phototropism

Summary

Summary: The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Top Publications

  1. Devlin P, Yanovsky M, Kay S. A genomic analysis of the shade avoidance response in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:1617-29 pubmed
    ..An analysis of promoter elements of genes regulated in this way identified conserved promoter motifs potentially important in shade regulation. ..
  2. Ohgishi M, Saji K, Okada K, Sakai T. Functional analysis of each blue light receptor, cry1, cry2, phot1, and phot2, by using combinatorial multiple mutants in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2223-8 pubmed
    ..Microarray analysis suggested that cry1 and cry2 independently function as key regulators of early blue light-induced genes, whereas phot1 and phot2 play subsidiary roles in transcriptional regulation by blue light. ..
  3. Christie J, Murphy A. Shoot phototropism in higher plants: new light through old concepts. Am J Bot. 2013;100:35-46 pubmed publisher
    Light is a key environmental factor that drives many aspects of plant growth and development. Phototropism, the reorientation of growth toward or away from light, represents one of these important adaptive processes...
  4. Kami C, Hersch M, Trevisan M, Genoud T, Hiltbrunner A, Bergmann S, et al. Nuclear phytochrome A signaling promotes phototropism in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:566-76 pubmed publisher
    ..g., positive phototropism in the hypocotyl)...
  5. Motchoulski A, Liscum E. Arabidopsis NPH3: A NPH1 photoreceptor-interacting protein essential for phototropism. Science. 1999;286:961-4 pubmed
    b>Phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in response to a blue light source is initiated by nonphototropic hypocotyl 1 (NPH1), a light-activated serine-threonine protein kinase...
  6. Liscum E, Stowe Evans E. Phototropism: a "simple" physiological response modulated by multiple interacting photosensory-response pathways. Photochem Photobiol. 2000;72:273-82 pubmed
    b>Phototropism is the process by which plants reorient growth of various organs, most notably stems, in response to lateral differences in light quantity and/or quality...
  7. Iino M. Toward understanding the ecological functions of tropisms: interactions among and effects of light on tropisms. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2006;9:89-93 pubmed
    ..Phototropins have been identified as the photoreceptors for the major blue-light-sensitive phototropism. Investigations have been extended to elucidate the relationships among tropisms and the controlling roles ..
  8. Correll M, Coveney K, Raines S, Mullen J, Hangarter R, Kiss J. Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots. Adv Space Res. 2003;31:2203-10 pubmed
    b>Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots...
  9. Kutschera U, Briggs W. Root phototropism: from dogma to the mechanism of blue light perception. Planta. 2012;235:443-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This "Sinapis-dogma" was refuted in a seminal study on root phototropism published a century ago, where it was shown that less then half of the 166 plant species investigated behave ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Inada S, Ohgishi M, Mayama T, Okada K, Sakai T. RPT2 is a signal transducer involved in phototropic response and stomatal opening by association with phototropin 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2004;16:887-96 pubmed
    Phototropin 1 (phot1) and phot2, which are blue light receptor kinases, function in blue light-induced hypocotyl phototropism, chloroplast relocation, and stomatal opening in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
  2. Christie J, Swartz T, Bogomolni R, Briggs W. Phototropin LOV domains exhibit distinct roles in regulating photoreceptor function. Plant J. 2002;32:205-19 pubmed
    ..phot1 and phot2) are autophosphorylating serine/threonine kinases that function as photoreceptors for phototropism, light-induced chloroplast movement, and stomatal opening in Arabidopsis...
  3. Galland P. Tropisms of Avena coleoptiles: sine law for gravitropism, exponential law for photogravitropic equilibrium. Planta. 2002;215:779-84 pubmed
    The quantitative relation between gravitropism and phototropism was analyzed for light-grown coleoptiles of Avena sativa (L.). With respect to gravitropism the coleoptiles obeyed the sine law...
  4. Correll M, Kiss J. Interactions between gravitropism and phototropism in plants. J Plant Growth Regul. 2002;21:89-101 pubmed
    ..This article is focused on the interactions between the light- and gravity-transduction pathways and describes methods used to separate the influences of these two environmental stimuli. ..
  5. Whippo C, Hangarter R. A brassinosteroid-hypersensitive mutant of BAK1 indicates that a convergence of photomorphogenic and hormonal signaling modulates phototropism. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:448-57 pubmed
    ..photoreceptors, asymmetric lateral redistribution of auxin underlies the differential growth, which results in phototropism. Historical physiological evidence and recent analysis of hormone-induced gene expression demonstrate that ..
  6. Li J, Dai X, Zhao Y. A role for auxin response factor 19 in auxin and ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:899-908 pubmed
    ..This study also provides a likely mechanism for coordination and integration of hormonal signals to regulate plant growth and development. ..
  7. Ding Z, Galvan Ampudia C, Demarsy E, Łangowski Ł, Kleine Vehn J, Fan Y, et al. Light-mediated polarization of the PIN3 auxin transporter for the phototropic response in Arabidopsis. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:447-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Phototropism is an adaptation response, through which plants grow towards the light. It involves light perception and asymmetric distribution of the plant hormone auxin...
  8. Pedmale U, Liscum E. Regulation of phototropic signaling in Arabidopsis via phosphorylation state changes in the phototropin 1-interacting protein NPH3. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19992-20001 pubmed
    b>Phototropism, or the directional growth (curvature) of various organs toward or away from incident light, represents a ubiquitous adaptive response within the plant kingdom...
  9. Boccalandro H, De Simone S, Bergmann Honsberger A, Schepens I, Fankhauser C, Casal J. PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE1 regulates root phototropism and gravitropism. Plant Physiol. 2008;146:108-15 pubmed
    ..The negative phototropism and the enhanced PKS1 expression in response to blue light required phytochrome A (phyA)...
  10. Nagashima A, Uehara Y, Sakai T. The ABC subfamily B auxin transporter AtABCB19 is involved in the inhibitory effects of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid on the phototropic and gravitropic responses of Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:1250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..defect in the ABC subfamily B auxin transporter AtABCB19 suppresses the inhibitory effects of NPA on hypocotyl phototropism and gravitropism, but not on hypocotyl elongation...
  11. Hohm T, Preuten T, Fankhauser C. Phototropism: translating light into directional growth. Am J Bot. 2013;100:47-59 pubmed publisher
    b>Phototropism allows plants to align their photosynthetic tissues with incoming light...
  12. Sanz C, Rodriguez Romero J, Idnurm A, Christie J, Heitman J, Corrochano L, et al. Phycomyces MADB interacts with MADA to form the primary photoreceptor complex for fungal phototropism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7095-100 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Phototropism, growth toward light, shares many features in fungi and plants but the molecular mechanisms remain to be fully ..
  13. Chen M, Chory J, Fankhauser C. Light signal transduction in higher plants. Annu Rev Genet. 2004;38:87-117 pubmed
  14. Effendi Y, Rietz S, Fischer U, Scherer G. The heterozygous abp1/ABP1 insertional mutant has defects in functions requiring polar auxin transport and in regulation of early auxin-regulated genes. Plant J. 2011;65:282-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that ABP1 is involved in the regulation of polar auxin transport, and thus affects local auxin concentration and early auxin gene regulation. In turn, ABP1 itself is under the transcriptional control of auxin...
  15. Liscum E, Briggs W. Mutations in the NPH1 locus of Arabidopsis disrupt the perception of phototropic stimuli. Plant Cell. 1995;7:473-85 pubmed
  16. Harada A, Sakai T, Okada K. Phot1 and phot2 mediate blue light-induced transient increases in cytosolic Ca2+ differently in Arabidopsis leaves. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8583-8 pubmed
    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are blue light (BL) receptors that mediate phototropism, chloroplast movements, and stomatal opening in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  17. Sakai T, Haga K. Molecular genetic analysis of phototropism in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:1517-34 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the regulatory mechanisms involved in these responses is phototropism, which allows plants to change their growth direction in response to the location of the light source...
  18. Hasegawa T, Yamada K, Kosemura S, Yamamura S, Hasegawa K. Phototropic stimulation induces the conversion of glucosinolate to phototropism-regulating substances of radish hypocotyls. Phytochemistry. 2000;54:275-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that phototropic stimulation promotes myrosinase activity in the illuminated side of radish hypocotyls, releasing bioactive MTBI from inactive MTBG and simultaneously producing bioactive raphanusanins. ..
  19. Ruppel N, Hangarter R, Kiss J. Red-light-induced positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Planta. 2001;212:424-30 pubmed
    ..For example, the competing activities of gravitropism and phototropism can determine the final orientation of a stem or root...
  20. Sakai T, Kagawa T, Kasahara M, Swartz T, Christie J, Briggs W, et al. Arabidopsis nph1 and npl1: blue light receptors that mediate both phototropism and chloroplast relocation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6969-74 pubmed
    ..These include light-driven chloroplast movement and phototropism. The NPH1 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an autophosphorylating protein kinase that functions as a photoreceptor ..
  21. Hopkins J, Kiss J. Phototropism and gravitropism in transgenic lines of Arabidopsis altered in the phytochrome pathway. Physiol Plant. 2012;145:461-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies investigated the role of phytochromes in phototropism and gravitropism of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana...
  22. Salomon M, Zacherl M, Luff L, Rudiger W. Exposure of oat seedlings to blue light results in amplified phosphorylation of the putative photoreceptor for phototropism and in higher sensitivity of the plants to phototropic stimulation. Plant Physiol. 1997;115:493-500 pubmed
    ..of the coleoptile base increases upon exposure to blue light in a time-and fluence-dependent manner, providing an excellent explanation of the invalidity of the Bunsen-Roscoe reciprocity law for second-positive phototropism.
  23. Wan Y, Jasik J, Wang L, Hao H, Volkmann D, Menzel D, et al. The signal transducer NPH3 integrates the phototropin1 photosensor with PIN2-based polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis root phototropism. Plant Cell. 2012;24:551-65 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism of root phototropism is still unclear...
  24. Kiss J, Mullen J, Correll M, Hangarter R. Phytochromes A and B mediate red-light-induced positive phototropism in roots. Plant Physiol. 2003;131:1411-7 pubmed
    ..In roots, gravitropism is the predominant tropistic response, but phototropism also plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants...
  25. Whippo C, Hangarter R. Second positive phototropism results from coordinated co-action of the phototropins and cryptochromes. Plant Physiol. 2003;132:1499-507 pubmed
    b>Phototropism and hypocotyl growth inhibition are modulated by the coaction of different blue-light photoreceptors and their signaling pathways...
  26. Briggs W, Christie J. Phototropins 1 and 2: versatile plant blue-light receptors. Trends Plant Sci. 2002;7:204-10 pubmed
    Blue and ultraviolet-A light regulate a wide range of responses in plants, including phototropism, chloroplast migration and stomatal opening. However, the photoreceptors for these light responses have been identified only recently...
  27. Haga K, Takano M, Neumann R, Iino M. The Rice COLEOPTILE PHOTOTROPISM1 gene encoding an ortholog of Arabidopsis NPH3 is required for phototropism of coleoptiles and lateral translocation of auxin. Plant Cell. 2005;17:103-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This mutant showed no coleoptile phototropism and severely reduced root phototropism after continuous stimulation...
  28. Lariguet P, Schepens I, Hodgson D, Pedmale U, Trevisan M, Kami C, et al. PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE 1 is a phototropin 1 binding protein required for phototropism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10134-9 pubmed
    b>Phototropism, or plant growth in response to unidirectional light, is an adaptive response of crucial importance. Lateral differences in low fluence rates of blue light are detected by phototropin 1 (phot1) in Arabidopsis...
  29. Lariguet P, Fankhauser C. Hypocotyl growth orientation in blue light is determined by phytochrome A inhibition of gravitropism and phototropin promotion of phototropism. Plant J. 2004;40:826-34 pubmed
    ..Phototropin1 (phot1) triggers phototropism under low fluence rates of blue light but, at least in the dark, has no effect on gravitropism...
  30. Furutani M, Kajiwara T, Kato T, Treml B, Stockum C, Torres Ruiz R, et al. The gene MACCHI-BOU 4/ENHANCER OF PINOID encodes a NPH3-like protein and reveals similarities between organogenesis and phototropism at the molecular level. Development. 2007;134:3849-59 pubmed
    ..which belongs to the NON-PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3) family thought to function as a signal transducer in phototropism and control lateral translocation of auxin...
  31. Haga K, Sakai T. PIN auxin efflux carriers are necessary for pulse-induced but not continuous light-induced phototropism in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:763-76 pubmed publisher
    ..roles in regulating asymmetrical auxin translocation during tropic responses, including gravitropism and phototropism, in plants...
  32. Westheimer G. Directional sensitivity of the retina: 75 years of Stiles-Crawford effect. Proc Biol Sci. 2008;275:2777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..the coupling of the optical image of the eye with the transducing apparatus in the photoreceptors, possible phototropism and more convincing methods of estimating the actual spatial distribution of photon events as it affects visual ..
  33. Holland J, Roberts D, Liscum E. Understanding phototropism: from Darwin to today. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:1969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes many of the most significant advancements that have been made in our understanding of this response and place these recent findings in the context of Darwin's initial observations. ..
  34. Tsuchida Mayama T, Sakai T, Hanada A, Uehara Y, Asami T, Yamaguchi S. Role of the phytochrome and cryptochrome signaling pathways in hypocotyl phototropism. Plant J. 2010;62:653-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that either phy or cry is required for hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana under high fluence rates of blue light, and that constitutive expression of ROOT ..
  35. Roberts D, Pedmale U, Morrow J, Sachdev S, Lechner E, Tang X, et al. Modulation of phototropic responsiveness in Arabidopsis through ubiquitination of phototropin 1 by the CUL3-Ring E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL3(NPH3). Plant Cell. 2011;23:3627-40 pubmed publisher
    Plant phototropism is an adaptive response to changes in light direction, quantity, and quality that results in optimization of photosynthetic light harvesting, as well as water and nutrient acquisition...
  36. Goyal A, Szarzynska B, Fankhauser C. Phototropism: at the crossroads of light-signaling pathways. Trends Plant Sci. 2013;18:393-401 pubmed publisher
    b>Phototropism enables plants to orient growth towards the direction of light and thereby maximizes photosynthesis in low-light environments...
  37. Millar K, Kumar P, Correll M, Mullen J, Hangarter R, Edelmann R, et al. A novel phototropic response to red light is revealed in microgravity. New Phytol. 2010;186:648-56 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate phototropism in plants grown in microgravity conditions without the complications of a 1-g environment...
  38. Molas M, Kiss J. PKS1 plays a role in red-light-based positive phototropism in roots. Plant Cell Environ. 2008;31:842-9 pubmed publisher
    Aerial parts of plants curve towards the light (i.e. positive phototropism), and roots typically grow away from the light (i.e. negative phototropism)...
  39. Idnurm A, Rodriguez Romero J, Corrochano L, Sanz C, Iturriaga E, Eslava A, et al. The Phycomyces madA gene encodes a blue-light photoreceptor for phototropism and other light responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4546-51 pubmed
    ..In particular, sporangiophore growth is regulated by light, and it exhibits phototropism by bending toward near-UV and blue wavelengths and away from far-UV wavelengths in a manner that is ..
  40. Lasceve G, Leymarie J, Olney M, Liscum E, Christie J, Vavasseur A, et al. Arabidopsis contains at least four independent blue-light-activated signal transduction pathways. Plant Physiol. 1999;120:605-14 pubmed
    ..Although npq1 and single and double cry1cry2 mutants showed somewhat reduced amplitude for first positive phototropism, threshold, peak, and saturation fluence values for first positive phototropic responses of etiolated seedlings ..
  41. Kagawa T, Kimura M, Wada M. Blue light-induced phototropism of inflorescence stems and petioles is mediated by phototropin family members phot1 and phot2. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:1774-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The whole part of the inflorescence stem is sensitive to BL and shows phototropism, but in the petiole only the irradiated abaxial side is sensitive...
  42. Christie J. Phototropin blue-light receptors. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2007;58:21-45 pubmed
    ..These include phototropism, light-induced stomatal opening, and chloroplast movements in response to changes in light intensity...
  43. Christie J, Yang H, Richter G, Sullivan S, Thomson C, Lin J, et al. phot1 inhibition of ABCB19 primes lateral auxin fluxes in the shoot apex required for phototropism. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001076 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we establish a system in Arabidopsis thaliana to study hypocotyl phototropism in the absence of developmental events associated with seedling photomorphogenesis...
  44. Blakeslee J, Bandyopadhyay A, Peer W, Makam S, Murphy A. Relocalization of the PIN1 auxin efflux facilitator plays a role in phototropic responses. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:28-31 pubmed
  45. Kiss J, Millar K, Edelmann R. Phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana in microgravity and fractional gravity on the International Space Station. Planta. 2012;236:635-45 pubmed publisher
    ..the European Modular Cultivation System on the International Space Station, we studied the interaction between phototropism and gravitropism in the WT and mutants of phytochrome A and B of Arabidopis thaliana...
  46. Christie J, Reymond P, Powell G, Bernasconi P, Raibekas A, Liscum E, et al. Arabidopsis NPH1: a flavoprotein with the properties of a photoreceptor for phototropism. Science. 1998;282:1698-701 pubmed
    ..encodes a 120-kilodalton serine-threonine protein kinase hypothesized to function as a photoreceptor for phototropism. When expressed in insect cells, the NPH1 protein is phosphorylated in response to blue light irradiation...
  47. Ahmad M, Jarillo J, Smirnova O, Cashmore A. Cryptochrome blue-light photoreceptors of Arabidopsis implicated in phototropism. Nature. 1998;392:720-3 pubmed
    b>Phototropism-bending towards the light-is one of the best known plant tropic responses...
  48. Knauer T, Dümmer M, Landgraf F, Forreiter C. A negative effector of blue light-induced and gravitropic bending in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..light conditions in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and thus seems to be an important component regulating phototropism. Interestingly, it could be shown that the gravitropic response was also affected...
  49. Noh B, Bandyopadhyay A, Peer W, Spalding E, Murphy A. Enhanced gravi- and phototropism in plant mdr mutants mislocalizing the auxin efflux protein PIN1. Nature. 2003;423:999-1002 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the mdr mutants display faster and greater gravitropism and enhanced phototropism instead of the impaired curvature development expected in mutants lacking polar auxin transport...
  50. Mullen J, Wolverton C, Ishikawa H, Hangarter R, Evans M. Spatial separation of light perception and growth response in maize root phototropism. Plant Cell Environ. 2002;25:1191-6 pubmed
    ..We used high-resolution image analysis to study phototropism in primary roots of Zea mays L...
  51. Smallman H, MacLeod D, Doyle P. Vision. Realignment of cones after cataract removal. Nature. 2001;412:604-5 pubmed
    ..Cones may be phototropic, actively orientating themselves towards light like sunflowers in a field. ..
  52. Kagawa T, Sakai T, Suetsugu N, Oikawa K, Ishiguro S, Kato T, et al. Arabidopsis NPL1: a phototropin homolog controlling the chloroplast high-light avoidance response. Science. 2001;291:2138-41 pubmed
    ..gene was identified as NPL1 (NPH-like 1), a homolog of NPH1 (nonphototropic hypocotyl 1), a blue light receptor used in phototropism. Hence, NPL1 is likely a blue light receptor regulating the avoidance response under strong light.
  53. Huala E, Oeller P, Liscum E, Han I, Larsen E, Briggs W. Arabidopsis NPH1: a protein kinase with a putative redox-sensing domain. Science. 1997;278:2120-3 pubmed
    ..hypocotyl 1) gene encodes an essential component acting very early in the signal-transduction chain for phototropism. Arabidopsis NPH1 contains a serine-threonine kinase domain and LOV1 and LOV2 repeats that share similarity (36 ..