Summary: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).

Top Publications

  1. Leonhardt S. Chemical Ecology of Stingless Bees. J Chem Ecol. 2017;43:385-402 pubmed publisher
  2. Savada R, Ozga J, Jayasinghege C, Waduthanthri K, Reinecke D. Heat stress differentially modifies ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in pea floral and fruit tissues. Plant Mol Biol. 2017;95:313-331 pubmed publisher
    ..Following successful pollination and ovule fertilization, heat-stress modified PsACS and PsACO transcript profiles in a manner that suppressed ..
  3. Stanley D, Knight M, Stout J. Ecological Variation in Response to Mass-Flowering Oilseed Rape and Surrounding Landscape Composition by Members of a Cryptic Bumblebee Complex. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65516 pubmed publisher
    ..Given this, we recommend sustainable management of this crop to benefit bumblebees. ..
  4. Zou Y, Xiao H, Bianchi F, Jauker F, Luo S, van der Werf W. Wild pollinators enhance oilseed rape yield in small-holder farming systems in China. BMC Ecol. 2017;17:6 pubmed publisher
    Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate...
  5. Wood R, Nagpal R, Wei G. Flight of the robobees. Sci Am. 2013;308:60-5 pubmed
  6. Stokstad E. Pesticides under fire for risks to pollinators. Science. 2013;340:674-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Plein M, Morris W, Moir M, Vesk P. Identifying species at coextinction risk when detection is imperfect: Model evaluation and case study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183351 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows how models can help to estimate coextinction risk, but also indicates the need for better data (i.e., intensified sampling and individual-level observations) to reduce uncertainty. ..
  8. Chicas Mosier A, Cooper B, Melendez A, Pérez M, Oskay D, Abramson C. The effects of ingested aqueous aluminum on floral fidelity and foraging strategy in honey bees (Apis mellifera). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;143:80-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that aluminum exposure may be detrimental to foraging behaviors and potentially to other ecologically relevant behaviors. ..
  9. Massol F, Cheptou P. When should we expect the evolutionary association of self-fertilization and dispersal?. Evolution. 2011;65:1217-20 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Twidle A, Suckling D, Seal A, Fedrizzi B, Pilkington L, Barker D. Identification of in situ flower volatiles from kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa) cultivars and their male pollenisers in a New Zealand orchard. Phytochemistry. 2017;141:61-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The male 'M56' in particular differed significantly from the female 'Hayward' in four of the six honey bee perceived compounds. ..
  2. Zhang J, Huang Q, Zhong S, Bleckmann A, Huang J, Guo X, et al. Sperm cells are passive cargo of the pollen tube in plant fertilization. Nat Plants. 2017;3:17079 pubmed publisher
    ..This abnormal pollen mostly behaves like the wild type and demonstrates that sperm cells are dispensable for normal pollen tube development. ..
  3. Sun L, Zhu X, Bo W, Xu F, Cheng T, Zhang Q, et al. An open-pollinated design for mapping imprinting genes in natural populations. Brief Bioinform. 2015;16:449-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This OP-based design provides a tool to detect the genomic distribution and pattern of imprinting genes as an important component of heritable variation that is neglected in traditional genetic studies of complex traits. ..
  4. Semizer Cuming D, Kjær E, Finkeldey R. Gene flow of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) in a fragmented landscape. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186757 pubmed publisher
    ..We specifically investigated the presence of background pollination at the landscape level and the degree of genetic isolation between native and cultivated trees...
  5. Robinson A, Hesketh H, Lahive E, Horton A, Svendsen C, Rortais A, et al. Comparing bee species responses to chemical mixtures: Common response patterns?. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176289 pubmed publisher
  6. Miller Struttmann N, HEISE D, Schul J, Geib J, Galen C. Flight of the bumble bee: Buzzes predict pollination services. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179273 pubmed publisher
    Multiple interacting factors drive recent declines in wild and managed bees, threatening their pollination services. Widespread and intensive monitoring could lead to more effective management of wild and managed bees...
  7. Wu L, Li M, Tian L, Wang S, Wu L, Ku L, et al. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185838 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize...
  8. Sun W, Yu D, Dong M, Zhao J, Wang X, Zhang H, et al. Evaluation of efficiency of controlled pollination based parentage analysis in a Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii Mayr. seed orchard. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176483 pubmed publisher
    Controlled pollination (CP) is an important tool for breeding programs to improve seed quality, as it rapidly generates desirable genotypes and maximizes genetic gains...
  9. Trunschke J, Sletvold N, Agren J. Interaction intensity and pollinator-mediated selection. New Phytol. 2017;214:1381-1389 pubmed publisher
    ..five traits important for pollinator attraction (flowering start, plant height, flower number, flower size) and pollination efficiency (spur length) in natural populations of 12 orchid species...
  10. Dirks Mulder A, Butôt R, van Schaik P, Wijnands J, van den Berg R, Krol L, et al. Exploring the evolutionary origin of floral organs of Erycina pusilla, an emerging orchid model system. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:89 pubmed publisher
    ..pusilla to mimic an unrelated rewarding flower for pollinator attraction. These genetic changes are not incorporated in current models and urge for a rethinking of the evolution of deceptive flowers. ..
  11. Sletvold N, Moritz K, Agren J. Additive effects of pollinators and herbivores result in both conflicting and reinforcing selection on floral traits. Ecology. 2015;96:214-21 pubmed
    ..In a population of the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the intensity of pollination and herbivory in a factorial design to examine whether both interactions influence selection on flowering ..
  12. Kovács Hostyánszki A, Espíndola A, Vanbergen A, Settele J, Kremen C, Dicks L. Ecological intensification to mitigate impacts of conventional intensive land use on pollinators and pollination. Ecol Lett. 2017;20:673-689 pubmed publisher
    Worldwide, human appropriation of ecosystems is disrupting plant-pollinator communities and pollination function through habitat conversion and landscape homogenisation...
  13. Lowe A, Cavers S, Boshier D, Breed M, Hollingsworth P. The resilience of forest fragmentation genetics--no longer a paradox--we were just looking in the wrong place. Heredity (Edinb). 2015;115:97-9 pubmed publisher
  14. Bellamy C, van der Jagt A, Barbour S, Smith M, Moseley D. A spatial framework for targeting urban planning for pollinators and people with local stakeholders: A route to healthy, blossoming communities?. Environ Res. 2017;158:255-268 pubmed publisher
  15. Filipiak M, Kuszewska K, Asselman M, Denisow B, Stawiarz E, Woyciechowski M, et al. Ecological stoichiometry of the honeybee: Pollen diversity and adequate species composition are needed to mitigate limitations imposed on the growth and development of bees by pollen quality. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183236 pubmed publisher
    ..Nectar cannot supplement the diet with limiting elements. Stoichiometric mismatch should be considered in intervention strategies aimed at improving the nutritional base for bees. ..
  16. Theologidis I, Chelo I, Goy C, Teotónio H. Reproductive assurance drives transitions to self-fertilization in experimental Caenorhabditis elegans. BMC Biol. 2014;12:93 pubmed publisher
    ..that are able to reproduce on their own ensure the persistence of populations in environments where mates or pollination agents are unavailable...
  17. Bascompte J. Ecology. Structure and dynamics of ecological networks. Science. 2010;329:765-6 pubmed publisher
  18. Milet Pinheiro P, Ayasse M, Dobson H, Schlindwein C, Francke W, Dötterl S. The chemical basis of host-plant recognition in a specialized bee pollinator. J Chem Ecol. 2013;39:1347-60 pubmed
    ..We conclude that highly specific floral volatiles play a key role in host-flower recognition by this pollen-specialist bee, and discuss our findings into the broader context of host-recognition in oligolectic bees. ..
  19. Clare E, Schiestl F, Leitch A, Chittka L. The promise of genomics in the study of plant-pollinator interactions. Genome Biol. 2013;14:207 pubmed publisher
    ..A whole-genome approach to flower evolution will help our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions. ..
  20. Glenny W, Cavigli I, Daughenbaugh K, Radford R, Kegley S, Flenniken M. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony health and pathogen composition in migratory beekeeping operations involved in California almond pollination. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182814 pubmed publisher
    ..and colony health, we monitored commercially managed migratory honey bee colonies involved in California almond pollination in 2014...
  21. Koch L, Lunau K, Wester P. To be on the safe site - Ungroomed spots on the bee's body and their importance for pollination. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182522 pubmed publisher
    ..Pollen deposited in the bees' transport organs is lost for the flowers' pollination. It has been hypothesised that specific body areas, bees cannot groom, serve as 'safe sites' for pollen ..
  22. Fang J. Ecology: A world without mosquitoes. Nature. 2010;466:432-4 pubmed publisher
  23. Rome Q, Villemant C. Invasive species: Bee-hawking hornet already in line of fire. Nature. 2016;534:37 pubmed publisher
  24. CaraDonna P, Petry W, Brennan R, Cunningham J, Bronstein J, Waser N, et al. Interaction rewiring and the rapid turnover of plant-pollinator networks. Ecol Lett. 2017;20:385-394 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal the diversity of species interactions that may be missed when the temporal dynamics of networks are ignored. ..
  25. Camargo I, Nattero J, Careaga S, Núñez Farfán J. Flower-level developmental plasticity to nutrient availability in Datura stramonium: implications for the mating system. Ann Bot. 2017;120:603-615 pubmed publisher
  26. Deng Y, Sun X, Gu C, Jia X, Liang L, Su J. Identification of pre-fertilization reproductive barriers and the underlying cytological mechanism in crosses among three petal-types of Jasminum sambac and their relevance to phylogenetic relationships. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176026 pubmed publisher
    ..They provide new insights for the development of methods to overcome reproductive barriers and may also be useful for clarifying the phylogenetic relationships among jasmine cultivars with differing petal phenotypes...
  27. Hiscock S. Sexual plant reproduction. Ann Bot. 2011;108:585-7 pubmed
  28. Tiedge K, Lohaus G. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators' preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176865 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, nectar sugars and amino acids are more strongly correlated with the preferences of predominant pollinators than organic acids and inorganic ions. ..
  29. Pisanty G, Mandelik Y. Profiling crop pollinators: life history traits predict habitat use and crop visitation by Mediterranean wild bees. Ecol Appl. 2015;25:742-52 pubmed
    Wild pollinators, bees in particular, may greatly contribute to crop pollination and provide a safety net against declines in commercial pollinators...
  30. Otto C, O DELL S, Bryant R, Euliss N, Bush R, Smart M. Using Publicly Available Data to Quantify Plant-Pollinator Interactions and Evaluate Conservation Seeding Mixes in the Northern Great Plains. Environ Entomol. 2017;46:565-578 pubmed publisher
  31. Weiner C, Werner M, Linsenmair K, Blüthgen N. Land-use impacts on plant-pollinator networks: interaction strength and specialization predict pollinator declines. Ecology. 2014;95:466-74 pubmed
    ..Our findings confirm that ecological networks help to predict natural community responses to disturbance and possible secondary extinctions. ..
  32. Chen L, Lu D, Wang T, Li Z, Zhao Y, Jiang Y, et al. Identification and expression analysis of starch branching enzymes involved in starch synthesis during the development of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) cotyledons. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177792 pubmed publisher
    ..Amylopectin contributed up to 76% of the total starch content at 80 days after pollination (DAP). The increase of total starch mainly results from amylopectin synthesis...
  33. Boehm M, Ojeda D, Cronk Q. Dissecting the 'bacon and eggs' phenotype: transcriptomics of post-anthesis colour change in Lotus. Ann Bot. 2017;120:563-575 pubmed publisher
    ..filicaulis and L. sessilifolius . Pollination significantly accelerates PACC in L...
  34. Telles F, Corcobado G, Trillo A, Rodríguez Gironés M. Multimodal cues provide redundant information for bumblebees when the stimulus is visually salient, but facilitate red target detection in a naturalistic background. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184760 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous experience with floral scent enhances the capacity of detection of a novel colour carrying a familiar scent, probably by elemental association influencing attention. ..
  35. Ratnieks F, Carreck N. Ecology. Clarity on honey bee collapse?. Science. 2010;327:152-3 pubmed publisher
  36. Nicole W. Pollinator power: Nutrition security benefits of an ecosystem service. Environ Health Perspect. 2015;123:A210-5 pubmed publisher
  37. Costa J, Castro S, Loureiro J, Barrett S. Experimental insights on Darwin's cross-promotion hypothesis in tristylous purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Am J Bot. 2017;104:616-626 pubmed publisher
    Darwin proposed that the reciprocal arrangement of anthers and stigmas in heterostylous plants promotes cross-pollination through pollen segregation on pollinators' bodies...
  38. Sun S, Huang Z, Chen Z, Huang S. Nectar properties and the role of sunbirds as pollinators of the golden-flowered tea (Camellia petelotii). Am J Bot. 2017;104:468-476 pubmed publisher
    ..A bird exclusion experiment was used to compare the pollination effectiveness of birds and insects. Nectar sugar components (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) from C...
  39. Moisan Deserres J, Girard M, Chagnon M, Fournier V. Pollen loads and specificity of native pollinators of lowbush blueberry. J Econ Entomol. 2014;107:1156-62 pubmed
    The reproduction of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is closely tied to insect pollination, owing to self-incompatibility...
  40. Koenig W, Knops J, Carmen W, Pearse I. What drives masting? The phenological synchrony hypothesis. Ecology. 2015;96:184-92 pubmed
    ..Proximally, masting is often correlated with environmental factors and most likely involves differential pollination success and resource allocation, but little is known about how these factors interact or how they influence ..
  41. Chiu Y, Bain A, Deng S, Ho Y, Chen W, Tzeng H. Effects of climate change on a mutualistic coastal species: Recovery from typhoon damages and risks of population erosion. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186763 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we highlight the potential diminution of the fig population that can lead to the extinction of the mutualistic pair of species. The effects of climate change on coastal species warrant wider surveys. ..
  42. Sherif S, El Sharkawy I, Mathur J, Ravindran P, Kumar P, Paliyath G, et al. A stable JAZ protein from peach mediates the transition from outcrossing to self-pollination. BMC Biol. 2015;13:11 pubmed publisher
    ..a component of the JA signaling pathway in peach, regulates petal expansion during anthesis and promotes self-pollination. PpJAZ1 transcript levels were higher in petals of the non-showy flowers than those of showy flowers at ..
  43. Campbell S. Ecological mechanisms for the coevolution of mating systems and defence. New Phytol. 2015;205:1047-53 pubmed
    ..I provide a conceptual framework for linking plant defence with mating system theory to better integrate these two research fields. ..
  44. Danner N, Keller A, Härtel S, Steffan Dewenter I. Honey bee foraging ecology: Season but not landscape diversity shapes the amount and diversity of collected pollen. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183716 pubmed publisher
    ..Agri-environmental schemes aiming to support pollinators should focus on possible spatial and temporal gaps in pollen availability and diversity in agricultural landscapes. ..
  45. Bartkowska M, Johnston M. The sexual neighborhood through time: competition and facilitation for pollination in Lobelia cardinalis. Ecology. 2014;95:910-9 pubmed
  46. Koski M, Ashman T. An altitudinal cline in UV floral pattern corresponds with a behavioral change of a generalist pollinator assemblage. Ecology. 2015;96:3343-53 pubmed
    ..relative size of the UV bullseye pattern in Argentina anserina (Rosaceae) flowers, and assess whether pollination context contributes to clinal variation...
  47. Williams N, Ward K, Pope N, Isaacs R, Wilson J, May E, et al. Native wildflower plantings support wild bee abundance and diversity in agricultural landscapes across the United States. Ecol Appl. 2015;25:2119-31 pubmed
    ..bee populations within human impacted landscapes, particularly those in agricultural lands where demand for pollination service is high and land use and management practices have reduced available flowering resources...
  48. Young B, Auer S, Ormes M, Rapacciuolo G, Schweitzer D, Sears N. Are pollinating hawk moths declining in the Northeastern United States? An analysis of collection records. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185683 pubmed publisher
    ..Climate variables used in the GLMMs were not consistently related to moth detection probability. Hawk moth declines may have ecological effects on both the plants pollinated by these species and vertebrate predators of the moths...
  49. Vincenot C, Florens F, Kingston T. Can we protect island flying foxes?. Science. 2017;355:1368-1370 pubmed publisher
  50. Mochizuki K, Furukawa S, Kawakita A. Pollinia transfer on moth legs in Hoya carnosa (Apocynaceae). Am J Bot. 2017;104:953-960 pubmed publisher
    ..is characterized by a set of complex floral characters unique among the asclepiads, but their role in pollination is poorly understood...
  51. Takada Y, Murase K, Shimosato Asano H, Sato T, Nakanishi H, Suwabe K, et al. Duplicated pollen-pistil recognition loci control intraspecific unilateral incompatibility in Brassica rapa. Nat Plants. 2017;3:17096 pubmed publisher
    ..The duplication of the SRK and SP11 followed by reciprocal loss in different populations would provide a molecular mechanism of the emergence of a reproductive barrier in allopatry. ..
  52. Wang Y, Liu A, Li W, Jiang Y, Song S, Li Y, et al. Comparative proteomic analysis of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) heterostylous pistil development. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179018 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, self- and cross-pollination of L-morph and S-morph flowers and comparison of embryo sac development in eggplant (Solanum melongena L...
  53. Kite G, Hetterscheid W. Phylogenetic trends in the evolution of inflorescence odours in Amorphophallus. Phytochemistry. 2017;142:126-142 pubmed publisher
    ..The pressure of pollinator resource has therefore been a factor influencing the evolution of odours in Amorphophallus, driving both the divergence of odour types in some taxa and the convergence of odour types in others. ..
  54. Underwood N, Inouye B, Hambäck P. A conceptual framework for associational effects: when do neighbors matter and how would we know?. Q Rev Biol. 2014;89:1-19 pubmed
    ..We outline an experimental approach for producing data that can be related to models to advance our understanding of how associational effects contribute to population and community processes. ..
  55. Zhang Y, Liao J, Li Z, Yu Y, Zhang J, Li Q, et al. Genome-wide screening and functional analysis identify a large number of long noncoding RNAs involved in the sexual reproduction of rice. Genome Biol. 2014;15:512 pubmed publisher
    ..strand-specific RNA sequencing (ssRNA-seq) of samples from rice anthers, pistils, and seeds 5 days after pollination and from shoots 14 days after germination...
  56. Ollerton J, Coulthard E. Paleontology. Evolution of animal pollination. Science. 2009;326:808-9 pubmed publisher
  57. Xu Y, Yang J, Wang Y, Wang J, Yu Y, Long Y, et al. OsCNGC13 promotes seed-setting rate by facilitating pollen tube growth in stylar tissues. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006906 pubmed publisher
    ..accumulation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) is defective in the sss1-D mutant style after pollination. Further, the sss1-D mutant has altered extracellular matrix (ECM) components and delayed cell death in the ..
  58. Schönfelder M, Bogner F. Individual perception of bees: Between perceived danger and willingness to protect. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180168 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the overall positive attitude toward bees, we suggest introducing bees (e.g., Apis mellifera) as a flagship species for pollinator conservation. ..
  59. Gonçalves Oliveira R, Wöhrmann T, Benko Iseppon A, Krapp F, Alves M, Wanderley M, et al. Population genetic structure of the rock outcrop species Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae): The role of pollination vs. seed dispersal and evolutionary implications. Am J Bot. 2017;104:868-878 pubmed publisher
    ..populations was stronger on the plastid as compared with the nuclear level, indicating higher gene flow via bat pollination as compared with seed dispersal by wind...
  60. Zhan Z, Nwafor C, Hou Z, Gong J, Zhu B, Jiang Y, et al. Cytological and morphological analysis of hybrids between Brassicoraphanus, and Brassica napus for introgression of clubroot resistant trait into Brassica napus L. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177470 pubmed publisher
    ..napus clubroot resistant cultivars. ..
  61. Stanley J, Sah K, Subbanna A, Preetha G, Gupta J. How Efficient Is Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Pollinating Cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata? Pollination Behavior, Pollinator Effectiveness, Pollinator Requirement, and Impact of Pollination. J Econ Entomol. 2017;110:826-834 pubmed publisher
    ..cross-pollinated crop because of sporophytic self-incompatibility, and honey bees play an important role in its pollination. Though Asian honey bees, Apis cerana F...
  62. Broussard M, Mas F, Howlett B, Pattemore D, Tylianakis J. Possible mechanisms of pollination failure in hybrid carrot seed and implications for industry in a changing climate. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180215 pubmed publisher
    ..Given existing predictions of lower pollinator populations in a warmer climate, reduced attractiveness would add yet another challenge to future food production. ..
  63. Broderick S, Wijeratne S, Wijeratn A, Chapin L, Meulia T, Jones M. RNA-sequencing reveals early, dynamic transcriptome changes in the corollas of pollinated petunias. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:307 pubmed publisher
    b>Pollination reduces flower longevity in many angiosperms by accelerating corolla senescence...
  64. Riedinger V, Mitesser O, Hovestadt T, Steffan Dewenter I, Holzschuh A. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape. Ecology. 2015;96:1351-60 pubmed
    ..crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases...
  65. Clivati D, Cordeiro G, Płachno B, de Miranda V. Reproductive biology and pollination of Utricularia reniformis A.St.-Hil. (Lentibulariaceae). Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2014;16:677-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, we studied the floral morphology, floral biology, breeding system and pollination of this species. U...
  66. Lentola A, David A, Abdul Sada A, Tapparo A, Goulson D, Hill E. Ornamental plants on sale to the public are a significant source of pesticide residues with implications for the health of pollinating insects. Environ Pollut. 2017;228:297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Gardeners who wish to gain the benefits without the risks should seek uncontaminated plants by growing their own from seed, plant-swapping or by buying plants from an organic nursery. ..
  67. Bauer A, Clayton M, Brunet J. Floral traits influencing plant attractiveness to three bee species: Consequences for plant reproductive success. Am J Bot. 2017;104:772-781 pubmed publisher
    The ability to attract pollinators is crucial to plants that rely on insects for pollination. We contrasted the roles of floral display size and flower color in attracting three bee species and determined the relationships between plant ..
  68. Giannini T, Costa W, Cordeiro G, Imperatriz Fonseca V, Saraiva A, Biesmeijer J, et al. Projected climate change threatens pollinators and crop production in Brazil. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182274 pubmed publisher
    Animal pollination can impact food security since many crops depend on pollinators to produce fruits and seeds...
  69. Paudel B, Shrestha M, Dyer A, Li Q. Ginger and the beetle: Evidence of primitive pollination system in a Himalayan endemic alpine ginger (Roscoea alpina, Zingiberaceae). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180460 pubmed publisher
    ..genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies...
  70. Wang Y, Li J, Li T, Liu R, Jia L, Wei X, et al. Comparative profiling of microRNAs and their association with sexual dimorphism in the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi. Gene. 2017;633:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We focused mainly on the miRNAs with significantly different expression patterns between sexes and among different life stages, as well as their putative associations with metamorphosis and the formation of sexual dimorphism. ..