plant bark

Summary

Summary: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.

Top Publications

  1. He J, Li H, Luo J, Ma C, Li S, Qu L, et al. A transcriptomic network underlies microstructural and physiological responses to cadmium in Populus x canescens. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:424-39 pubmed publisher
    ..canescens bark and provide new insights into engineering woody plants for phytoremediation...
  2. Talwar S, Nandakumar K, Nayak P, Bansal P, Mudgal J, Mor V, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Terminalia paniculata bark extract against acute and chronic inflammation in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Terminalia paniculata Roxb. (Family-Combretaceae) is a wild tree commonly used in traditional ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammation of parotid glands and in menstrual disorders...
  3. Zelefack F, Guilet D, Fabre N, Bayet C, Chevalley S, Ngouela S, et al. Cytotoxic and antiplasmodial xanthones from Pentadesma butyracea. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:954-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nearly all of these xanthones exhibited good antiplasmodial activity, and some of them also demonstrated potent cytotoxicity...
  4. Tamokou J, Tala M, Wabo H, Kuiate J, Tane P. Antimicrobial activities of methanol extract and compounds from stem bark of Vismia rubescens. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124:571-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The plant, Vismia rubescens (Guttiferae) is popularly used in Cameroon and in several parts of Africa as febrifugal and for the treatment of various microbial infections (skin diseases, diarrhoea and venereal diseases)...
  5. Lu M, Wingfield M, Gillette N, Mori S, Sun J. Complex interactions among host pines and fungi vectored by an invasive bark beetle. New Phytol. 2010;187:859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..valens and their pine hosts in China may confer advantages to these strains of L. procerum and, by extension, to the beetles themselves. These interactions may therefore enhance invasion by the beetle-fungal complex...
  6. Choi S, Lee S, Choi W, Lee Y, Jo Y, Ha T. Isolation and anti-inflammatory activity of Bakuchiol from Ulmus davidiana var. japonica. J Med Food. 2010;13:1019-23 pubmed publisher
    ..7 macrophages by 53.7% and 84.2%, respectively. These results suggested that bakuchiol is one of the potent anti-inflammatory components of U. davidiana var. japonica...
  7. da Silva M, de Almeida A, de Faria F, Luiz Ferreira A, da Silva M, Vilegas W, et al. Abarema cochliacarpos: gastroprotective and ulcer-healing activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;132:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Abarema cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & Grimes (Mimosaceae) is a species--in folk medicine of Lagarto city, Sergipe state, northeastern Brazil--reputed to heal gastric ulcer and gastritis...
  8. Nazato V, Rubem Mauro L, Vieira N, Rocha Junior D, Silva M, Lopes P, et al. In vitro antiophidian properties of Dipteryx alata Vogel bark extracts. Molecules. 2010;15:5956-70 pubmed publisher
  9. Ravikumar S, Inbaneson S, Suganthi P, Gnanadesigan M. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of mangrove plants from South East coast of India against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:873-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that the mangrove plants had a source of lead compounds for the development of new drugs for the treatment of malaria...

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Esteves Pedro N, Rodas A, Dal Belo C, Oshima Franco Y, Dos Santos M, Lopes P. Implementation of the three Rs in the human hazard assessment of Brazilian medicinal plants: an evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of Dipteryx alata Vogel. Altern Lab Anim. 2011;39:189-96 pubmed
    ..The publication of such data can increase awareness of the Three Rs by showing how to optimise the management of animal use, if in vivo toxicological experiments are required...
  2. Ee G, Mah S, Teh S, Rahmani M, Go R, Taufiq Yap Y. Soulamarin, a new coumarin from stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri. Molecules. 2011;16:9721-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of these compounds were established based on spectral evidence (1D and 2D NMR)...
  3. Drag M, Surowiak P, Drag Zalesinska M, Dietel M, Lage H, Oleksyszyn J. Comparision of the cytotoxic effects of birch bark extract, betulin and betulinic acid towards human gastric carcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cell lines. Molecules. 2009;14:1639-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show significant differences in sensitivity between cell lines depending on the compound used, and suggest that both betulin and betulinic acid can be considered as a promising leads in the treatment of cancer...
  4. Dusotoit Coucaud A, Brunel N, Kongsawadworakul P, Viboonjun U, Lacointe A, Julien J, et al. Sucrose importation into laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis, in relation to ethylene stimulation of latex production. Ann Bot. 2009;104:635-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The data and all previous information on sucrose transport show that HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A are related to the increase in sucrose import into laticifers, required for the stimulation of latex yield by ethylene in virgin trees...
  5. Abbah J, Amos S, Chindo B, Ngazal I, Vongtau H, Adzu B, et al. Pharmacological evidence favouring the use of Nauclea latifolia in malaria ethnopharmacy: effects against nociception, inflammation, and pyrexia in rats and mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127:85-90 pubmed publisher
  6. Park D, Kim H, Jung S, Yook C, Jin C, Lee Y. A new diarylheptanoid glycoside from the stem bark of Alnus hirsuta and protective effects of diarylheptanoid derivatives in human HepG2 cells. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:238-41 pubmed
    ..Of these isolates, compounds 1-8 showed significant hepatoprotective effects on t-BHP-induced damage to HepG2 cells, with 8 exhibiting the greatest protective effect (50.7 + or - 3.7% at a concentration of 10 microM)...
  7. Fang L, Du D, Ding G, Si Y, Yu S, Liu Y, et al. Neolignans and glycosides from the stem bark of Illicium difengpi. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:818-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 3, 4, and 11 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activities with IC(50) values ranging from 1.62 to 24.4 microM, while compound 3 displayed antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value of 42.3 microM...
  8. Woehrlin F, Fry H, Abraham K, Preiss Weigert A. Quantification of flavoring constituents in cinnamon: high variation of coumarin in cassia bark from the German retail market and in authentic samples from indonesia. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:10568-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, a high variation was observed in one of the trees, whereas no coumarin was detected in the samples of two other trees. In conclusion, coumarin levels in cassia cinnamon can vary widely even within a single tree...
  9. Maimoona A, Naeem I, Saddiqe Z, Jameel K. A review on biological, nutraceutical and clinical aspects of French maritime pine bark extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133:261-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, two are about extraction advancement and analysis while the rest relate to its clinical, biological and nutraceutical aspects...
  10. Zofou D, Kengne A, Tene M, Ngemenya M, Tane P, Titanji V. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts and compounds from the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth (Bignoniaceae). Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1383-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings justify the use of K. africana stem bark as antimalaria by traditional healers of Western Cameroon, and could constitute a good basis for further studies towards development of new leads or natural drugs for malaria...
  11. Li D, Deng Z, Qin B, Liu X, Men Z. De novo assembly and characterization of bark transcriptome using Illumina sequencing and development of EST-SSR markers in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). BMC Genomics. 2012;13:192 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is necessary to carried out high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of rubber tree bark to generate enormous transcript sequences for the functional characterization and molecular marker development...
  12. Zheng Z, Chen S, Wang S, Wang X, Cheng K, Wu J, et al. Chemical components and tyrosinase inhibitors from the twigs of Artocarpus heterophyllus. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:6649-55 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that similar compounds, such as norartocarpetin and artocarpesin in the twigs and woods of A. heterophyllus, contributed to their tyrosinase inhibitory activity...
  13. Gaoue O, Ticktin T. Effects of harvest of nontimber forest products and ecological differences between sites on the demography of African mahogany. Conserv Biol. 2010;24:605-14 pubmed publisher
  14. Gansane A, Sanon S, Ouattara L, Traore A, Hutter S, Ollivier E, et al. Antiplasmodial activity and toxicity of crude extracts from alternatives parts of plants widely used for the treatment of malaria in Burkina Faso: contribution for their preservation. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The data generated clearly show that the trunk bark for Z. zanthoxyloides and the leaves for A. leiocarpus and C. molle could be used for the treatment of malaria instead of roots and stem bark...
  15. Dusotoit Coucaud A, Kongsawadworakul P, Maurousset L, Viboonjun U, Brunel N, Pujade Renaud V, et al. Ethylene stimulation of latex yield depends on the expression of a sucrose transporter (HbSUT1B) in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Tree Physiol. 2010;30:1586-98 pubmed publisher
    ..A positive correlation with HbSUT1B transcript accumulation and increased latex production was further supported by its lower expression in latex cells of the virgin clone PB217...
  16. Ravikumar S, Inbaneson S, Suganthi P, Venkatesan M, Ramu A. Mangrove plants as a source of lead compounds for the development of new antiplasmodial drugs from South East coast of India. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1405-10 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded from the present study that the ethanolic extracts of mangrove plant parts of A. marina possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs...
  17. Zhao Y, Zhou L, Chen Y, Yang S, Tian W. MYC genes with differential responses to tapping, mechanical wounding, ethrel and methyl jasmonate in laticifers of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:1649-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Characterization of HblMYC1 and HblMYC2 will contribute to the understanding of jasmonate signaling in laticifiers, a kind of specialized tissue for natural rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis...
  18. Uhlenhut K, Högger P. Facilitated cellular uptake and suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by a metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:305-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, intracellular accumulation of M1 could explain why in vivo bioactivity can be observed with nanomolar plasma concentrations that typically fail to exhibit measurable activity in vitro...
  19. Wangensteen H, Dang H, Uddin S, Alamgir M, Malterud K. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the mangrove tree Heritiera fomes. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4:371-6 pubmed
    ..The bark extracts showed antibacterial activities against K. rhizophilia, S. aureus, B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa, as well. No toxicity was observed in the brine shrimp assay...
  20. Martin Quintal Z, Moo Puc R, Gonzalez Salazar F, Chan Bacab M, Torres Tapia L, Peraza Sánchez S. In vitro activity of Tridax procumbens against promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122:463-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Tridax procumbens is an active herb against leishmaniasis...
  21. Sathishkumar M, Sneha K, Won S, Cho C, Kim S, Yun Y. Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract and powder mediated green synthesis of nano-crystalline silver particles and its bactericidal activity. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2009;73:332-8 pubmed publisher
    ..72 mg/L. Thus C. zeylanicum bark extract and powder are a good bio-resource/biomaterial for the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity...
  22. Tsaffack M, Nguemeving J, Kuete V, Ndejouong Tchize B, Mkounga P, Penlap Beng V, et al. Two new antimicrobial dimeric compounds: febrifuquinone, a vismione-anthraquinone coupled pigment and adamabianthrone, from two Psorospermum species. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2009;57:1113-8 pubmed
    ..Their structures were determined using modern spectroscopic methods including one and two dimensional-NMR techniques as well as MS. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant antimicrobial activities against a wide range of bacteria and fungi...
  23. Mishra K, Chakraborty D, Pal A, Dey N. Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro interaction of quassin and neo-quassin with artesunate, a hemisuccinate derivative of artemisinin. Exp Parasitol. 2010;124:421-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It was interesting to note that none of the combinations exhibited antagonistic interactions. This phenomenon offers the opportunity for further exploration of novel therapeutic concentrations and combinations...
  24. Tung N, Kwon H, Kim J, Ra J, Ding Y, Kim J, et al. Anti-influenza diarylheptanoids from the bark of Alnus japonica. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:1000-3 pubmed publisher
  25. Zofou D, Kowa T, Wabo H, Ngemenya M, Tane P, Titanji V. Hypericum lanceolatum (Hypericaceae) as a potential source of new anti-malarial agents: a bioassay-guided fractionation of the stem bark. Malar J. 2011;10:167 pubmed publisher
    ..A bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out in order to evaluate the anti-malarial potential and the safety of the methanol extract of the Hypericum lanceolatum stem bark...
  26. He T, Pausas J, Belcher C, Schwilk D, Lamont B. Fire-adapted traits of Pinus arose in the fiery Cretaceous. New Phytol. 2012;194:751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our evidence for a strong correlation between the evolution of fire-response strategies and changes in fire regime 90-125 Ma greatly backdates the key role that fire has played in the evolution of seed plants...
  27. Rodrigues Orsi P, Bonamin F, Aparecida Severi J, Cássia Santos R, Vilegas W, Hiruma Lima C, et al. Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne: a Brazilian medicinal plant with gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer and antidiarrheal effects in experimental rodent models. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143:81-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The stem bark of this medicinal plant, popularly known as "jatobá-do-cerrado", is widely used in tea form to treat gastric pain, ulcers, diarrhoea and inflammation, whereas its fruits pulp is edible...
  28. Tungngoen K, Kongsawadworakul P, Viboonjun U, Katsuhara M, Brunel N, Sakr S, et al. Involvement of HbPIP2;1 and HbTIP1;1 aquaporins in ethylene stimulation of latex yield through regulation of water exchanges between inner liber and latex cells in Hevea brasiliensis. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:843-56 pubmed publisher
  29. Rennenberg H, Wildhagen H, Ehlting B. Nitrogen nutrition of poplar trees. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2010;12:275-91 pubmed publisher
  30. Drieling R, Gardner C, Ma J, Ahn D, Stafford R. No beneficial effects of pine bark extract on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pine bark extract, a dietary supplement source of antioxidant oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes, has multiple putative cardiovascular benefits. Studies published to date about the supplement have notable methodological limitations...
  31. Puebla P, Oshima Franco Y, Franco L, Santos M, Silva R, Rubem Mauro L, et al. Chemical constituents of the bark of Dipteryx alata vogel, an active species against Bothrops jararacussu venom. Molecules. 2010;15:8193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HRMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques...
  32. Nartey E, Ofosuhene M, Kudzi W, Agbale C. Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:65 pubmed
  33. Sgariglia M, Soberón J, Cabanes A, Sampietro D, Vattuone M. Anti-inflammatory properties of phenolic lactones isolated from Caesalpinia paraguariensis stem bark. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;147:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Caesalpinia paraguariensis (D. Parodi) Burkart stem bark infusion (CPBI) is traditionally used in Argentina because their "vulnerary" properties...
  34. Sadiq M, Tharaphan P, Chotivanich K, Tarning J, Anal A. In vitro antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:372 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum. A. nilotica extracts showed promising antimalarial and antioxidant effects. However, further investigation is needed to isolate and identify the active components responsible for the antimalarial and antioxidant effects. ..
  35. Saravanakumar S, Kumaravel A, Nagarajan T, Sudhakar P, Baskaran R. Characterization of a novel natural cellulosic fiber from Prosopis juliflora bark. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;92:1928-33 pubmed publisher
    ..4 MPa with an average strain rate of 1.77±0.04% and microfibril angle of 10.64°±0.45°. Thermal analyses (TG and DTG) showed that it started degrading at a temperature of 217 °C with kinetic activation energy of 76.72 kJ/mol. ..
  36. Shin E, Song B, Lee I, Park M, Ahn Y, Chang K. Repellency of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and their major constituents to Leptotrombidium pallidum (Acari: Trombiculidae). J Med Entomol. 2013;50:579-84 pubmed
    ..pallidum populations...
  37. Novakovic M, Pesic M, Trifunović S, Vuckovic I, Todorović N, Podolski Renic A, et al. Diarylheptanoids from the bark of black alder inhibit the growth of sensitive and multi-drug resistant non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Phytochemistry. 2014;97:46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Substitution of a heptane chain on C-5 and a number of hydroxyl groups in the aromatic rings also emerged as a significant structural feature that influenced their cytotoxic potential. ..
  38. Akihisa T, Yokokawa S, Ogihara E, Matsumoto M, Zhang J, Kikuchi T, et al. Melanogenesis-Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Limonoids, Alkaloids, and Phenolic Compounds from Phellodendron amurense Bark. Chem Biodivers. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..6 - 90.0 ?m. In particular, compound 5 exhibited strong cytotoxicity against AZ521 (IC50 2.6 ?m) which was superior to that of the reference cisplatin (IC50 9.5 ?m)...
  39. Jamila N, Khan N, Khan A, Khan I, Khan S, Zakaria Z, et al. IN VIVO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF GARCINIA HOMBRONIANA (SEASHORE MANGOSTEEN). Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2017;14:374-382 pubmed publisher
    ..From the results, it could be concluded that MEA extract has potency to inhibit hepatotoxicity and MCF-7 and DBTRG cancer cell lines which might be due to the phenolic compounds depicted from NMR and IR spectra. ..
  40. Bourjot M, Delang L, Nguyen V, Neyts J, Guéritte F, Leyssen P, et al. Prostratin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate are potent and selective inhibitors of Chikungunya virus replication. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:2183-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, no or very little activity was observed on the replication of SINV and SFV. ..
  41. Krishnani K, Boddu V, Moon D, Ghadge S, Sarkar B, Brahmane M, et al. Metals Bioaccumulation Mechanism in Neem Bark. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2015;95:414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica)...
  42. Stevenson P, Green P, Veitch N, Farrell I, Kusolwa P, Belmain S. Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles. Phytochemistry. 2016;123:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides. ..
  43. Ha M, Tran M, Phuong T, Kim J, Woo M, Choi J, et al. Cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activities against human lung cancer cell lines of cassaine diterpenoids from the bark of Erythrophleum fordii. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:2946-2952 pubmed publisher
    ..4?M and 5.9?M. Erythroformine B (7) significantly induced apoptosis in all three cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. ..
  44. Nguyen C, Trinh B, Tran T, Nguyen L, Jäger A, Nguyen L. Anti-diabetic xanthones from the bark of Garcinia xanthochymus. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:3301-3304 pubmed publisher
    ..1±0.3?M (compared with acarbose, IC50=900.0±3.0?M) whilst xanthochymusxanthone B (2) exhibited remarkable activity towards PTP1B with IC50 value of 8.0±0.6?M (compared with RK682, IC50=4.4±0.3?M). ..
  45. Fakruddin M, Mannan K, Mazumdar R, Afroz H. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:232 pubmed publisher
    ..Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the chemical components responsible for the therapeutic properties of the plant. ..
  46. Xu S, Zhang S, Wang X, Gao Y, Qin X, Wu K. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus. Indian J Exp Biol. 2012;50:708-13 pubmed
    ..EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro. ..
  47. Gan C, Low Y, Thomas N, Kam T. Rhazinilam-Leuconolam-Leuconoxine Alkaloids from Leuconotis griffithii. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Alkaloids 1, 5, and 7 showed only moderate to weak cytotoxicity toward KB cells (IC50 12-18 ?g/mL), while 8 showed moderate activity in reversing MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells. ..
  48. Khaliq F, Parveen A, Singh S, Gondal R, Hussain M, Fahim M. Improvement in myocardial function by Terminalia arjuna in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: possible mechanisms. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2013;18:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that T arjuna bark extract improves the altered myocardial function in diabetic rats possibly through maintaining endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, decreasing ET-1 and cytokine levels. ..
  49. Wang Z, Wang J, Luo J, Kong L. ?-Glucosidase inhibitory triterpenoids from the stem barks of Uncaria laevigata. Fitoterapia. 2013;90:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..All these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase: ursolic acid and 3 showed potent activities with IC?? values of 16 ± 2.2 and 49 ± 3.7 ?M, respectively...
  50. Grether Beck S, Marini A, Jaenicke T, Krutmann J. French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2016;29:13-7 pubmed publisher
  51. Yan H, Wang J, Kong L. Cytotoxic dammarane-type triterpenoids from the stem bark of Dysoxylum binecteriferum. J Nat Prod. 2014;77:234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..7 cells. Compounds 4 and 8 displayed moderate cytotoxicities against HepG2 with IC50 values of 6.5 and 8.0 ?M, respectively. ..
  52. Acharya S, Stark T, Oh S, Jeon S, Pak S, Kim M, et al. (2R,3S,2?R,3?R)-Manniflavanone Protects Proliferating Skeletal Muscle Cells against Oxidative Stress and Stimulates Myotube Formation. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65:3636-3646 pubmed publisher
    ..It reduces oxidative stress-induced delaying of skeletal muscle differentiation by scavenging reactive oxygen species and regulating myogenic proteins factors. ..
  53. Dhananjaya B, Shivalingaiah S. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2016;88:197-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent. ..
  54. Yuan C, Zhang Y, Tang G, Li Y, He H, Li S, et al. Cytotoxic limonoids from Melia azedarach. Planta Med. 2013;79:163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven limonoids (1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9b, and 9c) showed significant inhibitory activities against tested cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.555 µM, and their preliminary structure-activity relationships are also discussed...
  55. Cucu Man S, Steinnes E. Analysis of selected biomonitors to evaluate the suitability for their complementary use in monitoring trace element atmospheric deposition. Environ Monit Assess. 2013;185:7775-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of tree bark for monitoring purposes might be an alternative in areas where there is a scarcity of mosses. ..
  56. Peçanha L, Fernandes P, Simen T, de Oliveira D, Finotelli P, Pereira M, et al. Immunobiologic and antiinflammatory properties of a bark extract from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:451679 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of SART shows a complex saponin profile with deprotonated molecule [M-H](-) ions in the range of m/z 800-1000. ..
  57. Cao X, Xu J, Bai G, Zhang H, Liu Y, Xiang J, et al. Isolation of anti-tumor compounds from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb. & Zucc. by silica gel column and counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013;929:6-10 pubmed publisher
    ..0%, 94.0%, 99.0% and 94.0% purity, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The separation method proved to be efficient, especially for those minor components. ..
  58. da Silva F, de Souza A, Koolen H, Barison A, Vendramin M, Costa E, et al. Phytochemical study of the alkaloidal fractions of Unonopsis duckei R. E. Fr. guided by electrospray ionisation ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. Phytochem Anal. 2014;25:45-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mass spectrometry monitoring was fundamental to prioritise the isolation of substances not yet identified for the Unonopsis genus, dismissing known compounds and simplifying the phytochemical study. ..
  59. Citalingam K, Zareen S, Shaari K, Ahmad S. Effects of Payena dasyphylla (Miq.) on hyaluronidase enzyme activity and metalloproteinases protein expressions in interleukin-1? stimulated human chondrocytes cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:213 pubmed publisher
    ..We also reported that the inhibitory effect of Payena dasyphylla on hyaluronidase activity and expression might be due to its anti-oxidant property. ..
  60. Zhang Y, Cui Y, Zhu J, Li H, Mao J, Jin X, et al. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim on human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013;10:258-69 pubmed
  61. Jain R, Yadav N, Bhagchandani T, Jain S. A new pentacyclic phenol and other constituents from the root bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. Nat Prod Res. 2013;27:1870-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds with skeleton similar to 1 have never been reported from any natural or other source. ..
  62. Görick C, Melzig M. Gniditrin is the main diterpenoid constituent in the bark of Daphne mezereum L. Pharmazie. 2013;68:640-2 pubmed
    ..mezereum mezerein could be detected. The complete NMR data of gniditrin are published for the first time...
  63. Wu C, Duan Y, Li M, Tang W, Wu X, Wang G, et al. Triterpenoid saponins from the stem barks of Schefflera heptaphylla. Planta Med. 2013;79:1348-55 pubmed publisher
    ..All the saponins were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells, and 2, 6, 7, and 10 showed anti-inflammatory activities under their noncytotoxic concentrations. ..
  64. Dinić J, Novaković M, Podolski Renić A, Vajs V, Tešević V, Isaković A, et al. Structural differences in diarylheptanoids analogues from Alnus viridis and Alnus glutinosa influence their activity and selectivity towards cancer cells. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;249:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that minor differences in the chemical structure can greatly influence the effect of diarylheptanoids on apoptosis and redox status and determine their selectivity towards cancer cells. ..
  65. Moreira T, de Oliveira R, Amato L, Kang C, Saldiva P, Saiki M. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources. Environ Int. 2016;91:271-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies. ..
  66. Nieto Yañez O, Reséndiz Albor A, Ruiz Hurtado P, Rivera Yañez N, Rodriguez Canales M, Rodriguez Sosa M, et al. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM BARK OF BURSERA APTERA. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2017;14:188-197 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, several plants have shown success as anti-leishmanial agents. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of MEBA against Leishmania mexicana...
  67. Chen H, Li Y, Sun Y, Gong J, Du K, Zhang Y, et al. Lignanamides with potent antihyperlipidemic activities from the root bark of Lycium chinense. Fitoterapia. 2017;122:119-125 pubmed publisher
    ..All isolated compounds were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activities in HepG2 cells. The primary structure-activity relationships were discussed. ..
  68. Ayissi Owona B, Njayou N, Laufer S, Moundipa P, Schluesener H. A fraction of stem bark extract of Entada africana suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;149:162-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Entada africana is a plant used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of stomachache, fever, liver related diseases, wound healing, cataract and dysentery...
  69. Mulholland D, Mwangi E, Dlova N, Plant N, Crouch N, Coombes P. Non-toxic melanin production inhibitors from Garcinia livingstonei (Clusiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;149:570-5 pubmed publisher
  70. Akinpelu D, Odewade J, Aiyegoro O, Ashafa A, Akinpelu O, Agunbiade M. Biocidal effects of stem bark extract of Chrysophyllum albidium G. Don on vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:105 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed the antimicrobial potential of the stem bark extract of Chrysophyllum albidum against an array of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) isolated from clinical samples...
  71. Santos C, Masullo M, Cerulli A, Mari A, Estevam C, Pizza C, et al. Isolation of antioxidant phenolics from Schinopsis brasiliensis based on a preliminary LC-MS profiling. Phytochemistry. 2017;140:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..10-1.86 mM. None of the tested compounds, in a range of concentrations between 12.5 and 100 ?M, caused a significant reduction of the cell number. ..
  72. Li F, Tuo L, Pan Z, Guo M, Lee S, Chen L, et al. Aureimonas endophytica sp. nov., a novel endophytic bacterium isolated from Aegiceras corniculatum. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:2934-2940 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aureimonas endophytica sp. nov. is 2T4P-2-4T (=KCTC 52217T=CGMCC 1.15367T)...
  73. Conte E, Widom E, Kuentz D. Uranium isotopes in tree bark as a spatial tracer of environmental contamination near former uranium processing facilities in southwest Ohio. J Environ Radioact. 2017;178-179:265-278 pubmed publisher
    ..2015). Overall, this study shows the usefulness of a tree bark sample transect to assess the areal extent of atmospheric contaminant U stemming from nuclear facilities. ..
  74. Wang Y, Wang W, Su C, Zhang D, Xu L, He R, et al. Cytotoxic quassinoids from Ailanthus altissima. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:654-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, compounds 2, 3, and 5 exhibited cytotoxic activity against multidrug resistance HepG2/ADM cell line with IC(50) value 4.3-fold more sensitive to Doxorubicin (DOX)...
  75. Alvala R, Alvala M, Sama V, Dharmarajan S, Ullas J, B M. Scientific evidence for traditional claim of anti-obesity activity of Tecomella undulata bark. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148:441-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The bark of Tecomella undulata is traditionally claimed in the treatment of various disease ailments including obesity and cancer. Till now there are no studies about anti-obesity activity of Tecomella undulata bark...
  76. Rouaiguia Bouakkaz S, Amira Guebailia H, Rivière C, Delaunay J, Waffo Teguo P, Merillon J. Identification and quantification of furanocoumarins in stem bark and wood of eight Algerian varieties of Ficus carica by RP-HPLC-DAD and RP-HPLC-DAD-MS. Nat Prod Commun. 2013;8:485-6 pubmed
    ..Psoralen and bergapten concentrations were higher in the wood than in the stem bark. Most of the dark fruited fig trees produce these two coumarins more than the green ones...
  77. Belcaro G, Hu S, Cesarone M, Dugall M. A controlled study shows daily intake of 50 mg of French Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) lowers plasma reactive oxygen metabolites in healthy smokers. Minerva Med. 2013;104:439-46 pubmed
    ..We investigated a low daily dosage of 50 mg of the antioxidant Pycnogenol for lowering oxidative stress in cigarette smokers who presented with good health...
  78. Tsamo Tontsa A, Mkounga P, Njayou F, MANAUTOU J, Kirk M, Hultin P, et al. Rubescins A, B and C: new havanensin type limonoids from root bark of Trichilia rubescens (Meliaceae). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2013;61:1178-83 pubmed
    ..Compound (1) showed strong inhibitory effects on lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, being as active (IC50 value of 0.0026?µM) as the positive control quercetin (IC50 value of 0.0030?µM). ..
  79. Nagagi Y, Silayo R, Luziga C, Kweka E. In vivo effect of Commiphora swynnertonii ethanolic extracts on Trypanosoma congolense and selected immunological components in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:275 pubmed publisher
    ..swynnertonii is probably affected by its negative effect on humoral mediated immune response. Further studies are recommended to determine its potential as an alternative source of lead compounds for trypanocidal drug discovery. ..
  80. Huang Q, Lei C, Wang P, Li J, Li J, Hou A. Isoprenylated phenolic compounds with PTP1B inhibition from Morus alba. Fitoterapia. 2017;122:138-143 pubmed publisher
    ..All the new compounds and most of the known ones showed significant inhibitory effects on PTP1B in vitro with IC50 values ranging from 0.57 to 7.49?M. ..
  81. Interaminense L, dos Ramos Alves F, de Siqueira R, Xavier F, Duarte G, Magalhães P, et al. Vasorelaxant effects of 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, the main constituent of the essential oil of Aniba canelilla, in superior mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2013;48:709-16 pubmed publisher
  82. Hamzaoui M, Renault J, Nuzillard J, Reynaud R, Hubert J. Stepwise elution of a three-phase solvent system in centrifugal partition extraction: a new strategy for the fractionation and phytochemical screening of a crude bark extract. Phytochem Anal. 2013;24:367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the detailed screening of secondary metabolites in crude bark extracts is often hampered by the presence of tannins, which are difficult to separate from other plant constituents...
  83. Das S, Mukherjee H, Ahmed S, Haldar P, Mandal A, Mahapatra A, et al. Evaluation of an ethnomedicinal combination containing Semecarpus kurzii and Hernandia peltata used for the management of inflammation. Pharm Biol. 2013;51:677-85 pubmed publisher
  84. Piaulino C, Carvalho F, Almeida B, Chaves M, Almeida F, Brito S. The stem bark extracts of Cenostigma macrophyllum attenuates tactile allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharm Biol. 2013;51:1243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies showed antioxidant action and analgesic effects of the ethanol extract from the leaves of C. macrophyllum. The phytochemical evaluation of the stem bark revealed the presence of antinociceptive compounds...
  85. Nam J, Kim S, Yoon T, Lee Y, Kil Y, Lee Y, et al. Heat shock factor 1 inducers from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides as cytoprotective agents. Chem Biodivers. 2013;10:1322-7 pubmed publisher
  86. Srivastava S, Sonkar R, Mishra S, Tiwari A, Balaramnavar V, Balramnavar V, et al. Antidyslipidemic and antioxidant effects of novel Lupeol-derived chalcones. Lipids. 2013;48:1017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vitro effect of the most active compounds on MDI-induced adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at 10 and 20 μM concentrations showed significant inhibition (20-32 %) of adipogenesis. ..
  87. Choudhary M, Bodakhe S, Gupta S. Assessment of the antiulcer potential of Moringa oleifera root-bark extract in rats. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2013;6:214-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that MO possesses valuable antiulcer, antisecretory, and cytoprotective activity. Thus, an ethanolic root-bark extract of Moringa oleifera can be used as source for an antiulcer drug. ..
  88. Choi S. Time trends in the levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine bark, litter, and soil after a forest fire. Sci Total Environ. 2014;470-471:1441-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio also supported that the forest fire was indeed an important source of PAHs in the study area...
  89. Ainooson G, Owusu G, Woode E, Ansah C, Annan K. Trichilia monadelpha bark extracts inhibit carrageenan-induced foot-oedema in the 7-day old chick and the oedema associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2012;9:8-16 pubmed
    ..96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, ..
  90. Jaramillo J, Torto B, Mwenda D, Troeger A, Borgemeister C, Poehling H, et al. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74277 pubmed publisher
  91. Le Normand M, Mélida H, Holmbom B, Michaelsen T, Inngjerdingen M, Bulone V, et al. Hot-water extracts from the inner bark of Norway spruce with immunomodulating activities. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:699-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophages were stimulated by IB 100°C and IB 140°C in a dose-dependent manner, but not by IB 160°C. IB 100°C presented the highest activity toward macrophages, comparable to the control pectin. ..
  92. Faccoli M, Favaro R, Concheri G, Squartini A, Battisti A. Tree colonization by the Asian longhorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): effect of habitat and tree suitability. Insect Sci. 2016;23:288-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Suitability of different trees may be due to other factors, such as secondary chemical compounds. ..