plant transpiration


Summary: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Top Publications

  1. Liu J, Zhang F, Zhou J, Chen F, Wang B, Xie X. Phytochrome B control of total leaf area and stomatal density affects drought tolerance in rice. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;78:289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering all these findings, we propose that phyB deficiency causes both reduced total leaf area and reduced transpiration per unit leaf area, which explains the reduced water loss and improved drought tolerance of phyB mutants. ..
  2. Marguerit E, Brendel O, Lebon E, Van Leeuwen C, Ollat N. Rootstock control of scion transpiration and its acclimation to water deficit are controlled by different genes. New Phytol. 2012;194:416-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. ..
  3. Nir I, Moshelion M, Weiss D. The Arabidopsis gibberellin methyl transferase 1 suppresses gibberellin activity, reduces whole-plant transpiration and promotes drought tolerance in transgenic tomato. Plant Cell Environ. 2014;37:113-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The transgenic plants maintained high leaf water status under drought conditions, because of reduced whole-plant transpiration. The reduced transpiration can be attributed to reduced stomatal conductance...
  4. Wortemann R, Herbette S, Barigah T, Fumanal B, Alía R, Ducousso A, et al. Genotypic variability and phenotypic plasticity of cavitation resistance in Fagus sylvatica L. across Europe. Tree Physiol. 2011;31:1175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of our findings for beech forest management in a context of climate change are discussed...
  5. Tosens T, Niinemets U, Vislap V, Eichelmann H, Castro Díez P. Developmental changes in mesophyll diffusion conductance and photosynthetic capacity under different light and water availabilities in Populus tremula: how structure constrains function. Plant Cell Environ. 2012;35:839-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Low light and drought resulted in reduced g(m) and A(n) and increased C(i) -C(c) . These results emphasize the importance of g(m) and its components in determining A(n) variations during leaf development and in response to stress. ..
  6. Ocheltree T, Nippert J, Prasad P. Changes in stomatal conductance along grass blades reflect changes in leaf structure. Plant Cell Environ. 2012;35:1040-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A strong correlation between the distance from vascular bundles to stomatal pores and stomatal conductance has been identified across species; our results suggest this relationship also exists within individual leaves. ..
  7. Wang Y, Liu F, Jensen C. Comparative effects of deficit irrigation and alternate partial root-zone irrigation on xylem pH, ABA and ionic concentrations in tomatoes. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:1907-17 pubmed publisher
  8. Romero P, Dodd I, Martínez Cutillas A. Contrasting physiological effects of partial root zone drying in field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell) according to total soil water availability. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:4071-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Distinctive PRD effects (e.g. greater stomatal closure) depended on the volumetric soil water content of the wet root zone, as predicted from a model of root-to-shoot ABA signalling. ..
  9. Quentin A, O Grady A, Beadle C, Mohammed C, Pinkard E. Interactive effects of water supply and defoliation on photosynthesis, plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Tree Physiol. 2012;32:958-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Above-ground height and diameter growth were unaffected by defoliation in both water availability treatments, suggesting that plants use a range of responses to compensate for the impacts of defoliation. ..

More Information


  1. Pantin F, Monnet F, Jannaud D, Costa J, Renaud J, Muller B, et al. The dual effect of abscisic acid on stomata. New Phytol. 2013;197:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Variability in sensitivity of leaf hydraulic conductance to ABA among species could provide a physiological basis to the isohydric or anisohydric behaviour. ..
  2. Mencuccini M, Hölttä T, Sevanto S, Nikinmaa E. Concurrent measurements of change in the bark and xylem diameters of trees reveal a phloem-generated turgor signal. New Phytol. 2013;198:1143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this model has potential for the continuous field monitoring of tree phloem function...
  3. Speirs J, Binney A, Collins M, Edwards E, Loveys B. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon). J Exp Bot. 2013;64:1907-16 pubmed publisher
  4. Ogle K, Lucas R, Bentley L, Cable J, Barron Gafford G, Griffith A, et al. Differential daytime and night-time stomatal behavior in plants from North American deserts. New Phytol. 2012;194:464-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Three species switched from anisohydric to isohydric behavior at night. Such behavior, combined with differential D, ?(soil) and light responses, suggests that different mechanisms underlie g(day) and g(night) regulation. ..
  5. Voicu M, Zwiazek J, Tyree M. Light response of hydraulic conductance in bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) leaves. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:1007-15 pubmed
  6. Bowden J, Bauerle W. Measuring and modeling the variation in species-specific transpiration in temperate deciduous hardwoods. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:1675-83 pubmed
    ..This work quantified the major factors that influence modeled species-specific transpiration and confirmed the ability to scale leaf-level physiological attributes to whole-crown transpiration on a species-specific basis. ..
  7. Heckwolf M, Pater D, Hanson D, Kaldenhoff R. The Arabidopsis thaliana aquaporin AtPIP1;2 is a physiologically relevant CO? transport facilitator. Plant J. 2011;67:795-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we could demonstrate that the effect was caused by reduced CO? conductivity in leaf tissue. It is concluded that the AtPIP1;2 gene product limits CO? diffusion and photosynthesis in leaves. ..
  8. Christensen Dalsgaard K, Tyree M, Mussone P. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species. Tree Physiol. 2011;31:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in branch segments of P. tremuloides close to the terminal bud and hence potentially in other species as well, it may be necessary to take into account the presence of surfactants that reduce the surface tension over time...
  9. Fanourakis D, Carvalho S, Almeida D, Heuvelink E. Avoiding high relative air humidity during critical stages of leaf ontogeny is decisive for stomatal functioning. Physiol Plant. 2011;142:274-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also show that the effect of ambient RH and the alleviating role of ABA are restricted to the period of leaf expansion. ..
  10. Awad H, Barigah T, Badel E, Cochard H, Herbette S. Poplar vulnerability to xylem cavitation acclimates to drier soil conditions. Physiol Plant. 2010;139:280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The links between these parameters are discussed. ..
  11. Zwieniecki M, Holbrook N. Confronting Maxwell's demon: biophysics of xylem embolism repair. Trends Plant Sci. 2009;14:530-4 pubmed publisher
  12. Barbour M, Warren C, Farquhar G, Forrester G, Brown H. Variability in mesophyll conductance between barley genotypes, and effects on transpiration efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33:1176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest g(m) has unexplored potential to provide TE improvement within crop breeding programmes. ..
  13. Nilson S, Assmann S. The alpha-subunit of the Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G protein, GPA1, is a regulator of transpiration efficiency. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:2067-77 pubmed publisher
    ..GPA1 promoter::beta-glucuronidase lines indicate that the GPA1 promoter is active in the stomatal cell lineage, further supporting a function for GPA1 in stomatal development in true leaves. ..
  14. Nicotra A, Cosgrove M, Cowling A, Schlichting C, Jones C. Leaf shape linked to photosynthetic rates and temperature optima in South African Pelargonium species. Oecologia. 2008;154:625-35 pubmed
    ..Higher thermal optima, in conjunction with leaf dissection, may reflect selection pressure to protect photosynthetic machinery against excessive leaf temperatures when stomata close in response to water stress...
  15. Duursma R, Kolari P, Perämäki M, Nikinmaa E, Hari P, Delzon S, et al. Predicting the decline in daily maximum transpiration rate of two pine stands during drought based on constant minimum leaf water potential and plant hydraulic conductance. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:265-76 pubmed
  16. Fan X, Li F, Song L, Xiong Y, An L, Jia Y, et al. Defense strategy of old and modern spring wheat varieties during soil drying. Physiol Plant. 2009;136:310-23 pubmed publisher
  17. Nardini A, Ramani M, Gortan E, Salleo S. Vein recovery from embolism occurs under negative pressure in leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Physiol Plant. 2008;133:755-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study providing experimental evidence for 'novel refilling' in a herbaceous dicot and highlighting the importance of this process in the leaf. ..
  18. Brodribb T, Cochard H. Hydraulic failure defines the recovery and point of death in water-stressed conifers. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:575-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Maximum recoverable water stress (Psimin) corresponded to a 95% loss of Kleaf. Thus, we conclude that xylem hydraulics represents a direct limit to the drought tolerance of these conifer species...
  19. Reynolds R, Bauerle W, Wang Y. Simulating carbon dioxide exchange rates of deciduous tree species: evidence for a general pattern in biochemical changes and water stress response. Ann Bot. 2009;104:775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This allows reliable modelling of carbon exchange for deciduous trees, thus circumventing the need for extensive gas exchange experiments on different species. ..
  20. Bush S, Pataki D, Hultine K, West A, Sperry J, Ehleringer J. Wood anatomy constrains stomatal responses to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in irrigated, urban trees. Oecologia. 2008;156:13-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Plant transpiration is strongly constrained by hydraulic architecture, which determines the critical threshold for cavitation...
  21. Kodama N, Cousins A, Tu K, Barbour M. Spatial variation in photosynthetic CO(2) carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination along leaves of the monocot triticale (Triticum × Secale) relates to mesophyll conductance and the Péclet effect. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:1548-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that one-third of the way from the base of the leaf represents the most appropriate portion to enclose in the leaf chamber. ..
  22. Sade N, Vinocur B, Diber A, Shatil A, Ronen G, Nissan H, et al. Improving plant stress tolerance and yield production: is the tonoplast aquaporin SlTIP2;2 a key to isohydric to anisohydric conversion?. New Phytol. 2009;181:651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Constitutive expression of SlTIP2;2 increased the osmotic water permeability of the cell and whole-plant transpiration. Under drought, these plants transpired more and for longer periods than control plants, reaching a lower ..
  23. Lake J, Woodward F. Response of stomatal numbers to CO2 and humidity: control by transpiration rate and abscisic acid. New Phytol. 2008;179:397-404 pubmed shown that density responses to both CO2 concentration and humidity are correlated with changes in whole-plant transpiration and leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration...
  24. Knipfer T, Fricke W. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). J Exp Bot. 2011;62:717-33 pubmed publisher
    ..During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about -0.15 MPa. ..
  25. Morandi B, Manfrini L, Losciale P, Zibordi M, Corelli Grappadelli L. Changes in vascular and transpiration flows affect the seasonal and daily growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry. Ann Bot. 2010;105:913-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This work investigates the biophysical mechanisms underpinning the change in fruit growth rate during the season...
  26. Yamaji N, Ma J. A transporter at the node responsible for intervascular transfer of silicon in rice. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2878-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings will be useful for selectively enhancing the accumulation of essential nutrients and reducing toxic minerals in the edible portion of cereals. ..
  27. Nardini A, Raimondo F, Lo Gullo M, Salleo S. Leafminers help us understand leaf hydraulic design. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33:1091-100 pubmed publisher
  28. Rogiers S, Greer D, Hutton R, Landsberg J. Does night-time transpiration contribute to anisohydric behaviour in a Vitis vinifera cultivar?. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:3751-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Night-time and daytime water loss and insufficient stomatal regulation therefore account for the tendency to anisohydric behaviour shown by Semillon. ..
  29. Draye X, Kim Y, Lobet G, Javaux M. Model-assisted integration of physiological and environmental constraints affecting the dynamic and spatial patterns of root water uptake from soils. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:2145-55 pubmed publisher
  30. Dodd I, Theobald J, Richer S, Davies W. Partial phenotypic reversion of ABA-deficient flacca tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) scions by a wild-type rootstock: normalizing shoot ethylene relations promotes leaf area but does not diminish whole plant transpiration rate. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:4029-39 pubmed publisher
    ..WT scions had the greatest leaf area and lowest whole plant transpiration rate irrespective of the rootstock, implying that shoot ABA biosynthesis was sufficient to account for a WT ..
  31. Izanloo A, Condon A, Langridge P, Tester M, Schnurbusch T. Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:3327-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Within this germplasm, the capacity for osmotic adjustment was the main physiological attribute associated with tolerance under cyclic water stress which enabled plants to recover from water deficit. ..
  32. Johnson D, McCulloh K, Meinzer F, Woodruff D, Eissenstat D. Hydraulic patterns and safety margins, from stem to stomata, in three eastern U.S. tree species. Tree Physiol. 2011;31:659-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In one group of species, a trade-off between maximum K(leaf) and % K(leaf) at ?(min) appeared to exist, but no trade-off was evident in the other two trajectories...
  33. Markesteijn L, Poorter L, Bongers F, Paz H, Sack L. Hydraulics and life history of tropical dry forest tree species: coordination of species' drought and shade tolerance. New Phytol. 2011;191:480-95 pubmed publisher
  34. Teng N, Jin B, Wang Q, Hao H, Ceulemans R, Kuang T, et al. No detectable maternal effects of elevated CO(2) on Arabidopsis thaliana over 15 generations. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6035 pubmed publisher
  35. Cechin I, Corniani N, de Fátima Fumis T, Cataneo A. Ultraviolet-B and water stress effects on growth, gas exchange and oxidative stress in sunflower plants. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2008;47:405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..After 24 h of rehydration, most of the parameters analyzed recovered to the same level as the unstressed plants. ..
  36. Ratnakumar P, Vadez V, Nigam S, Krishnamurthy L. Assessment of transpiration efficiency in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under drought using a lysimetric system. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2009;11 Suppl 1:124-30 pubmed publisher
    ..30) under drought condition. Our data show that under an intermittent drought regime, TE and water extraction from the soil profile during a period corresponding to pod filling were the most important components. ..
  37. Poorter L, McDonald I, Alarcón A, Fichtler E, Licona J, Peña Claros M, et al. The importance of wood traits and hydraulic conductance for the performance and life history strategies of 42 rainforest tree species. New Phytol. 2010;185:481-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Vessel traits and wood density are therefore important components of the performance and life history strategies of tropical tree species. ..
  38. Brodribb T, McAdam S. Passive origins of stomatal control in vascular plants. Science. 2011;331:582-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that a fundamental transition from passive to active metabolic control of plant water balance occurred after the divergence of ferns about 360 million years ago...
  39. Berry J, Beerling D, Franks P. Stomata: key players in the earth system, past and present. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2010;13:233-40 pubmed
    ..While not unusual, this failure to connect between disciplines, introduces uncertainty in modeling studies being used to predict weather and climate change and ultimately to inform policy decisions. This problem is also an opportunity. ..
  40. Cramer M, Hawkins H, Verboom G. The importance of nutritional regulation of plant water flux. Oecologia. 2009;161:15-24 pubmed publisher
  41. Casson S, Hetherington A. Environmental regulation of stomatal development. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2010;13:90-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we shall discuss how environmental cues might modulate this pathway such that gas exchange is optimized to suit the prevailing environmental conditions. ..
  42. Tardieu F, Granier C, Muller B. Water deficit and growth. Co-ordinating processes without an orchestrator?. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:283-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore argue for essentially uncoupled mechanisms with feedbacks between them, rather than for a co-ordinated re-programming of all processes. Consequences on plant modelling and plant breeding in dry environment are discussed. ..
  43. Taneda H, Sperry J. A case-study of water transport in co-occurring ring- versus diffuse-porous trees: contrasts in water-status, conducting capacity, cavitation and vessel refilling. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:1641-51 pubmed
    ..Although ring porosity may have evolved as a mechanism for coping with winter freezing, this study suggests that it also has major consequences for xylem function during the growing season. ..
  44. Lovisolo C, Perrone I, Hartung W, Schubert A. An abscisic acid-related reduced transpiration promotes gradual embolism repair when grapevines are rehydrated after drought. New Phytol. 2008;180:642-51 pubmed publisher
  45. Liang Y, Xie X, Lindsay S, Wang Y, Masle J, Williamson L, et al. Cell wall composition contributes to the control of transpiration efficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2010;64:679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work identifies a new class of genes that affects TE and raises the possibility that other genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis will have an impact on water use efficiency. ..
  46. Zeppel M, Tissue D, Taylor D, Macinnis Ng C, Eamus D. Rates of nocturnal transpiration in two evergreen temperate woodland species with differing water-use strategies. Tree Physiol. 2010;30:988-1000 pubmed publisher
  47. Johnson D, Woodruff D, McCulloh K, Meinzer F. Leaf hydraulic conductance, measured in situ, declines and recovers daily: leaf hydraulics, water potential and stomatal conductance in four temperate and three tropical tree species. Tree Physiol. 2009;29:879-87 pubmed publisher
  48. Medlyn B, Pepper D, O Grady A, Keith H. Linking leaf and tree water use with an individual-tree model. Tree Physiol. 2007;27:1687-99 pubmed
    ..The model also captured patterns of variation in sap flow among trees. Overall, the study confirms the ability of models to estimate forest canopy transpiration from leaf-level measurements. ..
  49. Ehlert C, Maurel C, Tardieu F, Simonneau T. Aquaporin-mediated reduction in maize root hydraulic conductivity impacts cell turgor and leaf elongation even without changing transpiration. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:1093-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Root pressurization reversed the impact of acid load or anoxia on leaf elongation rate and water potential, further indicating that changes in turgor mediated the response of leaf growth to reductions in Lp(r). ..
  50. Vandeleur R, Mayo G, Shelden M, Gilliham M, Kaiser B, Tyerman S. The role of plasma membrane intrinsic protein aquaporins in water transport through roots: diurnal and drought stress responses reveal different strategies between isohydric and anisohydric cultivars of grapevine. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:445-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This occurs on a diurnal basis and in response to water stress that corresponds to the difference in drought tolerance between the cultivars. ..
  51. Reinhardt K, Smith W. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret in a temperate mountain cloud forest. Oecologia. 2008;158:229-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, substantial differences in photosynthetic CO2 uptake, and corresponding water relations, were strongly associated with cloud conditions that occur over substantial periods of the summer growth season...
  52. Nardini A, Gortan E, Ramani M, Salleo S. Heterogeneity of gas exchange rates over the leaf surface in tobacco: an effect of hydraulic architecture?. Plant Cell Environ. 2008;31:804-12 pubmed publisher
  53. Kim H, Oren R, Hinckley T. Actual and potential transpiration and carbon assimilation in an irrigated poplar plantation. Tree Physiol. 2008;28:559-77 pubmed
    ..57 to 1.15 g stem wood C kg(-1) water. Given the economic and social values of water, plantation managers appear to have optimized water use. ..