Summary: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.

Top Publications

  1. JACOBS J, Babujee L, Meng F, Milling A, Allen C. The in planta transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: conserved physiological and virulence strategies during bacterial wilt of tomato. MBio. 2012;3: pubmed publisher
    Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R...
  2. Powell T, Wheeler J, de Oliveira A, da Costa A, Saleska S, Meir P, et al. Differences in xylem and leaf hydraulic traits explain differences in drought tolerance among mature Amazon rainforest trees. Glob Chang Biol. 2017;23:4280-4293 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Xylem pressure at 50% conductivity (xylem-P50 ), leaf turgor loss point (TLP), cellular osmotic potential (?<..
  3. Ma Y, He X, Zhang P, Zhang Z, Ding Y, Zhang J, et al. Xylem and Phloem Based Transport of CeO2 Nanoparticles in Hydroponic Cucumber Plants. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;51:5215-5221 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, the xylem and phloem based transport of CeO2 NPs in hydroponic cucumber plants was investigated using a split-..
  4. Knox J, Linstead P, Cooper J, Roberts K. Developmentally regulated epitopes of cell surface arabinogalactan proteins and their relation to root tissue pattern formation. Plant J. 1991;1:317-326 pubmed publisher
    ..JIM13 recognized the surface of cells forming the epidermis and cells marking the region and axis of the future xylem. JIM15 recognized a pattern of cells directly complementary to the JIM13 pattern...
  5. Henderson S, Baumann U, Blackmore D, Walker A, Walker R, Gilliham M. Shoot chloride exclusion and salt tolerance in grapevine is associated with differential ion transporter expression in roots. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:273 pubmed publisher
    ..Cl-) exclusion from shoots; the rate-limiting step being the passage of Cl- between the root symplast and xylem apoplast...
  6. Moreno Piovano G, Moreno J, Cabello J, Arce A, Otegui M, Chan R. A role for LAX2 in regulating xylem development and lateral-vein symmetry in the leaf. Ann Bot. 2017;120:577-590 pubmed publisher
    ..Auxins are involved in this process and also in xylem vasculature development...
  7. Osugi A, Kojima M, Takebayashi Y, Ueda N, Kiba T, Sakakibara H. Systemic transport of trans-zeatin and its precursor have differing roles in Arabidopsis shoots. Nat Plants. 2017;3:17112 pubmed publisher
    ..proposed that trans-zeatin-riboside, a type of cytokinin precursor, is a major long-distance signalling form in xylem vessels and its action depends on metabolic conversion via the LONELY GUY enzyme in proximity to the site of ..
  8. Lopisso D, Knüfer J, Koopmann B, von Tiedemann A. Growth of Verticillium longisporum in Xylem Sap of Brassica napus is Independent from Cultivar Resistance but Promoted by Plant Aging. Phytopathology. 2017;107:1047-1054 pubmed publisher
    ..Because V. longisporum is strictly limited to the xylem and resistance is expressed in the systemic stage post root invasion, we investigated a potential antifungal role ..
  9. Williams A, Bullock M. Spiral bodies in pulse granulomas are remnant plant vascular structures. Pathology. 2015;47:599-601 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Edwards E, de Vos J, Donoghue M. Doubtful pathways to cold tolerance in plants. Nature. 2015;521:E5-6 pubmed publisher
  2. Chen Y, Bongers F, Zhang J, Liu J, Cao K. Different biomechanical design and ecophysiological strategies in juveniles of two liana species with contrasting growth habit. Am J Bot. 2014;101:925-934 pubmed
    ..attopensis, but increased in V. calyculata. Both species had similar resistance to xylem embolism. However, the leaves of V. calyculata were able to resist greater water deficits...
  3. Wilson M, Goh T, Voß U, Bishopp A, Peret B, Bennett M. SnapShot: Root development. Cell. 2013;155:1190-1190.e1 pubmed publisher
  4. Meinzer F, McCulloh K. Xylem recovery from drought-induced embolism: where is the hydraulic point of no return?. Tree Physiol. 2013;33:331-4 pubmed publisher
  5. McElrone A, Brodersen C, Alsina M, Drayton W, Matthews M, Shackel K, et al. Centrifuge technique consistently overestimates vulnerability to water stress-induced cavitation in grapevines as confirmed with high-resolution computed tomography. New Phytol. 2012;196:661-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Gabriela Montes Cartas C, Padilla P, Rosell J, Domínguez C, Fornoni J, Olson M. Testing the hypothesis that biological modularity is shaped by adaptation: Xylem in the Bursera simaruba clade of tropical trees. Evol Dev. 2017;19:111-123 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the module-function relation using secondary xylem (wood) in a clade of tropical trees as a study system...
  7. Camargo E, Nascimento L, Soler M, Salazar M, Lepikson Neto J, Marques W, et al. Contrasting nitrogen fertilization treatments impact xylem gene expression and secondary cell wall lignification in Eucalyptus. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:256 pubmed publisher
    ..urophylla x E. grandis) with a special focus on xylem secondary cell walls and global gene expression patterns...
  8. Chano V, López R, Pita P, Collada C, Soto Ã. Proliferation of axial parenchymatic xylem cells is a key step in wound closure of girdled stems in Pinus canariensis. BMC Plant Biol. 2015;15:64 pubmed publisher
    ..associated to their position relative to the surface and edges of the wound, resulting in disordered traumatic xylem. We also describe the formation of column-like structures, after girdling, which are in part formed by the ..
  9. Delzon S, Cochard H. Recent advances in tree hydraulics highlight the ecological significance of the hydraulic safety margin. New Phytol. 2014;203:355-8 pubmed publisher
  10. Choat B. Predicting thresholds of drought-induced mortality in woody plant species. Tree Physiol. 2013;33:669-71 pubmed publisher
  11. Gujas B, Cruz T, Kastanaki E, Vermeer J, Munnik T, Rodríguez Villalón A. Perturbing phosphoinositide homeostasis oppositely affects vascular differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Development. 2017;144:3578-3589 pubmed publisher
    The plant vascular network consists of specialized phloem and xylem elements that undergo two distinct morphogenetic developmental programs to become transport-functional units...
  12. van Doorn W, Hiemstra T, Fanourakis D. Hydrogel regulation of xylem water flow: an alternative hypothesis. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1642-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Xiong G, Cheng K, Pauly M. Xylan O-acetylation impacts xylem development and enzymatic recalcitrance as indicated by the Arabidopsis mutant tbl29. Mol Plant. 2013;6:1373-5 pubmed publisher