chenodeoxycholic acid


Summary: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.

Top Publications

  1. Parks D, Blanchard S, Bledsoe R, Chandra G, Consler T, Kliewer S, et al. Bile acids: natural ligands for an orphan nuclear receptor. Science. 1999;284:1365-8 pubmed
    ..Physiological concentrations of free and conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, and deoxycholic acid activated the farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4), an orphan nuclear ..
  2. Nilsson L, Abrahamsson A, Sahlin S, Gustafsson U, Angelin B, Parini P, et al. Bile acids and lipoprotein metabolism: effects of cholestyramine and chenodeoxycholic acid on human hepatic mRNA expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:707-11 pubmed
    Modulation of bile acid synthesis in human by cholestyramine or by chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) treatment affects lipoprotein metabolism leading to altered plasma lipid levels...
  3. Wheeldon L, Worthington T, Hilton A, Elliott T, Lambert P. Physical and chemical factors influencing the germination of Clostridium difficile spores. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:2223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the influence of chemical and physical factors on the rate and extent of germination of Clostridium difficile spores...
  4. Wang Y, Jones P, Woollett L, Buckley D, Yao L, Granholm N, et al. Effects of chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid on cholesterol absorption and metabolism in humans. Transl Res. 2006;148:37-45 pubmed
    ..Study 1 included 11 subjects 24 to 37 years of age, taking 15 mg/kg/day chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or no bile acid for 20 days while being fed a controlled diet...
  5. Rizzo G, Disante M, Mencarelli A, Renga B, Gioiello A, Pellicciari R, et al. The farnesoid X receptor promotes adipocyte differentiation and regulates adipose cell function in vivo. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70:1164-73 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that activation of FXR plays a critical role in regulating adipogenesis and insulin signaling. ..
  6. Song S, Byrd J, Koo J, Bresalier R. Bile acids induce MUC2 overexpression in human colon carcinoma cells. Cancer. 2005;103:1606-14 pubmed
    ..Bile acids induced mucin expression in human colon carcinoma cells by increasing MUC2 transcription through a process involving MAP kinase-independent, PKC-dependent activation of AP-1. ..
  7. Dotti M, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Federico A. Normalisation of serum cholestanol concentration in a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis by combined treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid, simvastatin and LDL apheresis. Neurol Sci. 2004;25:185-91 pubmed
    ..During treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) (750 mg/day) plus simvastatin (20 mg/day) for two years cholesterol and cholestanol concentrations ..
  8. Pellicciari R, Fiorucci S, Camaioni E, Clerici C, Costantino G, Maloney P, et al. 6alpha-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid (6-ECDCA), a potent and selective FXR agonist endowed with anticholestatic activity. J Med Chem. 2002;45:3569-72 pubmed
    A series of 6alpha-alkyl-substituted analogues of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) were synthesized and evaluated as potential farnesoid X receptor (FXR) ligands...
  9. Xing X, Burgermeister E, Geisler F, Einwächter H, Fan L, Hiber M, et al. Hematopoietically expressed homeobox is a target gene of farnesoid X receptor in chenodeoxycholic acid-induced liver hypertrophy. Hepatology. 2009;49:979-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that wild-type but not Fxr knockout mice on diets enriched with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) increase their liver/body weight ratios by 50% due to hepatocellular hypertrophy...

More Information


  1. Song K, Li T, Owsley E, Strom S, Chiang J. Bile acids activate fibroblast growth factor 19 signaling in human hepatocytes to inhibit cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene expression. Hepatology. 2009;49:297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism underlying FGF15/FGF19 inhibition of bile acid synthesis in hepatocytes remains unclear. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-specific agonist GW4064 strongly induced FGF19 but inhibited ..
  2. Silva R, Rodrigues C, Brites D. Bilirubin-induced apoptosis in cultured rat neural cells is aggravated by chenodeoxycholic acid but prevented by ursodeoxycholic acid. J Hepatol. 2001;34:402-8 pubmed
    ..UCB is toxic to both astrocytes and neurones, causing cell death through an apoptotic process. Moreover, UDCA inhibits UCB-induced apoptosis in neural cells and this could not be mimicked by other bile acids. ..
  3. Makishima M, Okamoto A, Repa J, Tu H, Learned R, Luk A, et al. Identification of a nuclear receptor for bile acids. Science. 1999;284:1362-5 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a mechanism by which bile acids transcriptionally regulate their biosynthesis and enterohepatic transport. ..
  4. Kim T, Yoo Y, Kang D, Suh H, Park M, Park K, et al. Efficacy on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma of valproic acid alone or in combination with doxorubicin, a synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid derivative, or lactacystin. Int J Oncol. 2009;34:1353-62 pubmed
    ..histone deacetylases inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), alone and in combination with doxorubicin, a synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid derivative (HS-1200), or the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin on cultured anaplastic thyroid carcinoma KAT-..
  5. Mondelli M, Sicurelli F, Scarpini C, Dotti M, Federico A. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: 11-year treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid in five patients. An electrophysiological study. J Neurol Sci. 2001;190:29-33 pubmed
    ..electrophysiological follow-up of five cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patients treated for 11 years with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was reduced in three cases...
  6. Wang X, Jiang T, Shen Y, Adorini L, Pruzanski M, Gonzalez F, et al. The farnesoid X receptor modulates renal lipid metabolism and diet-induced renal inflammation, fibrosis, and proteinuria. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F1587-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of these mice with the highly selective and potent FXR-activating ligand 6-alpha-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid (INT-747) ameliorates triglyceride accumulation by modulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, improves ..
  7. Matsuzaki Y, Bouscarel B, Ikegami T, Honda A, Doy M, Ceryak S, et al. Selective inhibition of CYP27A1 and of chenodeoxycholic acid synthesis in cholestatic hamster liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1588:139-48 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to explore the regulation of serum cholic acid (CA)/chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) ratio in cholestatic hamster induced by ligation of the common bile duct for 48 h...
  8. Yen C, Izzo J, Lee D, Guha S, Wei Y, Wu T, et al. Bile acid exposure up-regulates tuberous sclerosis complex 1/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in Barrett's-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2632-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Bay 11-7082 and rapamycin may potentially be chemopreventive drugs against Barrett's esophagus-associated EAC. ..
  9. Roman S, Pétré A, Thépot A, Hautefeuille A, Scoazec J, Mion F, et al. Downregulation of p63 upon exposure to bile salts and acid in normal and cancer esophageal cells in culture. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293:G45-53 pubmed
    ..Similar results were obtained with chenodeoxycholic acid but not its taurine conjugate at pH 5...
  10. Casaburi I, Avena P, Lanzino M, Sisci D, Giordano F, Maris P, et al. Chenodeoxycholic acid through a TGR5-dependent CREB signaling activation enhances cyclin D1 expression and promotes human endometrial cancer cell proliferation. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:2699-710 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we investigated the biological effects of the primary bile chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on a human endometrial cancer cell line, Ishikawa...
  11. Pellicciari R, Gioiello A, Costantino G, Sadeghpour B, Rizzo G, Meyer U, et al. Back door modulation of the farnesoid X receptor: design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of side chain modified chenodeoxycholic acid derivatives. J Med Chem. 2006;49:4208-15 pubmed
    ..We thus demonstrate the possibility of achieving a broad FXR modulation without directly affecting the H12 orientation. ..
  12. Neimark E, Chen F, Li X, Shneider B. Bile acid-induced negative feedback regulation of the human ileal bile acid transporter. Hepatology. 2004;40:149-56 pubmed
    ..The human ASBT promoter linked to a luciferase reporter was studied in Caco-2 cells treated with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and transfected with expression plasmids for farnesoid X-receptor (FXR), short heterodimer partner (..
  13. Malerød L, Sporstøl M, Juvet L, Mousavi S, Gjøen T, Berg T, et al. Bile acids reduce SR-BI expression in hepatocytes by a pathway involving FXR/RXR, SHP, and LRH-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;336:1096-105 pubmed
    ..The present study shows that also the SR-BI-mediated supply of cholesterol, the substrate for bile acid synthesis, is feedback regulated by bile acids. ..
  14. Lew J, Zhao A, Yu J, Huang L, de Pedro N, Pelaez F, et al. The farnesoid X receptor controls gene expression in a ligand- and promoter-selective fashion. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:8856-61 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results suggest that the binding of each bile acid results in a different FXR conformations, which in turn differentially regulates expression of individual FXR targets. ..
  15. Sorg J, Sonenshein A. Chenodeoxycholate is an inhibitor of Clostridium difficile spore germination. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1115-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that chenodeoxycholate inhibits the germination of C. difficile spores in response to cholate and taurocholate...
  16. Miyazaki Anzai S, Levi M, Kratzer A, Ting T, Lewis L, Miyazaki M. Farnesoid X receptor activation prevents the development of vascular calcification in ApoE-/- mice with chronic kidney disease. Circ Res. 2010;106:1807-17 pubmed publisher
    ..FXR activation by a synthetic FXR agonist, 6alpha-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid (INT-747) inhibited phosphate induced-mineralization and triglyceride accumulation in CVCs...
  17. Stauffer A, Rochat M, Dick B, Frey F, Odermatt A. Chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid inhibit 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and cause cortisol-induced transcriptional activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26286-92 pubmed
    ..of urinary bile acids from 12 patients with biliary obstruction revealed highly elevated concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid (CA), and deoxycholic acid (DCA), with average concentrations of 50-80 microm...
  18. Holt J, Luo G, Billin A, Bisi J, McNeill Y, Kozarsky K, et al. Definition of a novel growth factor-dependent signal cascade for the suppression of bile acid biosynthesis. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1581-91 pubmed
    ..This signaling cascade defines a novel mechanism for feedback repression of bile acid biosynthesis and underscores the vital role of FXR in the regulation of multiple pathways of cholesterol catabolism in the liver. ..
  19. Lundåsen T, Gälman C, Angelin B, Rudling M. Circulating intestinal fibroblast growth factor 19 has a pronounced diurnal variation and modulates hepatic bile acid synthesis in man. J Intern Med. 2006;260:530-6 pubmed
    ..subjects, and were reduced following treatment with a BA-binding resin and increased upon feeding the BA chenodeoxycholic acid. Serum FGF19 levels exhibited a pronounced diurnal rhythm with peaks occurring 90-120 min after the ..
  20. Pellicciari R, Costantino G, Camaioni E, Sadeghpour B, Entrena A, Willson T, et al. Bile acid derivatives as ligands of the farnesoid X receptor. Synthesis, evaluation, and structure-activity relationship of a series of body and side chain modified analogues of chenodeoxycholic acid. J Med Chem. 2004;47:4559-69 pubmed
    ..Although none of the new derivatives is more potent than 6ECDCA, we show here that a wide variability in efficacy, from full agonists to partial antagonists, can be obtained. ..
  21. Trottier J, Verreault M, Grepper S, Monte D, Bélanger J, Kaeding J, et al. Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A3 enzyme conjugates chenodeoxycholic acid in the liver. Hepatology. 2006;44:1158-70 pubmed
    b>Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is a liver-formed detergent and plays an important role in the control of cholesterol homeostasis...
  22. Gadaleta R, van Erpecum K, Oldenburg B, Willemsen E, Renooij W, Murzilli S, et al. Farnesoid X receptor activation inhibits inflammation and preserves the intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 2011;60:463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of FXR agonists in the treatment of intestinal inflammation in complementary in vivo and in vitro models...
  23. Lepercq P, Gerard P, Beguet F, Raibaud P, Grill J, Relano P, et al. Epimerization of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid by Clostridium baratii isolated from human feces. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:65-72 pubmed
    ..from feces of a healthy volunteer, on the basis of their capacity to epimerize the primary bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, to ursodeoxycholic acid...
  24. Hirano F, Haneda M, Makino I. Chenodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodexycholic acid induce anti-apoptotic cIAP-1 expression in human hepatocytes. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:1807-13 pubmed
    ..Human fetal hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were treated with free or conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or ursodeoxycholic acid in the presence or absence of several inhibitors...
  25. Noh K, Kim Y, Kim Y, Kim S. Farnesoid X receptor activation by chenodeoxycholic acid induces detoxifying enzymes through AMP-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mediated phosphorylation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39:1451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a major component in bile acids, activates FXR...
  26. Federico A, Dotti M. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, pathogenesis, and therapy. J Child Neurol. 2003;18:633-8 pubmed
    ..We stress the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we describe our experience in treating patients with chenodeoxycholic acid, an essential drug for this disorder that is no longer available.
  27. Miyata M, Hata T, Yamakawa H, Kagawa T, Yoshinari K, Yamazoe Y. Involvement of multiple elements in FXR-mediated transcriptional activation of FGF19. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;132:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Lithocholic acid (LCA) (10 ?M), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) (10 ?M), or GW4064 (0...
  28. Fiorucci S, Clerici C, Antonelli E, Orlandi S, Goodwin B, Sadeghpour B, et al. Protective effects of 6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid, a farnesoid X receptor ligand, in estrogen-induced cholestasis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;313:604-12 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the effect of 6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid (6-ECDCA or INT-747), a semisynthetic bile acid derivative and potent FXR ligand, in a model of ..
  29. Jung D, Elferink M, Stellaard F, Groothuis G. Analysis of bile acid-induced regulation of FXR target genes in human liver slices. Liver Int. 2007;27:137-44 pubmed
    ..Further, regulation of genes seemed to be dependent on concentration and time. Taken together, the study shows that the use of liver slices is a powerful technique that enables to study nuclear receptors in the human liver. ..
  30. Sorg J, Sonenshein A. Inhibiting the initiation of Clostridium difficile spore germination using analogs of chenodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4983-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these compounds resist 7?-dehydroxylation by Clostridium scindens, a core member of the normal human colonic microbiota, suggesting that they are more stable than chenodeoxycholate in the colonic environment. ..
  31. Liu H, Qin C, Han G, Xu H, Ren W, Qin C. Synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid derivative, HS-1200, induces apoptosis of human hepatoma cells via a mitochondrial pathway. Cancer Lett. 2008;270:242-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid HS-1200 could induce cell apoptosis in BEL7402 human hepatoma cell line, via a Bax/cytochrome c/caspase-9 ..
  32. Deo A, Bandiera S. Identification of human hepatic cytochrome p450 enzymes involved in the biotransformation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:1983-91 pubmed publisher
    ..assay to identify and quantify the human hepatic microsomal metabolites of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, and using a panel of human recombinant P450 enzymes, we determined the P450 enzymes involved...
  33. Einarsson C, Hillebrant C, Axelson M. Effects of treatment with deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid on the hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and bile acids in healthy subjects. Hepatology. 2001;33:1189-93 pubmed
    ..b>Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is a potent suppressor of the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-determining enzyme in bile ..
  34. Morris D, Souness G, Latif S, Hardy M, Brem A. Effect of chenodeoxycholic acid on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in various target tissues. Metabolism. 2004;53:811-6 pubmed
    ..There is some controversy concerning the bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), as a potential endogenously produced inhibitor of 11beta-HSD...
  35. Hu Z, Ren L, Wang C, Liu B, Song G. Effect of chenodeoxycholic acid on fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in kidney in high-fructose-fed Wistar rats. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2012;36:85-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a FXR agonist, on fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in kidney in rats fed on high ..
  36. Hirano Y, Hirano F, Fujii H, Makino I. Fibrates suppress chenodeoxycholic acid-induced RANTES expression through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;448:19-26 pubmed
    ..investigated in human hepatoma cells; 100 microM of bezafibrate and fenofibrate decreased expression of chenodeoxycholic acid-induced RANTES mRNA and protein...
  37. Fiorucci S, Cipriani S, Mencarelli A, Baldelli F, Bifulco G, Zampella A. Farnesoid X receptor agonist for the treatment of liver and metabolic disorders: focus on 6-ethyl-CDCA. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011;11:753-62 pubmed
    ..These side effects on bile acids and lipid metabolism were all predicted by pre-clinical studies, suggesting that potent FXR ligands hold promise but potential side effects might limit their development. ..
  38. Choi Y, Im E, Suh H, Jin Y, Yoo Y, Kim N. Apoptosis and modulation of cell cycle control by synthetic derivatives of ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2003;199:157-67 pubmed
    The effects of synthetic derivatives of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), HS-1183, and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), HS-1199 and HS-1200, on the proliferation of human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells were investigated...
  39. Lindor K. Farnesoid X receptor agonists for primary biliary cirrhosis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2011;27:285-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further understanding of the role of farnesoid X receptor agonists and the potential role of ligands in animal models of other forms of cholestasis will be important to set the stage for future applications to human disease. ..
  40. Honjo Y, Sasaki S, Kobayashi Y, Misawa H, Nakamura H. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its receptor inhibit the chenodeoxycholic acid-dependent transactivation by farnesoid X receptor. J Endocrinol. 2006;188:635-43 pubmed
    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the receptor for bile acids, including chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which also includes the receptors for retinoic acid, vitamin D (D3), thyroid hormone, ..
  41. Bonnot O, Fraidakis M, Lucanto R, Chauvin D, Kelley N, Plaza M, et al. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis presenting with severe externalized disorder: improvement after one year of treatment with chenodeoxycholic Acid. CNS Spectr. 2010;15:231-6 pubmed
    ..In both cases, treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid improved externalized symptoms and a partial recovery of cognitive impairments was observed...
  42. Soma T, Kaganoi J, Kawabe A, Kondo K, Tsunoda S, Imamura M, et al. Chenodeoxycholic acid stimulates the progression of human esophageal cancer cells: A possible mechanism of angiogenesis in patients with esophageal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:771-82 pubmed
    ..of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
  43. Yamaguchi H, Okada M, Akitaya S, Ohara H, Mikkaichi T, Ishikawa H, et al. Transport of fluorescent chenodeoxycholic acid via the human organic anion transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:1196-202 pubmed
    ..the contributions of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3 to the liver uptake of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA)...
  44. Miyata M, Matsuda Y, Tsuchiya H, Kitada H, Akase T, Shimada M, et al. Chenodeoxycholic acid-mediated activation of the farnesoid X receptor negatively regulates hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2006;21:315-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, the influence of FXR ligand (chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and LCA) feeding on hepatic Sult2a expression was examined in FXR-null and wild-type mice...
  45. Morelli A, Comeglio P, Filippi S, Sarchielli E, Cellai I, Vignozzi L, et al. Testosterone and farnesoid X receptor agonist INT-747 counteract high fat diet-induced bladder alterations in a rabbit model of metabolic syndrome. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;132:80-92 pubmed publisher
    ..INT-747 showed the most marked effects in counteracting MetS-related RhoA/ROCK overactivity, thus opening novel therapeutic opportunities for this drug. ..
  46. Berginer V, Gross B, Morad K, Kfir N, Morkos S, Aaref S, et al. Chronic diarrhea and juvenile cataracts: think cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis and treat. Pediatrics. 2009;123:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid normalizes cholestanol concentrations and abrogates progression of the disease...
  47. Rais R, Acharya C, MacKerell A, Polli J. Structural determinants for transport across the intestinal bile acid transporter using C-24 bile acid conjugates. Mol Pharm. 2010;7:2240-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In comparing uptake findings to prior inhibition results, increased hydrophobicity enhanced activity, with dianions and zwitterions hindering activity. ..
  48. Nishida S, Ozeki J, Makishima M. Modulation of bile acid metabolism by 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 administration in mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:2037-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We administered 1alpha(OH)D(3) via gavage to mice fed chow supplemented with 0.4% cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), or lithocholic acid (LCA) and examined liver and plasma bile acid ..
  49. Kovar J, Lenicek M, Zimolová M, Vitek L, Jirsa M, Pitha J. Regulation of diurnal variation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) activity in healthy subjects. Physiol Res. 2010;59:233-8 pubmed
    ..To lower and to increase BA concentration during the study, the subjects received cholestyramine and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), respectively, in two examinations. No drug was used in the control examination...
  50. Fukiya S, Arata M, Kawashima H, Yoshida D, Kaneko M, Minamida K, et al. Conversion of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into their 7-oxo derivatives by Bacteroides intestinalis AM-1 isolated from human feces. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;293:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..GC-MS revealed that B. intestinalis AM-1 converts cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid into their 7-oxo derivatives, 7-oxo-deoxycholic acid (7-oxo-DCA) and 7-oxo-lithocholic acid, respectively...
  51. Feng Y, Siu K, Wang N, Ng K, Tsao S, Nagamatsu T, et al. Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009;5:2 pubmed publisher
    ..We then discussed the strategy for stopping the trading of bear bile and issues of bear bile related to potential alternative candidates, existing problems in alternative research and work to be done in the future...
  52. Cuesta de Juan S, Monte M, Macias R, Wauthier V, Calderon P, Marin J. Ontogenic development-associated changes in the expression of genes involved in rat bile acid homeostasis. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:1362-70 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, changes in the expression of genes involved in BA homeostasis may play a role in physiological adaptations to digestive functions during the rat life span. ..
  53. Detzel C, Kim Y, Rajagopalan P. Engineered three-dimensional liver mimics recapitulate critical rat-specific bile acid pathways. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011;17:677-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Over a 2-week culture, only 3D liver mimics exhibited the ratio of conjugated cholic acid to chenodeoxycholic acid that has been observed in vivo...