Summary: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.

Top Publications

  1. Ruta L, Ingudomnukul E, Taylor K, Chakrabarti B, Baron Cohen S. Increased serum androstenedione in adults with autism spectrum conditions. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36:1154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..of gonadal and adrenal sex-steroids (particularly testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and androstenedione) are elevated in individuals with ASC. This was tested in a total sample of n=166 participants...
  2. Franczak A. Endometrial and myometrial secretion of androgens and estrone during early pregnancy and luteolysis in pigs. Reprod Biol. 2008;8:213-28 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine whether porcine endometrium and myometrium secrete androgens - androstenedione (A(4)), testosterone (T) and estrone (E(1)) during early pregnancy and luteolysis (Days 14-16) in pigs...
  3. O Reilly M, Taylor A, Crabtree N, Hughes B, Capper F, Crowley R, et al. Hyperandrogenemia predicts metabolic phenotype in polycystic ovary syndrome: the utility of serum androstenedione. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:1027-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied the utility of the androgen precursor serum androstenedione (A) in conjunction with serum T for predicting metabolic dysfunction in PCOS.
  4. Guibert F, Richard Yris M, Lumineau S, Kotrschal K, Guémené D, Bertin A, et al. Social instability in laying quail: consequences on yolk steroids and offspring's phenotype. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14069 pubmed publisher
  5. Glister C, Satchell L, Knight P. Changes in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), their receptors and inhibin co-receptor betaglycan during bovine antral follicle development: inhibin can antagonize the suppressive effect of BMPs on thecal androgen production. Reproduction. 2010;140:699-712 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP4, BMP6 and BMP7 abolished LH-induced androstenedione secretion and suppressed CYP17 mRNA >200-fold (P<0...
  6. Pusalkar M, Meherji P, Gokral J, Savardekar L, Chinnaraj S, Maitra A. Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome: association with androgens, leptin and its genotypes. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2010;26:874-82 pubmed publisher
    ..With regard to testosterone and androstenedione, the levels were increased in obese individuals irrespective of PCOS status...
  7. Kulle A, Riepe F, Melchior D, Hiort O, Holterhus P. A novel ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone in pediatric blood samples: age- and sex-specific reference data. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2399-409 pubmed publisher
    ..tandem mass spectrometry method for high-throughput simultaneous determination of plasma concentrations of androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and to report age-, sex-, and pubertal stage-specific ..
  8. Swart A, Schloms L, Storbeck K, Bloem L, Toit T, Quanson J, et al. 11?-hydroxyandrostenedione, the product of androstenedione metabolism in the adrenal, is metabolized in LNCaP cells by 5?-reductase yielding 11?-hydroxy-5?-androstanedione. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;138:132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The metabolism of androstenedione and testosterone by CYP11B1 and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) was assayed...
  9. Anderson H, Fogel N, Grebe S, Singh R, Taylor R, Dunaif A. Infants of women with polycystic ovary syndrome have lower cord blood androstenedione and estradiol levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2180-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Birth weight and mixed cord blood testosterone, androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, estradiol (E2), and dihydrotestosterone levels were ..

More Information


  1. Wojciechowicz B, Kotwica G, Kolakowska J, Franczak A. The activity and localization of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?(5)-?(4) isomerase and release of androstenedione and progesterone by uterine tissues during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle in pigs. J Reprod Dev. 2013;59:49-58 pubmed 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?(5)-?(4) isomerase (3?-HSD) responsible for progesterone and androstenedione production, that uterine steroids may supplement the amount of steroid hormones produced by embryos and ..
  2. Tarumi W, Tsukamoto S, Okutsu Y, Takahashi N, Horiuchi T, Itoh M, et al. Androstenedione induces abnormalities in morphology and function of developing oocytes, which impairs oocyte meiotic competence. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:469-76 pubmed publisher
    To obtain insight into the effects of androstenedione on ovarian folliculogenesis and oogenesis. Experimental study. St. Marianna University School of Medicine. Prepubertal (14-day-old) BDF1 female mice...
  3. Arai S, Miyashiro Y, Shibata Y, Tomaru Y, Kobayashi M, Honma S, et al. Effect of castration monotherapy on the levels of adrenal androgens in cancerous prostatic tissues. Steroids. 2011;76:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis was precise and sensitive enough for the quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, androstenediol, T, and DHT in the prostatic tissue...
  4. Juniarto A, Goossens K, Setyawati B, Drop S, de Jong F, Faradz S. Correlation between androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels in the saliva and plasma of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Singapore Med J. 2011;52:810-3 pubmed
    ..Monitoring is done by measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) or androstenedione in serum, plasma or saliva...
  5. Murayama C, Miyazaki H, Miyamoto A, Shimizu T. Luteinizing hormone (LH) regulates production of androstenedione and progesterone via control of histone acetylation of StAR and CYP17 promoters in ovarian theca cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;350:1-9 pubmed publisher
    Although luteinizing hormone (LH) affects androstenedione (A4) and progesterone (P4) production in theca cells, it is still unknown how LH influences molecular mechanism of A4 and P4 production...
  6. Studen K, Sebestjen M, Pfeifer M, Prezelj J. Influence of spironolactone treatment on endothelial function in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), glyceryl trinitrate-induced dilatation, free testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-sulfate, total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides ..
  7. Barth J, Field H, Yasmin E, Balen A. Defining hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome: measurement of testosterone and androstenedione by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and analysis by receiver operator characteristic plots. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162:611-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for analysing testosterone and androstenedione (Ad) to study their reference ranges and diagnostic utility in PCOS...
  8. Kushnir M, Blamires T, Rockwood A, Roberts W, Yue B, Erdogan E, et al. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone with pediatric and adult reference intervals. Clin Chem. 2010;56:1138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for simultaneous measurement of androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone in these patients...
  9. Patel S, Beshay V, Escobar J, Carr B. 17?-Hydroxylase (CYP17) expression and subsequent androstenedione production in the human ovary. Reprod Sci. 2010;17:978-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the pivotal role of c-Fos in controlling the expression of CYP17 and hence androgen production in various organ systems throughout the human body. ..
  10. Anizan S, Bichon E, Duval T, Monteau F, Cesbron N, Antignac J, et al. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based metabolomic to screen for anabolic practices in cattle: identification of 5?-androst-2-en-17-one as new biomarker of 4-androstenedione misuse. J Mass Spectrom. 2012;47:131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..approach on the basis of GC-MS aiming to reveal potential biomarkers signing a fraudulent administration of 4-androstenedione (AED), an anabolic androgenic steroid chosen as template...
  11. Tilakaratne A, Soory M. Osteoblastic responses to LPS, glucose-oxidised LDL and minocycline: therapeutic targets for periodontal and cardiometabolic diseases. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2012;6:73-84 pubmed
    ..metabolite 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the redox marker relevant to wound healing, the weaker androgen 4-androstenedione (4-A) and the diols. Analysis entailed thin layer chromatography and radioisotope scanning...
  12. Agborsangaya C, Toriola A, Grankvist K, Surcel H, Holl K, Parkkila S, et al. The effects of storage time and sampling season on the stability of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and androstenedione. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of sample storage time and season of serum sampling on the stability of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and androstenedione in a stratified random sample of 402 women, using paired sera from the Finnish Maternity Cohort...
  13. Haring R, Hannemann A, John U, Radke D, Nauck M, Wallaschofski H, et al. Age-specific reference ranges for serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations in women measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..5th and 97.5th percentiles for sex hormone concentrations in women. Serum total testosterone (TT) and androstenedione (AD) concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
  14. Glister C, Satchell L, Michael A, Bicknell A, Knight P. The anti-epileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) inhibits steroidogenesis in bovine theca and granulosa cells in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49553 pubmed publisher
    ..both basal (70% suppression; IC(50) 67±10 µg/ml) and LH-induced (93% suppression; IC(50) 58±10 µg/ml) androstenedione secretion by TC. VPA reduced CYP17A1 mRNA abundance (>99% decrease; P<0...
  15. Fisseha S, Towns R, Harada M, Peegel H, Menon K. Inhibitory effect of valproic acid on ovarian androgen biosynthesis in rat theca-interstitial cells. Endocrine. 2010;37:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of T-I cells with 8-Bromo-cAMP resulted in a marked increase in the production of androstenedione, and VPA inhibited this stimulatory effect, suggesting that the mechanism of VPA's inhibitory effect on ..
  16. Latif S, Shen M, Ge R, Sottas C, Hardy M, Morris D. Role of 11?-OH-C(19) and C(21) steroids in the coupling of 11?-HSD1 and 17?-HSD3 in regulation of testosterone biosynthesis in rat Leydig cells. Steroids. 2011;76:682-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of androstenedione (AD), substrate for 17?-HSD3, incubation of Leydig cells with corticosterone (B) or several C(19)- and C(21)-..
  17. Malaviya A, Gomes J. Enhanced biotransformation of sitosterol to androstenedione by Mycobacterium sp. using cell wall permeabilizing antibiotics. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;35:1235-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of ethambutol, penicillin, polymixin and bacitracin on biotransformation of sitosterol to androstenedione by modification of cell wall permeability was examined...
  18. Okutsu Y, Itoh M, Takahashi N, Ishizuka B. Exogenous androstenedione induces formation of follicular cysts and premature luteinization of granulosa cells in the ovary. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:927-35 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of androstenedione on ovarian follicle development.
  19. Noordam C, Dhir V, McNelis J, Schlereth F, Hanley N, Krone N, et al. Inactivating PAPSS2 mutations in a patient with premature pubarche. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2310-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that PAPSS2 deficiency is a monogenic adrenocortical cause of androgen excess. ..
  20. Franczak A, Kotwica G. Androgens and estradiol-17beta production by porcine uterine cells: In vitro study. Theriogenology. 2010;73:232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine (1) which porcine separated uterine cells secrete androgens: androstenedione (A(4)) and testosterone (T), and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) in culture; (2) if the production of A(4), T and E(2)..
  21. Stanczyk F, Azen C, Pike M. Effect of finasteride on serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone and their 5?-reduced metabolites in men at risk for prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;138:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months for measurement of PSA, androstenedione (A), T, DHT, 3?-diol G, androsterone glucuronide (ADT G) and DHT sulfate (DHT S) in serum by validated, ..
  22. Okuliarová M, Groothuis T, Skrobánek P, Zeman M. Experimental evidence for genetic heritability of maternal hormone transfer to offspring. Am Nat. 2011;177:824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Eggs of HET quail contained higher androstenedione and lower estradiol concentrations than did those of LET quail, with no line differences in yolk progesterone ..
  23. Roy P, Roy K. Molecular docking and QSAR studies of aromatase inhibitor androstenedione derivatives. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:1717-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a series of androstenedione derivatives with CYP19 inhibitory activity was subjected to a molecular docking study followed by ..
  24. Bryan M, Scott A, Li W. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has a receptor for androstenedione. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:688-96 pubmed
    ..The androgen with the highest affinity is not testosterone, but its direct precursor, androstenedione (Ad)...
  25. Manjer J, Johansson R, Berglund G, Janzon L, Kaaks R, Agren A, et al. Postmenopausal breast cancer risk in relation to sex steroid hormones, prolactin and SHBG (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control. 2003;14:599-607 pubmed
    ..Levels of estrone, estradiol, SHBG, FSH, prolactin, testosterone, androstenedione and DHEAs were analysed in cases and 438 controls...
  26. Richter T, Keipert S. In vitro permeation studies comparing bovine nasal mucosa, porcine cornea and artificial membrane: androstenedione in microemulsions and their components. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2004;58:137-43 pubmed
    ..In this study, in vitro permeability of androstenedione (AD) as a highly lipophilic substance was investigated in excised bovine nasal mucosa, porcine cornea and the ..
  27. Takeuchi T, Tsutsumi O, Ikezuki Y, Takai Y, Taketani Y. Positive relationship between androgen and the endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A, in normal women and women with ovarian dysfunction. Endocr J. 2004;51:165-9 pubmed
    ..391, p<0.001), free testosterone (r = 0.504, p<0.001), androstenedione (r = 0.684, p<0.001), and DHEAS (r = 0.514, p<0.001) concentrations in all subjects...
  28. Ke F, Chuang L, Lee M, Chen Y, Lin S, Wang P, et al. The modulatory role of transforming growth factor beta1 and androstenedione on follicle-stimulating hormone-induced gelatinase secretion and steroidogenesis in rat granulosa cells. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:1292-8 pubmed
    ..the interactive effects of FSH and local ovarian factors, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and androstenedione, on gelatinase secretion and progesterone production in rat ovarian granulosa cells...
  29. Gil D, Leboucher G, Lacroix A, Cue R, Kreutzer M. Female canaries produce eggs with greater amounts of testosterone when exposed to preferred male song. Horm Behav. 2004;45:64-70 pubmed
    ..This implies that song repertoires convey important information about the reproductive value of a given male and suggests that testosterone deposition in egg yolk may be costly...
  30. Missmer S, Eliassen A, Barbieri R, Hankinson S. Endogenous estrogen, androgen, and progesterone concentrations and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:1856-65 pubmed
    ..3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0 to 5.4), testosterone (RR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2 to 3.4), androstenedione (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.3), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (RR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.1)...
  31. Kaminska B, Opalka M, Dusza L. Phytoestrogens alter cortisol and androstenedione secretion by porcine adrenocortical cells. Acta Vet Hung. 2007;55:359-67 pubmed
    The effect of plant-derived, nonsteroidal estrogens (genistein, daidzein and biochanin A) on cortisol and androstenedione secretion by porcine adrenocortical cells was examined...
  32. Sorensen P, Pinillos M, Scott A. Sexually mature male goldfish release large quantities of androstenedione into the water where it functions as a pheromone. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2005;140:164-75 pubmed
    ..It found that spermiated male goldfish release substantial quantities of androstenedione (AD; about 50 ng/h) together with smaller (10-20 ng/h) quantities of several other related C19 steroids but ..
  33. Manjer J, Johansson R, Lenner P. Smoking as a determinant for plasma levels of testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEAs in postmenopausal women. Eur J Epidemiol. 2005;20:331-7 pubmed
    ..56 (0.98-2.47). Current smoking and increasing amount of current smoking were weakly associated with high androstenedione levels. However, these associations did not reach statistical significance...
  34. Gallagher L, Owen L, Keevil B. Simultaneous determination of androstenedione and testosterone in human serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ann Clin Biochem. 2007;44:48-56 pubmed
    We aimed to develop a sensitive assay to quantitate serum concentrations of both androstenedione and testosterone within the female range simultaneously, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for use in the ..
  35. Addison B, Benowitz Fredericks Z, Hipfner J, Kitaysky A. Are yolk androgens adjusted to environmental conditions? A test in two seabirds that lay single-egg clutches. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;158:5-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured concentrations of two yolk androgens, androstenedione (A4) and testosterone (T), in the single-egg clutches laid by early-laying Cassin's (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) ..
  36. Ong K, Potau N, Petry C, Jones R, Ness A, Honour J, et al. Opposing influences of prenatal and postnatal weight gain on adrenarche in normal boys and girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2647-51 pubmed
    ..7 to -0.2; in girls: B = -3.8 microg/dl/SD; 95% CI, -6.2 to -1.4; androstenedione in boys: B = -0.15 nmol/liter/sd, 95% CI, -0.25 to -0.6; in girls: B = -0.13 nmol/liter/SD; 95% CI, -0...
  37. Quinkler M, Sinha B, Tomlinson J, Bujalska I, Stewart P, Arlt W. Androgen generation in adipose tissue in women with simple obesity--a site-specific role for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5. J Endocrinol. 2004;183:331-42 pubmed
    ..2 kg/m(2)). Enzymatic activity assays in preadipocyte proliferation cultures revealed effcient conversion of androstenedione to testosterone in both subcutaneous and omental fat...
  38. Stanczyk F. Measurement of androgens in women. Semin Reprod Med. 2006;24:78-85 pubmed
    ..Androgens also can be measured in saliva, but major methodologic problems are associated with the measurements. In addition, there is a misconception that salivary testosterone levels reflect free testosterone levels in serum. ..
  39. Fogle R, Stanczyk F, Zhang X, Paulson R. Ovarian androgen production in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3040-3 pubmed
    ..Testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) were measured by RIA with preceding ..
  40. Garagorri J, Rodriguez G, Lario Elboj A, Olivares J, Lario Muñoz A, Orden I. Reference levels for 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-desoxycortisol, cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and androstenedione in infants from birth to six months of age. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167:647-53 pubmed
    ..17OHP), 11-desoxycortisol (11DOC), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone, and androstenedione in healthy infants from birth to 6 months of age...
  41. Dewailly D, Catteau Jonard S, Reyss A, Leroy M, Pigny P. Oligoanovulation with polycystic ovaries but not overt hyperandrogenism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:3922-7 pubmed
    ..Sixty-six patients having OA+PCO without hirsutism or elevated serum androstenedione and testosterone levels were compared with 118 normally cycling nonhyperandrogenic age-matched women without ..
  42. Eising C, Müller W, Dijkstra C, Groothuis T. Maternal androgens in egg yolks: relation with sex, incubation time and embryonic growth. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003;132:241-7 pubmed
    ..Male eggs did not contain higher levels of testosterone or androstenedione than female eggs, in contrast to the data reported for another galliform species, the peacock...
  43. Rauh M, Gröschl M, Rascher W, Dörr H. Automated, fast and sensitive quantification of 17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone by tandem mass spectrometry with on-line extraction. Steroids. 2006;71:450-8 pubmed
    Plasma 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione and testosterone measurements are important for the diagnosis and monitoring of hyperandrogenic disorders, most importantly for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-..
  44. Wichers Rother M, Grigull A, Sokolowski P, Stoffel Wagner B, Kohler W. Adrenal steroids in adrenomyeloneuropathy. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. J Neurol. 2005;252:1525-9 pubmed
    ..We studied the circulating adrenal hormones 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) in 63 male AMN patients (age 17-65 years) and the DHEAS serum ..
  45. Schmidt M, Weidler C, Naumann H, Anders S, Scholmerich J, Straub R. Androgen conversion in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes--androstenedione and testosterone inhibit estrogen formation and favor production of more potent 5alpha-reduced androgens. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7:R938-48 pubmed
    ..Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was converted into androstenediol, androstenedione (ASD), 16alphaOH-DHEA, 7alphaOH-DHEA, testosterone, estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 16alphaOH-..
  46. Lagaly D, Aad P, Grado Ahuir J, Hulsey L, Spicer L. Role of adiponectin in regulating ovarian theca and granulosa cell function. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;284:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Adiponectin decreased (P<0.05) insulin-induced progesterone and androstenedione production as well as attenuated IGF-I-induced LHR, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1 gene expression in theca cells...
  47. Casais M, Delgado S, Sosa Z, Rastrilla A. Pregnancy in rats is modulated by ganglionic cholinergic action. Reproduction. 2006;131:1151-8 pubmed study the action of cholinergic agents in celiac ganglion upon the liberation of progesterone and ovarian androstenedione in the second half of pregnancy in rats...
  48. Panidis D, Farmakiotis D, Rousso D, Katsikis I, Kourtis A, Diamanti Kandarakis E. Serum luteinizing hormone levels are markedly increased and significantly correlated with Delta 4-androstenedione levels in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:538-40 pubmed
    Lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome have markedly increased serum luteinizing hormone levels, which are significantly correlated with Delta(4)-androstenedione levels but not directly linked to insulin resistance.
  49. Tajima K, Yoshii K, Fukuda S, Orisaka M, Miyamoto K, Amsterdam A, et al. Luteinizing hormone-induced extracellular-signal regulated kinase activation differently modulates progesterone and androstenedione production in bovine theca cells. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2903-10 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, modulation of ERK phosphorylation involves control of thecal steroidogenesis via modulation of the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and P450c17...
  50. Moran C, Renteria J, Moran S, Herrera J, Gonzalez S, Bermudez J. Obesity differentially affects serum levels of androstenedione and testosterone in polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2310-7 pubmed publisher
    To assess androstenedione (A) and T levels in obese and nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) after GnRH and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Cross sectional study. Clinical research center...
  51. Atamer Y, Erden A, Demir B, Kocyigit Y, Atamer A. The relationship between plasma levels of leptin and androgen in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83:425-30 pubmed
    ..Plasma leptin, total testosterone (T), estradiol (E(2)), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (A) levels were measured...
  52. Szafranska B, Ziecik A, Okrasa S. Primary antisera against selected steroids or proteins and secondary antisera against gamma-globulins--an available tool for studies of reproductive processes. Reprod Biol. 2002;2:187-204 pubmed
    ..The antisera against steroid hormones and pLH are available on request. ..
  53. Dumesic D, Schramm R, Bird I, Peterson E, Paprocki A, Zhou R, et al. Reduced intrafollicular androstenedione and estradiol levels in early-treated prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys receiving follicle-stimulating hormone therapy for in vitro fertilization. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1213-9 pubmed
    ..Serum FSH, LH, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 OHP), androstenedione (A4), testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone were measured basally during rhFSH therapy and at oocyte ..