nuts

Summary

Summary: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.

Top Publications

  1. Suo M, Isao H, Ishida Y, Shimano Y, Bi C, Kato H, et al. Phenolic lipid ingredients from cashew nuts. J Nat Med. 2012;66:133-9 pubmed publisher
    ..8), and three known compounds, cardols (1), anacardic acid (2) and cardanols (4), were isolated from the nuts of the cashew, Anacardium occidentale L...
  2. Bhandare A, Kshirsagar A, Vyawahare N, Hadambar A, Thorve V. Potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu L. nut. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:3412-7 pubmed publisher
    ..14 ?g/ml and TPC 120.56±21.09 mg QE/g. Altogether, these results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu could be considered as a potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent...
  3. Spagnoletti N, Visalberghi E, Ottoni E, Izar P, Fragaszy D. Stone tool use by adult wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus). Frequency, efficiency and tool selectivity. J Hum Evol. 2011;61:97-107 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that most of the individuals habitually use stones and anvils to crack nuts and other encased food items...
  4. Fitschen P, Rolfhus K, Winfrey M, Allen B, Manzy M, Maher M. Cardiovascular effects of consumption of black versus English walnuts. J Med Food. 2011;14:890-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Tulipani S, Llorach R, Jauregui O, López Uriarte P, Garcia Aloy M, Bullo M, et al. Metabolomics unveils urinary changes in subjects with metabolic syndrome following 12-week nut consumption. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:5047-58 pubmed publisher
    ..changes in the urinary metabolome of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS), following 12 weeks of mixed nuts consumption (30 g/day), compared to sex- and age-matched individuals given a control diet...
  6. Wu H, Pan A, Yu Z, Qi Q, Lu L, Zhang G, et al. Lifestyle counseling and supplementation with flaxseed or walnuts influence the management of metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2010;140:1937-42 pubmed publisher
    A healthy lifestyle may ameliorate metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, it remains unclear if incorporating nuts or seeds into lifestyle counseling (LC) has additional benefit...
  7. Javed F, Al Hezaimi K, Warnakulasuriya S. Areca-nut chewing habit is a significant risk factor for metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16:445-8 pubmed
  8. Tulipani S, Urpi Sarda M, Garcia Villalba R, Rabassa M, López Uriarte P, Bullo M, et al. Urolithins are the main urinary microbial-derived phenolic metabolites discriminating a moderate consumption of nuts in free-living subjects with diagnosed metabolic syndrome. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:8930-40 pubmed
  9. Yuan J, Yang D, Liang Y, Gao W, Ren Z, Zeng W, et al. Alkaloids from areca (betel) nuts and their effects on human sperm motility in vitro. J Food Sci. 2012;77:T70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..to rapidly and simultaneously determine 3 main alkaloids (arecoline, arecaidine, and guvacine) in areca (betel) nuts (AN), and 12 AN samples from the main betel palm growing areas on the Chinese Mainland were collected and ..

More Information

Publications77

  1. Wang X, Li Z, Liu Y, Lv X, Yang W. Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutr J. 2012;11:20 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there is also a widely perceived view that eating nuts can lead to body weight gain due to their high fat content.
  2. Estruch R. Anti-inflammatory effects of the Mediterranean diet: the experience of the PREDIMED study. Proc Nutr Soc. 2010;69:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..the short-term effects of two Med-Diet interventions, one supplemented with virgin olive oil and another with nuts, on vascular risk factors in 772 subjects at high risk for CVD, and in a second study we evaluated the effects of ..
  3. O Neil C, Keast D, Nicklas T, Fulgoni V. Nut consumption is associated with decreased health risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999-2004. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011;30:502-10 pubmed
    Few recent epidemiologic studies have assessed the effect that nut consumption (including tree nuts and peanuts) has on health risks, including metabolic syndrome (MetS).
  4. Luncz L, Mundry R, Boesch C. Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities. Curr Biol. 2012;22:922-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts using stone and wooden hammers and tree root anvils...
  5. Mitjavila M, Fandos M, Salas Salvado J, Covas M, Borrego S, Estruch R, et al. The Mediterranean diet improves the systemic lipid and DNA oxidative damage in metabolic syndrome individuals. A randomized, controlled, trial. Clin Nutr. 2013;32:172-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of the MedDiet on biomarkers for oxidative damage has not been assessed in MetS individuals. We have investigated the effect of the MedDiet on systemic oxidative biomarkers in MetS individuals...
  6. Bolling B, Chen C, McKay D, Blumberg J. Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts. Nutr Res Rev. 2011;24:244-75 pubmed publisher
    Tree nuts contain an array of phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols and polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAC) and stilbenes, all of which are included in nutrient databases, as ..
  7. Fragaszy D, Liu Q, Wright B, Allen A, Brown C, Visalberghi E. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) strategically place nuts in a stable position during nut-cracking. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56182 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered that bearded capuchin monkeys deliberately place palm nuts in a relatively stable position on the anvil before striking them...
  8. Chandrasekara N, Shahidi F. Effect of roasting on phenolic content and antioxidant activities of whole cashew nuts, kernels, and testa. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5006-14 pubmed publisher
    The effect of roasting on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cashew nuts and testa was studied...
  9. Patel T, Gawkrodger D. Food allergy in patients with eczema: immediate symptoms are usual, with nuts and tomatoes the major allergens. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25:865-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Food intolerance is a popular notion in the general population but limited data are available on the presence of food allergy in adult patients with eczema...
  10. Baer D, Gebauer S, Novotny J. Measured energy value of pistachios in the human diet. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:120-5 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have suggested that lipid from nuts is more poorly absorbed than that from other food sources...
  11. Kendall C, Josse A, Esfahani A, Jenkins D. Nuts, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:465-73 pubmed publisher
    The ability of nuts to improve the blood lipid profile and reduce the risk of CHD is now well established...
  12. Sabate J, Oda K, Ros E. Nut consumption and blood lipid levels: a pooled analysis of 25 intervention trials. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:821-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this study were to estimate the effects of nut consumption on blood lipid levels and to examine whether different factors modify the effects...
  13. Wien M, Bleich D, Raghuwanshi M, Gould Forgerite S, Gomes J, Monahan Couch L, et al. Almond consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with prediabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010;29:189-97 pubmed
  14. Alexiadou K, Katsilambros N. Nuts: anti-atherogenic food?. Eur J Intern Med. 2011;22:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, drastic dietary interventions are considered necessary in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Nuts, as a nutritional component have drawn particular attention, due to their beneficial cardiovascular properties ..
  15. Su X, Tamimi R, Collins L, Baer H, Cho E, Sampson L, et al. Intake of fiber and nuts during adolescence and incidence of proliferative benign breast disease. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21:1033-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association between adolescent fiber intake and proliferative BBD, a marker of increased breast cancer risk, in the Nurses' Health Study II...
  16. Li G, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Lang J, Chen Y, Ling W. Estimated daily flavonoid and stilbene intake from fruits, vegetables, and nuts and associations with lipid profiles in Chinese adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113:786-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The scientific evidence for the association of daily flavonoid and stilbene intakes with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese adults has not been reported previously...
  17. Djousse L, Gaziano J, Kase C, Kurth T. Nut consumption and risk of stroke in US male physicians. Clin Nutr. 2010;29:605-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to examine whether nut consumption is associated with total and subtypes of stroke...
  18. O Neil C, Keast D, Nicklas T, Fulgoni V. Out-of-hand nut consumption is associated with improved nutrient intake and health risk markers in US children and adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Nutr Res. 2012;32:185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Out-of-hand nut consumers were defined as those individuals consuming ¼ oz of nuts or more per d...
  19. Jalali Khanabadi B, Mozaffari Khosravi H, Parsaeyan N. Effects of almond dietary supplementation on coronary heart disease lipid risk factors and serum lipid oxidation parameters in men with mild hyperlipidemia. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16:1279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with almond on serum lipid levels and their relation to lipid oxidation parameters in men with mild hyperlipidemia...
  20. Urpi Sarda M, Casas R, Chiva Blanch G, Romero Mamani E, Valderas Martínez P, Salas Salvado J, et al. The Mediterranean diet pattern and its main components are associated with lower plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor receptor 60 in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. J Nutr. 2012;142:1019-25 pubmed publisher
    ..randomized into 3 intervention groups [MD supplemented with virgin olive oil (MD-VOO); MD supplemented with mixed nuts (MD-Nuts); and LFD]...
  21. Li Z, Song R, Nguyen C, Zerlin A, Karp H, Naowamondhol K, et al. Pistachio nuts reduce triglycerides and body weight by comparison to refined carbohydrate snack in obese subjects on a 12-week weight loss program. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010;29:198-203 pubmed
    There is a widely held view that, due to high fat content, snacking on nuts will lead to weight gain, ultimately causing unhealthy changes in lipid profiles...
  22. Casas Agustench P, López Uriarte P, Ros E, Bullo M, Salas Salvado J. Nuts, hypertension and endothelial function. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21 Suppl 1:S21-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper we review the role of nutrients, foods, particularly nuts, and dietary patterns on BP control.
  23. Robbins K, Shin E, Shewfelt R, Eitenmiller R, Pegg R. Update on the healthful lipid constituents of commercially important tree nuts. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:12083-92 pubmed publisher
    Uncharacteristic of most whole foods, the major component of tree nuts is lipid; surprisingly, information on the lipid constituents in tree nuts has been sporadic and, for the most part, not well reported...
  24. Fernández Montero A, Bes Rastrollo M, Beunza J, Barrio López M, de La Fuente Arrillaga C, Moreno Galarraga L, et al. Nut consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome after 6-year follow-up: the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra Follow-up) cohort. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16:2064-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the long-term relationship between tree nut consumption and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
  25. Salas Salvado J, Bullo M, Babio N, Martinez Gonzalez M, Ibarrola Jurado N, Basora J, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with the Mediterranean diet: results of the PREDIMED-Reus nutrition intervention randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:14-9 pubmed publisher
    ..diet (control group) or to one of two MedDiets, supplemented with either free virgin olive oil (1 liter/week) or nuts (30 g/day). Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on physical activity was given...
  26. Martinez Gonzalez M, Bes Rastrollo M. Nut consumption, weight gain and obesity: Epidemiological evidence. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21 Suppl 1:S40-5 pubmed publisher
    Short-term trials support that adding tree nuts or peanuts to usual diets does not induce weight gain. We reviewed the available epidemiological evidence on long-term nut consumption and body weight changes...
  27. Vinson J, Cai Y. Nuts, especially walnuts, have both antioxidant quantity and efficacy and exhibit significant potential health benefits. Food Funct. 2012;3:134-40 pubmed publisher
    Free and total (after basic hydrolysis) polyphenols in nine types of raw and roasted nuts and two types of peanut butter (54 commercial samples) were analyzed after methanol extraction by a single step Folin-Ciocalteu reagent using ..
  28. Ros E. Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients. 2010;2:652-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds...
  29. Urpi Sarda M, Casas R, Chiva Blanch G, Romero Mamani E, Valderas Martínez P, Arranz S, et al. Virgin olive oil and nuts as key foods of the Mediterranean diet effects on inflammatory biomakers related to atherosclerosis. Pharmacol Res. 2012;65:577-83 pubmed publisher
    ..analyzed the effects at 3 months of two Med-Diet interventions supplemented with either virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts compared with a control low-fat diet (LFD)...
  30. Moreno Pérez A, Sánchez García A, Salas J, Garcés R, Martínez Force E. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) nuts: cloning, characterization and their impact on oil composition. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:82-7 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms by which macadamia nuts accumulate the unusual palmitoleic and asclepic acyl moieties, which constitute up to 20% of the fatty acids in some varieties, are still unknown. Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (EC 3...
  31. Damasceno N, Sala Vila A, Cofan M, Pérez Heras A, Fito M, Ruiz Gutierrez V, et al. Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts reduces waist circumference and shifts lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Atherosclerosis. 2013;230:347-53 pubmed publisher
    The PREDIMED trial showed that Mediterranean diets supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced incident cardiovascular events compared to a control diet...
  32. Cominetti C, de Bortoli M, Purgatto E, Ong T, Moreno F, Garrido A, et al. Associations between glutathione peroxidase-1 Pro198Leu polymorphism, selenium status, and DNA damage levels in obese women after consumption of Brazil nuts. Nutrition. 2011;27:891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The response of Se status, GPx activity, and levels of DNA damage to a Se supplementation trial between the genotypes related to that polymorphism was investigated...
  33. Damasceno N, Pérez Heras A, Serra M, Cofan M, Sala Vila A, Salas Salvado J, et al. Crossover study of diets enriched with virgin olive oil, walnuts or almonds. Effects on lipids and other cardiovascular risk markers. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21 Suppl 1:S14-20 pubmed publisher
    Virgin olive oil (VOO) and nuts are basic components of the Mediterranean diet, a heart-healthy dietary pattern. Nuts have well known cholesterol lowering effects, while evidence is unclear for VOO...
  34. Bullo M, Lamuela Raventos R, Salas Salvado J. Mediterranean diet and oxidation: nuts and olive oil as important sources of fat and antioxidants. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11:1797-810 pubmed
    ..diet is rich in fat and foods with important antioxidant properties, such as fruits and vegetables, olive oil, and nuts. In this review we focus on epidemiological evidence and clinical trials that relate the Mediterranean diet with ..
  35. Ros E, Tapsell L, Sabate J. Nuts and berries for heart health. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2010;12:397-406 pubmed publisher
    b>Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive compounds, such as L-arginine, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and polyphenols...
  36. Casas Agustench P, Bullo M, Ros E, Basora J, Salas Salvado J. Cross-sectional association of nut intake with adiposity in a Mediterranean population. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21:518-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Nut intake has been inversely related to body mass index (BMI) in prospective studies. We examined dietary determinants of adiposity in an elderly Mediterranean population with customarily high nut consumption...
  37. Gopinath B, Buyken A, Flood V, Empson M, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P. Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish, and nuts and risk of inflammatory disease mortality. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:1073-9 pubmed publisher
    n-3 (omega-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fish, and nuts can regulate inflammatory processes and responses.
  38. Foster G, Shantz K, Vander Veur S, Oliver T, Lent M, Virus A, et al. A randomized trial of the effects of an almond-enriched, hypocaloric diet in the treatment of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:249-54 pubmed publisher
    Increased consumption of nuts has been advocated because of their health benefits, but the role of nuts in the treatment of obesity is unclear given their high energy density.
  39. Luedeling E, Brown P. A global analysis of the comparability of winter chill models for fruit and nut trees. Int J Biometeorol. 2011;55:411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This would greatly facilitate the transfer of such information across growing regions, and help prepare growers for the impact of climate change...
  40. Gumert M, Malaivijitnond S. Marine prey processed with stone tools by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) in intertidal habitats. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012;149:447-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Nearly all were mollusks (n = 1,924), with the small remainder primarily consisting of crustaceans and nuts. The two most common foods, rock oysters (Saccostrea cucullata; n = 1,062) and nerite snails (Nerita spp...
  41. West S, Krick A, Klein L, Zhao G, Wojtowicz T, McGuiness M, et al. Effects of diets high in walnuts and flax oil on hemodynamic responses to stress and vascular endothelial function. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010;29:595-603 pubmed
    ..In a previous article, we showed significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and several markers of inflammation with increasing intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) from walnuts and flax...
  42. Pieters M, Oosthuizen W, Jerling J, Loots D, Mukuddem Petersen J, Hanekom S. Clustering of haemostatic variables and the effect of high cashew and walnut diets on these variables in metabolic syndrome patients. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2005;16:429-37 pubmed
    ..The HDL-C increase and weight loss may be the main focus of dietary intervention for the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, diet composition may have only limited effects if weight loss is not achieved. ..
  43. Cortés B, Núñez I, Cofan M, Gilabert R, Pérez Heras A, Casals E, et al. Acute effects of high-fat meals enriched with walnuts or olive oil on postprandial endothelial function. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:1666-71 pubmed
  44. Molyneux R, Mahoney N, Kim J, Campbell B. Mycotoxins in edible tree nuts. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007;119:72-8 pubmed
    Tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) are an exceptionally valuable crop, especially in California, with an aggregate value approaching $3.5 billion...
  45. Kris Etherton P, Yu Poth S, Sabate J, Ratcliffe H, Zhao G, Etherton T. Nuts and their bioactive constituents: effects on serum lipids and other factors that affect disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:504S-511S pubmed publisher
    Because nuts have favorable fatty acid and nutrient profiles, there is growing interest in evaluating their role in a heart-healthy diet. Nuts are low in saturated fatty acids and high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids...
  46. Segura R, Javierre C, Lizarraga M, Ros E. Other relevant components of nuts: phytosterols, folate and minerals. Br J Nutr. 2006;96 Suppl 2:S36-44 pubmed
    b>Nuts contain significant amounts of essential micronutrients that are associated with an improved health status when consumed at doses beyond those necessary to prevent deficiency states...
  47. Salas Salvado J, Garcia Arellano A, Estruch R, Marquez Sandoval F, Corella D, Fiol M, et al. Components of the Mediterranean-type food pattern and serum inflammatory markers among patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62:651-9 pubmed
    ..005;both). Subjects with the highest consumption of nuts and virgin olive oil showed the lowest concentrations of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-6 and CRP; albeit only for ICAM-1 was ..
  48. Sabate J. Nut consumption and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:647S-650S pubmed publisher
    ..Also, nut-rich diets improve the serum lipid profile of participants in dietary intervention trials. However, nuts are fatty foods, and in theory their regular consumption may lead to body weight gain...
  49. Zuidmeer L, Goldhahn K, Rona R, Gislason D, Madsen C, Summers C, et al. The prevalence of plant food allergies: a systematic review. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:1210-1218.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..studies (since 1990) in the literature database MEDLINE focused on fruits, vegetables/legumes, tree nuts, wheat, soy, cereals, and seeds...
  50. Visalberghi E, Spagnoletti N, Ramos da Silva E, Andrade F, Ottoni E, Izar P, et al. Distribution of potential suitable hammers and transport of hammer tools and nuts by wild capuchin monkeys. Primates. 2009;50:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Wild chimpanzees also transport selected hammer tools and nuts to anvil sites...
  51. Coates A, Howe P. Edible nuts and metabolic health. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007;18:25-30 pubmed
    This review summarizes evidence for metabolic health benefits of tree nuts and groundnuts (peanuts)...
  52. Schutte A, van Rooyen J, Huisman H, Mukuddem Petersen J, Oosthuizen W, Hanekom S, et al. Modulation of baroreflex sensitivity by walnuts versus cashew nuts in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Am J Hypertens. 2006;19:629-36 pubmed
    ..lipid profile, namely a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (walnuts) or monounsaturated fatty acids (cashew nuts), would improve BRS in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS)...
  53. Hu F, Stampfer M, Manson J, Rimm E, Colditz G, Rosner B, et al. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 1998;317:1341-5 pubmed
    ..for age, smoking, and other known risk factors for coronary heart disease, women who ate more than five units of nuts (one unit equivalent to 1 oz of nuts) a week (frequent consumption) had a significantly lower risk of total ..
  54. O Neil C, Keast D, Fulgoni V, Nicklas T. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19:142-50 pubmed
    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking...
  55. Jiang R, Manson J, Stampfer M, Liu S, Willett W, Hu F. Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA. 2002;288:2554-60 pubmed
    b>Nuts are high in unsaturated (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated) fat and other nutrients that may improve glucose and insulin homeostasis. To examine prospectively the relationship between nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes...
  56. Mattes R, Dreher M. Nuts and healthy body weight maintenance mechanisms. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19:137-41 pubmed
    b>Nuts are rich sources of multiple nutrients and phytochemicals associated with health benefits, including reduced cardiovascular disease risk. This has prompted recommendations to increase their consumption...
  57. Tsai C, Leitzmann M, Hu F, Willett W, Giovannucci E. A prospective cohort study of nut consumption and the risk of gallstone disease in men. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160:961-8 pubmed
    Gallstone disease is a major source of morbidity in Western countries. Nuts are rich in several compounds that may be protective against gallstones...
  58. Bes Rastrollo M, Wedick N, Martinez Gonzalez M, Li T, Sampson L, Hu F. Prospective study of nut consumption, long-term weight change, and obesity risk in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1913-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We prospectively evaluated the dietary intake of nuts and subsequent weight changes from 1991 to 1999...
  59. Tan J, Wang J, Flood V, Mitchell P. Dietary fatty acids and the 10-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:656-65 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the relationship between baseline dietary fatty acids and 10-year incident age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
  60. Mukuddem Petersen J, Oosthuizen W, Jerling J. A systematic review of the effects of nuts on blood lipid profiles in humans. J Nutr. 2005;135:2082-9 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the effects of nuts on the lipid profile...
  61. Karamać M. Chelation of Cu(II), Zn(II), and Fe(II) by tannin constituents of selected edible nuts. Int J Mol Sci. 2009;10:5485-97 pubmed publisher
    ..7%; and for hazelnut tannins, no Zn(II) chelation took place at the levels tested...
  62. Tapsell L, Batterham M, Teuss G, Tan S, Dalton S, Quick C, et al. Long-term effects of increased dietary polyunsaturated fat from walnuts on metabolic parameters in type II diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63:1008-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed the effect of sustained high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake through walnut consumption on metabolic outcomes in type II diabetes...
  63. Freire F, Kozakiewicz Z, Paterson R. Mycoflora and mycotoxins in Brazilian black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nuts. Mycopathologia. 2000;149:13-9 pubmed
    ..Aflatoxin G2, chaetoglobosin C, and spinulosin were identified from poor quality brazil nuts. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were also only detected in poor quality brazil nuts at concentrations of 27...
  64. Tilakaratne W, Klinikowski M, Saku T, Peters T, Warnakulasuriya S. Oral submucous fibrosis: review on aetiology and pathogenesis. Oral Oncol. 2006;42:561-8 pubmed
    ..The individual mechanisms operating at various stages of the disease-initial, intermediate and advanced-need further study in order to propose appropriate therapeutic interventions...
  65. Kelly J, Sabate J. Nuts and coronary heart disease: an epidemiological perspective. Br J Nutr. 2006;96 Suppl 2:S61-7 pubmed
    ..Other studies of nuts and coronary heart disease risk are addressed...
  66. Visalberghi E, Fragaszy D, Ottoni E, Izar P, De Oliveira M, Andrade F. Characteristics of hammer stones and anvils used by wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) to crack open palm nuts. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007;132:426-44 pubmed
    Capuchins living in Boa Vista (Piauì, Brazil) crack open hard palm nuts on hard, level surfaces (anvils) using stones (hammers) as percussive tools...
  67. Ros E. Nuts and novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1649S-56S pubmed publisher
    b>Nuts are energy-dense foods, rich in total fat and unsaturated fatty acids...
  68. Barre A, Sordet C, Culerrier R, Rance F, Didier A, Rouge P. Vicilin allergens of peanut and tree nuts (walnut, hazelnut and cashew nut) share structurally related IgE-binding epitopes. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:1231-40 pubmed
    ..All these epitopic regions should participate in the IgE-binding cross-reactivity commonly reported between tree nuts or between peanut and some tree nuts in sensitized individuals...