Summary: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Top Publications

  1. Miyajima N, Takeda M, Tashiro M, Hashimoto K, Yanagi Y, Nagata K, et al. Cell tropism of wild-type measles virus is affected by amino acid substitutions in the P, V and M proteins, or by a truncation in the C protein. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:3001-6 pubmed
    ..this result and to examine further whether the amino acid difference or truncation is important for MV cell tropism, recombinant MV strains containing one of the two nucleotide substitutions, or both, were generated...
  2. Reperant L, Kuiken T, Grenfell B, Osterhaus A, Dobson A. Linking influenza virus tissue tropism to population-level reproductive fitness. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43115 pubmed publisher
    Influenza virus tissue tropism defines the host cells and tissues that support viral replication and contributes to determining which regions of the respiratory tract are infected in humans...
  3. Paris D, Phetsouvanh R, Tanganuchitcharnchai A, Jones M, Jenjaroen K, Vongsouvath M, et al. Orientia tsutsugamushi in human scrub typhus eschars shows tropism for dendritic cells and monocytes rather than endothelium. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1466 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunophenotyping of host leucocytes infected with O. tsutsugamushi showed a tropism for host monocytes and dendritic cells, which were spatially related to different histological zones of the ..
  4. Ryman K, Klimstra W, Nguyen K, Biron C, Johnston R. Alpha/beta interferon protects adult mice from fatal Sindbis virus infection and is an important determinant of cell and tissue tropism. J Virol. 2000;74:3366-78 pubmed
    ..the contribution of IFN-alpha/beta in restricting virus replication and spread and in determining cell and tissue tropism. In adult 129 Sv/Ev mice, subcutaneous inoculation with 100 PFU of TR339 led to extremely low-level virus ..
  5. Okuda S, Oda T, Miyauchi A, Tamura S, Hashimoto Y, Yamasaki S, et al. Lamina horizontalization and facet tropism as the risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration after PLIF. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:2754-8 pubmed publisher
    A retrospective case-control study. To clarify associations between both lamina horizontalization and facet tropism and adjacent segment degeneration (ASD)...
  6. von Messling V, Zimmer G, Herrler G, Haas L, Cattaneo R. The hemagglutinin of canine distemper virus determines tropism and cytopathogenicity. J Virol. 2001;75:6418-27 pubmed
    ..The fusogenicity, growth characteristics, and tropism of the recombinant viruses were examined and compared with those of the parental strains...
  7. Wang D, Shenk T. Human cytomegalovirus virion protein complex required for epithelial and endothelial cell tropism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18153-8 pubmed
  8. Bou Daher F, Geitmann A. Actin is involved in pollen tube tropism through redefining the spatial targeting of secretory vesicles. Traffic. 2011;12:1537-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results suggest that the precise targeting of the delivery of new wall material represents a key component in the growth machinery that determines directional elongation in pollen tubes. ..
  9. Kim S, Oh J, Park S, Ryu C, Lim J, Kim D, et al. Irradiation enhances the tumor tropism and therapeutic potential of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-secreting human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in glioma therapy. Stem Cells. 2010;28:2217-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that tumor irradiation enhances the tumor tropism of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and the therapeutic effect of TRAIL ..

More Information


  1. Kassaye S, Johnston E, McColgan B, Kantor R, Zijenah L, Katzenstein D. Envelope coreceptor tropism, drug resistance, and viral evolution among subtype C HIV-1-infected individuals receiving nonsuppressive antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma HIV-1 RNA, drug resistance, viral tropism, and evolution in polymerase (pol) and envelope (env) genes were measured...
  2. Polzer S, Dittmar M, Schmitz H, Schreiber M. The N-linked glycan g15 within the V3 loop of the HIV-1 external glycoprotein gp120 affects coreceptor usage, cellular tropism, and neutralization. Virology. 2002;304:70-80 pubmed
    ..mutants all lacking g15, a complete loss of CCR5-specificity was observed and NL-952 was shifted from R5X4 to X4 tropism. For all mutants of NL4-3, NL-991, and NL-952, where the lack of g15 markedly influenced infectivity or ..
  3. Guo Y, Rumschlag Booms E, Wang J, Xiao H, Yu J, Wang J, et al. Analysis of hemagglutinin-mediated entry tropism of H5N1 avian influenza. Virol J. 2009;6:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus it is believed the precise linkage of SAs on the target cells dictate host tropism of the viruses...
  4. Naif H, Cunningham A, Alali M, Li S, Nasr N, Buhler M, et al. A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate from an infected person homozygous for CCR5Delta32 exhibits dual tropism by infecting macrophages and MT2 cells via CXCR4. J Virol. 2002;76:3114-24 pubmed
    ..The virus demonstrated dual tropism for infection of MT2 cell line and primary macrophages...
  5. Foley J, Nieto N, Madigan J, Sykes J. Possible differential host tropism in Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains in the Western United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1149:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum strains and further research to understand the host-pathogen interactions that result in differential outcomes in infection...
  6. Skrabal K, Trouplin V, Labrosse B, Obry V, Damond F, Hance A, et al. Impact of antiretroviral treatment on the tropism of HIV-1 plasma virus populations. AIDS. 2003;17:809-14 pubmed
    To study the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the tropism of plasma HIV-1 virus populations during treatment response and virological escape...
  7. Muzyczka N, Warrington K. Custom adeno-associated virus capsids: the next generation of recombinant vectors with novel tropism. Hum Gene Ther. 2005;16:408-16 pubmed
    ..Yet, the broad tissue tropism of the available AAV serotypes remains a disadvantage for the safest, most effective in vivo delivery of ..
  8. Fitzhenry R, Reece S, Trabulsi L, Heuschkel R, Murch S, Thomson M, et al. Tissue tropism of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains belonging to the O55 serogroup. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4362-8 pubmed the O55 serogroup (G21 and G30 [both O55:H6], G35 [O55:H-], and G58 [O55:H7]) were tested for their tissue tropism by using human intestinal in vitro organ culture...
  9. Schmidt N, Przylecki W, Yang W, Ziu M, Teng Y, Kim S, et al. Brain tumor tropism of transplanted human neural stem cells is induced by vascular endothelial growth factor. Neoplasia. 2005;7:623-9 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that tumor-upregulated VEGF and angiogenic-activated microvasculature are relevant guidance signals for NSC tropism toward brain tumors.
  10. Kontou M, Govindasamy L, Nam H, Bryant N, Llamas Saiz A, Foces Foces C, et al. Structural determinants of tissue tropism and in vivo pathogenicity for the parvovirus minute virus of mice. J Virol. 2005;79:10931-43 pubmed
    ..virus of mice (MVM), the immunosuppressive (MVMi) and the prototype (MVMp) strains, display disparate in vitro tropism and in vivo pathogenicity...
  11. Chadwick M, Morling F, Cosset F, Russell S. Modification of retroviral tropism by display of IGF-I. J Mol Biol. 1999;285:485-94 pubmed
  12. Westwater C, Schofield D, Nicholas P, Paulling E, Balish E. Candida glabrata and Candida albicans; dissimilar tissue tropism and infectivity in a gnotobiotic model of mucosal candidiasis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;51:134-9 pubmed
    ..This 'stealth-like' behavior could explain the ability of C. glabrata to persist in infected tissues and survive as a commensal in the alimentary tract. ..
  13. Andrade L, Galvão L, Meirelles M, Chiari E, Pena S, Macedo A. Differential tissue tropism of Trypanosoma cruzi strains: an in vitro study. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:834-7 pubmed
    ..Double infections (Col1.7G2 + JG) showed similar results. Even though invasion might influence tissue selection, our data strongly suggest that intracellular development is important to determine parasite tissue tropism.
  14. Lam E, Ramke M, Groos S, Warnecke G, Heim A. A differentiated porcine bronchial epithelial cell culture model for studying human adenovirus tropism and virulence. J Virol Methods. 2011;178:117-23 pubmed publisher
    The species specificity of human adenoviruses (HAdV) almost precludes studying virulence and tropism in animal models, e.g. rodent models, or derived tissue and cell culture models...
  15. Magro C, Wang X. CCL5 expression in panniculitic T-cell dyscrasias and its potential role in adipocyte tropism. Am J Dermatopathol. 2013;35:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that the basis of the adipocyte tropism may reflect a unique interaction between CCL5-positive lymphocytes and CCR5 positive adipocytes...
  16. Jamil S, Cedervall J, Hultman I, Ali R, Margaryan N, Rasmuson A, et al. Neuroblastoma cells injected into experimental mature teratoma reveal a tropism for embryonic loose mesenchyme. Int J Oncol. 2013;43:831-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We tentatively hypothesize that mature PSCT provide an embryonic niche well suited for in vivo studies on NB...
  17. Einfeld D, Schroeder R, Roelvink P, Lizonova A, King C, Kovesdi I, et al. Reducing the native tropism of adenovirus vectors requires removal of both CAR and integrin interactions. J Virol. 2001;75:11284-91 pubmed
    ..a better understanding of the role of receptors in gene transfer in vivo, both to rid the vectors of their native tropism and to introduce new specificity...
  18. Renaut L, Colin M, Leite J, Benko M, D Halluin J. Abolition of hCAR-dependent cell tropism using fiber knobs of Atadenovirus serotypes. Virology. 2004;321:189-204 pubmed
    ..The Ad fiber protein largely determines viral tropism through interaction with specific receptors...
  19. Schickli J, Kaur J, Ulbrandt N, Spaete R, Tang R. An S101P substitution in the putative cleavage motif of the human metapneumovirus fusion protein is a major determinant for trypsin-independent growth in vero cells and does not alter tissue tropism in hamsters. J Virol. 2005;79:10678-89 pubmed
    ..The ability of these hMPV strains to replicate efficiently in the absence of trypsin should greatly facilitate the generation, preclinical testing, and manufacturing of attenuated hMPV vaccine candidates. ..
  20. Adebayo I, Olaleye O, Awoniyi T. Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2010;39 Suppl:89-93 pubmed
    ..The results of this study showed a lot of similarities in the tropism of CAE virus infection of goat brain cells to that of HIV infection in humans thus suggesting the potential ..
  21. Casais R, Dove B, Cavanagh D, Britton P. Recombinant avian infectious bronchitis virus expressing a heterologous spike gene demonstrates that the spike protein is a determinant of cell tropism. J Virol. 2003;77:9084-9 pubmed
    ..BeauR-M41(S) acquired the same cell tropism phenotype as IBV M41-CK in four different cell types, demonstrating that the IBV spike glycoprotein is a ..
  22. Brown A, Yang W, Schmidt N, Carroll R, Leishear K, Rainov N, et al. Intravascular delivery of neural stem cell lines to target intracranial and extracranial tumors of neural and non-neural origin. Hum Gene Ther. 2003;14:1777-85 pubmed
  23. Bruett L, Clements J. Functional murine leukemia virus vectors pseudotyped with the visna virus envelope show expanded visna virus cell tropism. J Virol. 2001;75:11464-73 pubmed
    ..The production of functional MuLV/visna virus pseudotypes has provided a sensitive, biologically relevant system to study visna virus cell entry and envelope-receptor interactions. ..
  24. Donahue R, Sorrentino B, Hawley R, An D, Chen I, Wersto R. Fibronectin fragment CH-296 inhibits apoptosis and enhances ex vivo gene transfer by murine retrovirus and human lentivirus vectors independent of viral tropism in nonhuman primate CD34+ cells. Mol Ther. 2001;3:359-67 pubmed
    ..fragment CH-296 improved gene transfer to cytokine-mobilized nonhuman primate CD34+ cells irrespective of tropism to the MoMLV, GaLV, and VSV-G envelope proteins using murine stem cell virus (MSCV) and human immunodeficiency ..
  25. Ryan E, Horsington J, Durand S, Brooks H, Alexandersen S, Brownlie J, et al. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism. Vet Microbiol. 2008;127:258-74 pubmed
    ..These results provide a detailed description of the pathogenesis of the disease in lambs. ..
  26. Hakkarainen T, Sarkioja M, Lehenkari P, Miettinen S, Ylikomi T, Suuronen R, et al. Human mesenchymal stem cells lack tumor tropism but enhance the antitumor activity of oncolytic adenoviruses in orthotopic lung and breast tumors. Hum Gene Ther. 2007;18:627-41 pubmed
    ..of carrier cells such as human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have been suggested to have inherent tumor tropism. Here we investigated the capacity of capsid-modified adenoviruses to infect and replicate in MSCs...
  27. Lehmann C, Daumer M, Boussaad I, Sing T, Beerenwinkel N, Lengauer T, et al. Stable coreceptor usage of HIV in patients with ongoing treatment failure on HAART. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:300-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the relationship between HIV-coreceptor tropism and clinical and virological outcome in 40 heavily pretreated patients over time...
  28. Moffat J, Mo C, Cheng J, Sommer M, Zerboni L, Stamatis S, et al. Functions of the C-terminal domain of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E in viral replication in vitro and skin and T-cell tropism in vivo. J Virol. 2004;78:12406-15 pubmed
  29. Tazi A, Bellais S, Tardieux I, Dramsi S, Trieu Cuot P, Poyart C. Group B Streptococcus surface proteins as major determinants for meningeal tropism. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2012;15:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the most recent molecular insights gained from studies on GBS surface proteins proven to be involved in the crossing of the brain-blood barrier and emphasizes on the specificity of a hypervirulent clone that displays meningeal tropism.
  30. Qu X, Hao P, Song X, Jiang S, Liu Y, Wang P, et al. Identification of two critical amino acid residues of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein for its variation in zoonotic tropism transition via a double substitution strategy. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29588-95 pubmed
    ..residues within the receptor-binding domain of the S protein being potentially important for SARS progression and tropism. Using the single-round infection assay, we found that a two-amino acid substitution (N479K/T487S) of a huSARS-..
  31. Chahroudi A, Chavan R, Kozyr N, Koyzr N, Waller E, Silvestri G, et al. Vaccinia virus tropism for primary hematolymphoid cells is determined by restricted expression of a unique virus receptor. J Virol. 2005;79:10397-407 pubmed
    The presumed broad tropism of poxviruses has stymied attempts to identify both the cellular receptor(s) and the viral determinant(s) for binding...
  32. Peterson E, Mastrangelo M, Federoff H, Bowers W. Neuronal specificity of HSV/sleeping beauty amplicon transduction in utero is driven primarily by tropism and cell type composition. Mol Ther. 2007;15:1848-55 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that in utero HSV/SB amplicon gene transfer is primarily neurospecific owing to viral tropism and target cell populations present embryonically, where multi-potent cells of the developing embryo are ..
  33. Hoyer C, Mellenthin K, Schilhabel M, Platzer M, Clos J. Use of genetic complementation to identify gene(s) which specify species-specific organ tropism of Leishmania. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2001;190:43-6 pubmed
    ..Other approaches, such as creation of sub-libraries or transposon insertion strategies proved to be unsuccessful. ..
  34. Soulie C, Derache A, Aime C, Marcelin A, Carcelain G, Simon A, et al. Comparison of two genotypic algorithms to determine HIV-1 tropism. HIV Med. 2008;9:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..CCR5 inhibitors are specifically active against R5 viruses, suggesting the need to determine tropism before the use of these antagonists...
  35. Wu X, Hu J, Zhou L, Mao Y, Yang B, Gao L, et al. In vivo tracking of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-labeled mesenchymal stem cell tropism to malignant gliomas using magnetic resonance imaging. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg. 2008;108:320-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary purpose of the study was to assay the tropism capacity of MSCs to gliomas, to delineate the pattern of MSC distribution in gliomas after systemic injection, ..
  36. Tami C, Taboga O, Berinstein A, Núñez J, Palma E, Domingo E, et al. Evidence of the coevolution of antigenicity and host cell tropism of foot-and-mouth disease virus in vivo. J Virol. 2003;77:1219-26 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the selective pressure exerted by host humoral immune response can play a role in both the selection and stability of antigenic FMDV variants and that such variants can manifest alterations in cell tropism.
  37. Ravichandran V, Major E. Viral proteomics: a promising approach for understanding JC virus tropism. Proteomics. 2006;6:5628-36 pubmed
    ..Selective binding of cellular transcription factors to this promoter region participates in the control of viral tropism. Hence, further study of these proteins might provide new insights into JCV tropism and associated pathogenesis...
  38. Demarest J, Amrine Madsen H, Irlbeck D, Kitrinos K. Virologic failure in first-line human immunodeficiency virus therapy with a CCR5 entry inhibitor, aplaviroc, plus a fixed-dose combination of lamivudine-zidovudine: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance regardless of envelope tropism. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1116-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Clonal analyses of the viral envelope tropism, aplaviroc susceptibility, and env sequencing were performed on plasma at baseline and at the time of virologic ..
  39. Arnberg N. Adenovirus receptors: implications for tropism, treatment and targeting. Rev Med Virol. 2009;19:165-78 pubmed publisher
    ..molecules, including coagulation factor X, have been identified and suggested to serve as mediators of Ad liver tropism. This review summarises current knowledge concerning these molecules and the mechanisms used by Ads to bind to ..
  40. Tokunaga K, Greenberg M, Morse M, Cumming R, Lyerly H, Cullen B. Molecular basis for cell tropism of CXCR4-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. J Virol. 2001;75:6776-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide evidence suggesting that this difference in cell tropism results from a higher requirement for cell surface CXCR4 for infection by laboratory HIV-1 isolates...
  41. Korea C, Ghigo J, Beloin C. The sweet connection: Solving the riddle of multiple sugar-binding fimbrial adhesins in Escherichia coli: Multiple E. coli fimbriae form a versatile arsenal of sugar-binding lectins potentially involved in surface-colonisation and tissue tropism. Bioessays. 2011;33:300-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of lectins, carbohydrate-binding proteins involved in various aspects of bacterial surface adhesion and tissue tropism. Combined efforts of molecular and structural biologists will be required to unravel the biological contribution ..
  42. Thielen A, Lengauer T, Swenson L, Dong W, McGovern R, Lewis M, et al. Mutations in gp41 are correlated with coreceptor tropism but do not improve prediction methods substantially. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlations of mutations with tropism were assessed using Fisher's exact test and prediction models trained using support vector machines...
  43. Barnes D, Kunitomi M, Vignuzzi M, Saksela K, Andino R. Harnessing endogenous miRNAs to control virus tissue tropism as a strategy for developing attenuated virus vaccines. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:239-48 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate that insertion of small miRNA homology sequences into a viral genome can restrict its tissue tropism, thereby preventing pathogenicity and yielding an attenuated viral strain...
  44. Sinzger C, Hahn G, Digel M, Katona R, Sampaio K, Messerle M, et al. Cloning and sequencing of a highly productive, endotheliotropic virus strain derived from human cytomegalovirus TB40/E. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:359-68 pubmed publisher
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain TB40/E, replicates efficiently, exhibits a broad cell tropism and is widely used for infection of endothelial cells and monocyte-derived cells yet has not been available in a phenotypically homogeneous ..
  45. Briz V, Poveda E, Del Mar González M, Martin Carbonero L, González González R, Soriano V. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on viral tropism in HIV-infected patients followed longitudinally for over 5 years. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;61:405-10 pubmed
    Viral tropism plays a major role in HIV pathogenesis and may influence the activity of entry inhibitors. The impact of antiretroviral therapy use on the dynamics of viral tropism over time is still poorly understood...
  46. Bonhomme C, Knopp K, Bederka L, Angelini M, Buchmeier M. LCMV glycosylation modulates viral fitness and cell tropism. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53273 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the seven stable N-glycan deletion mutants, five of these led to altered viral fitness and cell tropism, assessed as growth in either mouse primary cortical neurons or bone marrow derived macrophages...
  47. Kootstra N, Schuitemaker H. Determination of cell tropism of HIV-1. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;304:317-25 pubmed
    ..In this chapter, it is described how the biological phenotype of HIV-1 with regard to cellular tropism can be determined on primary monocyte-derived macrophages, established T-cell lines: MT2, SupT1, and H9, and ..
  48. Bhattacharya J, Peters P, Clapham P. CD4-independent infection of HIV and SIV: implications for envelope conformation and cell tropism in vivo. AIDS. 2003;17 Suppl 4:S35-43 pubmed
  49. Bakker A, van de Loo F, Joosten L, Bennink M, Arntz O, Dmitriev I, et al. A tropism-modified adenoviral vector increased the effectiveness of gene therapy for arthritis. Gene Ther. 2001;8:1785-93 pubmed
    ..These results show that targeting integrins with the RGD-modified AdV improved the outcome of gene therapy for arthritis. ..
  50. Jurvansuu J, Zhao Y, Leung D, Boulaire J, Yu Y, Ahmed S, et al. Transmembrane protein 18 enhances the tropism of neural stem cells for glioma cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4614-22 pubmed publisher
    ..a cDNA expression library screening to identify the candidate genes that once overexpressed would enhance the tropism of NSCs for gliomas...
  51. Peters P, Duenas Decamp M, Sullivan W, Clapham P. Variation of macrophage tropism among HIV-1 R5 envelopes in brain and other tissues. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2007;2:32-41 pubmed
    ..variants are able to exploit low amounts of CD4 and/or CCR5 for infection and potentially confer an expanded tropism for any cell types that express low CD4 and/or CCR5...
  52. Ibricevic A, Pekosz A, Walter M, Newby C, Battaile J, Brown E, et al. Influenza virus receptor specificity and cell tropism in mouse and human airway epithelial cells. J Virol. 2006;80:7469-80 pubmed
    ..alpha2,6-linked SA was expressed and functional in both ciliated and goblet cells, providing expanded cellular tropism. Differences in receptor and cell-specific expression in these species suggest that differentiated human airway ..
  53. Wang Z, Berson J, Zhang T, Cen Y, Sun Y, Sharron M, et al. CXCR4 sequences involved in coreceptor determination of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 tropism. Unmasking of activity with M-tropic Env glycoproteins. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:15007-15 pubmed
    ..structural determinants of coreceptors that program reactivity with M-, dual, and T-tropic Env are surprisingly subtle and that relatively insignificant changes in CXCR4 can dramatically alter utilization by Env of varying tropism.