plant epidermis

Summary

Summary: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Domínguez E, Cuartero J, Heredia A. An overview on plant cuticle biomechanics. Plant Sci. 2011;181:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Cuticle rheology has significant variability within a species and thus can be subjected to selection in order to breed cultivars resistant to pests, infestation and disorders...
  2. Zhang Z, Wang W, Li W. Genetic interactions underlying the biosynthesis and inhibition of ?-diketones in wheat and their impact on glaucousness and cuticle permeability. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54129 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that both W1 and W2 are required for enhancing drought tolerance...
  3. Elsner J, Michalski M, Kwiatkowska D. Spatiotemporal variation of leaf epidermal cell growth: a quantitative analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and triple cyclinD3 mutant plants. Ann Bot. 2012;109:897-910 pubmed publisher
    ..Here hypotheses are tested that in such a cell mosaic growth is heterogeneous and changes with time, and that this heterogeneity is not dependent on the cell cycle regulation per se...
  4. Asl L, Dhondt S, Boudolf V, Beemster G, Beeckman T, Inze D, et al. Model-based analysis of Arabidopsis leaf epidermal cells reveals distinct division and expansion patterns for pavement and guard cells. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:2172-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that cell division seems to occur independently from the status of cell expansion, whereas the cell cycle might act as a timer rather than as a size-regulated machinery...
  5. Kim C, Dolan L. Root hair development involves asymmetric cell division in Brachypodium distachyon and symmetric division in Oryza sativa. New Phytol. 2011;192:601-10 pubmed publisher
    ..distachyon but different rates of cell expansion in O. sativa. We hypothesize that the mechanism that includes asymmetric cytokinesis during the development of H and N cells evolved among the Pooideae or ancestors of this subfamily...
  6. Lü S, Zhao H, Parsons E, Xu C, Kosma D, Xu X, et al. The glossyhead1 allele of ACC1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1079-92 pubmed publisher
  7. Yeats T, Buda G, Wang Z, Chehanovsky N, Moyle L, Jetter R, et al. The fruit cuticles of wild tomato species exhibit architectural and chemical diversity, providing a new model for studying the evolution of cuticle function. Plant J. 2012;69:655-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a model system for understanding the ecological and evolutionary functional genomics of plant cuticles...
  8. Kimbara J, Yoshida M, Ito H, Hosoi K, Kusano M, Kobayashi M, et al. A novel class of sticky peel and light green mutations causes cuticle deficiency in leaves and fruits of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Planta. 2012;236:1559-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together the preliminary analyses of the cuticle components, the PE LG is most likely involved in proper cuticle formation...
  9. Hartwig T, Chuck G, Fujioka S, Klempien A, Weizbauer R, Potluri D, et al. Brassinosteroid control of sex determination in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19814-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that, in the monoecious plant maize, BRs have been coopted to perform a sex determination function not found in plants with bisexual flowers...

More Information

Publications89

  1. Bernard A, Domergue F, Pascal S, Jetter R, Renne C, Faure J, et al. Reconstitution of plant alkane biosynthesis in yeast demonstrates that Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 are core components of a very-long-chain alkane synthesis complex. Plant Cell. 2012;24:3106-18 pubmed publisher
  2. An L, Zhou Z, Sun L, Yan A, Xi W, Yu N, et al. A zinc finger protein gene ZFP5 integrates phytohormone signaling to control root hair development in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2012;72:474-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ZFP5 integrates various plant hormone cues to control root epidermal cell development in Arabidopsis...
  3. Bruex A, Kainkaryam R, Wieckowski Y, Kang Y, Bernhardt C, Xia Y, et al. A gene regulatory network for root epidermis cell differentiation in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002446 pubmed publisher
  4. Ke D, Fang Q, Chen C, Zhu H, Chen T, Chang X, et al. The small GTPase ROP6 interacts with NFR5 and is involved in nodule formation in Lotus japonicus. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:131-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate a role of ROP6 as a positive regulator of infection thread formation and nodulation in L. japonicus...
  5. Adamski N, Bush M, Simmonds J, Turner A, Mugford S, Jones A, et al. The inhibitor of wax 1 locus (Iw1) prevents formation of ?- and OH-?-diketones in wheat cuticular waxes and maps to a sub-cM interval on chromosome arm 2BS. Plant J. 2013;74:989-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..No differences were found in cuticle thickness and carbon isotope discrimination in near-isogenic lines differing at Iw1...
  6. Mao B, Cheng Z, Lei C, Xu F, Gao S, Ren Y, et al. Wax crystal-sparse leaf2, a rice homologue of WAX2/GL1, is involved in synthesis of leaf cuticular wax. Planta. 2012;235:39-52 pubmed publisher
  7. Andriunas F, Zhang H, Weber H, McCurdy D, Offler C, Patrick J. Glucose and ethylene signalling pathways converge to regulate trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia narbonensis cotyledons. Plant J. 2011;68:987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..A model is presented describing the interaction between glucose and ethylene signalling pathways regulating the induction of wall ingrowth formation in adaxial epidermal cells...
  8. Lü S, Zhao H, Des Marais D, Parsons E, Wen X, Xu X, et al. Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM9 involvement in cuticle formation and maintenance of plant water status. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:930-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of CER9 lays new groundwork for developing novel cuticle-based strategies for improving the drought tolerance and water use efficiency of crop plants...
  9. Girard A, Mounet F, Lemaire Chamley M, Gaillard C, Elmorjani K, Vivancos J, et al. Tomato GDSL1 is required for cutin deposition in the fruit cuticle. Plant Cell. 2012;24:3119-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GDSL1 is specifically involved in the extracellular deposition of the cutin polyester in the tomato fruit cuticle...
  10. Genre A, Chabaud M, Balzergue C, Puech Pages V, Novero M, Rey T, et al. Short-chain chitin oligomers from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi trigger nuclear Ca2+ spiking in Medicago truncatula roots and their production is enhanced by strigolactone. New Phytol. 2013;198:190-202 pubmed publisher
  11. Kim H, Lee S, Kim H, Min M, Hwang I, Suh M. Characterization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipid transfer protein 2 (LTPG2) and overlapping function between LTPG/LTPG1 and LTPG2 in cuticular wax export or accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:1391-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that LTPG2 is functionally overlapped with LTPG/LTPG1 during cuticular wax export or accumulation and LTPG/LTPG1 and LTPG2 are targeted to the plasma membrane via the vesicular trafficking system...
  12. Liu C, Li L, Chen W, Chen X, Xu Z, Bai S. HDA18 affects cell fate in Arabidopsis root epidermis via histone acetylation at four kinase genes. Plant Cell. 2013;25:257-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal the surprisingly complex mechanism by which HDA18 affects cellular patterning in Arabidopsis root epidermis...
  13. Kwasniewski M, Nowakowska U, Szumera J, Chwialkowska K, Szarejko I. iRootHair: a comprehensive root hair genomics database. Plant Physiol. 2013;161:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..iRootHair is a unique resource for root hair research that integrates the large volume of data related to root hair genomics in a single, curated, and expandable database that is freely available at www.iroothair.org...
  14. Shi J, Adato A, Alkan N, He Y, Lashbrooke J, Matas A, et al. The tomato SlSHINE3 transcription factor regulates fruit cuticle formation and epidermal patterning. New Phytol. 2013;197:468-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provided insights into transcriptional mechanisms mediating fleshy fruit cuticle formation and highlighted the link between cutin metabolism and the process of fruit epidermal cell patterning...
  15. Tisné S, Barbier F, Granier C. The ERECTA gene controls spatial and temporal patterns of epidermal cell number and size in successive developing leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ann Bot. 2011;108:159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work demonstrated a role for ERECTA in the control of compensation between epidermal cell expansion and division in leaves...
  16. Fernandez V, Khayet M, Montero Prado P, Heredia Guerrero J, Liakopoulos G, Karabourniotis G, et al. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: peach fruit as a model. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:2098-108 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of the data concerning water-plant surface interactions is discussed within a physiological context...
  17. Crowell E, Timpano H, Desprez T, Franssen Verheijen T, Emons A, Hofte H, et al. Differential regulation of cellulose orientation at the inner and outer face of epidermal cells in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2592-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study highlights the previously underestimated complexity of cortical microtubule organization in the shoot epidermis and underscores a role for the inner tissues in the regulation of growth anisotropy...
  18. Javelle M, Klein Cosson C, Vernoud V, Boltz V, Maher C, Timmermans M, et al. Genome-wide characterization of the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor family in maize: preferential expression in the epidermis. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:790-803 pubmed publisher
    ..The strong evolutionary conservation and the size of the conserved motifs in the 3' untranslated region suggest that the expression of HD-ZIP IV genes may be regulated by small RNAs...
  19. Tominaga Wada R, Iwata M, Nukumizu Y, Wada T. Analysis of IIId, IIIe and IVa group basic-helix-loop-helix proteins expressed in Arabidopsis root epidermis. Plant Sci. 2011;181:471-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, AtbHLH006 and AtbHLH020 may function in root epidermal cells, but other GL3-like bHLH proteins may have evolved to regulate different processes...
  20. Zhong R, Lee C, McCarthy R, Reeves C, Jones E, Ye Z. Transcriptional activation of secondary wall biosynthesis by rice and maize NAC and MYB transcription factors. Plant Cell Physiol. 2011;52:1856-71 pubmed publisher
  21. Song S, Ryu K, Kang Y, Song J, Cho Y, Yoo S, et al. Cell fate in the Arabidopsis root epidermis is determined by competition between WEREWOLF and CAPRICE. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1196-208 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that WER acts together with GL3/EGL3 to induce GL2 expression and that WER and CPC compete with one another to define cell fates in the Arabidopsis root epidermis...
  22. Lam P, Zhao L, McFarlane H, Aiga M, Lam V, Hooker T, et al. RDR1 and SGS3, components of RNA-mediated gene silencing, are required for the regulation of cuticular wax biosynthesis in developing inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:1385-95 pubmed publisher
  23. Matas A, Yeats T, Buda G, Zheng Y, Chatterjee S, Tohge T, et al. Tissue- and cell-type specific transcriptome profiling of expanding tomato fruit provides insights into metabolic and regulatory specialization and cuticle formation. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3893-910 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, patterns of similar gene expression between tissues led to the characterization of a cuticle on the inner surface of the pericarp, demonstrating the utility of this approach as a platform for biological discovery...
  24. Kutschera U. The growing outer epidermal wall: design and physiological role of a composite structure. Ann Bot. 2008;101:615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This spontaneous generation of complex design 'without an intelligent designer' evolved independently in the protective 'skin' of plants, animals and many other organisms. ..
  25. Simon M, Lee M, Lin Y, Gish L, Schiefelbein J. Distinct and overlapping roles of single-repeat MYB genes in root epidermal patterning. Dev Biol. 2007;311:566-78 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insight into the function of these single-repeat MYBs and suggest that divergence of their regulatory sequences is largely responsible for their distinct roles in epidermal cell patterning. ..
  26. Kaminuma E, Yoshizumi T, Wada T, Matsui M, Toyoda T. Quantitative analysis of heterogeneous spatial distribution of Arabidopsis leaf trichomes using micro X-ray computed tomography. Plant J. 2008;56:470-82 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, CPC does affect trichome growth and developmental progression. Hence, quantitative phenotyping based on microCT enables precise phenotypic description for elucidation of gene control in morphological mutants. ..
  27. Lin C, Choi H, Cho H. Root hair-specific EXPANSIN A7 is required for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Mol Cells. 2011;31:393-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide in vivo evidence that expansins are required for root hair tip growth. ..
  28. Kanaoka M, Pillitteri L, Fujii H, Yoshida Y, Bogenschutz N, Takabayashi J, et al. SCREAM/ICE1 and SCREAM2 specify three cell-state transitional steps leading to arabidopsis stomatal differentiation. Plant Cell. 2008;20:1775-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Stomata, valves on the plant epidermis, are formed through a series of differentiation events mediated by three closely related basic-helix-loop-..
  29. Kutschera U, Niklas K. The epidermal-growth-control theory of stem elongation: an old and a new perspective. J Plant Physiol. 2007;164:1395-409 pubmed
  30. Morohashi K, Grotewold E. A systems approach reveals regulatory circuitry for Arabidopsis trichome initiation by the GL3 and GL1 selectors. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000396 pubmed publisher
  31. Savage N, Schmidt W. From priming to plasticity: the changing fate of rhizodermic cells. Bioessays. 2008;30:75-81 pubmed
    ..Under conditions of phosphate deficiency, we hypothesise that HGP production is increased and HGI diffusion rate is reduced, leading to a position-independent formation of extra root hairs. ..
  32. Hamant O, Heisler M, Jonsson H, Krupinski P, Uyttewaal M, Bokov P, et al. Developmental patterning by mechanical signals in Arabidopsis. Science. 2008;322:1650-5 pubmed publisher
  33. Weng H, Molina I, Shockey J, Browse J. Organ fusion and defective cuticle function in a lacs1 lacs2 double mutant of Arabidopsis. Planta. 2010;231:1089-100 pubmed publisher
  34. Matas A, Agusti J, Tadeo F, Talon M, Rose J. Tissue-specific transcriptome profiling of the citrus fruit epidermis and subepidermis using laser capture microdissection. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:3321-30 pubmed publisher
  35. Kosma D, Nemacheck J, Jenks M, Williams C. Changes in properties of wheat leaf cuticle during interactions with Hessian fly. Plant J. 2010;63:31-43 pubmed publisher
  36. Schilmiller A, Schauvinhold I, Larson M, Xu R, Charbonneau A, Schmidt A, et al. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10865-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes. ..
  37. Lampard G, MacAlister C, Bergmann D. Arabidopsis stomatal initiation is controlled by MAPK-mediated regulation of the bHLH SPEECHLESS. Science. 2008;322:1113-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The coupling of MAPK signaling to SPEECHLESS activity provides cell type specificity for MAPK output while allowing the integration of multiple developmental and environmental signals into the production and spacing of stomata. ..
  38. Islam M, Du H, Ning J, Ye H, Xiong L. Characterization of Glossy1-homologous genes in rice involved in leaf wax accumulation and drought resistance. Plant Mol Biol. 2009;70:443-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to the over-expression and wild type plants, the osgl1-2 mutant was more sensitive to drought stress at reproductive stage, suggesting an important role of this gene in drought resistance. ..
  39. Panikashvili D, Shi J, Schreiber L, Aharoni A. The Arabidopsis DCR encoding a soluble BAHD acyltransferase is required for cutin polyester formation and seed hydration properties. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:1773-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study extends our knowledge regarding the functionality of the cuticular layer and the formation of its major constituent the polymer cutin. ..
  40. Lieckfeldt E, Simon Rosin U, Kose F, Zoeller D, Schliep M, Fisahn J. Gene expression profiling of single epidermal, basal and trichome cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Plant Physiol. 2008;165:1530-44 pubmed
    ..Transcripts in each category displayed similar ratios of expression levels in the three cell types. Examples of these clusters are presented and discussed in Appendix A. ..
  41. DINNENY J, Long T, Wang J, Jung J, Mace D, Pointer S, et al. Cell identity mediates the response of Arabidopsis roots to abiotic stress. Science. 2008;320:942-5 pubmed publisher
    ..By performing a similar analysis using iron deprivation, we identified common cell-type-specific stress responses and revealed the crucial role the environment plays in defining the transcriptional outcome of cell-fate decisions. ..
  42. Schilmiller A, Last R, Pichersky E. Harnessing plant trichome biochemistry for the production of useful compounds. Plant J. 2008;54:702-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the literature on the biochemistry of trichomes and consider the attributes that might make them highly useful targets for plant metabolic engineering. ..
  43. Savage N, Walker T, Wieckowski Y, Schiefelbein J, Dolan L, Monk N. A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e235 pubmed publisher
  44. Sorek N, Gutman O, Bar E, Abu Abied M, Feng X, Running M, et al. Differential effects of prenylation and s-acylation on type I and II ROPS membrane interaction and function. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:706-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our studies show how prenyl and S-acyl lipid modifications affect ROP subcellular distribution, membrane interaction dynamics, and function. ..
  45. Mang H, Laluk K, Parsons E, Kosma D, Cooper B, Park H, et al. The Arabidopsis RESURRECTION1 gene regulates a novel antagonistic interaction in plant defense to biotrophs and necrotrophs. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:290-305 pubmed publisher
  46. Delgado D, Alonso Blanco C, Fenoll C, Mena M. Natural variation in stomatal abundance of Arabidopsis thaliana includes cryptic diversity for different developmental processes. Ann Bot. 2011;107:1247-58 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana reveals cryptic developmental genetic variation, and provides relevant relationships amongst stomatal traits and extreme or uncommon accessions as resources for the genetic dissection of stomatal development. ..
  47. Kosma D, Bourdenx B, Bernard A, Parsons E, Lü S, Joubès J, et al. The impact of water deficiency on leaf cuticle lipids of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:1918-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that Arabidopsis provides an excellent model system to study the role of the cuticle in plant response to drought and related stresses, and its associated genetic and cellular regulation. ..
  48. Ambrose J, Wasteneys G. CLASP modulates microtubule-cortex interaction during self-organization of acentrosomal microtubules. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4730-7 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these data, we identify a novel mechanism where modulation of CLASP activity governs microtubule-cortex attachment, thereby contributing to self-organization of cortical microtubules. ..
  49. Kang J, Shi F, Jones A, Marks M, Howe G. Distortion of trichome morphology by the hairless mutation of tomato affects leaf surface chemistry. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:1053-64 pubmed publisher
  50. Koch K, Ensikat H. The hydrophobic coatings of plant surfaces: epicuticular wax crystals and their morphologies, crystallinity and molecular self-assembly. Micron. 2008;39:759-72 pubmed publisher
  51. Marion J, Bach L, Bellec Y, Meyer C, Gissot L, Faure J. Systematic analysis of protein subcellular localization and interaction using high-throughput transient transformation of Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant J. 2008;56:169-79 pubmed publisher
  52. Lü S, Song T, Kosma D, Parsons E, Rowland O, Jenks M. Arabidopsis CER8 encodes LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE 1 (LACS1) that has overlapping functions with LACS2 in plant wax and cutin synthesis. Plant J. 2009;59:553-64 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, LACS1 defines a functionally novel acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially modifies both VLCFAs for wax synthesis and long-chain (C(16)) fatty acids for cutin synthesis...
  53. Tisné S, Reymond M, Vile D, Fabre J, Dauzat M, Koornneef M, et al. Combined genetic and modeling approaches reveal that epidermal cell area and number in leaves are controlled by leaf and plant developmental processes in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:1117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results give insight into the complex determination of leaf epidermal cell number and area...
  54. Petricka J, Benfey P. Root layers: complex regulation of developmental patterning. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2008;18:354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, future research advances in this field will require tissue-specific information at both the single gene and global level...
  55. Meyer D, Pajonk S, Micali C, O Connell R, Schulze Lefert P. Extracellular transport and integration of plant secretory proteins into pathogen-induced cell wall compartments. Plant J. 2009;57:986-99 pubmed publisher
  56. Panikashvili D, Savaldi Goldstein S, Mandel T, Yifhar T, Franke R, Höfer R, et al. The Arabidopsis DESPERADO/AtWBC11 transporter is required for cutin and wax secretion. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:1345-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, DSO is not only essential for developmental plasticity but also plays a vital role in stress responses...
  57. Nishimura N, Sarkeshik A, Nito K, Park S, Wang A, Carvalho P, et al. PYR/PYL/RCAR family members are major in-vivo ABI1 protein phosphatase 2C-interacting proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2010;61:290-9 pubmed publisher
  58. Kunst L, Samuels L. Plant cuticles shine: advances in wax biosynthesis and export. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2009;12:721-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, major questions concerning alkane formation, intracellular and extracellular wax transport, regulation of wax deposition, and assembly of cuticular components into a functional cuticle remain to be resolved...
  59. Ganguly A, Lee S, Cho M, Lee O, Yoo H, Cho H. Differential auxin-transporting activities of PIN-FORMED proteins in Arabidopsis root hair cells. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:1046-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that different PINs behave differentially in catalyzing auxin transport depending upon their molecular activity and subcellular localization in the root hair cell...
  60. Balkunde R, Pesch M, Hulskamp M. Trichome patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana from genetic to molecular models. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2010;91:299-321 pubmed publisher
    ..In this chapter we aim to summarize the current data and sketch possible alternative, not mutually exclusive theoretical models...
  61. Li H, Lin D, Dhonukshe P, Nagawa S, Chen D, Friml J, et al. Phosphorylation switch modulates the interdigitated pattern of PIN1 localization and cell expansion in Arabidopsis leaf epidermis. Cell Res. 2011;21:970-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a common mechanism for the regulation of PIN1 polarity formation, a fundamental cellular process that is crucial for pattern formation both at the tissue/organ and cellular levels...
  62. Li F, Wu X, Lam P, Bird D, Zheng H, Samuels L, et al. Identification of the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase WSD1 required for stem wax ester biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:97-107 pubmed publisher
  63. Savaldi Goldstein S, Chory J. Growth coordination and the shoot epidermis. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008;11:42-8 pubmed
    ..These studies conclude that cells in the epidermis both promote and restrict growth of the entire shoot by sending growth signals - either physical or chemical - to the inner layers...
  64. Samuels L, Kunst L, Jetter R. Sealing plant surfaces: cuticular wax formation by epidermal cells. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2008;59:683-707 pubmed publisher
    ..An overview of our present knowledge of wax biosynthesis and transport and the regulation of these processes during cuticle assembly is presented, including the evidence for coordination of cutin polyester and wax production...
  65. Roeder A, Chickarmane V, Cunha A, Obara B, Manjunath B, Meyerowitz E. Variability in the control of cell division underlies sepal epidermal patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000367 pubmed publisher
    ..Models and observations together demonstrate that variability in the time of cell division is a major determinant in the formation of a characteristic pattern...
  66. Zhang C, Halsey L, Szymanski D. The development and geometry of shape change in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon pavement cells. BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:27 pubmed publisher
    ..The microtubule and actin cytoskeletons are highly polarized along the cortex of the anticlinal wall; however, the relationships between these arrays and cell morphogenesis are unclear...
  67. Wang S, Hubbard L, Chang Y, Guo J, Schiefelbein J, Chen J. Comprehensive analysis of single-repeat R3 MYB proteins in epidermal cell patterning and their transcriptional regulation in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biol. 2008;8:81 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the transcriptional regulation of these single-repeat R3 MYB genes remains largely unknown...
  68. Whitney H, Chittka L, Bruce T, Glover B. Conical epidermal cells allow bees to grip flowers and increase foraging efficiency. Curr Biol. 2009;19:948-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This facilitation of physical handling is a likely explanation for the prevalence of conical epidermal petal cells in most flowering plants...
  69. Jones A, Kramer E, Knox K, Swarup R, Bennett M, Lazarus C, et al. Auxin transport through non-hair cells sustains root-hair development. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:78-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental data support the hypothesis that instead of moving uniformly though the epidermal cell layer, auxin is mainly transported through canals that extend longitudinally into the tissue...
  70. Hara K, Yokoo T, Kajita R, Onishi T, Yahata S, Peterson K, et al. Epidermal cell density is autoregulated via a secretory peptide, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 2 in Arabidopsis leaves. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:1019-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Although targets of EPF1 and EPF2 are different, both EPF1 and EPF2 require common putative receptor components TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM), ERECTA (ER), ERECTA LIKE 1 (ERL1) and ERL2 in order to function...
  71. Reina Pinto J, Yephremov A. Surface lipids and plant defenses. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2009;47:540-9 pubmed publisher
    The major function of the plant epidermis is to form the cuticle, a functional permeability barrier of the cell wall which prevents excessive water loss and the entry of harmful substances and pathogens into the host...
  72. Zhao M, Morohashi K, Hatlestad G, Grotewold E, Lloyd A. The TTG1-bHLH-MYB complex controls trichome cell fate and patterning through direct targeting of regulatory loci. Development. 2008;135:1991-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a model for the TTG1 complex directly regulating activators and repressors and the movement of repressors to affect trichome patterning on the Arabidopsis leaf...
  73. Zhou Y, Andriunas F, Offler C, McCurdy D, Patrick J. An epidermal-specific ethylene signal cascade regulates trans-differentiation of transfer cells in Vicia faba cotyledons. New Phytol. 2010;185:931-43 pubmed publisher
    ..A cell-specific burst of ethylene biosynthesis functions as an inductive signal initiating and sustaining trans-differentiation to a TC morphology in vitro. These events are reproduced for developing V. faba seeds in planta...
  74. Steffens B, Sauter M. Epidermal cell death in rice is confined to cells with a distinct molecular identity and is mediated by ethylene and H2O2 through an autoamplified signal pathway. Plant Cell. 2009;21:184-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Pro-death signals regulated several transcription factor genes with a proposed function in cell type specification. It is hypothesized that induction of cell death is dependent on epidermal cell identity...
  75. Sugano S, Shimada T, Imai Y, Okawa K, Tamai A, Mori M, et al. Stomagen positively regulates stomatal density in Arabidopsis. Nature. 2010;463:241-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a conceptual advancement in understanding stomatal development: inner photosynthetic tissues optimize their function by regulating stomatal density in the epidermis for efficient uptake of CO(2)...
  76. Benítez M, Espinosa Soto C, Padilla Longoria P, Alvarez Buylla E. Interlinked nonlinear subnetworks underlie the formation of robust cellular patterns in Arabidopsis epidermis: a dynamic spatial model. BMC Syst Biol. 2008;2:98 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose an experimentally-grounded model of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that are coupled by protein diffusion and comprise a meta-GRN implemented on cellularised domains...
  77. Dibley S, Zhou Y, Andriunas F, Talbot M, Offler C, Patrick J, et al. Early gene expression programs accompanying trans-differentiation of epidermal cells of Vicia faba cotyledons into transfer cells. New Phytol. 2009;182:863-77 pubmed publisher
  78. McCurdy D, Patrick J, Offler C. Wall ingrowth formation in transfer cells: novel examples of localized wall deposition in plant cells. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008;11:653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..How this unusual form of localized wall deposition is constructed is unknown but may involve constraining cellulose-synthesizing rosette complexes at their growing tips...
  79. Hassan H, Scheres B, Blilou I. JACKDAW controls epidermal patterning in the Arabidopsis root meristem through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism. Development. 2010;137:1523-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are consistent with a model where JKD induces a signal in every cortex cell that is more abundant in the hair cell position owing to the larger surface contact of cells located over a cleft...
  80. Kondo T, Kajita R, Miyazaki A, Hokoyama M, Nakamura Miura T, Mizuno S, et al. Stomatal density is controlled by a mesophyll-derived signaling molecule. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also suggest that stomagen increases stomatal density by competing with negative regulators EPF1 and EPF2 for the receptor-like protein TOO MANY MOUTHS...