polycyclic compounds


Summary: Compounds which contain two or more rings in their structure.

Top Publications

  1. Lodovici M, Venturini M, Marini E, Grechi D, Dolara P. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons air levels in Florence, Italy, and their correlation with other air pollutants. Chemosphere. 2003;50:377-82 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in addition to B(a)P, DBA concentration should be considered in the evaluation of air quality in terms of PAH contamination. ..
  2. Lam P, Leong P, Chen N, Ko K. Schisandrin B enhances the glutathione redox cycling and protects against oxidant injury in different types of cultured cells. Biofactors. 2011;37:439-46 pubmed publisher
  3. Giridharan V, Thandavarayan R, Bhilwade H, Ko K, Watanabe K, Konishi T. Schisandrin B, attenuates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and neurotoxicity through modulating NF-?B pathway in mice. Free Radic Res. 2012;46:50-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, Sch B with potent antioxidant and neuro-protective property with no mutagenic activity would be beneficial complementary food factor against cDDP induced oxidative stress. ..
  4. Park E, Chun J, Kim S, Kim C, Lee H, Kim H, et al. Schisandrin B suppresses TGF?1 signaling by inhibiting Smad2/3 and MAPK pathways. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83:378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..chinensis extract and SchB inhibit TGF?1 signaling. Our results may help future investigations to understand vascular fibrosis pathogenesis and to develop novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of vascular fibrotic diseases. ..
  5. Xu Y, Liu Z, Sun J, Pan Q, Sun F, Yan Z, et al. Schisandrin B prevents doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity and enhances its anticancer activity in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28335 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, Sch B is the only molecule ever proved to function as a cardioprotective agent as well as a chemotherapeutic sensitizer, which is potentially applicable for cancer treatment. ..
  6. Stacchiotti A, Li Volti G, Lavazza A, Schena I, Aleo M, Rodella L, et al. Different role of Schisandrin B on mercury-induced renal damage in vivo and in vitro. Toxicology. 2011;286:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This discrepancy might be partly attributable to Sch B influence on glomerular perfusion as corroborated by the recovery of vasoactive markers like macular and endothelial nitric oxide isoforms. ..
  7. Xian Q, Siddique S, Li T, Feng Y, Takser L, Zhu J. Sources and environmental behavior of dechlorane plus--a review. Environ Int. 2011;37:1273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..With only limited data available so far, the biomagnification of DP in aquatic biota has not been conclusively demonstrated. This review also looks at reported dechlorination products of DP that might be of interest in future research. ..
  8. Xu C, Wang L, Hao X, Wang D. Tackling reactivity and selectivity within a strained architecture: construction of the [6-6-5-7] tetracyclic core of Calyciphylline alkaloids. J Org Chem. 2012;77:6307-13 pubmed publisher
  9. Checker R, Patwardhan R, Sharma D, Menon J, Thoh M, Bhilwade H, et al. Schisandrin B exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulation of the redox-sensitive transcription factors Nrf2 and NF-?B. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the anti-inflammatory effects of SB are mediated via modulation of Nrf2 and NF-?B in lymphocytes. ..

More Information


  1. Lee T, Jung C, Lee D. Neuroprotective effects of Schisandrin B against transient focal cerebral ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Schisandrin B treatment provides a neuroprotective effect to rats after transient focal cerebral ischemia by inhibiting inflammation and by protecting against metalloproteinase degradation...
  2. Chu J, Wang H, Ye Y, Chan P, Pan S, Fong W, et al. Inhibitory effect of schisandrin B on free fatty acid-induced steatosis in L-02 cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:2379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Sch B inhibits FFA-induced steatosis in L-02 cells by, at least in part, reversing the up-regulation of ADRP and SREBP-1. ..
  3. Yang X, Wang Y, Zhang X, Chang R, Li X. Screening vasoconstriction inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicines using a vascular smooth muscle/cell membrane chromatography-offline-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci. 2011;34:2586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our VSM/CMC-offline-LC-MS/MS method can be applied for screening vasoconstriction inhibitors from TCMs collected from FSC and FSS, and may be useful in the development of vasodilators from natural products. ..
  4. Yang M, Wang L, He Z, Wang S, Zhang S, Tu Y, et al. Tandem semipinacol-type 1,2-carbon migration/aldol reaction toward the construction of [5-6-7] all-carbon tricyclic core of Calyciphylline A-type alkaloids. Org Lett. 2012;14:5114-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5]decanes which extensively exist in Daphniphyllum alkaloids. By the use of this method, further construction of a [5-6-7] all-carbon tricyclic core of Calyciphylline A-type alkaloids was also completed. ..
  5. Giridharan V, Thandavarayan R, Sato S, Ko K, Konishi T. Prevention of scopolamine-induced memory deficits by schisandrin B, an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis in mice. Free Radic Res. 2011;45:950-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Sladojevich F, Michaelides I, Benjamin D, Ward J, Dixon D. Expedient Route to the functionalized calyciphylline A-type skeleton via a Michael addition-RCM strategy. Org Lett. 2011;13:5132-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Key features of this approach are an intramolecular Michael addition/allylation sequence and a ring-closing metathesis step. ..
  7. Fang B, Zheng H, Zhao C, Jing P, Li H, Xie X, et al. Synthesis of the tetracyclic core (ABCE rings) of daphenylline. J Org Chem. 2012;77:8367-73 pubmed
    ..3.1] lactam as the key intermediate. This bridged bicyclic intermediate was efficiently constructed via a Brønsted acid promoted intramolecular Friedel-Crafts type Michael addition of a ?-benzyl ?,?-unsaturated ?-lactam. ..
  8. Sverko E, Tomy G, Reiner E, Li Y, McCarry B, Arnot J, et al. Dechlorane plus and related compounds in the environment: a review. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:5088-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, there is a need to obtain more monitoring, bioaccumulation, degradation rate, and toxicity information. ..
  9. Hanessian S, Dorich S, Menz H. Concise and stereocontrolled synthesis of the tetracyclic core of daphniglaucin C. Org Lett. 2013;15:4134-7 pubmed publisher
    ..7%. The key steps toward this core motif feature a reductive double bond transposition from an unactivated tertiary allylic alcohol, a Pd-catalyzed Stille coupling, and Dieckmann cyclizations. ..
  10. Waiwut P, Shin M, Inujima A, Zhou Y, Koizumi K, Saiki I, et al. Gomisin N enhances TNF-?-induced apoptosis via inhibition of the NF-?B and EGFR survival pathways. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;350:169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggested that gomisin N enhanced TNF-?-induced apoptosis by suppressing of NF-?B and EGFR signaling pathways. ..
  11. Qiangrong P, Wang T, Lu Q, Hu X. Schisandrin B--a novel inhibitor of P-glycoprotein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:406-11 pubmed
    ..Schisandrin B has a core structure of dibenzocyclooctadiene, representing a novel P-glycoprotein inhibitor. To our best knowledge, the role of schisandrin B to inhibit P-glycoprotein has not been reported. ..
  12. Oh S, Kim Y, Bae D, Um B, Pan C, Kim C, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of gomisin N, gomisin J, and schisandrin C isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:285-91 pubmed
    ..These inhibitory effects were found to be caused by blockage of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation...
  13. Chen N, Ko M. Schisandrin B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection are mediated by reactive oxidant species production in rat hearts. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:825-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Sch B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection may be mediated by ROS arising from CYP-catalyzed reaction. ..
  14. Huang T, Shen P, Shen Y. Preparative separation and purification of deoxyschisandrin and gamma-schisandrin from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1066:239-42 pubmed
  15. Atta S, Farrag D, Sweed A, Abdel Rahman A. Preparation of new polycyclic compounds derived from benzofurans and furochromones. An approach to novel 1,2,3-thia-, and selena-diazolofurochromones of anticipated antitumor activities. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:4920-7 pubmed publisher
  16. Lam P, Chiu P, Leung H, Chen N, Leong P, Ko K. Schisandrin B co-treatment ameliorates the impairment on mitochondrial antioxidant status in various tissues of long-term ethanol treated rats. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:1239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term Sch B treatment enhanced mitochondrial antioxidant status in a tissue non-specific manner. Sch B co-treatment ameliorated the alterations in plasma ROM levels, mtMDA production and Hsp 25/70 expression in rat tissues. ..
  17. Wolska L. Miniaturised analytical procedure of determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom sediments. J Chromatogr A. 2002;959:173-80 pubmed
    ..The interlaboratory study proved that the developed procedure for the simultaneous determination of PAHs and PCBs at largely different concentrations in sediment gives accurate and precise results. ..
  18. Pan Q, Lu Q, Zhang K, Hu X. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lingnans: a class of novel inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006;58:99-106 pubmed
    ..Further studies demonstrated that these compounds physically interacted with P-gp. Schisandrin A and B, and schisantherin A are potent P-gp inhibitor and is of potential for future clinical application. ..
  19. Huang M, Jin J, Sun H, Liu G. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of cancer cells by five schizandrins isolated from the Chinese herb Fructus Schizandrae. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2008;62:1015-26 pubmed publisher
    ..p.) on tumor growth in nude mice bearing KBv200 xenograft. The LCC and its active component Sin A have remarkable reversal effect on MDR in cancer cells by inhibition of both the function and expression of Pgp and total PKC. ..
  20. Egashira N, Kurauchi K, Iwasaki K, Mishima K, Orito K, Oishi R, et al. Schizandrin reverses memory impairment in rats. Phytother Res. 2008;22:49-52 pubmed
    ..Taken together these findings suggest that schizandrin reverses scopolamine-induced memory impairment, in part, by enhancing cholinergic function, and that schizandrin might be useful for treating memory deficits...
  21. Chiu P, Leung H, Poon M, Ko K. Chronic schisandrin B treatment improves mitochondrial antioxidant status and tissue heat shock protein production in various tissues of young adult and middle-aged rats. Biogerontology. 2006;7:199-210 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that chronic Sch B treatment may be beneficial for reversing the mitochondrial changes with aging and enhancing the heat shock response. ..
  22. Lam P, Ko K. (-)Schisandrin B ameliorates paraquat-induced oxidative stress by suppressing glutathione depletion and enhancing glutathione recovery in differentiated PC12 cells. Biofactors. 2011;37:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that (-)Sch B treatment may increase the resistance of dopaminergic cells against PQ-induced oxidative stress through reducing the extent of oxidant-induced GSH depletion and enhancing the subsequent GSH recovery. ..
  23. Jarvis M, Bianchi B, Uchic J, Cartmell J, Lee C, Williams M, et al. [3H]A-317491, a novel high-affinity non-nucleotide antagonist that specifically labels human P2X2/3 and P2X3 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;310:407-16 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that [3H]A-317491 is the first useful radioligand for the specific labeling of P2X3-containing channels. ..
  24. Pan Q, Han W, Liu Z, Li L, Hu X. Schisandrin B prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity via enhancing glutathione redox cycling. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:6753-60 pubmed
  25. Chiu P, Leung H, Poon M, Mak D, Ko K. Effects of schisandrin B enantiomers on cellular glutathione and menadione toxicity in AML12 hepatocytes. Pharmacology. 2006;77:63-70 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that (-)Sch B is more effective than (+)Sch B in enhancing cellular GSH and protecting against oxidant injury in hepatocytes. ..
  26. Ko K, Chen N, Leung H, Leong E, Poon M, Chiu P. Long-term schisandrin B treatment mitigates age-related impairments in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in various tissues, and improves the survival of aging C57BL/6J mice. Biofactors. 2008;34:331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, long-term Sch B supplementation mitigated age-dependent impairments in mitochondrial antioxidant capacity and functional ability, thereby retarding the aging process in mice, particularly during early aging. ..
  27. Jarvis M, Burgard E, McGaraughty S, Honore P, Lynch K, Brennan T, et al. A-317491, a novel potent and selective non-nucleotide antagonist of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors, reduces chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:17179-84 pubmed
  28. Kohler J, Dubach J, Naik H, Tai K, Blass A, Soybel D. Monochloramine-induced toxicity and dysregulation of intracellular Zn2+ in parietal cells of rabbit gastric glands. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G170-8 pubmed publisher
  29. Pan S, Dong H, Zhao X, Xiang C, Fang H, Fong W, et al. Schisandrin B from Schisandra chinensis reduces hepatic lipid contents in hypercholesterolaemic mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008;60:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Fenofibrate treatment (100 mg kg(-1)) produced effects similar to those of Sch B on the hepatic index and lipid levels of hypercholesterolaemic mice...
  30. Ray S, Khillare P, Agarwal T, Shridhar V. Assessment of PAHs in soil around the International Airport in Delhi, India. J Hazard Mater. 2008;156:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Predominance of pyrene was observed in the airport soil. Factor analysis and isomer pair ratios suggest pyrogenic origin of PAHs in the study area. ..
  31. Leong P, Chiu P, Chen N, Leung H, Ko K. Schisandrin B elicits a glutathione antioxidant response and protects against apoptosis via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 pathway in AML12 hepatocytes. Free Radic Res. 2011;45:483-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, (-)Sch B triggers a redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 signalling, which then elicits a cellular glutathione antioxidant response and protects against oxidant-induced apoptosis in AML12 cells. ..
  32. Chen N, Chiu P, Ko K. Schisandrin B enhances cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status and structural integrity, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1387-91 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, long-term Sch B treatment could enhance cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status as well as improve mitochondrial structural integrity, thereby protecting against I/R injury...
  33. Wu G, Whiteside G, Lee G, Nolan S, Niosi M, Pearson M, et al. A-317491, a selective P2X3/P2X2/3 receptor antagonist, reverses inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia through action at peripheral receptors in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;504:45-53 pubmed
    ..Its efficacy demonstrates the importance of peripheral P2X3/P2X(2/3) receptors in mediating ATP-associated mechanical hyperalgesia following inflammation, confirming previous suggestions of a significant role for P2X(2/3). ..
  34. Devinney M, Reynolds I, Dineley K. Simultaneous detection of intracellular free calcium and zinc using fura-2FF and FluoZin-3. Cell Calcium. 2005;37:225-32 pubmed
    ..These studies provide a novel method for the simultaneous detection of both calcium and zinc in cells. ..
  35. Wu Y, Cao M, Gao Y, Chen F, Wang T, Zumbika E, et al. Down-modulation of heat shock protein 70 and up-modulation of Caspase-3 during schisandrin B-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:2944-8 pubmed
  36. Nishida H, Tatewaki N, Nakajima Y, Magara T, Ko K, Hamamori Y, et al. Inhibition of ATR protein kinase activity by schisandrin B in DNA damage response. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5678-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our demonstration of the ability of SchB to inhibit ATR protein kinase activity following DNA damage in cells has clinical implications in anti-cancer therapy. ..
  37. Chiu P, Mak D, Poon M, Ko K. Role of cytochrome P-450 in schisandrin B-induced antioxidant and heat shock responses in mouse liver. Life Sci. 2005;77:2887-95 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that oxidant species generated from P-450-catalyzed reaction with Sch B may trigger the antioxidant and heat shock responses in mouse liver...
  38. Song H, Wang R, Wang S, Lin J. A low-molecular-weight compound discovered through virtual database screening inhibits Stat3 function in breast cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4700-5 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that STA-21 inhibits breast cancer cells that express constitutively active Stat3. ..
  39. Chiu P, Chen N, Leong P, Leung H, Ko K. Schisandrin B elicits a glutathione antioxidant response and protects against apoptosis via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 pathway in H9c2 cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;350:237-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The ERK-mediated signaling is also likely involved in the cardioprotection afforded by Sch B in vivo. ..
  40. Sun M, Xu X, Lu Q, Pan Q, Hu X. Schisandrin B: a dual inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. Cancer Lett. 2007;246:300-7 pubmed
  41. McGaraughty S, Wismer C, Zhu C, Mikusa J, Honore P, Chu K, et al. Effects of A-317491, a novel and selective P2X3/P2X2/3 receptor antagonist, on neuropathic, inflammatory and chemogenic nociception following intrathecal and intraplantar administration. Br J Pharmacol. 2003;140:1381-8 pubmed
    ..Intrathecal administration of A-317491 appears to be more effective than intraplantar administration to reduce tactile allodynia following peripheral nerve injury. ..
  42. Ko K, Lam B. Schisandrin B protects against tert-butylhydroperoxide induced cerebral toxicity by enhancing glutathione antioxidant status in mouse brain. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;238:181-6 pubmed
    ..The ensemble of results suggests the antioxidant potential of Sch B pretreatment in protecting against cerebral oxidative stress. ..
  43. Li L, Lu Q, Shen Y, Hu X. Schisandrin B enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells but not normal cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;71:584-95 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is speculative that Sch B may bring benefit to clinical chemotherapy by reducing significantly the cumulative doses of DOX and its associated cardiotoxicities. ..
  44. Chiu P, Ko K. Schisandrin B protects myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury partly by inducing Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;266:139-44 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the induction of Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression contributes at least partly to the cardioprotection afforded by Sch B pre-treatment against I-R injury...
  45. Chiu P, Ko K. Schisandrin B-induced increase in cellular glutathione level and protection against oxidant injury are mediated by the enhancement of glutathione synthesis and regeneration in AML12 and H9c2 cells. Biofactors. 2006;26:221-30 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results indicate that the cytoprotective action of Sch B is causally related to the increase in cellular GSH level, which is likely mediated by the enhancement of GSH synthesis and regeneration. ..
  46. Zhu J, Feng Y, Shoeib M. Detection of dechlorane plus in residential indoor dust in the city of Ottawa, Canada. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:7694-8 pubmed
    ..S. Environmental Protection Agency. The large variation of the ratio of syn- and anti-DP isomers in the dust samples also suggests a complex degradation process of DP in the environment. ..
  47. Gee K, Zhou Z, Qian W, Kennedy R. Detection and imaging of zinc secretion from pancreatic beta-cells using a new fluorescent zinc indicator. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:776-8 pubmed
    ..Also, within secreting cells some regions of the cell membrane gave rise to secretion while others did not, suggesting active zones of secretion on the cell surface. ..
  48. Saito N, Terakawa R, Shigeno M, Amemiya R, Yamaguchi M. Side chain effect on the double helix formation of ethynylhelicene oligomers. J Org Chem. 2011;76:4841-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Side chains of ethynylhelicene oligomers can play significant roles in determining the stability of double helices. ..
  49. Xue H, Yang J, Gopal P. Toward the synthesis of norzoanthamine: building carbocyclic core by a transannular Michael reaction cascade. Org Lett. 2011;13:5696-9 pubmed publisher
  50. Shigeno M, Yamaguchi M. Formation of organic gel-liquid two-layer systems using diffusion-controlled gelation with a helicene derivative. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:6139-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Gelation took place by the diffusion of (M)-1 and THF from the bottom layer to the upper hexane layer. This method provided multilayer liquid-gel systems. ..
  51. Topinka J, Milcova A, Schmuczerova J, Krouzek J, Hovorka J. Ultrafine particles are not major carriers of carcinogenic PAHs and their genotoxicity in size-segregated aerosols. Mutat Res. 2013;754:1-6 pubmed publisher
  52. Li W, Xin H, Yu A, Wu X. In vivo effect of Schisandrin B on cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. Phytomedicine. 2013;20:760-5 pubmed publisher
    ..When the drug, consisting of Sch B, is used in the clinic for more than 3 days, the possible drug-drug interactions should be taken into consideration. ..
  53. Pan S, Jia Z, Zhang Y, Yu Q, Wang X, Sun N, et al. Novel mouse model of combined hyperlipidemia associated with steatosis and liver injury by a single-dose intragastric administration of schisandrin B/cholesterol/bile salts mixture. J Pharmacol Sci. 2013;123:110-9 pubmed
    ..Oral administration of a mixture of schisandrin B, cholesterol, and bile salt could generate an interesting mouse model of combined hyperlipidemia associated with hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. ..