plant tumors


Summary: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)

Top Publications

  1. Zhu J, Oger P, Schrammeijer B, Hooykaas P, Farrand S, Winans S. The bases of crown gall tumorigenesis. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3885-95 pubmed
  2. Vergunst A, van Lier M, den Dulk Ras A, Hooykaas P. Recognition of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirE2 translocation signal by the VirB/D4 transport system does not require VirE1. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:978-88 pubmed
    ..The results unambiguously show that the VirE1 chaperone is not essential for the recognition of the VirE2 transport signal by the transport system and the subsequent translocation across the bacterial envelope into host cells. ..
  3. Melchers L, Maroney M, den Dulk Ras A, Thompson D, van Vuuren H, Schilperoort R, et al. Octopine and nopaline strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens differ in virulence; molecular characterization of the virF locus. Plant Mol Biol. 1990;14:249-59 pubmed
    ..We found that such 'helper' strains must express not only the virF gene but also the vir operons virA, virB, virD and virG...
  4. Lee H, Humann J, Pitrak J, Cuperus J, Parks T, Whistler C, et al. Translation start sequences affect the efficiency of silencing of Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA oncogenes. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:966-77 pubmed
    ..Silencing A. tumefaciens T-DNA oncogenes is a new and effective method to produce plants resistant to crown gall disease. ..
  5. Reader J, Ordoukhanian P, Kim J, De Crecy Lagard V, Hwang I, Farrand S, et al. Major biocontrol of plant tumors targets tRNA synthetase. Science. 2005;309:1533 pubmed
    ..In principle, this strategy from nature could be applied to other crop diseases by direct intervention. ..
  6. Veselov D, Langhans M, Hartung W, Aloni R, Feussner I, Götz C, et al. Development of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58-induced plant tumors and impact on host shoots are controlled by a cascade of jasmonic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene and abscisic acid. Planta. 2003;216:512-22 pubmed
    The development of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced plant tumors primarily depends on the excessive production of auxin and cytokinin by enzymes encoded on T-DNA genes integrated into the plant genome...
  7. Dunoyer P, Himber C, Voinnet O. Induction, suppression and requirement of RNA silencing pathways in virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens infections. Nat Genet. 2006;38:258-63 pubmed
    ..The similarities and specificities of the A. tumefaciens RNA silencing interaction are discussed and contrasted with the situation encountered with plant viruses. ..
  8. Espírito Santo M, Neves F, Andrade Neto F, Fernandes G. Plant architecture and meristem dynamics as the mechanisms determining the diversity of gall-inducing insects. Oecologia. 2007;153:353-64 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the role of plant architecture in the global biogeography of gall-inducing insects. ..
  9. Gravot A, Deleu C, Wagner G, Lariagon C, Lugan R, Todd C, et al. Arginase induction represses gall development during clubroot infection in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:901-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that arginase contributes to a negative control over clubroot symptoms, by reducing hormone-triggered cellular proliferation. ..

More Information


  1. Tzfira T, Vaidya M, Citovsky V. VIP1, an Arabidopsis protein that interacts with Agrobacterium VirE2, is involved in VirE2 nuclear import and Agrobacterium infectivity. EMBO J. 2001;20:3596-607 pubmed
    ..In plants, VIP1 was required for VirE2 nuclear import and Agrobacterium tumorigenicity, participating in early stages of T-DNA expression. ..
  2. Kawaguchi A, Inoue K, Ichinose Y. Biological control of crown gall of grapevine, rose, and tomato by nonpathogenic Agrobacterium vitis strain VAR03-1. Phytopathology. 2008;98:1218-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report that a nonpathogenic strain, VAR03-1, can effectively control crown gall caused by tumorigenic A. vitis, A. rhizogenes, and A. tumefaciens...
  3. Cooper W, Rieske L. Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations. Environ Entomol. 2009;38:417-24 pubmed
    ..Our results improve our knowledge of host-cynipid interactions, gall source-sink relations, and D. kuriphilus community interactions...
  4. Lee C, Efetova M, Engelmann J, Kramell R, Wasternack C, Ludwig Müller J, et al. Agrobacterium tumefaciens promotes tumor induction by modulating pathogen defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2948-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that crosstalk among IAA, ET, and SA balances pathogen defense launched by the host and tumor growth initiated by agrobacteria. ..
  5. Ibrahim H, Alkharouf N, Meyer S, Aly M, Gamal El Din A, Hussein E, et al. Post-transcriptional gene silencing of root-knot nematode in transformed soybean roots. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that silencing the genes encoding TP and MSP can greatly decrease gall formation and shows a promising solution for broadening resistance of plants against this plant-parasitic nematode...
  6. Efetova M, Zeier J, Riederer M, Lee C, Stingl N, Mueller M, et al. A central role of abscisic acid in drought stress protection of Agrobacterium-induced tumors on Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:853-62 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we propose that ABA is an important signal for protection of tumors against desiccation and thus supports tumor development. ..
  7. Jammes F, Lecomte P, de Almeida Engler J, Bitton F, Martin Magniette M, Renou J, et al. Genome-wide expression profiling of the host response to root-knot nematode infection in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2005;44:447-58 pubmed
  8. Allison S, Schultz J. Biochemical responses of chestnut oak to a galling cynipid. J Chem Ecol. 2005;31:151-66 pubmed
    ..These patterns suggest that the gall is manipulated by the insect to enhance its food and protective value. ..
  9. Cooper W, Rieske L. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Environ Entomol. 2010;39:787-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides support for the protective role of cynipid galls for the gall inducer, identifies specific gall traits that influence gall wasp mortality, and improves our knowledge of D. kuriphilus ecology in North America...
  10. Ullrich C, Aloni R. Vascularization is a general requirement for growth of plant and animal tumours. J Exp Bot. 2000;51:1951-60 pubmed
    ..The comparison of analogous requirement of neovascularization for tumour growth in plants, as in animals and humans, is discussed in terms of interdisciplinary strategies of possible prevention and therapy. ..
  11. Escobar M, Civerolo E, Summerfelt K, Dandekar A. RNAi-mediated oncogene silencing confers resistance to crown gall tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:13437-42 pubmed
    ..If successful and durable under field conditions, RNAi-mediated oncogene silencing may find broad applicability in the improvement of tree crop and ornamental rootstocks. ..
  12. Kakiuchi Y, Galis I, Tamogami S, Wabiko H. Reduction of polar auxin transport in tobacco by the tumorigenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens AK-6b gene. Planta. 2006;223:237-47 pubmed
  13. Maia V, Silva L. Insect galls of Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Braz J Biol. 2016;76:787-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). ..
  14. Lei H, Qi J, Song J, Yang D, Wang Y, Zhang Y, et al. Biosynthesis and bioactivity of trichosanthin in cultured crown gall tissues of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz. Plant Cell Rep. 2006;25:1205-12 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we identified that the TCS purified from the crown gall tissues could induce gastric cancer cell death. These data underscore the usefulness of our system as an inexpensive and virtually unlimited source of TCS. ..
  15. Ibrahim H, Hosseini P, Alkharouf N, Hussein E, Gamal El Din A, Aly M, et al. Analysis of gene expression in soybean (Glycine max) roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:220 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site...
  16. Santos J, Tavares C, Almeida Cortez J. Plant Vigor Hypothesis refuted: preference-performance linkage of a gall-inducing weevil on small-sized host plant resources. Braz J Biol. 2011;71:65-9 pubmed
    ..bicolorata on small-sized leaves of M. prasina. The next goal is to understand the mechanisms involved in the selection of gall-inducing weevil on short leaves of its host plant. ..
  17. Hussain M, Ahmad M, Hanif M, Ali S, Mirza B. Structure elucidation and inhibitory effects of self-assembled organotin(IV) esters of p-tolyl acetic acid on bacterial, fungal, brine shrimp, and potato tumor cells. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2010;33:183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Antifungal activities were determined against six pathogenic fungal strains, cytotoxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay, and antitumor activities by the crown gall tumor inhibition (potato disc) assay. ..
  18. Guo M, Hou Q, Hew C, Pan S. Agrobacterium VirD2-binding protein is involved in tumorigenesis and redundantly encoded in conjugative transfer gene clusters. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2007;20:1201-12 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of the three vbp genes did not affect the T-strand production. Our data indicate that VBP is a newly identified virulence factor that may affect the transfer process subsequent to T-DNA production. ..
  19. Karssen G, van Hoenselaar T, Verkerk Bakker B, Janssen R. Species identification of cyst and root-knot nematodes from potato by electrophoresis of individual females. Electrophoresis. 1995;16:105-9 pubmed
    ..Proteins of young single Meloidogyne females were separated using polyacrylamide gradient gels and stained for the isozymes esterase and malate dehydrogenase. ..
  20. Pan L, Chiang T, Weng Y, Chen W, Hsiao S, Tokuda M, et al. Taxonomy and biology of a new ambrosia gall midge Daphnephila urnicola sp. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) inducing urn-shaped leaf galls on two species of Machilus (Lauraceae) in Taiwan. Zootaxa. 2015;3955:371-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Size and structure of the gall operculum was found to differ between M. zuihoensis and M. mushahaensis. ..
  21. Baek C, Farrand S, Lee K, Park D, Lee J, Kim K. Convergent evolution of Amadori opine catabolic systems in plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:513-24 pubmed
  22. Ren Z, Zhong Y, Kurosu U, Aoki S, Ma E, von Dohlen C, et al. Historical biogeography of Eastern Asian-Eastern North American disjunct Melaphidina aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae) on Rhus hosts (Anacardiaceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;69:1146-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Results for the Melaphidina disjunction depart from the modal pattern in animal lineages, and present a case where insect and host-plant taxa apparently responded similarly to Tertiary climate change. ..
  23. Hvozdiak R, Pasichnyk L, Vashchenko L. [Effect of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex of Pseudomonas syringae PV. atrofaciens on the process of tumor formation caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens]. Mikrobiol Z. 2003;65:5-13 pubmed
    ..tumefaciens, decreases induction and development of tumours on the explants. Tumour formation inhibition depends on concentration of lipopolysaccharide-protein complex solution. ..
  24. Kellow A, Sedgley M, Van Heeswijck R. Interaction between Vitis vinifera and grape phylloxera: changes in root tissue during nodosity formation. Ann Bot. 2004;93:581-90 pubmed
    ..vinifera transcripts. Nodosities on V. vinifera potentially function as nutrient reservoirs, and defence responses to phylloxera attack were not detected. ..
  25. Heneberg P, Bizos J, Čmoková A, Kolařík M, Astapenková A, Bogusch P. Assemblage of filamentous fungi associated with aculeate hymenopteran brood in reed galls. J Invertebr Pathol. 2016;133:95-106 pubmed publisher
  26. Vermani A. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens. Indian J Dent Res. 2009;20:337-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These chemical classes of antibiotics could serve as selective agents for the maintenance of human health and provide bio-chemical tools for the study of infectious diseases. ..
  27. Lutova L, Dolgikh E, Dodueva I, Osipova M, Il ina E. [Investigation of systemic control of plant cell division and differentiation in the model of tumor growth in radish]. Genetika. 2008;44:1075-83 pubmed
    ..The influence of exogenic cytokinin on the expression of the genes of interest is analyzed. The possible role of the CycD3, KNAT1, STM, WUS, and ARR5 in tumor formation in radish is discussed. ..
  28. Ansari F, Iftikhar F, Ihsan Ul Haq -, Mirza B, Baseer M, Rashid U. Solid-phase synthesis and biological evaluation of a parallel library of 2,3-dihydro-1,5-benzothiazepines. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16:7691-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the substitution of hydroxy group at C-3 in ring A led to increased activity when compared to unsubstituted- and 2'-OH substituted benzothiazepines. ..
  29. Miller D, Lawson S, Rinker D, Estby H, Abbot P. The origin and genetic differentiation of the socially parasitic aphid Tamalia inquilinus. Mol Ecol. 2015;24:5751-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Shared host plants may be sufficient to promote the ecological diversification of a network of phytophagous insects and their parasites, as exemplified by Tamalia aphids. ..
  30. Elling A, Davis E, Hussey R, Baum T. Active uptake of cyst nematode parasitism proteins into the plant cell nucleus. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:1269-79 pubmed
    ..Two of these proteins were further transported into nucleoli. We hypothesise that nuclear uptake and nucleolar localisation are important mechanisms for H. glycines to modulate the nuclear biology of parasitised cells of its host plant. ..
  31. Urso Guimarães M, Scareli Santos C, Bonifácio Silva A. Occurrence and characterization of entomogen galls in plants from natural vegetation areas in Delfinópolis, MG, Brazil. Braz J Biol. 2003;63:705-15 pubmed
    ..The results of this study contribute to existing of knowledge host-plant diversity and gall-associated insects in rocky fields, cerrado, and gallery forests. ..
  32. Conti M. Cancer determining information transmission and circulation. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2007;26:215-20 pubmed
    ..Investigating today unexplored ways of transmission could lead to implement new anticancer strategies. ..
  33. Cubero J, Van der Wolf J, van Beckhoven J, Lopez M. An internal control for the diagnosis of crown gall by PCR. J Microbiol Methods. 2002;51:387-92 pubmed
    ..Co-amplification of the IC and target sequence from A. tumefaciens ensures the attainment of at least one amplification product in every PCR reaction if the DNA extracted is of high enough quality to be amplified. ..
  34. Huang W, Ji H, Gheysen G, Kyndt T. Thiamine-induced priming against root-knot nematode infection in rice involves lignification and hydrogen peroxide generation. Mol Plant Pathol. 2016;17:614-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Further cellular and molecular studies on the mechanism of thiamine-induced defence will be useful for the development of novel nematode control strategies. ..
  35. Gerchman Y, Inbar M. Distinct antimicrobial activities in aphid galls on Pistacia atlantica. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:2008-12 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence for the protective antimicrobial role of galls. This remarkable antibacterial and antifungal activity in the galls of S. wertheimae may be of agricultural and pharmaceutical value. ..
  36. Kaewnum S, Zheng D, Reid C, Johnson K, Gee J, Burr T. A host-specific biological control of grape crown gall by Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5: its regulation and population dynamics. Phytopathology. 2013;103:427-35 pubmed publisher
    ..It was determined that, although F2/5 inhibits transformation by tumorigenic A. vitis strains on grape, it does not affect growth of the pathogen in wounded grape tissue over time. ..
  37. Arshad N, Farooqi S, Bhatti M, Saleem S, Mirza B. Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations of carboxylic acid ligand and its triorganotin complexes for their binding with ds.DNA: in vitro biological studies. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2013;125:70-82 pubmed publisher
    ..94×10(4)M(-1) (fluorescence); 9.91×10(4)M(-1) (CV)}. Electrochemical processes of compounds before and after the addition of DNA were found diffusion controlled. Among all compounds, APA-3 exhibited best antitumor activity. ..
  38. Quesada Moraga E, Muñoz Ledesma F, Santiago Alvarez C. Systemic protection of Papaver somniferum L. against Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) by an endophytic strain of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). Environ Entomol. 2009;38:723-30 pubmed
    ..bassiana growth when placed on B. bassiana-selective medium. Neither adverse effects on growth and yield nor symptomatic tissues were observed in B. bassiana-treated plants compared with controls in any of the three seasons...
  39. Imai K, Ohsaki N. A mechanical plant defense defines the opening of a phenological window for gall induction by Asphondylia aucubae (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). Environ Entomol. 2009;38:404-10 pubmed
    ..Overall, our results indicated that the fragmentation of the defensive, hard endocarp of the host plant defines the opening of the phenological window in this plant-herbivore system. ..
  40. Tooker J, De Moraes C. A gall-inducing caterpillar species increases essential fatty acid content of its host plant without concomitant increases in phytohormone levels. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2009;22:551-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that gall insects may be able to nutritionally enhance their food source without inducing concomitant increases in phytohormones and associated defense responses. ..
  41. Bekal S, Craig J, Hudson M, Niblack T, Domier L, Lambert K. Genomic DNA sequence comparison between two inbred soybean cyst nematode biotypes facilitated by massively parallel 454 micro-bead sequencing. Mol Genet Genomics. 2008;279:535-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNPs identified will be an important starting point in associating phenotypes with specific regions of the SCN genome. ..
  42. Hao Y, Charles T, Glick B. ACC deaminase from plant growth-promoting bacteria affects crown gall development. Can J Microbiol. 2007;53:1291-9 pubmed
    ..putida UW4 or P. putida UW4-acdS- (an ACC deaminase minus mutant strain). In both types of experiments, it was observed that the presence of ACC deaminase generally inhibited tumour development on both tomato and castor bean plants. ..
  43. Evtushenko L, Dorofeeva L, Dobrovolskaya T, Streshinskaya G, Subbotin S, Tiedje J. Agreia bicolorata gen. nov., sp. nov., to accommodate actinobacteria isolated from narrow reed grass infected by the nematode Heteroanguina graminophila. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001;51:2073-9 pubmed
    ..The DNA G+C content of Agreia bicolorata is about 67.0 mol %. ..
  44. Hong S, Hwang I, Dessaux Y, Guyon P, Kim K, Farrand S. A T-DNA gene required for agropine biosynthesis by transformed plants is functionally and evolutionarily related to a Ti plasmid gene required for catabolism of agropine by Agrobacterium strains. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4831-40 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the agropine system arose by a duplication of a progenitor gene, one copy of which became associated with the T-DNA and the other copy of which remained associated with the bacterium. ..
  45. Broer I, Dröge Laser W, Barker R, Neumann K, Klipp W, Puhler A. Identification of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 T-DNA genes e and f and their impact on crown gall tumour formation. Plant Mol Biol. 1995;27:41-57 pubmed
    ..DNA homology studies with the f gene region revealed a mosaic-like DNA structure, indicating that this locus might be the result of genetic exchanges between different Agrobacterium strains during evolution. ..
  46. Garcia Pedrajas M, Baeza Montañez L, Gold S. Regulation of Ustilago maydis dimorphism, sporulation, and pathogenic development by a transcription factor with a highly conserved APSES domain. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:211-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are consistent with a major role for ust1 in regulating dimorphism, virulence, and the sporulation program in U. maydis...
  47. Fernandes G, Almada E, Carneiro M. Gall-inducing insect species richness as indicators of forest age and health. Environ Entomol. 2010;39:1134-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate a recovery of both host plants and insect community and that succession directly affects the richness and composition of these herbivores. ..
  48. Kyndt T, Denil S, Haegeman A, Trooskens G, Bauters L, Van Criekinge W, et al. Transcriptional reprogramming by root knot and migratory nematode infection in rice. New Phytol. 2012;196:887-900 pubmed publisher
    ..These results uncover previously unrecognized nematode-induced expression profiles related to their specific infection strategy. ..
  49. Uematsu K, Shimada M, Shibao H. Juveniles and the elderly defend, the middle-aged escape: division of labour in a social aphid. Biol Lett. 2013;9:20121053 pubmed publisher
  50. Bomblies K, Weigel D. Hybrid necrosis: autoimmunity as a potential gene-flow barrier in plant species. Nat Rev Genet. 2007;8:382-93 pubmed
    ..We survey the extensive literature on this topic and present the hypothesis that hybrid necrosis can result from autoimmunity, perhaps as a pleiotropic effect of evolution of genes that are involved in pathogen response. ..
  51. Deeken R, Ivashikina N, Czirjak T, Philippar K, Becker D, Ache P, et al. Tumour development in Arabidopsis thaliana involves the Shaker-like K+ channels AKT1 and AKT2/3. Plant J. 2003;34:778-87 pubmed
    ..This indicates that the delivery of potassium by AKT1 and the direction of assimilates, triggered by AKT2/3, are essential for tumour growth. ..
  52. Binns A. T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: 25 years and counting. Trends Plant Sci. 2002;7:231-3 pubmed
  53. Klee H, Montoya A, Horodyski F, Lichtenstein C, Garfinkel D, Fuller S, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the tms genes of the pTiA6NC octopine Ti plasmid: two gene products involved in plant tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:1728-32 pubmed