cholic acid

Summary

Summary: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.

Top Publications

  1. Koga J, Kubota H, Gomi S, Umemura K, Ohnishi M, Kono T. Cholic acid, a bile acid elicitor of hypersensitive cell death, pathogenesis-related protein synthesis, and phytoalexin accumulation in rice. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:1475-83 pubmed
    ..an elicitor of rice defense responses was isolated from human feces, and its structure was identified as cholic acid (CA), a primary bile acid in animals...
  2. Huang W, Ma K, Zhang J, Qatanani M, Cuvillier J, Liu J, et al. Nuclear receptor-dependent bile acid signaling is required for normal liver regeneration. Science. 2006;312:233-6 pubmed
    ..FXR, and possibly other nuclear receptors, may promote homeostasis not only by regulating expression of appropriate metabolic target genes but also by driving homeotrophic liver growth. ..
  3. Kurdi P, Tanaka H, van Veen H, Asano K, Tomita F, Yokota A. Cholic acid accumulation and its diminution by short-chain fatty acids in bifidobacteria. Microbiology. 2003;149:2031-7 pubmed
    b>Cholic acid (CA) transport was investigated in nine intestinal Bifidobacterium strains. Upon energization with glucose, all of the bifidobacteria accumulated CA...
  4. Li Hawkins J, Gafvels M, Olin M, Lund E, Andersson U, Schuster G, et al. Cholic acid mediates negative feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:1191-200 pubmed
    ..Cholate restores CYP7A1 regulation in vivo and in vitro. The results implicate cholate as an important negative regulator of bile acid synthesis and provide preliminary evidence for ligand-specific gene activation by a nuclear receptor. ..
  5. Van Eldere J, Celis P, De Pauw G, Lesaffre E, Eyssen H. Tauroconjugation of cholic acid stimulates 7 alpha-dehydroxylation by fecal bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996;62:656-61 pubmed
    We examined the effect of the type of cholic acid conjugation (taurine-conjugated, glycine-conjugated, or unconjugated cholic acid) on cholic acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylation by intestinal flora...
  6. Joseph B, Kapoor S, Schilsky M, Gupta S. Bile salt-induced pro-oxidant liver damage promotes transplanted cell proliferation for correcting Wilson disease in the Long-Evans Cinnamon rat model. Hepatology. 2009;49:1616-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of animals with the hydrophobic bile salt, cholic acid, or liver radiation before cell transplantation produced cure rates of 14% and 33%, respectively; whereas liver ..
  7. Lamireau T, Bouchard G, Yousef I, Clouzeau Girard H, Rosenbaum J, Desmouliere A, et al. Dietary lecithin protects against cholestatic liver disease in cholic acid-fed Abcb4- deficient mice. Pediatr Res. 2007;61:185-90 pubmed
    ..Abcb4-/- mice exhibit slowly developing hepatic lesions that can be accelerated by feeding a cholic acid (CA)-supplemented diet...
  8. Nichesola D, Perduca M, Capaldi S, Carrizo M, Righetti P, Monaco H. Crystal structure of chicken liver basic fatty acid-binding protein complexed with cholic acid. Biochemistry. 2004;43:14072-9 pubmed
    ..The crystal structure of chicken Lb-FABP complexed with cholic acid and that of the apoprotein refined to 2.0 A resolution are presented in this paper...
  9. Fickert P, Zollner G, Fuchsbichler A, Stumptner C, Pojer C, Zenz R, et al. Effects of ursodeoxycholic and cholic acid feeding on hepatocellular transporter expression in mouse liver. Gastroenterology. 2001;121:170-83 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to determine the effects of UDCA and cholic acid (CA) on the expression of hepatocellular transporters for bile acids (Ntcp, Bsep), organic anions (Oatp1, Mrp2),..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Krahenbuhl S, Talos C, Fischer S, Reichen J. Toxicity of bile acids on the electron transport chain of isolated rat liver mitochondria. Hepatology. 1994;19:471-9 pubmed
    ..1 mumol/mg protein) chenodeoxycholate but was not affected in the presence of 100 mumol/L lithocholate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  2. Repa J, Lund E, Horton J, Leitersdorf E, Russell D, Dietschy J, et al. Disruption of the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene in mice results in hepatomegaly and hypertriglyceridemia. Reversal by cholic acid feeding. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:39685-92 pubmed
    ..b>Cholic acid feeding reverses hepatomegaly and hypertriglyceridemia but not adrenomegaly in Cyp27(-/-) mice...
  3. Bandyopadhyay P, Janout V, Zhang L, Regen S. Ion conductors derived from cholic acid and spermine: importance of facial hydrophilicity on NA(+) transport and membrane selectivity. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:7691-6 pubmed
    ..Specifically, conjugates have been prepared from cholic acid and spermine in which the hydrophilic face of each sterol bears methoxy (1), hydroxy (2), carbamate (3), or ..
  4. Zeng X, Tao W, Mei L, Huang L, Tan C, Feng S. Cholic acid-functionalized nanoparticles of star-shaped PLGA-vitamin E TPGS copolymer for docetaxel delivery to cervical cancer. Biomaterials. 2013;34:6058-67 pubmed publisher
    We developed a system of nanoparticles (NPs) of cholic acid functionalized, star-shaped block copolymer consisting of PLGA and vitamin E TPGS for sustained and controlled delivery of docetaxel for treatment of cervical cancer, which ..
  5. Jurcek O, Wimmer Z, Svobodová H, Bennettová B, Kolehmainen E, Drasar P. Preparation and preliminary biological screening of cholic acid-juvenoid conjugates. Steroids. 2009;74:779-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These steroid-juvenoid conjugates showed promising possibilities in synthesis of new unique biochemical insecticides. Preliminary biological test results of prepared compounds are presented. ..
  6. Shimizu T, Jikumaru Y, Okada A, Okada K, Koga J, Umemura K, et al. Effects of a bile acid elicitor, cholic acid, on the biosynthesis of diterpenoid phytoalexins in suspension-cultured rice cells. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:973-81 pubmed
    An elicitor of rice defense responses was recently isolated from human feces and was identified as cholic acid (CA)...
  7. Kudo T, Kawashima M, Tamagawa T, Shibata S. Clock mutation facilitates accumulation of cholesterol in the liver of mice fed a cholesterol and/or cholic acid diet. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E120-30 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the relationship between a diet containing CH and/or cholic acid (CA) and the circadian regulation of Hmgcr, low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr), and Cyp7a1 gene expression ..
  8. Vallejo M, Briz O, Serrano M, Monte M, Marin J. Potential role of trans-inhibition of the bile salt export pump by progesterone metabolites in the etiopathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. J Hepatol. 2006;44:1150-7 pubmed
    ..Whether PM4-S inhibited the bile salt export pump (BSEP) was investigated. Radiolabeled methylesters (ME) of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid were taken up by Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing rat BSEP and human ..
  9. Wang J, Einarsson C, Murphy C, Parini P, Bjorkhem I, Gafvels M, et al. Studies on LXR- and FXR-mediated effects on cholesterol homeostasis in normal and cholic acid-depleted mice. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:421-30 pubmed
    As previously reported by us, mice with targeted disruption of the CYP8B1 gene (CYP8B1-/-) fail to produce cholic acid (CA), upregulate their bile acid synthesis, reduce the absorption of dietary cholesterol and, after cholesterol ..
  10. Nachman R, Teal P, Ujvary I. Comparative topical pheromonotropic activity of insect pyrokinin/PBAN amphiphilic analogs incorporating different fatty and/or cholic acid components. Peptides. 2001;22:279-85 pubmed
    ..A cholic acid analog topically induces twice the maximal pheromone titer of injected native hormone...
  11. Thiruchenduran M, Vijayan N, Sawaminathan J, Devaraj S. Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins against cholesterol cholic acid diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2011;20:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..as the induction group fed with a high-cholesterol diet (rat chow supplemented with 4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid--CC diet) for 30 days, Group III served as drug control and was treated with grape seed proanthocyanidins (100 ..
  12. Luo J, Giguère G, Zhu X. Asymmetric poly(ethylene glycol) star polymers with a cholic acid core and their aggregation properties. Biomacromolecules. 2009;10:900-6 pubmed publisher
    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) arms are grafted onto a cholic acid core via anionic polymerization, yielding star-shaped polymers with a unique asymmetric structure with facial amphiphilicity...
  13. Hulzebos C, Renfurm L, Bandsma R, Verkade H, Boer T, Boverhof R, et al. Measurement of parameters of cholic acid kinetics in plasma using a microscale stable isotope dilution technique: application to rodents and humans. J Lipid Res. 2001;42:1923-9 pubmed
    A stable isotope dilution method is described that allows measurement of cholic acid (CA) kinetics, that is, pool size, fractional turnover rate (FTR), and synthesis rate in mice, rats, and humans...
  14. Masson D, Lagrost L, Athias A, Gambert P, Brimer Cline C, Lan L, et al. Expression of the pregnane X receptor in mice antagonizes the cholic acid-mediated changes in plasma lipoprotein profile. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:2164-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), another bile acid-activated nuclear receptor to changes in plasma lipoprotein profile...
  15. Islam K, Fukiya S, Hagio M, Fujii N, Ishizuka S, Ooka T, et al. Bile acid is a host factor that regulates the composition of the cecal microbiota in rats. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:1773-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of bile acids in this process because of their strong antimicrobial activities, specifically the effects of cholic acid administration on the composition of the gut microbiota in a rat model.
  16. Posa M, Kevresan S, Mikov M, Cirin Novta V, Sarbu C, Kuhajda K. Determination of critical micellar concentrations of cholic acid and its keto derivatives. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2007;59:179-83 pubmed
    The critical micellar concentration (CMC) values of keto derivatives of cholic acid (3alpha,12alpha-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5beta-cholanoic acid, 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5beta-cholanoic acid, 12alpha-hydroxy-3,7-dioxo-5beta-cholanoic acid,..
  17. Shiraishi T, Nielsen P. Nanomolar cellular antisense activity of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) cholic acid ("umbrella") and cholesterol conjugates delivered by cationic lipids. Bioconjug Chem. 2012;23:196-202 pubmed publisher
    ..We now report the synthesis and cellular antisense activity in cultured HeLa pLuc705 cells of cholesterol and cholic acid ("umbrella") derivatives of splice correction antisense PNA oligomers...
  18. Kast H, Nguyen C, Sinal C, Jones S, Laffitte B, Reue K, et al. Farnesoid X-activated receptor induces apolipoprotein C-II transcription: a molecular mechanism linking plasma triglyceride levels to bile acids. Mol Endocrinol. 2001;15:1720-8 pubmed
    ..of both apoC-II and phospholipid transfer protein mRNAs increases when mice are fed diets supplemented with cholic acid, an FXR ligand, and this induction is attenuated in FXR null mice...
  19. Rasras A, Al Tel T, Al Aboudi A, Al Qawasmeh R. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cholic acid hydrazone analogues. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:2307-13 pubmed publisher
    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cholic acid analogues 4a-t are reported. The synthesis of 4a-t was accomplished from ethylcholate 2...
  20. Huang Y, Chen S, Cui J, Gan C, Liu Z, Wei Y, et al. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of A-homo-lactam derivatives of cholic acid and 7-deoxycholic acid. Steroids. 2011;76:690-4 pubmed publisher
    Using cholic acid and deoxycholic acid as starting materials, a series of 3-aza-A-homo-4-one bile acid and 7-deoxycholic acid derivatives were synthesized by the esterification, oxidation, reduction, oximation and Beckman rearrangement ..
  21. Rohacova J, Marin M, Martinez Romero A, Diaz L, O Connor J, Gomez Lechon M, et al. Fluorescent benzofurazan-cholic acid conjugates for in vitro assessment of bile acid uptake and its modulation by drugs. ChemMedChem. 2009;4:466-72 pubmed publisher
    ..context, we describe herein the use of synthetic 4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) fluorescent conjugates of cholic acid (ChA) at positions 3alpha, 3beta, 7alpha, and 7beta for in vitro assessment of bile acid uptake...
  22. Ma K, Saha P, Chan L, Moore D. Farnesoid X receptor is essential for normal glucose homeostasis. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1102-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results identify a link between lipid and glucose metabolism mediated by the FXR-SHP cascade. ..
  23. Miyata M, Tozawa A, Otsuka H, Nakamura T, Nagata K, Gonzalez F, et al. Role of farnesoid X receptor in the enhancement of canalicular bile acid output and excretion of unconjugated bile acids: a mechanism for protection against cholic acid-induced liver toxicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;312:759-66 pubmed
    ..the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) involved in the maintenance of hepatic bile acid levels are highly sensitive to cholic acid-induced liver toxicity. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was elevated 15...
  24. Murphy C, Parini P, Wang J, Bjorkhem I, Eggertsen G, Gafvels M. Cholic acid as key regulator of cholesterol synthesis, intestinal absorption and hepatic storage in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1735:167-75 pubmed
    To study the effects of cholic acid (CA) feeding on hepatic cholesterol metabolism, male sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) knockout (-/-) mice and wildtype controls (+/+) were fed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented ..
  25. Elkins C, Mullis L. Bile-mediated aminoglycoside sensitivity in Lactobacillus species likely results from increased membrane permeability attributable to cholic acid. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:7200-9 pubmed
    ..strain tested: (i) they were more susceptible (up to 256-fold in some cases) to the deconjugated bile acid cholic acid than to the conjugate taurocholic or taurodeoxycholic acid, and (ii) they became susceptible to aminoglycosides ..
  26. Kamisako T, Ogawa H, Yamamoto K. Effect of cholesterol, cholic acid and cholestyramine administration on the intestinal mRNA expressions related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the rat. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:1832-7 pubmed
  27. Watanabe M, Houten S, Mataki C, Christoffolete M, Kim B, Sato H, et al. Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation. Nature. 2006;439:484-9 pubmed
    ..The BA-TGR5-cAMP-D2 signalling pathway is therefore a crucial mechanism for fine-tuning energy homeostasis that can be targeted to improve metabolic control. ..
  28. Ngawhirunpat T, Wonglertnirant N, Opanasopit P, Ruktanonchai U, Yoksan R, Wasanasuk K, et al. Incorporation methods for cholic acid chitosan-g-mPEG self-assembly micellar system containing camptothecin. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2009;74:253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..anticancer agent, camptothecin (CPT) was incorporated to a polymeric micelle carrier system preparing from cholic acid chitosan-grafted poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (CS-mPEG-CA)...
  29. Miyata M, Matsuda Y, Nomoto M, Takamatsu Y, Sato N, Hamatsu M, et al. Cholesterol feeding prevents hepatic accumulation of bile acids in cholic acid-fed farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-null mice: FXR-independent suppression of intestinal bile acid absorption. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:338-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Cholic acid (CA) feeding of farnesoid X receptor (Fxr)-null mice results in markedly elevated hepatic bile acid levels and liver injury...
  30. Lowes S, Simmons N. Human intestinal cell monolayers are preferentially sensitive to disruption of barrier function from basolateral exposure to cholic acid: correlation with membrane transport and transepithelial secretion. Pflugers Arch. 2001;443:265-73 pubmed
    Unconjugated bile acids such as cholic acid cause diarrhoea, mucosal irritation and toxicity...
  31. Kurdi P, Kawanishi K, Mizutani K, Yokota A. Mechanism of growth inhibition by free bile acids in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1979-86 pubmed
    The effects of the free bile acids (FBAs) cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), and chenodeoxycholic acid on the bioenergetics and growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were investigated...
  32. Gabbi C, Bertolotti M, Anzivino C, Macchioni D, Del Puppo M, Ricchi M, et al. Effects of bile duct ligation and cholic acid treatment on fatty liver in two rat models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2012;44:1018-26 pubmed publisher
    ..After 4 weeks, rats were randomized to undergo either bile duct ligation, sham operation or cholic acid administration...
  33. Schmidt E, Boswell J, Walsh J, Schellenberg M, Winter T, Li C, et al. Activities of cholic acid-derived antimicrobial agents against multidrug-resistant bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001;47:671-4 pubmed
    Cationic cholic acid derivatives displayed potent and broad-spectrum activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative and -positive bacteria...
  34. Quillin S, Schwartz K, Leber J. The novel Listeria monocytogenes bile sensor BrtA controls expression of the cholic acid efflux pump MdrT. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:129-42 pubmed publisher
    ..pathogenesis-promoting host innate immune response, are robustly and specifically induced by the bile component cholic acid. This induction is mediated by BrtA, the first identified L...
  35. Wang R, Lam P, Liu L, Forrest D, Yousef I, Mignault D, et al. Severe cholestasis induced by cholic acid feeding in knockout mice of sister of P-glycoprotein. Hepatology. 2003;38:1489-99 pubmed
    ..In this study, we fed spgp(-/-) knockout mice with a cholic acid (CA)-supplemented diet to determine whether a more pronounced PFIC2-like phenotype could be induced...
  36. Wang D, Lammert F, Cohen D, Paigen B, Carey M. Cholic acid aids absorption, biliary secretion, and phase transitions of cholesterol in murine cholelithogenesis. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:G751-60 pubmed
    b>Cholic acid is a critical component of the lithogenic diet in mice. To determine its pathogenetic roles, we fed chow or 1% cholesterol with or without 0...
  37. Gorelik J, Shevchuk A, de Swiet M, Lab M, Korchev Y, Williamson C. Comparison of the arrhythmogenic effects of tauro- and glycoconjugates of cholic acid in an in vitro study of rat cardiomyocytes. BJOG. 2004;111:867-70 pubmed
    ..The increased proportion of tauroconjugated bile acids in obstetric cholestasis may contribute to the aetiology of the intrauterine death associated with the condition. ..
  38. Li H, Wang L. Cholic acid as template for multivalent peptide assembly. Org Biomol Chem. 2003;1:3507-13 pubmed
    b>Cholic acid, an amphiphilic steroid containing several selectively addressable functionalities, was exploited as a rigid template for multivalent peptide assembly...
  39. Woollett L, Buckley D, Yao L, Jones P, Granholm N, Tolley E, et al. Cholic acid supplementation enhances cholesterol absorption in humans. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:724-31 pubmed
    ..The role of cholic acid (CA) in cholesterol absorption in humans remains unclear and, thus, was examined in the current study...
  40. Lai X, Feng Y, Pollard J, Chin J, Rybak M, Bucki R, et al. Ceragenins: cholic acid-based mimics of antimicrobial peptides. Acc Chem Res. 2008;41:1233-40 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the antibacterial activities of ceragenins and preliminary in vivo studies, we expect these compounds to find use in augmenting or replacing antimicrobial peptides in treating human disease. ..
  41. Moribe K, Masaki M, Kinoshita R, Zhang J, Limwikrant W, Higashi K, et al. Guest molecular size-dependent inclusion complexation of parabens with cholic acid by cogrinding. Int J Pharm. 2011;420:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..paraben) ester chain length on the stoichiometry and structure of grinding-induced inclusion complexes with cholic acid (CA) were investigated...
  42. Bavikar S, Salunke D, Hazra B, Pore V, Dodd R, Thierry J, et al. Synthesis of chimeric tetrapeptide-linked cholic acid derivatives: impending synergistic agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:5512-7 pubmed publisher
    Tetrapeptides derived from glycine and beta-alanine were hooked at the C-3beta position of the modified cholic acid to realize novel linear tetrapeptide-linked cholic acid derivatives...
  43. Hoeke M, Plass J, Heegsma J, Geuken M, van Rijsbergen D, Baller J, et al. Low retinol levels differentially modulate bile salt-induced expression of human and mouse hepatic bile salt transporters. Hepatology. 2009;49:151-9 pubmed publisher
    ..bile salt levels and hepatic expression of Bsep, Shp, and Ntcp were determined in vitamin A-deficient (VAD)/cholic acid (CA)-fed C57BL/6J mice...
  44. Teng S, Piquette Miller M. Hepatoprotective role of PXR activation and MRP3 in cholic acid-induced cholestasis. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;151:367-76 pubmed
    ..Wild-type (PXR+/+) and PXR-null (PXR-/-) mice were fed a 1% cholic acid (CA) diet with or without the PXR activator, PCN...
  45. Smith J, Lewindon P, Hoskins A, Pereira T, Setchell K, O Connell N, et al. Endogenous ursodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid in liver disease due to cystic fibrosis. Hepatology. 2004;39:1673-82 pubmed
    ..controls (ANOVA, P <.05). In CFLD, there were significant correlations between serum cholic acid and hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and limiting plate disruption as well as the ratio of serum cholic acid/..
  46. Bochkis I, Schug J, Rubins N, Chopra A, O Malley B, Kaestner K. Foxa2-dependent hepatic gene regulatory networks depend on physiological state. Physiol Genomics. 2009;38:186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..helix transcription factor Foxa2 is required to prevent intrahepatic cholestasis and liver injury in mice fed a cholic acid-enriched diet...
  47. Kirsch M, Bramey T, Waack I, Petrat F, Mayer C, De Groot H. The necessity for the coating of perfluorodecalin-filled poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microcapsules in the presence of physiological cholate concentrations: Tetronic-908 as an exemplary polymeric surfactant. J Microencapsul. 2012;29:30-8 pubmed publisher
  48. Martinez J, Stratagoules E, LaRue J, Powell A, Gause P, Craven M, et al. Different bile acids exhibit distinct biological effects: the tumor promoter deoxycholic acid induces apoptosis and the chemopreventive agent ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits cell proliferation. Nutr Cancer. 1998;31:111-8 pubmed
    ..To begin to elucidate their mechanism of action, four bile acids, cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid, were examined for their effects on ..
  49. Stellaard F, Brufau G, Boverhof R, Jonkers E, Boer T, Kuipers F. Developments in bile acid kinetic measurements using (13)C and (2)H: 10(5) times improved sensitivity during the last 40 years. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2009;45:275-88 pubmed publisher
    ..technique is based on isotope dilution and was first described in the 1950s using radioactive (14)C-labelled cholic acid (CA)...
  50. Qian S, Wu J, Wu X, Li J, Wu Y. Synthesis and characterization of new liver targeting 5-fluorouracil-cholic acid conjugates. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2009;342:513-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A series of 5-fluorouracil / cholic acid conjugates (5-FU-cholic acid conjugates) were prepared and tested for their chemical characteristics and bio-..
  51. Pascual M, Serrano M, El Mir M, Macias R, Jimenez F, Marin J. Relationship between asymptomatic hypercholanaemia of pregnancy and progesterone metabolism. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;102:587-93 pubmed
    ..These were reflected in a marked increase in the proportion of cholic acid together with a decrease in that of deoxycholic acid, while the proportions of chenodeoxycholic acid and ..
  52. Kollerov V, Monti D, Deshcherevskaya N, Lobastova T, Ferrandi E, Larovere A, et al. Hydroxylation of lithocholic acid by selected actinobacteria and filamentous fungi. Steroids. 2013;78:370-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The accumulation of the major by-product, 3-keto UDCA, was limited by using selected biotransformation media. ..
  53. Létourneau D, Lefèbvre A, Lavigne P, LeHoux J. STARD5 specific ligand binding: comparison with STARD1 and STARD4 subfamilies. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;371:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, titration of STARD5 with cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid led to specific binding...