deoxycholic acid


Summary: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.

Top Publications

  1. Crowley Weber C, Dvorakova K, Crowley C, Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Garewal H, et al. Nicotine increases oxidative stress, activates NF-kappaB and GRP78, induces apoptosis and sensitizes cells to genotoxic/xenobiotic stresses by a multiple stress inducer, deoxycholate: relevance to colon carcinogenesis. Chem Biol Interact. 2003;145:53-66 pubmed
    ..Our findings have applicability to G.I. cancer, in general, since smoking is a risk factor in the development of esophageal, pancreatic, gastric and colon cancer, and these cancers are also promoted by bile acids. ..
  2. Lertpiriyapong K, Gamazon E, Feng Y, Park D, Pang J, Botka G, et al. Campylobacter jejuni type VI secretion system: roles in adaptation to deoxycholic acid, host cell adherence, invasion, and in vivo colonization. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42842 pubmed publisher
    ..and that the secretion system exerts pleiotropic effects on two crucial processes--survival in a bile salt, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and host cell adherence and invasion...
  3. Khatun Z, Nurunnabi M, Cho K, Lee Y. Imaging of the GI tract by QDs loaded heparin-deoxycholic acid (DOCA) nanoparticles. Carbohydr Polym. 2012;90:1461-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)-deoxycholic acid (DOCA)/(LHD) nanoparticles formed by a self-assembly method was prepared to evaluate their physicochemical ..
  4. Cooke G, Blanco Fernandez A, Seery J. The effect of retinoic acid and deoxycholic acid on the differentiation of primary human esophageal keratinocytes. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:2851-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, retinoic acid, alone or in combination with the hydrophobic bile acid, deoxycholic acid, does not affect esophageal keratinocyte squamous differentiation as assessed by involucrin expression and ..
  5. Hernández S, Cota I, Ducret A, Aussel L, Casadesus J. Adaptation and preadaptation of Salmonella enterica to Bile. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002459 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon underscores the existence of phenotypic heterogeneity in clonal populations of bacteria and may illustrate the adaptive value of gene expression fluctuations. ..
  6. Chingunpitak J, Puttipipatkhachorn S, Chavalitshewinkoon Petmitr P, Tozuka Y, Moribe K, Yamamoto K. Formation, physical stability and in vitro antimalarial activity of dihydroartemisinin nanosuspensions obtained by co-grinding method. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2008;34:314-22 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that co-grinding of DHA with PVP K30 and NaDC seems to be a promising method to prepare DHA nanosuspension. ..
  7. Li A, Lee J, Borek D, Otwinowski Z, Tibbits G, Paetzel M. Crystal structure of cardiac troponin C regulatory domain in complex with cadmium and deoxycholic acid reveals novel conformation. J Mol Biol. 2011;413:699-711 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirdly, deoxycholic acid, also derived from the crystallization milieu, is bound in the central hydrophobic cavity...
  8. Looby E, Abdel Latif M, Athié Morales V, Duggan S, Long A, Kelleher D. Deoxycholate induces COX-2 expression via Erk1/2-, p38-MAPK and AP-1-dependent mechanisms in esophageal cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:190 pubmed publisher
    ..DCA regulates both apoptosis and COX-2-regulated cell survival in esophageal cells suggesting that the balance between these two opposing signals may determine the transformation potential of DCA as a component of the refluxate. ..
  9. Bloch O, Erdbrügger W, Volker W, Schenk A, Posner S, Konertz W, et al. Extracellular matrix in deoxycholic acid decellularized aortic heart valves. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18:BR487-92 pubmed
    ..We have therefore estimated the effects of decellularization using deoxycholic acid on the structure of the extracellular matrix and PG´s in porcine aortic valves...

More Information


  1. Yui S, Kanamoto R, Saeki T. Deoxycholic acid can induce apoptosis in the human colon cancer cell line HCT116 in the absence of Bax. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60:91-6 pubmed publisher
    In the human colon cancer cells HCT116, deoxycholic acid (DCA) induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway by triggering the release of mitochondrial factors such as cytochrome c...
  2. Longpre J, Loo G. Protection of human colon epithelial cells against deoxycholate by rottlerin. Apoptosis. 2008;13:1162-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, and genistein were ineffective. ..
  3. Gerbino A, Ranieri M, Lupo S, Caroppo R, Debellis L, Maiellaro I, et al. Ca2+-dependent K+ efflux regulates deoxycholate-induced apoptosis of BHK-21 and Caco-2 cells. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:955-64, 964.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) conductance is an important regulator of DC-induced apoptosis in stromal and colon cancer cells. ..
  4. Zhang Y, Csanaky I, Lehman McKeeman L, Klaassen C. Loss of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 increases deoxycholic acid absorption in mice by increasing intestinal permeability. Toxicol Sci. 2011;124:251-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a known hepatotoxicant, a tissue tumor promoter, and has been implicated in colorectal cancer. Male mice are more susceptible to DCA toxicity than female mice...
  5. Roesly H, Khan M, Chen H, Hill K, Narendran N, Watts G, et al. The decreased expression of Beclin-1 correlates with progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma: the role of deoxycholic acid. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;302:G864-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Since reflux of bile acids is important in EAC, we also evaluated the effect of exposure to deoxycholic acid (DCA) on autophagy and Beclin-1 expression...
  6. Huang Y, Chen S, Cui J, Gan C, Liu Z, Wei Y, et al. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of A-homo-lactam derivatives of cholic acid and 7-deoxycholic acid. Steroids. 2011;76:690-4 pubmed publisher
    Using cholic acid and deoxycholic acid as starting materials, a series of 3-aza-A-homo-4-one bile acid and 7-deoxycholic acid derivatives were synthesized by the esterification, oxidation, reduction, oximation and Beckman rearrangement ..
  7. Han Y, Haraguchi T, Iwanaga S, Tomotake H, Okazaki Y, Mineo S, et al. Consumption of some polyphenols reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the secondary bile acids of risk factors of colon cancer. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8587-90 pubmed publisher
    This study was performed to examine the effect of dietary polyphenols on fecal secondary bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the risk factors of colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet...
  8. Park K, Jeong Y, Choi K, Kim S, Kim H. Adriamycin-incorporated nanoparticles of deoxycholic acid-conjugated dextran: antitumor activity against CT26 colon carcinoma. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2011;11:4240-9 pubmed
    In this study, we prepared adriamycin (ADR)-encapsulated nanoparticles using deoxycholic acid-conjugated dextran (DexDA). Its antitumor activity was evaluated using CT 26 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo...
  9. Goldman A, Chen H, Khan M, Roesly H, Hill K, Shahidullah M, et al. The Na+/H+ exchanger controls deoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis by a H+-activated, Na+-dependent ionic shift in esophageal cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23835 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we examined the mechanism of deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced apoptosis, specifically the role of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) and Na(+) influx in esophageal ..
  10. Li J, Huo M, Wang J, Zhou J, Mohammad J, Zhang Y, et al. Redox-sensitive micelles self-assembled from amphiphilic hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid conjugates for targeted intracellular delivery of paclitaxel. Biomaterials. 2012;33:2310-20 pubmed publisher system of paclitaxel (PTX) was successfully developed based on redox-sensitive hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HA-ss-DOCA) conjugates...
  11. Jenkins G, Cronin J, Alhamdani A, Rawat N, D Souza F, Thomas T, et al. The bile acid deoxycholic acid has a non-linear dose response for DNA damage and possibly NF-kappaB activation in oesophageal cells, with a mechanism of action involving ROS. Mutagenesis. 2008;23:399-405 pubmed publisher
    b>Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a secondary bile acid implicated in various cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
  12. Kim D, Hong J, Moon H, Nam H, Mok H, Jeong J, et al. Anti-apoptotic cardioprotective effects of SHP-1 gene silencing against ischemia-reperfusion injury: use of deoxycholic acid-modified low molecular weight polyethyleneimine as a cardiac siRNA-carrier. J Control Release. 2013;168:125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A low molecular weight polyethyleneimine modified with deoxycholic acid (PEI1...
  13. Stensrud K, Adam P, La Mar C, Olive A, Lushington G, Sudharsan R, et al. Deoxycholate interacts with IpaD of Shigella flexneri in inducing the recruitment of IpaB to the type III secretion apparatus needle tip. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the amino acids proposed to be important for deoxycholate binding by IpaD appear to have significant roles in regulating tip complex composition and pathogen entry into host cells...
  14. Arai S, Orton E. Immunoblot detection of soluble protein antigens from sodium dodecyl sulfate- and sodium deoxycholate-treated candidate bioscaffold tissues. J Heart Valve Dis. 2009;18:439-43 pubmed
    ..Under the study conditions, hypotonic lysis, SDS or SD detergent treatment, and aqueous wash-out-based decellularization of bovine pericardium and porcine aortic valve conduit did not completely remove detectable protein antigens. ..
  15. Salti G, Ghersetich I, Tantussi F, Bovani B, Lotti T. Phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxycholate in the treatment of localized fat: a double-blind, randomized study. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:60-6; discussion 66 pubmed
  16. Klein S, Schreml S, Nerlich M, Prantl L. In vitro studies investigating the effect of subcutaneous phosphatidylcholine injections in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte model: lipolysis or lipid dissolution?. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124:419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that no enzymatic lipolytic pathway is induced. The decrease in volume after Lipostabil injections is likely attributable to the detergent effect of deoxycholate. ..
  17. Lin Y, Liu Y, Li J, Zhao Y, He Q, Han W, et al. Evaluation and optimization of removal of an acid-insoluble surfactant for shotgun analysis of membrane proteome. Electrophoresis. 2010;31:2705-13 pubmed publisher
  18. Li H, Huo M, Zhou J, Dai Y, Deng Y, Shi X, et al. Enhanced oral absorption of paclitaxel in N-deoxycholic acid-N, O-hydroxyethyl chitosan micellar system. J Pharm Sci. 2010;99:4543-53 pubmed publisher
    ..An amphiphilic chitosan derivative, N-deoxycholic acid-N, O-hydroxyethyl chitosan (DHC), was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, elemental analysis, ..
  19. Eldholm V, Johnsborg O, Haugen K, Ohnstad H, H varstein L. Fratricide in Streptococcus pneumoniae: contributions and role of the cell wall hydrolases CbpD, LytA and LytC. Microbiology. 2009;155:2223-34 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in the presence of 1 mM EDTA, the fraction of target cells lysed directly by CbpD increased dramatically, indicating that divalent cations are involved in the regulation of fratricide under natural conditions...
  20. Neofytos D, Horn D, Anaissie E, Steinbach W, Olyaei A, Fishman J, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infection in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: analysis of Multicenter Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Alliance registry. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Invasive candidiasis and IFI due to molds other than Aspergillus species remain a significant problem in HSCT recipients. ..
  21. Wu J, Gong J, Geng J, Song Y. Deoxycholic acid induces the overexpression of intestinal mucin, MUC2, via NF-kB signaling pathway in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:333 pubmed publisher
    ..Human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells were treated 18 hours with 50-300 muM deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, or taurocholic acid...
  22. Selvam S, Mishra A. Disaggregation of amphotericin B by sodium deoxycholate micellar aggregates. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2008;93:66-70 pubmed publisher
    ..As NaDC (at ca. 10 mM) is the preferred choice of medium for AmB delivery and AmB aggregation has been implicated for its toxicity, the observation of dimeric AmB at these NaDC concentrations assumes significance. ..
  23. Huo M, Zou A, Yao C, Zhang Y, Zhou J, Wang J, et al. Somatostatin receptor-mediated tumor-targeting drug delivery using octreotide-PEG-deoxycholic acid conjugate-modified N-deoxycholic acid-O, N-hydroxyethylation chitosan micelles. Biomaterials. 2012;33:6393-407 pubmed publisher
    In this study, a ligand-PEG-lipid conjugate, octreotide-polyethene glycol-deoxycholic acid (OCT(Phe)-PEG-DOCA, or OPD) was successfully synthesized and used as a targeting molecule for N-deoxycholic acid-O, N-hydroxyethylation chitosan (..
  24. Duncan D, Palmer M. Fat reduction using phosphatidylcholine/sodium deoxycholate injections: standard of practice. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008;32:858-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This article establishes a basis of practice for the practitioner interested in adding this procedure to his or her repertoire. ..
  25. Guo C, Zhang L, Han X, Yi H, Li J, Tuo Y, et al. Screening for cholesterol-lowering probiotic based on deoxycholic acid removal pathway and studying its functional mechanisms in vitro. Anaerobe. 2012;18:516-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing deoxycholic acid (DCA) content in the intestine can reduce serum cholesterol levels, which reduce the incidence of CHD...
  26. Chatterjee S, Zhong D, Nordhues B, Battaile K, Lovell S, De Guzman R. The crystal structures of the Salmonella type III secretion system tip protein SipD in complex with deoxycholate and chenodeoxycholate. Protein Sci. 2011;20:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In SipD, bile salts bind part of helix ?3 and the C-terminus of the long central coiled coil, towards the C-terminus of the protein. We discuss the biological implication of the differences in how bile salts interact with SipD and IpaD...
  27. Okazaki Y, Sitanggang N, Sato S, Ohnishi N, Inoue J, Iguchi T, et al. Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:53-7 pubmed
    ..Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and reduced fecal deoxycholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) and perirenal adipose tissue weight (p<0...
  28. Huo X, Juergens S, Zhang X, Rezaei D, Yu C, Strauch E, et al. Deoxycholic acid causes DNA damage while inducing apoptotic resistance through NF-?B activation in benign Barrett's epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;301:G278-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We looked for potentially carcinogenetic effects of two bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on Barrett's epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo...
  29. Jin S, Fu S, Han J, Jin S, Lv Q, Lu Y, et al. Improvement of oral bioavailability of glycyrrhizin by sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid-mixed nanomicelles. J Drug Target. 2012;20:615-22 pubmed publisher
  30. Saeki T, Yui S, Hirai T, Fujii T, Okada S, Kanamoto R. Ursodeoxycholic acid protects colon cancer HCT116 cells from deoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis by inhibiting apoptosome formation. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64:617-26 pubmed publisher
    ..requires prolonged (?5 h) preincubation to exhibit effective protection of colon cancer HCT116 cells from deoxycholic acid (DC)-induced apoptosis...
  31. Sun J, Deng Y, Wang S, Cao J, Gao X, Dong X. Liposomes incorporating sodium deoxycholate for hexamethylmelamine (HMM) oral delivery: development, characterization, and in vivo evaluation. Drug Deliv. 2010;17:164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..76- and 1.21-fold higher than that of HMM solution and HMM Lip, respectively, indicating that NaDC-Lip can be used as a potential carrier for oral drug administration. ..
  32. Mariette C, Piessen G, Leteurtre E, Hemon B, Triboulet J, Van Seuningen I. Activation of MUC1 mucin expression by bile acids in human esophageal adenocarcinomatous cells and tissues is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Surgery. 2008;143:58-71 pubmed
    ..Bile acids induce MUC1 mucin overexpression in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells and tissues by activating its transcription through a process involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. ..
  33. Rotunda A, Weiss S, Rivkin L. Randomized double-blind clinical trial of subcutaneously injected deoxycholate versus a phosphatidylcholine-deoxycholate combination for the reduction of submental fat. Dermatol Surg. 2009;35:792-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced neck profiles in several subjects demonstrate a proof of concept that warrants further study utilizing a validated, submental profile grading scale and methods to optimize dose and technique. ..
  34. Malik Kale P, Parker C, Konkel M. Culture of Campylobacter jejuni with sodium deoxycholate induces virulence gene expression. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2286-97 pubmed publisher
    ..jejuni by modifying the culture conditions. These results provide a foundation for identifying genes expressed by C. jejuni in response to in vivo-like culture conditions. ..
  35. Wu Z, Zhou Y, Li N, Huang M, Duan H, Ge J, et al. The use of phospholipase A(2) to prepare acellular porcine corneal stroma as a tissue engineering scaffold. Biomaterials. 2009;30:3513-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Corneal neovascularization, corneal deformation, and graft degradation were not observed within 12 months. ..
  36. Gupta A, Lobocki C, Singh S, Robertson M, Akadiri O, Malhotra G, et al. Actions and comparative efficacy of phosphatidylcholine formulation and isolated sodium deoxycholate for different cell types. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2009;33:346-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The data prove that the formulation acts in a nonspecific manner and that its unintentional administration to other tissues causes cell death. ..
  37. Traub R, Tang B, Ji Y, Pandya S, Yfantis H, Sun Y. A rat model of chronic postinflammatory visceral pain induced by deoxycholic acid. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:2075-83 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Deoxycholic acid (DCA) was instilled into the rat colon daily for 3 days and animals were tested for up to 4 weeks...
  38. Srivastava O, Srivastava K, Chaves J. Isolation and characterization of betaA3-crystallin associated proteinase from alpha-crystallin fraction of human lenses. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1872-85 pubmed
    ..The enzyme proteolyzed alphaA-, alphaB-, gammaC-, and gammaD-crystallins and was present in three fractions (alpha-crystallin, beta(H)-crystallin, and membrane-fractions) of 60 to 70-year-old human lenses. ..
  39. Singh J, Unlu Z, Ranganathan R, Griffiths P. Aggregate properties of sodium deoxycholate and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine mixed micelles. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:3997-4008 pubmed publisher
    ..The solutions give the microstructural description of the mixed micelle that includes the length, diameter, number of water molecules in the hydration shell, and the monomer organization in the micelle. ..
  40. Lee J, Lee S, Oh M, Kim J, Park T, Nam Y. Prolonged gene silencing by siRNA/chitosan-g-deoxycholic acid polyplexes loaded within biodegradable polymer nanoparticles. J Control Release. 2012;162:407-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the encapsulation of siRNA into biodegradable polymer matrix can be an effective means of improving the structural stability of siRNA for prolonged therapeutic efficacy. ..
  41. Lin Y, Zhou J, Bi D, Chen P, Wang X, Liang S. Sodium-deoxycholate-assisted tryptic digestion and identification of proteolytically resistant proteins. Anal Biochem. 2008;377:259-66 pubmed publisher
  42. Zhou H, Yu W, Guo X, Liu X, Li N, Zhang Y, et al. Synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic glycidol-chitosan-deoxycholic acid nanoparticles as a drug carrier for doxorubicin. Biomacromolecules. 2010;11:3480-6 pubmed publisher
    Novel amphiphilic chitosan derivatives (glycidol-chitosan-deoxycholic acid, G-CS-DCA) were synthesized by grafting hydrophobic moieties, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and hydrophilic moieties, glycidol, with the purpose of preparing carriers ..
  43. Payne C, Crowley Weber C, Dvorak K, Bernstein C, Bernstein H, Holubec H, et al. Mitochondrial perturbation attenuates bile acid-induced cytotoxicity. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2005;21:215-31 pubmed
    ..These findings strongly implicate mitochondrial crosstalk with apoptotic signaling pathways and mitochondrial-nucleolar crosstalk in the development of apoptosis resistance in the colon. ..
  44. Abdel Latif M, O Riordan J, Windle H, Carton E, Ravi N, Kelleher D, et al. NF-kappaB activation in esophageal adenocarcinoma: relationship to Barrett's metaplasia, survival, and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Ann Surg. 2004;239:491-500 pubmed
    ..00001). Moreover, incubation of esophageal cell lines OE33, SKGT-4, and OE21 with deoxycholic acid or low pH induced NF-kappaB expression...
  45. Ramos Morales F, Prieto A, Beuzón C, Holden D, Casadesus J. Role for Salmonella enterica enterobacterial common antigen in bile resistance and virulence. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5328-32 pubmed
    ..In contrast, lack of ECA causes only a slight decrease in Salmonella virulence during intraperitoneal infection. A tentative interpretation is that ECA may contribute to Salmonella virulence by protecting the pathogen from bile salts. ..
  46. Srivastava O, Srivastava K. Characterization of a sodium deoxycholate-activatable proteinase activity associated with betaA3/A1-crystallin of human lenses. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1434:331-46 pubmed
    ..The mouse 22 kDa species also exhibited proteinase activity and immunoreactivity with anti-betaA3/A1-C-terminal antibody. Together, the data suggest that a truncated species of betaA3/A1-crystallin exhibits proteinase activity. ..
  47. Shah S, Mahmud N, Mftah M, Roche H, Kelleher D. Chronic but not acute conjugated linoleic acid treatment inhibits deoxycholic acid-induced protein kinase C and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in human colorectal cancer cells. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2006;15:125-33 pubmed
    ..enhanced green fluorescent protein), PKC delta-EGFP or PKC zeta-EGFP fusion protein and activated with deoxycholic acid (DCA), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or C2-ceramide...
  48. Kim K, Kwon S, Park J, Chung H, Jeong S, Kwon I, et al. Physicochemical characterizations of self-assembled nanoparticles of glycol chitosan-deoxycholic acid conjugates. Biomacromolecules. 2005;6:1154-8 pubmed
  49. Hamilton J, Xie G, Raufman J, Hogan S, Griffin T, Packard C, et al. Human cecal bile acids: concentration and spectrum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293:G256-63 pubmed
    ..In the human cecum, deconjugation and dehydroxylation of bile acids are nearly complete, resulting in most bile acids being in unconjugated form at submicellar and subsecretory concentrations. ..
  50. Dial E, Rooijakkers S, Darling R, Romero J, Lichtenberger L. Role of phosphatidylcholine saturation in preventing bile salt toxicity to gastrointestinal epithelia and membranes. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:430-6 pubmed
    ..These findings support a role for biliary PC in the formation of mixed micelles that have low cytotoxic properties. ..
  51. Fang C, Dean J, Smith J. A novel variant of ileal bile acid binding protein is up-regulated through nuclear factor-kappaB activation in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 2007;67:9039-46 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the studies point toward a unique bile acid response pathway involving NF-kappaB and IBABP-L that could be useful for diagnosis and could potentially be targeted for therapeutic benefit. ..
  52. Wang Y, Jones P, Woollett L, Buckley D, Yao L, Granholm N, et al. Effects of chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid on cholesterol absorption and metabolism in humans. Transl Res. 2006;148:37-45 pubmed
    ..Study 2 included 9 adults 25 to 38 years of age, taking 15 mg/kg/day deoxycholic acid (DCA) or no bile acid, following the same experimental design and procedures as study 1...
  53. Terzic N, Opsenica D, Milic D, Tinant B, Smith K, Milhous W, et al. Deoxycholic acid-derived tetraoxane antimalarials and antiproliferatives(1). J Med Chem. 2007;50:5118-27 pubmed
    The synthesis of deoxycholic acid (DCA)- and cholic acid (CA)-derived mixed tetraoxanes revealed that N-(2-dimethylamino)ethyl derivatives are potent antimalarials in vitro and in vivo...