cotyledon

Summary

Summary: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Top Publications

  1. Zienkiewicz A, Jiménez López J, Zienkiewicz K, de Dios Alché J, Rodriguez Garcia M. Development of the cotyledon cells during olive (Olea europaea L.) in vitro seed germination and seedling growth. Protoplasma. 2011;248:751-65 pubmed publisher
    The structural changes occurred in differentiating olive cotyledon cells into mesophyll cells are described...
  2. Zhang X, Ren Y, Zhao J. Roles of extensins in cotyledon primordium formation and shoot apical meristem activity in Nicotiana tabacum. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:4045-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that the addition of 3,4-DHP caused abnormal embryos with single, asymmetry and supernumerary cotyledon primordia, and continuous culture led to cotyledon defects in the germinated seedlings...
  3. Andriunas F, Zhang H, Weber H, McCurdy D, Offler C, Patrick J. Glucose and ethylene signalling pathways converge to regulate trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia narbonensis cotyledons. Plant J. 2011;68:987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..A model is presented describing the interaction between glucose and ethylene signalling pathways regulating the induction of wall ingrowth formation in adaxial epidermal cells...
  4. Zhou Y, Andriunas F, Offler C, McCurdy D, Patrick J. An epidermal-specific ethylene signal cascade regulates trans-differentiation of transfer cells in Vicia faba cotyledons. New Phytol. 2010;185:931-43 pubmed publisher
    ..A cell-specific burst of ethylene biosynthesis functions as an inductive signal initiating and sustaining trans-differentiation to a TC morphology in vitro. These events are reproduced for developing V. faba seeds in planta...
  5. Conte M, de Simone S, Simmons S, Ballaré C, Stapleton A. Chromosomal loci important for cotyledon opening under UV-B in Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:112 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding of the genetic architecture of plant UV-B responses allows extensive targeted testing of candidate genes or regions, along with combinations of those genes, for placement in metabolic or signal transduction pathways...
  6. Zhong J, Ren Y, Yu M, Ma T, Zhang X, Zhao J. Roles of arabinogalactan proteins in cotyledon formation and cell wall deposition during embryo development of Arabidopsis. Protoplasma. 2011;248:551-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, as a continuous work, we investigated the AGP functions in embryo germination, cotyledon formation, and cell wall deposition in Arabidopsis embryos by using immunofluorescent, immunoenzyme, ..
  7. Ito J, Sono T, Tasaka M, Furutani M. MACCHI-BOU 2 is required for early embryo patterning and cotyledon organogenesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2011;52:539-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Seedlings homozygous for either mab2 or pid showed only mild phenotypic effects on cotyledon positions and/or numbers...
  8. Li Y, Zou M, Feng B, Huang X, Zhang Z, Sun G. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;55:33-42 pubmed publisher
    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear...
  9. Larsson E, Sitbon F, von Arnold S. Differential regulation of Knotted1-like genes during establishment of the shoot apical meristem in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:1053-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results suggest that HBK2 and HBK4 exert similar functions related to the SAM differentiation and somatic embryo development in Norway spruce, while HBK1 and HBK3 have more general functions during embryo development...
  10. Billon Grand G, Rascle C, Droux M, Rollins J, Poussereau N. pH modulation differs during sunflower cotyledon colonization by the two closely related necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Mol Plant Pathol. 2012;13:568-78 pubmed publisher
    ..cinerea. Consequently, during sunflower cotyledon colonization by B. cinerea, pH dynamics differ significantly from those of S. sclerotiorum...

Detail Information

Publications79

  1. Zienkiewicz A, Jiménez López J, Zienkiewicz K, de Dios Alché J, Rodriguez Garcia M. Development of the cotyledon cells during olive (Olea europaea L.) in vitro seed germination and seedling growth. Protoplasma. 2011;248:751-65 pubmed publisher
    The structural changes occurred in differentiating olive cotyledon cells into mesophyll cells are described...
  2. Zhang X, Ren Y, Zhao J. Roles of extensins in cotyledon primordium formation and shoot apical meristem activity in Nicotiana tabacum. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:4045-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that the addition of 3,4-DHP caused abnormal embryos with single, asymmetry and supernumerary cotyledon primordia, and continuous culture led to cotyledon defects in the germinated seedlings...
  3. Andriunas F, Zhang H, Weber H, McCurdy D, Offler C, Patrick J. Glucose and ethylene signalling pathways converge to regulate trans-differentiation of epidermal transfer cells in Vicia narbonensis cotyledons. Plant J. 2011;68:987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..A model is presented describing the interaction between glucose and ethylene signalling pathways regulating the induction of wall ingrowth formation in adaxial epidermal cells...
  4. Zhou Y, Andriunas F, Offler C, McCurdy D, Patrick J. An epidermal-specific ethylene signal cascade regulates trans-differentiation of transfer cells in Vicia faba cotyledons. New Phytol. 2010;185:931-43 pubmed publisher
    ..A cell-specific burst of ethylene biosynthesis functions as an inductive signal initiating and sustaining trans-differentiation to a TC morphology in vitro. These events are reproduced for developing V. faba seeds in planta...
  5. Conte M, de Simone S, Simmons S, Ballaré C, Stapleton A. Chromosomal loci important for cotyledon opening under UV-B in Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:112 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding of the genetic architecture of plant UV-B responses allows extensive targeted testing of candidate genes or regions, along with combinations of those genes, for placement in metabolic or signal transduction pathways...
  6. Zhong J, Ren Y, Yu M, Ma T, Zhang X, Zhao J. Roles of arabinogalactan proteins in cotyledon formation and cell wall deposition during embryo development of Arabidopsis. Protoplasma. 2011;248:551-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, as a continuous work, we investigated the AGP functions in embryo germination, cotyledon formation, and cell wall deposition in Arabidopsis embryos by using immunofluorescent, immunoenzyme, ..
  7. Ito J, Sono T, Tasaka M, Furutani M. MACCHI-BOU 2 is required for early embryo patterning and cotyledon organogenesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2011;52:539-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Seedlings homozygous for either mab2 or pid showed only mild phenotypic effects on cotyledon positions and/or numbers...
  8. Li Y, Zou M, Feng B, Huang X, Zhang Z, Sun G. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;55:33-42 pubmed publisher
    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear...
  9. Larsson E, Sitbon F, von Arnold S. Differential regulation of Knotted1-like genes during establishment of the shoot apical meristem in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:1053-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results suggest that HBK2 and HBK4 exert similar functions related to the SAM differentiation and somatic embryo development in Norway spruce, while HBK1 and HBK3 have more general functions during embryo development...
  10. Billon Grand G, Rascle C, Droux M, Rollins J, Poussereau N. pH modulation differs during sunflower cotyledon colonization by the two closely related necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Mol Plant Pathol. 2012;13:568-78 pubmed publisher
    ..cinerea. Consequently, during sunflower cotyledon colonization by B. cinerea, pH dynamics differ significantly from those of S. sclerotiorum...
  11. Wang J, Tse Y, Hinz G, Robinson D, Jiang L. Storage globulins pass through the Golgi apparatus and multivesicular bodies in the absence of dense vesicle formation during early stages of cotyledon development in mung bean. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:1367-80 pubmed publisher
    ..is demonstrated that non-aggregated 8S globulins are present in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in early stages of cotyledon development where neither dense vesicles (DVs) nor a PSV were recognizable...
  12. Zhang C, Halsey L, Szymanski D. The development and geometry of shape change in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon pavement cells. BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:27 pubmed publisher
    ..The microtubule and actin cytoskeletons are highly polarized along the cortex of the anticlinal wall; however, the relationships between these arrays and cell morphogenesis are unclear...
  13. Ruckle M, Larkin R. Plastid signals that affect photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana are dependent on GENOMES UNCOUPLED 1 and cryptochrome 1. New Phytol. 2009;182:367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that plastid signals that depend on GUN1 can affect cotyledon opening and expansion, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and hypocotyl elongation...
  14. Chandler J. Cotyledon organogenesis. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:2917-31 pubmed publisher
    The cotyledon represents one of the bases of classification within the plant kingdom, providing the name-giving difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants...
  15. Garg H, Li H, Sivasithamparam K, Kuo J, Barbetti M. The infection processes of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in cotyledon tissue of a resistant and a susceptible genotype of Brassica napus. Ann Bot. 2010;106:897-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Sclerotinia sclerotiorum can attack >400 plant species worldwide. Very few studies have investigated host-pathogen interactions at the plant surface and cellular level in resistant genotypes of oilseed rape/canola (Brassica napus)...
  16. McCurdy D, Patrick J, Offler C. Wall ingrowth formation in transfer cells: novel examples of localized wall deposition in plant cells. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008;11:653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..How this unusual form of localized wall deposition is constructed is unknown but may involve constraining cellulose-synthesizing rosette complexes at their growing tips...
  17. Kanei M, Horiguchi G, Tsukaya H. Stable establishment of cotyledon identity during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis by ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and HANABA TARANU. Development. 2012;139:2436-46 pubmed publisher
    ..an3 han double mutants exhibited severe defects in cotyledon development such that ectopic roots were formed at the apical region of the embryo, as confirmed by pWOX5::GFP ..
  18. Kircher S, Schopfer P. Photosynthetic sucrose acts as cotyledon-derived long-distance signal to control root growth during early seedling development in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11217-21 pubmed publisher
  19. Dibley S, Zhou Y, Andriunas F, Talbot M, Offler C, Patrick J, et al. Early gene expression programs accompanying trans-differentiation of epidermal cells of Vicia faba cotyledons into transfer cells. New Phytol. 2009;182:863-77 pubmed publisher
  20. Liu Y, Liu G, Li Q, Liu Y, Hou L, Li G. Influence of pericarp, cotyledon and inhibitory substances on sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) germination. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47682 pubmed publisher
    ..cultivated in a Sanyo growth cabinet watered by distilled water and 80% methanol extracts from the acorn embryo, cotyledon and pericarp with concentrations of 1.0 g, 0.8 g, 0.6 g and 0.4 g dry acorn weight per ml methanol...
  21. Larsson E, Sundstrom J, Sitbon F, von Arnold S. Expression of PaNAC01, a Picea abies CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON orthologue, is regulated by polar auxin transport and associated with differentiation of the shoot apical meristem and formation of separated cotyledons. Ann Bot. 2012;110:923-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of cotyledonary boundaries and the embryonal SAM is dependent on PAT and the expression of the CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) genes, which belong to the large NAC gene family...
  22. Wang J, Suen P, Xu Z, Jiang L. A 64 kDa sucrose binding protein is membrane-associated and tonoplast-localized in developing mung bean seeds. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus shows convincing evidence of tonoplast-localization of a plant SBP for its future functional characterization and provides a model of studying non-integral membrane proteins associated with the tonoplasts in plant cells...
  23. Radchuk R, Emery R, Weier D, Vigeolas H, Geigenberger P, Lunn J, et al. Sucrose non-fermenting kinase 1 (SnRK1) coordinates metabolic and hormonal signals during pea cotyledon growth and differentiation. Plant J. 2010;61:324-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that at early stages of seed development SnRK1 regulates coordinated cotyledon emergence and growth via cytokinin-mediated auxin transport and/or distribution...
  24. Nishimura T, Nakano H, Hayashi K, Niwa C, Koshiba T. Differential downward stream of auxin synthesized at the tip has a key role in gravitropic curvature via TIR1/AFBs-mediated auxin signaling pathways. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:1874-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the asymmetric downward streams of IAA control the differential growth rate of the cells by attenuating TIR1/AFBs-mediated auxin response genes, including ZmSAUR2, and therefore result in tropic curvature...
  25. Yoo S, Hong S, Jung H, Ahn J. The cotyledons produce sufficient FT protein to induce flowering: evidence from cotyledon micrografting in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In wild-type Arabidopsis plants under long-day conditions, FT is mainly expressed in the cotyledon but is weakly expressed in the first true leaf prior to floral induction...
  26. Sugimoto K, Jiao Y, Meyerowitz E. Arabidopsis regeneration from multiple tissues occurs via a root development pathway. Dev Cell. 2010;18:463-71 pubmed publisher
    ..It thus appears that the ectopic activation of a lateral root development program is a common mechanism in callus formation from multiple organs...
  27. Ubayasena L, Bett K, Tar an B, Vijayan P, Warkentin T. Genetic control and QTL analysis of cotyledon bleaching resistance in green field pea (Pisum sativum L.). Genome. 2010;53:346-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Heritability estimates for whole seed and cotyledon greenness were moderate (0.72 and 0...
  28. Help H, Mähönen A, Helariutta Y, Bishopp A. Bisymmetry in the embryonic root is dependent on cotyledon number and position. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:1837-40 pubmed publisher
    In the shoot pole of Arabidopsis embryos, radial symmetry is broken by cotyledon specification. Subsequently, the radial pattern of the embryo axis is converted to bisymmetric...
  29. Zhang S, Zhao C, Lamb E. Cotyledon damage affects seed number through final plant size in the annual grassland species Medicago lupulina. Ann Bot. 2011;107:437-42 pubmed publisher
    The effects of cotyledon damage on seedling growth and survival are relatively well established, but little is known about the effects on aspects of plant fitness such as seed number and size...
  30. Wu H, Yu T, Raja J, Wang H, Yeh S. Generation of transgenic oriental melon resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus by an improved cotyledon-cutting method. Plant Cell Rep. 2009;28:1053-64 pubmed publisher
    ..used to transform an elite cultivar of oriental melon (Silver light) mediated by Agrobacterium using an improved cotyledon-cutting method...
  31. Wang J, Chapman S, Bonnett D, Rebetzke G. Simultaneous selection of major and minor genes: use of QTL to increase selection efficiency of coleoptile length of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2009;119:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a selection scheme combining MAS and PS was equally as efficient as PS and would result in net savings in production and time to delivery of long coleoptile wheats containing the six favorable alleles...
  32. Lewis D, Wu G, Ljung K, Spalding E. Auxin transport into cotyledons and cotyledon growth depend similarly on the ABCB19 Multidrug Resistance-like transporter. Plant J. 2009;60:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have investigated the role of ABCB19 and auxin distribution in cotyledon development...
  33. Kulichikhin K, Greenway H, Byrne L, Colmer T. Regulation of intracellular pH during anoxia in rice coleoptiles in acidic and near neutral conditions. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:2119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Summing up, rice coleoptiles exposed to a combination of anoxia and pH 3.5 retained pH regulation and cellular compartmentation, demonstrating tolerance to anoxia even during the acid load imposed by exposure to pH 3.5...
  34. Ananieva K, Ananiev E, Doncheva S, Georgieva K, Tzvetkova N, Kaminek M, et al. Senescence progression in a single darkened cotyledon depends on the light status of the other cotyledon in Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) seedlings: potential involvement of cytokinins and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase activity. Physiol Plant. 2008;134:609-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In a single individually darkened cotyledon, the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus as well as the contents of endogenous CKs and IAA ..
  35. Rudolph M, Schlereth A, Körner M, Feussner K, Berndt E, Melzer M, et al. The lipoxygenase-dependent oxygenation of lipid body membranes is promoted by a patatin-type phospholipase in cucumber cotyledons. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:749-60 pubmed publisher
  36. Muranaka A, Watanabe S, Sakamoto A, Shimada H. Arabidopsis cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis factor CYO1 uses glutathione as an electron donor and interacts with PSI (A1 and A2) and PSII (CP43 and CP47) subunits. J Plant Physiol. 2012;169:1212-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CYO1 may accelerate the folding of cysteine residue--containing PSI and PSII subunits by repeatedly breaking and creating disulfide bonds...
  37. Zhang Z, Pierce M, Mort A. Changes in homogalacturonans and enzymes degrading them during cotton cotyledon expansion. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:1094-103 pubmed
    ..b>cotyledon expansion...
  38. Wardini T, Wang X, Offler C, Patrick J. Induction of wall ingrowths of transfer cells occurs rapidly and depends upon gene expression in cotyledons of developing Vicia faba seeds. Protoplasma. 2007;231:15-23 pubmed
    ..The first fenestrated layer of wall ingrowths is apparent within 24 h of cotyledon exposure to culture medium. The time course of wall ingrowth formation was examined further...
  39. Niwa Y, Kato T, Tabata S, Seki M, Kobayashi M, Shinozaki K, et al. Disposal of chloroplasts with abnormal function into the vacuole in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon cells. Protoplasma. 2004;223:229-32 pubmed
    ..thaliana mutant that lacks the AtTIC40 gene and found that the cotyledon cells of this mutant contained undeveloped plastids...
  40. Ruckle M, DeMarco S, Larkin R. Plastid signals remodel light signaling networks and are essential for efficient chloroplast biogenesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3944-60 pubmed
  41. Rydin C, Mohr B, Friis E. Cratonia cotyledon gen. et sp. nov: a unique Cretaceous seedling related to Welwitschia. Proc Biol Sci. 2003;270 Suppl 1:S29-32 pubmed
    ..Few macrofossils have been described, and character evolution within the group is poorly known. Cratonia cotyledon is a new gnetalean fossil from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil...
  42. Ruppel N, Hangarter R. Mutations in a plastid-localized elongation factor G alter early stages of plastid development in Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Plant Biol. 2007;7:37 pubmed
    ..Seedlings of these alleles exhibit cotyledon and hypocotyl albinism due to improper chloroplast development, and normally die shortly after germination...
  43. Ikeda Y, Banno H, Niu Q, Howell S, Chua N. The ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION 2 gene in Arabidopsis regulates CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 at the transcriptional level and controls cotyledon development. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006;47:1443-56 pubmed
    ..ESR2 directly targeted CYCLIN D1;1, ARABIDOPSIS PHOSPHOTRANSMITTER 6 (AHP6) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 (CUC1) in assays involving the translocation of ESR2-ER (estradiol receptor) fusions to the nucleus...
  44. Lin W, Wang Y, Mueller Roeber B, Brearley C, Xu Z, Xue H. At5PTase13 modulates cotyledon vein development through regulating auxin homeostasis. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:1677-91 pubmed
    ..A previous study shows that At5PTase11 mediates cotyledon vascular development probably through the regulation of intracellular calcium levels...
  45. Wightman R, Turner S. Severing at sites of microtubule crossover contributes to microtubule alignment in cortical arrays. Plant J. 2007;52:742-51 pubmed
    ..This process of severing at sites of MT crossover results in the removal of unaligned MTs, and is likely to form the basis for the difference between a net-like and an aligned MT array. ..
  46. Penfield S, Gilday A, Halliday K, Graham I. DELLA-mediated cotyledon expansion breaks coat-imposed seed dormancy. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2366-70 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that cotyledon expansion precedes radicle emergence during Arabidopsis seed germination and that a striking correlation exists ..
  47. Schiedel A, Oeljeklaus S, Minihan P, Dyer J. Cloning, expression, and purification of glyoxysomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase from sunflower cotyledons. Protein Expr Purif. 2004;33:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzyme was purified 53.4-fold and had a specific activity of 235 nkat/mg protein. Pooled fractions from the Ni-NTA column resulted in an 83% yield of active enzyme to be used for further characterization...
  48. Elmer A, Chao W, Grimes H. Protein sorting and expression of a unique soybean cotyledon protein, GmSBP, destined for the protein storage vacuole. Plant Mol Biol. 2003;52:1089-106 pubmed
  49. Benkova E, Michniewicz M, Sauer M, Teichmann T, Seifertová D, Jurgens G, et al. Local, efflux-dependent auxin gradients as a common module for plant organ formation. Cell. 2003;115:591-602 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that PIN-dependent, local auxin gradients represent a common module for formation of all plant organs, regardless of their mature morphology or developmental origin. ..
  50. Wenzel D, Schauermann G, von Lüpke A, Hinz G. The cargo in vacuolar storage protein transport vesicles is stratified. Traffic. 2005;6:45-55 pubmed
    ..This observation is discussed with respect to a putative receptor-mediated sorting of the proteins into the dense vesicles. ..
  51. Botto J, Alonso Blanco C, Garzarón I, Sanchez R, Casal J. The Cape Verde Islands allele of cryptochrome 2 enhances cotyledon unfolding in the absence of blue light in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:1547-56 pubmed
    ..QTLs; VLF3, VLF4, and VLF5) for hypocotyl growth inhibition and three different QTLs (VLF6, VLF7, and VLF1) for cotyledon unfolding...
  52. Tseng T, Salome P, McClung C, Olszewski N. SPINDLY and GIGANTEA interact and act in Arabidopsis thaliana pathways involved in light responses, flowering, and rhythms in cotyledon movements. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1550-63 pubmed
    ..spy-4 gi-2 plants support the hypothesis that SPY functions with GI in pathways controlling flowering, circadian cotyledon movements, and hypocotyl elongation...
  53. Gazzarrini S, Tsuchiya Y, Lumba S, Okamoto M, McCourt P. The transcription factor FUSCA3 controls developmental timing in Arabidopsis through the hormones gibberellin and abscisic acid. Dev Cell. 2004;7:373-85 pubmed
  54. Haga K, Takano M, Neumann R, Iino M. The Rice COLEOPTILE PHOTOTROPISM1 gene encoding an ortholog of Arabidopsis NPH3 is required for phototropism of coleoptiles and lateral translocation of auxin. Plant Cell. 2005;17:103-15 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the CPT1-dependent major phototropism of coleoptiles is achieved by lateral auxin translocation and subsequent growth redistribution...
  55. Gerhardt B, Fischer K, Balkenhohl T, Pohnert G, Kuhn H, Wasternack C, et al. Lipoxygenase-mediated metabolism of storage lipids in germinating sunflower cotyledons and beta-oxidation of (9Z,11E,13S)-13-hydroxy-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid by the cotyledonary glyoxysomes. Planta. 2005;220:919-30 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the hydroxyl/oxo group at C-13 of lipoxygenase-derived fatty acids forms a barrier to continuous beta-oxidation by glyoxysomes...
  56. di Santo S, Sager R, Andres A, Guller S, Schneider H. Dual in vitro perfusion of an isolated cotyledon as a model to study the implication of changes in the third trimester placenta on preeclampsia. Placenta. 2007;28 Suppl A:S23-32 pubmed
    In the current study perfusions of an isolated cotyledon of term placenta using standard medium were compared to medium containing xanthine plus xanthine oxidase (X+XO), which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  57. Lasanthi Kudahettige R, Magneschi L, Loreti E, Gonzali S, Licausi F, Novi G, et al. Transcript profiling of the anoxic rice coleoptile. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:218-31 pubmed
    ..Genes coding for some enzymes requiring oxygen for their activity are dramatically down-regulated under anoxia, suggesting the existence of an energy-saving strategy in the regulation of gene expression...
  58. Sato Y, Morita R, Nishimura M, Yamaguchi H, Kusaba M. Mendel's green cotyledon gene encodes a positive regulator of the chlorophyll-degrading pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14169-74 pubmed
    ..The most famous stay-green mutant is Mendel's green cotyledon pea, one of the mutants used in determining the law of genetics...
  59. Vodkin L, Khanna A, Shealy R, Clough S, Gonzalez D, Philip R, et al. Microarrays for global expression constructed with a low redundancy set of 27,500 sequenced cDNAs representing an array of developmental stages and physiological conditions of the soybean plant. BMC Genomics. 2004;5:73 pubmed
    ..In addition, discovery of the molecular basis of traits through examination of naturally occurring variation in hundreds of mutant lines could be enhanced by the construction and use of soybean cDNA microarrays...
  60. Hanley M, Fegan E. Timing of cotyledon damage affects growth and flowering in mature plants. Plant Cell Environ. 2007;30:812-9 pubmed
    ..autumnalis, Leontodon hispidus, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Trifolium pratense and Trifolium repens) to cotyledon removal at 7, 14 and 21 d old...
  61. Shimada H, Mochizuki M, Ogura K, Froehlich J, Osteryoung K, Shirano Y, et al. Arabidopsis cotyledon-specific chloroplast biogenesis factor CYO1 is a protein disulfide isomerase. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3157-69 pubmed
    Chloroplast development in cotyledons differs in a number of ways from that in true leaves, but the cotyledon-specific program of chloroplast biogenesis has not been clarified...
  62. Maruyama N, Mun L, Tatsuhara M, Sawada M, Ishimoto M, Utsumi S. Multiple vacuolar sorting determinants exist in soybean 11S globulin. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1253-73 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate, by expression of dominant negative mutants of small GTPases and drug treatment experiments, that the trafficking of A1aB1b is COPII vesicle-dependent and wortmannin- and brefeldin A-sensitive...
  63. Aubry S, Mani J, Hortensteiner S. Stay-green protein, defective in Mendel's green cotyledon mutant, acts independent and upstream of pheophorbide a oxygenase in the chlorophyll catabolic pathway. Plant Mol Biol. 2008;67:243-56 pubmed publisher
    ..of senescence-associated genes and loss of photosynthetic capacity, we demonstrate that JI2775, the green cotyledon (i) pea line used by Gregor Mendel to establish the law of genetics, is a true type C stay-green mutant...
  64. Jacobs J, Roe J. SKS6, a multicopper oxidase-like gene, participates in cotyledon vascular patterning during Arabidopsis thaliana development. Planta. 2005;222:652-66 pubmed
    ..A loss-of function sks6-1 T-DNA insertion allele revealed that cotyledon vascular patterning is affected in the mutant, suggesting a role for the protein in metabolism of nutrients or ..
  65. Cnops G, Neyt P, Raes J, Petrarulo M, Nelissen H, Malenica N, et al. The TORNADO1 and TORNADO2 genes function in several patterning processes during early leaf development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2006;18:852-66 pubmed
    ..Double mutant analysis showed that TRN1 and TRN2 act in the same pathway...
  66. Ishizaki Y, Tsunoyama Y, Hatano K, Ando K, Kato K, Shinmyo A, et al. A nuclear-encoded sigma factor, Arabidopsis SIG6, recognizes sigma-70 type chloroplast promoters and regulates early chloroplast development in cotyledons. Plant J. 2005;42:133-44 pubmed
    ..The null mutant (sig6-1) of plastid sigma factor gene AtSIG6 exhibited a cotyledon-specific pale green phenotype...
  67. Treml B, Winderl S, Radykewicz R, Herz M, Schweizer G, Hutzler P, et al. The gene ENHANCER OF PINOID controls cotyledon development in the Arabidopsis embryo. Development. 2005;132:4063-74 pubmed
    During Arabidopsis embryo development, cotyledon primordia are generated at transition stage from precursor cells that are not derived from the embryonic shoot apical meristem (SAM)...
  68. Zhou S, Brown D. High efficiency plant production of North American ginseng via somatic embryogenesis from cotyledon explants. Plant Cell Rep. 2006;25:166-73 pubmed
    ..The pretreatment of cotyledon explants with 1...
  69. Vandana S, Bhatla S. Evidence for the probable oil body association of a thiol-protease, leading to oleosin degradation in sunflower seedling cotyledons. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2006;44:714-23 pubmed
    ..All these observations provide evidence for the expression of the said thiol-protease activity on the oil body surface, leading to gradual proteolysis of oleosins during seed germination...
  70. Meyer C, Steudle E, Peterson C. Patterns and kinetics of water uptake by soybean seeds. J Exp Bot. 2007;58:717-32 pubmed
    ..Hydrated coats of both permeable and stone seeds showed weak osmometer properties...
  71. Gonzalez D, Vodkin L. Specific elements of the glyoxylate pathway play a significant role in the functional transition of the soybean cotyledon during seedling development. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:468 pubmed
    The soybean (Glycine max) cotyledon is a specialized tissue whose main function is to serve as a nutrient reserve that supplies the needs of the young plant throughout seedling development...
  72. Albrecht V, Ingenfeld A, Apel K. Snowy cotyledon 2: the identification of a zinc finger domain protein essential for chloroplast development in cotyledons but not in true leaves. Plant Mol Biol. 2008;66:599-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Several mutants with chlorophyll-deficient cotyledons were isolated and dubbed snowy cotyledon (sco). Here we describe the identification and detailed characterization of the snowy cotyledon 2 mutant...
  73. Himi E, Nisar A, Noda K. Colour genes (R and Rc) for grain and coleoptile upregulate flavonoid biosynthesis genes in wheat. Genome. 2005;48:747-54 pubmed
    ..The Rc gene appears to be involved in DFR expression. The possibility that wheat R and Rc genes might be transcription factors is discussed...
  74. Hanley M, May O. Cotyledon damage at the seedling stage affects growth and flowering potential in mature plants. New Phytol. 2006;169:243-50 pubmed
    ..Here we examined how the removal of 50 or approximately 100% of cotyledon area from 7-d-old chalk grassland seedlings affected subsequent plant growth and flowering over a 100-d period...
  75. Salathia N, Lynn J, Millar A, King G. Detection and resolution of genetic loci affecting circadian period in Brassica oleracea. Theor Appl Genet. 2007;114:683-92 pubmed
    ..in the closest crop relatives, we used an accurate and high throughput data capture system to record rhythmic cotyledon movement in two immortal segregating populations of Brassica oleracea, derived from parent lines representing ..
  76. He F, Huang F, Wilson K, Tan Wilson A. Protein storage vacuole acidification as a control of storage protein mobilization in soybeans. J Exp Bot. 2007;58:1059-70 pubmed
    ..These results were obtained using cells separated by pectolyase treatment and also using cotyledon slices.
  77. Rebetzke G, Ellis M, Bonnett D, Richards R. Molecular mapping of genes for Coleoptile growth in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2007;114:1173-83 pubmed
  78. Nodine M, Tax F. Two receptor-like kinases required together for the establishment of Arabidopsis cotyledon primordia. Dev Biol. 2008;314:161-70 pubmed
    ..TOAD2), which are required together for patterning the apical embryonic domain cell types that generate cotyledon primordia...