micelles using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
  11. Grill J, Perrin S, Schneider F. Bile salt toxicity to some bifidobacteria strains: role of conjugated bile salt hydrolase and pH. Can J Microbiol. 2000;46:878-84 pubmed
    ..The viability of the strains was measured at several pH levels. Glycodeoxycholic acid, but not taurodeoxycholic acid, exerted a lethal effect, which increased at low pH...
  12. Tomkotter L, Erbes J, Trepte C, Hinsch A, Dupree A, Bockhorn M, et al. The Effects of Pancreatic Microcirculatory Disturbances on Histopathologic Tissue Damage and the Outcome in Severe Acute Pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2016;45:248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe acute pancreatitis was induced in 129 pigs by injection of glycodeoxycholic acid into the pancreatic duct...
  13. Foitzik T, Hotz H, Schmidt J, Klar E, Warshaw A, Buhr H. Effect of microcirculatory perfusion on distribution of trypsinogen activation peptides in acute experimental pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 1995;40:2184-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that TAP in tissue is most reliable to indicate severity of acute pancreatitis, whereas plasma TAP may underestimate pancreatic injury in necrotizing disease due to decreased pancreatic perfusion. ..
  14. Goldman A, Condon A, Adler E, Minnella M, Bernstein C, Bernstein H, et al. Protective effects of glycoursodeoxycholic acid in Barrett's esophagus cells. Dis Esophagus. 2010;23:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytoprotective bile acid, GUDCA, inhibits these deleterious effects by inhibiting oxidative stress. ..
  15. Grill J, Cayuela C, Antoine J, Schneider F. Isolation and characterization of a Lactobacillus amylovorus mutant depleted in conjugated bile salt hydrolase activity: relation between activity and bile salt resistance. J Appl Microbiol. 2000;89:553-63 pubmed
    ..In viability studies in the presence of nutrients, it was demonstrated that glycodeoxycholic acid exerted a higher toxicity than taurodeoxycholic acid in a pH-dependent manner...
  16. Lutgendorff F, Trulsson L, van Minnen L, Rijkers G, Timmerman H, Franzén L, et al. Probiotics enhance pancreatic glutathione biosynthesis and reduce oxidative stress in experimental acute pancreatitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295:G1111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Probiotics enhanced the biosynthesis of glutathione, which may have reduced activation of inflammation and acinar cell injury and ameliorated experimental AP, via a reduction in oxidative stress. ..
  17. Chen H, Shyr M, Ueng S, Chen M. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy attenuates pancreatic microcirculatory derangement and lung edema in an acute experimental pancreatitis model in rats. Pancreas. 1998;17:44-9 pubmed
    ..1 ml of glycodeoxycholic acid (5 mM)...
  18. Muchitsch E, Varadi K, Pichler L. Effects of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein on acute pancreatitis and acute lung injury in rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50:987-94 pubmed
    ..v. All other parameters (edema, plasma lipase) were not affected in a biologically relevant manner. In glycodeoxycholic acid-induced hemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis AAG was without effect on parameters measured (plasma amylase,..
  19. Wang Y, Zuo Z, Chow M. HO-1-u-1 model for screening sublingual drug delivery--influence of pH, osmolarity and permeation enhancer. Int J Pharm. 2009;370:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggested that the HO-1-u-1 cell culture model maybe a useful and effective in vitro model for evaluating the enhancement effects and mechanism in sublingual drug delivery. ..
  20. Albalak A, Zeidel M, Zucker S, Jackson A, Donovan J. Effects of submicellar bile salt concentrations on biological membrane permeability to low molecular weight non-ionic solutes. Biochemistry. 1996;35:7936-45 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that bile salt-mediated transport of specific substrates, rather than nonselective enhancement of membrane permeability, underlies bile salt cytotoxicity for enterocytes and hepatocytes. ..
  21. Kwo P, Patel T, Bronk S, Gores G. Nuclear serine protease activity contributes to bile acid-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Am J Physiol. 1995;268:G613-21 pubmed
    ..These data may be important in understanding apoptosis in other cell types and in providing insight into the mechanisms of liver injury during cholestasis. ..
  22. Hoogstraate A, Verhoef J, Tuk B, Pijpers A, van Leengoed L, Verheijden J, et al. In-vivo buccal delivery of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4400 with glycodeoxycholate as an absorption enhancer in pigs. J Pharm Sci. 1996;85:457-60 pubmed
    ..8 +/- 0.5% to 12.7 +/- 2.0%. Since FD4 is a macromolecular and hydrophilic compound such as peptide and protein drugs, buccal delivery would provide an adequate alternative to the parenteral administration of these drugs. ..
  23. Østergaard J, Jensen H, Holm R. Use of correction factors in mobility shift affinity capillary electrophoresis for weak analyte-ligand interactions. J Sep Sci. 2009;32:1712-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Under such conditions, the mobilities should preferably be corrected by the use of a noninteracting marker; and the most generally applicable corrections may be based on conductance measurements. ..
  24. Xu G, Salen G, Shefer S, Ness G, Nguyen L, Tint G, et al. Increasing hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations in normocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Hepatology. 1996;24:882-7 pubmed
    The effect of bile acid depletion and replacement with glycodeoxycholic acid on plasma cholesterol concentrations, hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor binding and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, and hepatic activities and mRNA ..
  25. Huang W, Kang G, Yang M, Tu Z, Chen H, Tang Z, et al. Rat hepatocellular apoptosis induced by glycodeoxycholate. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2000;8:305-6 pubmed
    ..GDC with final concentration of 50, 100, 150 micromol/L could induce rat hepatocellular apoptosis. ..
  26. Xu G, Salen G, Batta A, Shefer S, Nguyen L, Niemann W, et al. Glycocholic acid and glycodeoxycholic acid but not glycoursocholic acid inhibit bile acid synthesis in the rabbit. Gastroenterology. 1992;102:1717-23 pubmed
    ..Construction of a bile fistula drained the endogenous bile acid pool (90% glycodeoxycholic acid, 10% glycocholic acid) within 24 hours and elicited maximal bile acid synthesis after about 72 hours, at ..
  27. Alsfasser G, Gock M, Herzog L, Gebhard M, Herfarth C, Klar E, et al. Glutathione depletion with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine demonstrates deleterious effects in acute pancreatitis of the rat. Dig Dis Sci. 2002;47:1793-9 pubmed
    ..Thus acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced with intraductal infusion of low-dose glycodeoxycholic acid and subsequent hyperstimulation with cerulein with and without pretreatment with BSO...
  28. Kopitz J, von Reitzenstein C, Muhl C, Cantz M. Role of plasma membrane ganglioside sialidase of human neuroblastoma cells in growth control and differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;199:1188-93 pubmed
    ..The results suggest an important role of the ganglioside sialidase of the plasma membrane in the processes of proliferation control and differentiation in this neuronal cell system. ..
  29. Hartwig W, Klafs M, Kirschfink M, Hackert T, Schneider L, Gebhard M, et al. Interaction of complement and leukocytes in severe acute pancreatitis: potential for therapeutic intervention. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G844-50 pubmed
    ..was induced in Wistar rats by the combination of intravenous cerulein and retrograde infusion of glycodeoxycholic acid into the biliopancreatic duct; edematous pancreatitis was induced by intravenous cerulein only...
  30. Schneider L, Hackert T, Heck M, Hartwig W, Fritz S, Strobel O, et al. Capsaicin reduces tissue damage in experimental acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2009;38:676-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by glycodeoxycholic acid and cerulein...
  31. Schneider L, Jabrailova B, Salem M, Kilk K, Hofer S, Brenner T, et al. Stimulation of Central α2 Receptors Attenuates Experimental Necrotizing Pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2016;45:260-4 pubmed publisher
    ..01 vs SNP). Prophylactic and therapeutic applications of the central α2 agonists clonidine and dexmedetomidine are effective to attenuate local and systemic injury in experimental SNP and should be evaluated in the clinical setting. ..
  32. Reis S, Moutinho C, Matos C, de Castro B, Gameiro P, Lima J. Noninvasive methods to determine the critical micelle concentration of some bile acid salts. Anal Biochem. 2004;334:117-26 pubmed
  33. Eckers C, East P, Haskins N. The use of negative ion thermospray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of bile acids and their glycine conjugates. Biol Mass Spectrom. 1991;20:731-9 pubmed
    ..It was found that relatively high collision energies and collision gas pressures were required to produce fragmentation and that some unusual fragments were produced. ..
  34. Vanden Bossche G. Use of ionic detergents for enterovirus recovery from waste water. Microbiol Res. 1994;149:231-40 pubmed
  35. Schmidt J, Compton C, Rattner D, Lewandrowski K, Warshaw A. Late histopathologic changes and healing in an improved rodent model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Digestion. 1995;56:246-52 pubmed
    ..pancreatitis model of moderate severity by combining intraductal infusion of very low concentrations of glycodeoxycholic acid with intravenous caerulein...
  36. Mrestani Y, Janich M, Rüttinger H, Neubert R. Characterization of partition and thermodynamic properties of cephalosporins using micellar electrokinetic chromatography in glycodeoxycholic acid solution. J Chromatogr A. 2000;873:237-46 pubmed
    ..The electrophoretic velocity of a micelle and the phase ratio between the micelle of the glycodeoxycholic acid and the aqueous phase were calculated...
  37. Mann O, Tiefenbacher W, Kaifi J, Schneider C, Kluth D, Bloechle C, et al. Effect of platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2086 on microcirculatory disorders in acute experimental pancreatitis of graded severity. Pancreas. 2009;38:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..4 mL), and the combination of glycodeoxycholic acid (10 mmol/L, 1...
  38. Mott G, Jackson E, McMahan C. Bile composition of adult baboons is influenced by breast versus formula feeding. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1991;12:121-6 pubmed
    ..022). Adult baboons fed the three formulas in infancy had an inverse relationship of the G/T ratio to the level of formula cholesterol (p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  39. Zhou Y, Dial E, Doyen R, Lichtenberger L. Effect of indomethacin on bile acid-phospholipid interactions: implication for small intestinal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G722-31 pubmed publisher
    ..IEC-6 cells and found that combinations of bile acid, deoxycholic acid (DC), taurodeoxycholic acid, glycodeoxycholic acid, and the NSAID indomethacin (Indo) significantly increased cell plasma membrane permeability and became ..
  40. Schönbeck C, Holm R, Westh P. Higher order inclusion complexes and secondary interactions studied by global analysis of calorimetric titrations. Anal Chem. 2012;84:2305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..96 ± 0.01 × 10(3) M(-1)). The method proved useful for detailed analysis of ITC data and may strengthen its use as a tool for studying molecular systems by advanced binding models. ..
  41. Tominaga T, Suzuki H, Ogata Y, Imafuku T, Saruta T. Bile acids are able to reduce blood pressure by attenuating the vascular reactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci. 1988;42:1861-8 pubmed
    ..These results in vivo and in vitro studies strongly suggest that bile acids act directly on the vascular beds and attenuate vascular response to norepinephrine. ..
  42. Rattner D, Napolitano L, Corsetti J, Compton C, Stanford G, Warshaw A, et al. Hypocalcemia in experimental pancreatitis occurs independently of changes in serum nonesterified fatty acid levels. Int J Pancreatol. 1990;6:249-62 pubmed
    ..Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) were randomized to receive: 100 microL sodium glycodeoxycholic acid (GDOC 34 mmol/L) infused into the pancreatic duct to produce severe necrotizing pancreatitis (Group 1); ..
  43. Schneider L, Jabrailova B, Soliman H, Hofer S, Strobel O, Hackert T, et al. Pharmacological cholinergic stimulation as a therapeutic tool in experimental necrotizing pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2014;43:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental severe necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in male Wistar rats using the glycodeoxycholic acid model...
  44. Trautwein E, Rieckhoff D, Erbersdobler H. Dietary inulin lowers plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and alters biliary bile acid profile in hamsters. J Nutr. 1998;128:1937-43 pubmed
    ..Taurochenodeoxycholic acid was significantly lower, whereas glycocholic and glycodeoxycholic acid were greater in hamsters fed inulin...
  45. Turkyilmaz S, Alhan E, Ercin C, Vanizor B. Effects of enalaprilat on acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Inflammation. 2007;30:205-12 pubmed was to investigate the influence of enalaprilat on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats...
  46. Bassi D, Foitzik T, Rattner D, Lewandrowski K, Warshaw A, Fernandez Del Castillo C. Failure of pentoxifylline to ameliorate severe acute pancreatitis in the rat: results of a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Crit Care Med. 1994;22:1960-3 pubmed
    ..stimulation with cerulein plus a pressure and volume controlled 10 min intraductal infusion of 10-mM glycodeoxycholic acid. Thirty minutes after pancreatitis was induced, animals were randomized to receive pentoxifylline (60 mg/..
  47. Dongowski G, Fritzsch B, Giessler J, Härtl A, Kuhlmann O, Neubert R. The influence of bile salts and mixed micelles on the pharmacokinetics of quinine in rabbits. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005;60:147-51 pubmed
    ..were significantly lower within the first 2 h after administration in presence of both the sodium salt of glycodeoxycholic acid (above the critical micellar concentration) as well as of mixed micellar systems consisting of ..
  48. Olivares J, Conner M, Vass C, Kurtin W, Bushey M. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography of bilirubin, related compounds, and selected drugs with mixtures of binary bile salts. Electrophoresis. 2005;26:920-6 pubmed
    ..methyl ester in single and binary bile salt micelle systems comprised of glycocholic acid and glycodeoxycholic acid. Micelle systems studied had total bile salt concentrations in the range of 10-33 mM with molar ratios of ..
  49. Zhang R, Gong J, Wang H, Wang L. [Bile salts induce differentiation in cultured human normal esophageal mucosal epithelial cells]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006;86:2386-90 pubmed
    ..Increased [Ca(2+)]i is related to the TC-induced differentiation in those esophageal mucosal epithelial cells. ..
  50. Domingo N, Chanussot F, Botta D, Reynier M, Crotte C, Hauton J, et al. Modulating effects of bile salt hydrophobicity on bile secretion of the major protein of the bile lipoprotein complex. Lipids. 1993;28:883-7 pubmed
    ..e., first GDC and then TC, the secretion of APF-CBP in bile decreased when GDC was perfused, but increased when TC was perfused. Similar results were obtained in experiments with isolated hepatocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  51. Mrówczyńska L, Bielawski J. The mechanism of bile salt-induced hemolysis. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2001;6:881-95 pubmed
    ..Such a transition is not observed in TDChol and GDChol induced hemolysis. It is therefore suggested that the change in the type of hemolysis depends on protonation of the anionic group of cholates. ..
  52. Nielsen H, Rassing M. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium: III. Permeability enhancement by different pH values, different osmolality values, and bile salts. Int J Pharm. 1999;185:215-25 pubmed
    ..The present results indicate that the TR146 cell culture model may be a suitable in vitro model for efficacy studies and mechanistic studies of enhancers with potential use in human buccal drug delivery. ..
  53. Hotz H, Foitzik T, Rohweder J, Schulzke J, Fromm M, Runkel N, et al. Intestinal microcirculation and gut permeability in acute pancreatitis: early changes and therapeutic implications. J Gastrointest Surg. 1998;2:518-25 pubmed
    ..was induced by intravenous cerulein; necrotizing pancreatitis by intravenous cerulein and intraductal glycodeoxycholic acid. Six hours after induction of pancreatitis, the permeability of the ascending colon was assessed by the ..