virus shedding


Summary: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).

Top Publications

  1. Stavisky J, Pinchbeck G, Gaskell R, Dawson S, German A, Radford A. Cross sectional and longitudinal surveys of canine enteric coronavirus infection in kennelled dogs: a molecular marker for biosecurity. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We also propose that the diversity of viruses like CECoV in these populations may provide a novel surrogate marker for the success of biosecurity. ..
  2. Hu Z, Hu S, Meng C, Wang X, Zhu J, Liu X. Generation of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus vaccine candidate with high yield in embryonated chicken eggs. Avian Dis. 2011;55:391-7 pubmed
    ..However, NDV/AI4 significantly reduced virus shedding from the vaccinated birds compared to LaSota...
  3. Quintana A, Hussey S, Burr E, Pecoraro H, Annis K, Rao S, et al. Evaluation of infectivity of a canine lineage H3N8 influenza A virus in ponies and in primary equine respiratory epithelial cells. Am J Vet Res. 2011;72:1071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical signs, nasal virus shedding, and serologic responses to inoculation were monitored in all ponies for up to 21 days after viral inoculation...
  4. Bröjer C, Järhult J, Muradrasoli S, Söderström H, Olsen B, Gavier Widen D. Pathobiology and virus shedding of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (A/H1N1) infection in mallards exposed to oseltamivir. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:103-13 pubmed publisher
  5. Drexler J, Baumgarte S, de Souza Luna L, Eschbach Bludau M, Lukashev A, Drosten C. Aichi virus shedding in high concentrations in patients with acute diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1544-8 pubmed publisher
    We assessed Aichi virus shedding in patients with gastroenteritis and negative test results for other viral and bacterial infections. High concentrations of up to 1.32 × 1012 RNA copies/g stool were found in 10 (2...
  6. Huynh G, Rong L. Modeling the dynamics of virus shedding into the saliva of Epstein-Barr virus positive individuals. J Theor Biol. 2012;310:105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from a recent study have shown that the virus shedding in EBV positive individuals is relatively stable over short periods of time but varies significantly over long ..
  7. Hird T, Grassly N. Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002599 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV...
  8. Wilkinson T, Li C, Chui C, Huang A, Perkins M, Liebner J, et al. Preexisting influenza-specific CD4+ T cells correlate with disease protection against influenza challenge in humans. Nat Med. 2012;18:274-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Preexisting CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells responding to influenza internal proteins were associated with lower virus shedding and less severe illness...
  9. Van Der Vries E, Stittelaar K, van Amerongen G, Veldhuis Kroeze E, de Waal L, Fraaij P, et al. Prolonged influenza virus shedding and emergence of antiviral resistance in immunocompromised patients and ferrets. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003343 pubmed publisher
    ..All ferrets showed prolonged virus shedding. In wild-type virus infected animals treated with oseltamivir, H275Y resistant variants emerged within a week ..

More Information


  1. Peltola V, Waris M, Kainulainen L, Kero J, Ruuskanen O. Virus shedding after human rhinovirus infection in children, adults and patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19:E322-7 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The duration of respiratory tract symptoms correlated with the duration of virus shedding (p 0.002). A new infection by another HRV type soon after the first episode was common...
  2. Franca M, Poulson R, Brown J, Howerth E, Berghaus R, Carter D, et al. Effect of different routes of inoculation on infectivity and viral shedding of LPAI viruses in mallards. Avian Dis. 2012;56:981-5 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, mallards can be infected with LPAIV by various routes of inoculation, and this corroborates their high susceptibility to infection by these viruses...
  3. Arsnoe D, Ip H, Owen J. Influence of body condition on influenza A virus infection in mallard ducks: experimental infection data. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22633 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl. ..
  4. Rockman S, Middleton D, Pearse M, Barr I, Lowther S, Brown L. Control of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus infection of ferret lungs by non-adjuvant-containing pandemic and seasonal vaccines. Vaccine. 2012;30:3618-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate non-classical protective mechanisms that prevent severe pulmonary disease but not viral shedding and imply that particular non-adjuvanted vaccines may have retained the ability to induce these responses. ..
  5. Fry A, Goswami D, Nahar K, Sharmin A, Rahman M, Gubareva L, et al. Efficacy of oseltamivir treatment started within 5 days of symptom onset to reduce influenza illness duration and virus shedding in an urban setting in Bangladesh: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..9%). Oseltamivir treatment resulted in a modest reduction in the duration of symptoms and virus shedding in people with uncomplicated influenza infections, even when treatment was started 48 h or longer after ..
  6. Schiffer J, Magaret A, Selke S, Corey L, Wald A. Detailed analysis of mucosal herpes simplex virus-2 replication kinetics with and without antiviral therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:2593-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Late clearance of episodes in the immunocompetent host is not affected by antiviral therapy, suggesting that local immune response is critical for clearance of episodes both on and off treatment. ..
  7. Launay O, Tod M, Tschöpe I, Si Mohamed A, Belarbi L, Charpentier C, et al. Residual HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 DNA production in the genital tract reservoir of women treated with HAART: the prospective ANRS EP24 GYNODYN study. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:843-52 pubmed publisher
  8. Rahman S, Higo Moriguchi K, Htun K, Taniguchi K, Icatlo F, Tsuji T, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of immunoglobulin Y as adjunct to standard supportive therapy for rotavirus-associated diarrhea among pediatric patients. Vaccine. 2012;30:4661-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Holman C, Karger A, Mullan B, Brundage R, Balfour H. Quantitative Epstein-Barr virus shedding and its correlation with the risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Clin Transplant. 2012;26:741-7 pubmed publisher
  10. Herfst S, Schrauwen E, Linster M, Chutinimitkul S, de Wit E, Munster V, et al. Airborne transmission of influenza A/H5N1 virus between ferrets. Science. 2012;336:1534-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, avian A/H5N1 influenza viruses can acquire the capacity for airborne transmission between mammals without recombination in an intermediate host and therefore constitute a risk for human pandemic influenza. ..
  11. Vega C, Bok M, Vlasova A, Chattha K, Fernandez F, Wigdorovitz A, et al. IgY antibodies protect against human Rotavirus induced diarrhea in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42788 pubmed publisher
    ..titer = 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against Wa HRV associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. This protection was dose-dependent...
  12. Wang C, Cao B, Liu Q, Zou Z, Liang Z, Gu L, et al. Oseltamivir compared with the Chinese traditional therapy maxingshigan-yinqiaosan in the treatment of H1N1 influenza: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that maxingshigan-yinqiaosan may be used as an alternative treatment of H1N1 influenza virus infection. Beijing Science and Technology Project and Beijing Nova Program. ..
  13. Taylor C, Playford E, McBride W, McMahon J, Warrilow D. No evidence of prolonged Hendra virus shedding by 2 patients, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:2025-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Virus was not detected in blood samples when patients were followed-up at 2 and 6 years. Thus, no evidence was found for prolonged virus shedding.
  14. de Wit E, Bushmaker T, Scott D, Feldmann H, Munster V. Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1432 pubmed publisher
    ..The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks...
  15. Lillie P, Berthoud T, Powell T, Lambe T, Mullarkey C, Spencer A, et al. Preliminary assessment of the efficacy of a T-cell-based influenza vaccine, MVA-NP+M1, in humans. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..A virus that are conserved across all subtypes, providing protection against both influenza disease and virus shedding against all influenza A viruses...
  16. JONES F, Gabitzsch E, Xu Y, Balint J, Borisevich V, Smith J, et al. Prevention of influenza virus shedding and protection from lethal H1N1 challenge using a consensus 2009 H1N1 HA and NA adenovirus vector vaccine. Vaccine. 2011;29:7020-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] should be evaluated for the rapid development of effective vaccines against infectious diseases. ..
  17. Hadinoto V, Shapiro M, Sun C, Thorley Lawson D. The dynamics of EBV shedding implicate a central role for epithelial cells in amplifying viral output. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000496 pubmed publisher
    To develop more detailed models of EBV persistence we have studied the dynamics of virus shedding in healthy carriers...
  18. Loeffen W, de Vries R, Stockhofe N, van Zoelen Bos D, Maas R, Koch G, et al. Vaccination with a soluble recombinant hemagglutinin trimer protects pigs against a challenge with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus. Vaccine. 2011;29:1545-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Live virus could not be detected in any of the samples taken from the vaccinated pigs. Vaccines based on soluble HA trimers provide an attractive alternative to the current inactivated vaccines. ..
  19. Berhane Y, Leith M, Embury Hyatt C, Neufeld J, Babiuk S, Hisanaga T, et al. Studying possible cross-protection of Canada geese preexposed to North American low pathogenicity avian influenza virus strains (H3N8, H4N6, and H5N2) against an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza challenge. Avian Dis. 2010;54:548-54 pubmed
    ..In vitro cell proliferation assays demonstrated that peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from each group were no better stimulated by homologous vs. heterologous antigens...
  20. Yamanaka T, Nemoto M, Tsujimura K, Kondo T, Matsumura T. Interspecies transmission of equine influenza virus (H3N8) to dogs by close contact with experimentally infected horses. Vet Microbiol. 2009;139:351-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, two of the three dogs exhibited virus shedding. However, the dogs exhibited no clinical signs throughout the course of the study...
  21. Kumar M, Hill J, Clement C, Varnell E, Thompson H, Kaufman H. A double-blind placebo-controlled study to evaluate valacyclovir alone and with aspirin for asymptomatic HSV-1 DNA shedding in human tears and saliva. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:5601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The HSV-1 DNA copy number was not reduced by treatment with 500 mg of valacyclovir daily or with a combination of daily valacyclovir (500 mg) plus twice-daily doses of aspirin (350 mg) over 30 days. ..
  22. Ramani S, Sankaran P, Arumugam R, Sarkar R, Banerjee I, Mohanty I, et al. Comparison of viral load and duration of virus shedding in symptomatic and asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus infections. J Med Virol. 2010;82:1803-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The duration of virus shedding was also compared between five symptomatic and four asymptomatic neonates using real-time RT-PCR...
  23. Witkop C, Duffy M, Macias E, Gibbons T, Escobar J, Burwell K, et al. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) outbreak at the U.S. Air Force Academy: epidemiology and viral shedding duration. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Almost one quarter of samples obtained 7 days from illness onset contained viable nH1N1 virus. These data may be useful for future investigations and in scenario planning. ..
  24. Sheth P, Kovacs C, Kemal K, Jones R, Raboud J, Pilon R, et al. Persistent HIV RNA shedding in semen despite effective antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2009;23:2050-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Isolates were drug-sensitive, and this phenomenon was not associated with semen drug levels or regimen. ..
  25. Saenz R, Quinlivan M, Elton D, Macrae S, Blunden A, Mumford J, et al. Dynamics of influenza virus infection and pathology. J Virol. 2010;84:3974-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting dynamics indicate a powerful role for innate immunity in controlling the rapid peak in virus shedding. As a corollary, cells are much less depleted than suggested by a model of human influenza based only on virus-..
  26. Goehring L, Wagner B, Bigbie R, Hussey S, Rao S, Morley P, et al. Control of EHV-1 viremia and nasal shedding by commercial vaccines. Vaccine. 2010;28:5203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that both commercial vaccines significantly suppressed EHV-1 disease and nasal viral shedding, and one vaccine suppressed days of viremia...
  27. Nichani A, Dar M, Mirakhur K, Krieg A, Booth J, Townsend H, et al. Subcutaneous, but not intratracheal administration of the TLR9 agonist, CpG DNA transiently reduces parainfluenza-3 virus shedding in newborn lambs. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;33:e111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Subcutaneous (SC) injection of CpG ODN induced high levels of 2'5'-A synthetase and significantly reduced PI-3 virus shedding in newborn lambs...
  28. Souza T, Salluh J, Bozza F, Mesquita M, Soares M, Motta F, et al. H1N1pdm influenza infection in hospitalized cancer patients: clinical evolution and viral analysis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14158 pubmed publisher
    ..However, oseltamivir resistance was not detected. Taken together, our data suggest that severely ill cancer patients may constitute a pandemic virus reservoir with major implications for viral propagation. ..
  29. Mehta T, McGrath E, Bheemreddy S, Salimnia H, Abdel Haq N, Ang J, et al. Detection of oseltamivir resistance during treatment of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection in immunocompromised patients: utility of cycle threshold values of qualitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:4326-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Oseltamivir resistance was later confirmed by pyrosequencing. ..
  30. Schoenfisch A, Dollard S, Amin M, Gardner L, Klein R, Mayer K, et al. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding is highly correlated with markers of immunosuppression in CMV-seropositive women. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive predictive value of CMV IgM seropositivity for CMV DNA shedding in either PBMCs or CVL was 20?%. In summary, CMV shedding in CVL and PBMCs was highly correlated with each other and with markers of immune suppression. ..
  31. Stiglincová V, Chalupková A, Hrabovska Z, Cipková J, Wagnerova M, Mistrikova J. Vertical transmission of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 in mice. Acta Virol. 2011;55:55-9 pubmed
    ..Out of 10 infected pregnant mice just one died and another developed a tumor. All these results confirm the vertical transmission of MHV-68 in mice, teratogenicity of the virus and the virus shedding by breast milk.
  32. Boudreault A, Xie H, Leisenring W, Englund J, Corey L, Boeckh M. Impact of corticosteroid treatment and antiviral therapy on clinical outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplant patients infected with influenza virus. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011;17:979-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Antiviral therapy initiated during the URI phase reduced the risk of LRD and hypoxemia. ..
  33. Berhanu A, King D, Mosier S, Jordan R, Jones K, Hruby D, et al. ST-246 inhibits in vivo poxvirus dissemination, virus shedding, and systemic disease manifestation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4999-5009 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice intranasally infected with vaccinia virus, virus shedding from the nasal and lung mucosa was significantly lower (approximately 22- and 528-fold, respectively) upon ST-..
  34. Liao C, Yang S, Chio C, Chen S. Understanding influenza virus-specific epidemiological properties by analysis of experimental human infections. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:825-35 pubmed publisher
  35. Feiterna Sperling C, Edelmann A, Nickel R, Magdorf K, Bergmann F, Rautenberg P, et al. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) outbreak among 15 school-aged HIV-1-infected children. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:e90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Oseltamivir shortened the duration of viral shedding. ..
  36. Rosenthal L, Amineva S, Szakaly R, Lemanske R, Gern J, Sorkness R. A rat model of picornavirus-induced airway infection and inflammation. Virol J. 2009;6:122 pubmed publisher
    ..These features suggest that mengovirus-induced airway infection in rodents could be a useful model to define mechanisms of rhinovirus-induced airway inflammation in humans. ..
  37. Grund C, Abdelwhab E, Arafa A, Ziller M, Hassan M, Aly M, et al. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 from Egypt escapes vaccine-induced immunity but confers clinical protection against a heterologous clade 2.2.1 Egyptian isolate. Vaccine. 2011;29:5567-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, monitoring vaccine-driven evolution of HPAIV H5N1 by surveillance, antigenic characterization, and challenge studies is essential to assess efficacy of AIV vaccination campaigns. ..
  38. Taylor S, Davies S. Antiretroviral drug concentrations in the male and female genital tract: implications for the sexual transmission of HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5:335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..What effect these factors will have on the sexual transmission of HIV or the evolution and transmission of resistant HIV remains to be seen. ..
  39. Silver M, Paul P, Sowjanya P, Ramakrishna G, Vedantham H, Kalpana B, et al. Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus from the genital tract of women in a periurban community in Andhra Pradesh, India. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2435-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The strong association between the presence of EBV and cervical disease warrants future exploration to determine whether EBV plays a causal role in disease development or if it is merely a bystander in the process. ..
  40. Andersen L, Hodneland K, Nylund A. No influence of oxygen levels on pathogenesis and virus shedding in Salmonid alphavirus (SAV)-challenged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Virol J. 2010;7:198 pubmed publisher
    ..By using this method, we were able to demonstrate for the first time that shedding of SAV from the fish population into the surrounding water coincides with viraemia. ..
  41. Cu Uvin S, Delong A, Venkatesh K, Hogan J, Ingersoll J, Kurpewski J, et al. Genital tract HIV-1 RNA shedding among women with below detectable plasma viral load. AIDS. 2010;24:2489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Women with below-detectable PVL may have less risk of HIV sexual transmission on a population level, but may continue to be infectious on an individual level. ..
  42. Lloyd L, Jonczyk M, Jervis C, Flack D, Lyall J, Foote A, et al. Experimental transmission of avian-like swine H1N1 influenza virus between immunologically naïve and vaccinated pigs. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2011;5:357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals were monitored daily for clinical signs and virus shedding. Pairs of pigs were sequentially co-housed, and once virus was detected in recipients, prior donors were ..
  43. Killingley B, Greatorex J, Cauchemez S, Enstone J, Curran M, Read R, et al. Virus shedding and environmental deposition of novel A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus: interim findings. Health Technol Assess. 2010;14:237-354 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondary objectives were to describe virus shedding and duration according to major patient characteristics: adults versus children, and those with mild illness (..
  44. Munster V, de Wit E, van den Brand J, Herfst S, Schrauwen E, Bestebroer T, et al. Pathogenesis and transmission of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus in ferrets. Science. 2009;325:481-3 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Virus shedding was more abundant from the upper respiratory tract for 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus as compared with seasonal ..
  45. Reuter G, Boldizsár A, Papp G, Pankovics P. Detection of Aichi virus shedding in a child with enteric and extraintestinal symptoms in Hungary. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1529-32 pubmed publisher
    ..diarrhea, fever, purulent conjunctivitis and respiratory symptoms were also present at the same time with virus shedding. The genotype A virus, Kobuvirus/human/Szigetvar-HUN298/2000/Hungary (FJ225407), has 96% nucleotide identity ..
  46. Aldous E, Seekings J, McNally A, Nili H, Fuller C, Irvine R, et al. Infection dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza and virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses in chickens, turkeys and ducks. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..chickens, turkeys and ducks intranasally/intraocularly, and infection was confirmed by the detection of virus shedding from the buccal or cloacal route by analysis of swabs collected using real-time reverse transcriptase-..
  47. Van De Walle G, May M, Peters S, Metzger S, Rosas C, Osterrieder N. A vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against EHV-1 and H3N8 equine influenza virus. Vaccine. 2010;28:1048-55 pubmed publisher
  48. Morales A, Hilt D, Williams S, Pantin Jackwood M, Suarez D, Spackman E, et al. Biologic characterization of H4, H6, and H9 type low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses from wild birds in chickens and turkeys. Avian Dis. 2009;53:552-62 pubmed
    The pathogenesis, virus shedding, and serologic response in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and commercial turkeys against H4, H6, and H9 type low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAI) from wild birds was examined...
  49. Ling L, Chow A, Lye D, Tan A, Krishnan P, Cui L, et al. Effects of early oseltamivir therapy on viral shedding in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:963-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When prescribed during the first 3 days of illness, oseltamivir shortened the duration of viral shedding. ..
  50. Graham S, Masese L, Gitau R, Jalalian Lechak Z, Richardson B, Peshu N, et al. Antiretroviral adherence and development of drug resistance are the strongest predictors of genital HIV-1 shedding among women initiating treatment. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1538-42 pubmed publisher
    ..04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk. ..
  51. Roberts K, Shelton H, Scull M, Pickles R, Barclay W. Lack of transmission of a human influenza virus with avian receptor specificity between ferrets is not due to decreased virus shedding but rather a lower infectivity in vivo. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1822-31 pubmed publisher
  52. Dortmans J, Koch G, Rottier P, Peeters B. A comparative infection study of pigeon and avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses in pigeons: evaluation of clinical signs, virus shedding and seroconversion. Avian Pathol. 2011;40:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..After inoculation by the combined intraocular, intranasal and intratracheal route, clinical signs, virus shedding and serological responses were examined. Clinical signs were observed only in the FL-Herts-infected group...
  53. Shi X, Zhao Y, Gao H, Jing Z, Wang M, Cui H, et al. Evaluation of recombinant fowlpox virus expressing infectious bronchitis virus S1 gene and chicken interferon-? gene for immune protection against heterologous strains. Vaccine. 2011;29:1576-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the lesions and the amount of virus shedding were less severe in the vaccinated groups challenged by strains LX4, LHB and LHLJ04XI when compared with the ..