protein carbonylation


Summary: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.

Top Publications

  1. Tang V, Young A, Tan H, Beasley C, Wang J. Glucocorticoids increase protein carbonylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Horm Metab Res. 2013;45:709-15 pubmed publisher
    ..031, 0.063, and 0.125 mmol/l for 24 h. Protein carbonylation, activities of mitochondrial complex I and III, activity of NADPH oxidase, total antioxidant capacity, and ..
  2. de Waal E, Liang H, Pierce A, Hamilton R, Buffenstein R, Chaudhuri A. Elevated protein carbonylation and oxidative stress do not affect protein structure and function in the long-living naked-mole rat: a proteomic approach. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;434:815-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of its exceptional longevity, (2) enzyme function is restored despite of experiencing higher level of protein carbonylation, and (3) enzymes show lesser sensitivity to form higher-order non-reducible oligomers compared to short-..
  3. Frohnert B, Bernlohr D. Protein carbonylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance. Adv Nutr. 2013;4:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the various effects of oxidative stress, protein carbonylation has been identified as a potential mechanism underlying mitochondrial dysfunction...
  4. Baraibar M, Liu L, Ahmed E, Friguet B. Protein oxidative damage at the crossroads of cellular senescence, aging, and age-related diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:919832 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underscore the potential effect of protein modification in the impairment of cellular metabolism during aging and age-related diseases. ..
  5. Gornati R, Colombo G, Clerici M, Rossi F, Gagliano N, Riva C, et al. Protein carbonylation in human endothelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract. Toxicol Lett. 2013;218:118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show protein carbonylation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (ECV-304) exposed to whole-phase cigarette smoke extract...
  6. Lounifi I, Arc E, Molassiotis A, Job D, Rajjou L, Tanou G. Interplay between protein carbonylation and nitrosylation in plants. Proteomics. 2013;13:568-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we focus on two posttranslational modifications: protein carbonylation (a marker of protein oxidation) and protein S-nitrosylation, both of which having recently emerged as ..
  7. Curtis J, Hahn W, Long E, Burrill J, Arriaga E, Bernlohr D. Protein carbonylation and metabolic control systems. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2012;23:399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..aldehydes that non-enzymatically alkylate cysteine, histidine, or lysine residues in a reaction termed protein carbonylation. Reactive lipid aldehydes and their derivatives are detoxified via a variety of phase I and phase II ..
  8. Curtis J, Hahn W, Stone M, Inda J, Droullard D, Kuzmicic J, et al. Protein carbonylation and adipocyte mitochondrial function. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32967-80 pubmed
    ..To address the role of protein carbonylation in the pathogenesis of mitochondrial dysfunction, quantitative proteomics was employed to identify ..
  9. Rajendiran S, Zachariah B, Hamide A. Increased protein carbonylation and decreased antioxidant status in anemic H. pylori infected patients: effect of treatment. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to evaluate the marker of oxidative protein injury, protein carbonylation, and total antioxidant status in anemic H...

More Information


  1. Oliveira S, Kallaur A, Simão A, Morimoto H, Lopes J, Panis C, et al. Oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis patients in clinical remission: association with the expanded disability status scale. J Neurol Sci. 2012;321:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..3244, p=0.0026) and between carbonyl protein and EDSS (r=0.3012, p=0.0041). These results demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in the physiopathology of MS progression. ..
  2. Kästle M, Grune T. Protein oxidative modification in the aging organism and the role of the ubiquitin proteasomal system. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17:4007-22 pubmed
    ..This review outlines the connections between aging, oxidative stress and protein oxidation, as well as the influence on the ubiquitin proteasomal system and several associated diseases. ..
  3. Rauniyar N, Prokai L. Isotope-coded dimethyl tagging for differential quantification of posttranslational protein carbonylation by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, an end-product of lipid peroxidation. J Mass Spectrom. 2011;46:976-85 pubmed publisher
    ..its potential value to proteome-wide identification and relative quantification of posttranslational protein carbonylation with residue-specific information...
  4. Baraibar M, Hyzewicz J, Rogowska Wrzesinska A, Ladouce R, Roepstorff P, Mouly V, et al. Oxidative stress-induced proteome alterations target different cellular pathways in human myoblasts. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:1522-32 pubmed publisher
    ..were focused on two distinct proteins: p53 for altered protein expression and huntingtin for increased protein carbonylation. This study emphasizes the importance of performing analysis addressing different aspects of the cellular ..
  5. Galligan J, Smathers R, Fritz K, Epperson L, HUNTER L, Petersen D. Protein carbonylation in a murine model for early alcoholic liver disease. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:1012-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine targets of protein carbonylation, a secondary hydrazide method coupled to a highly sensitive 2-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem ..
  6. Sefi M, Fetoui H, Makni M, Zeghal N. Mitigating effects of antioxidant properties of Artemisia campestris leaf extract on hyperlipidemia, advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1986-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that A. campestris aqueous extract may be effective for correcting hyperglycemia and preventing diabetic complications. ..
  7. Fedorova M, Kuleva N, Hoffmann R. Identification, quantification, and functional aspects of skeletal muscle protein-carbonylation in vivo during acute oxidative stress. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:2516-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Carbonylation of these proteins followed diverse kinetics with some proteins being highly carbonylated very quickly, whereas others peaked in the 9 h sample or continued to increase up to 24 h after oxidative stress was induced. ..
  8. Mathew S, Bryant P, Burch A. Accumulation of oxidized proteins in Herpesvirus infected cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Hsp27 may also buffer toxic effects of highly-carbonylated, defective proteins that resist proteolysis by promoting their aggregation in the nucleus. These roles of Hsp27 during virus infection are most likely not mutually exclusive. ..
  9. Magherini F, Abruzzo P, Puglia M, Bini L, Gamberi T, Esposito F, et al. Proteomic analysis and protein carbonylation profile in trained and untrained rat muscles. J Proteomics. 2012;75:978-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Concerning carbonylation, we observed the existence of a high basal level of protein carbonylation. Although this level shows some variation among individual animals, several proteins (mostly involved in ..
  10. Tasset I, Agüera E, Sanchez Lopez F, Feijoo M, Giraldo A, Cruz A, et al. Peripheral oxidative stress in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Clin Biochem. 2012;45:440-4 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, PAO, GSSG, GPx and GST were lower in RR-MS patients. Oxidative stress plays a major role in MS, and is observed prior to relapse. ..
  11. Zheng J, Dasgupta A, Bizzozero O. Changes in 20S subunit composition are largely responsible for altered proteasomal activities in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurochem. 2012;121:486-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are central towards understanding the altered proteasomal physiology in inflammatory demyelinating disorders. ..
  12. Singh M, Murthy V, Ramassamy C. Modulation of hydrogen peroxide and acrolein-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and redox regulated pathways by the Bacopa monniera extract: potential implication in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;21:229-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings demonstrate that BM can protect human neuroblastoma cells against H2O2 and acrolein through different mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of AD and could have a therapeutic application in the prevention of AD...
  13. Zheng J, Bizzozero O. Accumulation of protein carbonyls within cerebellar astrocytes in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:3376-85 pubmed publisher
    Recent work from our laboratory has implicated protein carbonylation in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
  14. Linares M, Marín Garcíía P, Mendez D, Puyet A, Diez A, Bautista J. Proteomic approaches to identifying carbonylated proteins in brain tissue. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:1719-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative data on protein identification using both methods are provided. ..
  15. Li G, Liu L, Hu H, Zhao Q, Xie F, Chen K, et al. Age-related carbonyl stress and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2010;46:305-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma RCS and thiols concentrations between different age groups and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation in the adult group were detected within 24h of the blood sampling...
  16. Guidi F, Magherini F, Gamberi T, Bini L, Puglia M, Marzocchini R, et al. Plasma protein carbonylation and physical exercise. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7:640-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our research was to characterize plasma protein carbonylation in response to physical exercise in trained male endurance athletes...
  17. Saraswat M, Suryanarayana P, Reddy P, Patil M, Balakrishna N, Reddy G. Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1525-37 pubmed
    ..In this study we investigated the potential of ginger to prevent diabetic cataract in rats...
  18. Kim J, Sedlak M, Gao Q, Riley C, Regnier F, Adamec J. Dynamics of protein damage in yeast frataxin mutant exposed to oxidative stress. OMICS. 2010;14:689-99 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative stress and protein carbonylation is implicated in aging and various diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and cancer...
  19. Zheng J, Bizzozero O. Reduced proteasomal activity contributes to the accumulation of carbonylated proteins in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurochem. 2010;115:1556-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the results support the notion that diminished activity of the 20S proteasome is a major contributor to the accumulation of carbonylated proteins in astrocytes of chronic EAE mice. ..
  20. Shao C, Rozanski G, Nagai R, Stockdale F, Patel K, Wang M, et al. Carbonylation of myosin heavy chains in rat heart during diabetes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:205-17 pubmed publisher
    ..From these new data it can be concluded that in addition to isozyme switching, modification of MHC by RCS also contributes to the inotropic decline seen during diabetes. ..
  21. Guo J, Prokai L. To tag or not to tag: a comparative evaluation of immunoaffinity-labeling and tandem mass spectrometry for the identification and localization of posttranslational protein carbonylation by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, an end-product of lipid peroxidation. J Proteomics. 2011;74:2360-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, tagging may increase the confidence of identifications of HNE-modified peptides by database searches. ..
  22. Fritz K, Petersen D. Exploring the biology of lipid peroxidation-derived protein carbonylation. Chem Res Toxicol. 2011;24:1411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Determining the biochemical factors that elicit cellular responses resulting from protein carbonylation remains a key element to developing therapeutic approaches and ameliorating disease pathologies...
  23. Cumaoglu A, Stefek M, Bauer V, Ari N, Aricioglu A, Karasu C. Glycoxidative and nitrosative stress in kidney of experimental diabetic rats: effects of the prydoindole antioxidant stobadine. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31:313-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, stobadine treatment significantly decreased protein carbonylation and AOPPs but not NT...
  24. Itziou A, Kaloyianni M, Dimitriadis V. In vivo and in vitro effects of metals in reactive oxygen species production, protein carbonylation, and DNA damage in land snails Eobania vermiculata. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;60:697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which often preludes the onset of alterations, such as protein carbonylation and DNA damage...
  25. Goudeau J, Aguilaniu H. Carbonylated proteins are eliminated during reproduction in C. elegans. Aging Cell. 2010;9:991-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests that the resetting of damaged proteins during reproduction is conserved, therefore validating the use of C. elegans as a model to study the molecular basis of damage elimination. ..
  26. Møller I, Rogowska Wrzesinska A, Rao R. Protein carbonylation and metal-catalyzed protein oxidation in a cellular perspective. J Proteomics. 2011;74:2228-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The most well-studied irreversible protein oxidation is carbonylation. In this work we first examine how protein carbonylation occurs via metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) in vivo and in vitro with an emphasis on cellular metal ion ..
  27. Frohnert B, Sinaiko A, Serrot F, Foncea R, Moran A, Ikramuddin S, et al. Increased adipose protein carbonylation in human obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:1735-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammalian cells defend against reactive lipid aldehydes and protein carbonylation by glutathionylation using glutathione-S-transferase A4 (GSTA4) or carbonyl reduction/oxidation via ..
  28. Pickering A, Koop A, Teoh C, Ermak G, Grune T, Davies K. The immunoproteasome, the 20S proteasome and the PA28?? proteasome regulator are oxidative-stress-adaptive proteolytic complexes. Biochem J. 2010;432:585-94 pubmed publisher
  29. Nuss J, Amaning J, Bailey C, DeFord J, Dimayuga V, Rabek J, et al. Oxidative modification and aggregation of creatine kinase from aged mouse skeletal muscle. Aging (Albany NY). 2009;1:557-72 pubmed
    ..Our studies indicate that the age-associated oxidative and nitrative modification of CKm results in a decrease in its activity and may cause structural changes that promote oligomerization and aggregation. ..
  30. Wehr N, Levine R. Quantitation of protein carbonylation by dot blot. Anal Biochem. 2012;423:241-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein carbonylation is the most commonly used measure of oxidative modification of proteins...
  31. Zheng F, Lu W, Jia C, Li H, Wang Z, Jia W. Relationships between glucose excursion and the activation of oxidative stress in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose regulation. Endocrine. 2010;37:201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..01). We demonstrate that glucose excursions in subjects with IGR and T2DM trigger the activation of oxidative stress. ..
  32. Yang K, Qiang D, Delaney S, Mehta R, Bruce W, O Brien P. Differences in glyoxal and methylglyoxal metabolism determine cellular susceptibility to protein carbonylation and cytotoxicity. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;191:322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Protein carbonylation and the associated toxicity caused by GO and MGO were studied in the following hepatocyte models: (1) ..
  33. Bollineni R, Hoffmann R, Fedorova M. Identification of protein carbonylation sites by two-dimensional liquid chromatography in combination with MALDI- and ESI-MS. J Proteomics. 2011;74:2338-50 pubmed publisher
    ..e. oxBSA and ox?-LG. In total, three carbonylation sites were identified in native ?-LG, nine in native BSA, eleven in ox?-LG and 32 in oxBSA. ..
  34. Delobel J, Prudent M, Rubin O, Crettaz D, Tissot J, Lion N. Subcellular fractionation of stored red blood cells reveals a compartment-based protein carbonylation evolution. J Proteomics. 2012;76 Spec No.:181-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to improve global erythrocyte protein carbonylation assessment, subcellular fractionation has been established, allowing us to work on four different protein ..
  35. Pavone B, Sirolli V, Giardinelli A, Bucci S, Forlì F, Di Cesare M, et al. Plasma protein carbonylation in chronic uremia. J Nephrol. 2011;24:453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we looked for evidence and for the targets of plasma protein carbonylation in patients on hemodialysis...
  36. Yadav P, Xie P, Banerjee R. Allosteric communication between the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and heme sites in the H2S generator human cystathionine ?-synthase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37611-20 pubmed publisher
  37. Novoa Luna K, Romero Romero R, Natividad Rangel R, Galar Martinez M, SanJuan Reyes N, Garcia Medina S, et al. Oxidative stress induced in Hyalella azteca by an effluent from a NSAID-manufacturing plant in Mexico. Ecotoxicology. 2016;25:1288-304 pubmed publisher
    ..05) with respect to the control group. In conclusion, the industrial effluent analyzed in the present study contains NSAIDs and NaClO, and induces oxidative stress in H. azteca. ..
  38. Bohlooli S, Barmaki S, Khoshkhahesh F, Nakhostin Roohi B. The effect of spinach supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2015;55:609-14 pubmed
    ..05). These results suggest that chronic daily oral supplementation of spinach has alleviating effects on known markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage following a half-marathon in well trained healthy young men. ..
  39. Castro J, Jung T, Grune T, Almeida H. Actin carbonylation: from cell dysfunction to organism disorder. J Proteomics. 2013;92:171-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein carbonylation is an important event in the context of proteostasis because of its frequency, non-enzymatic nature and irreversible effects...
  40. Fernandes C, da Rosa M, Seminotti B, Pierozan P, Martell R, Lagranha V, et al. In vivo experimental evidence that the major metabolites accumulating in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency induce oxidative stress in striatum of developing rats: a potential pathophysiological mechanism of striatal damage in this disor. Mol Genet Metab. 2013;109:144-53 pubmed publisher
  41. Onouchi H, Ishii T, Miyazawa M, Uchino Y, Yasuda K, Hartman P, et al. Mitochondrial superoxide anion overproduction in Tet-mev-1 transgenic mice accelerates age-dependent corneal cell dysfunctions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:5780-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress with electron transport chain dysfunction can influence pathogenesis and progression of age-related corneal diseases, as well as generalized corneal aging acceleration. ..
  42. Azizova O, Aseychev A, Beckman E, Moskvina S, Skotnikova O, Smolina N, et al. Studies of oxidant-induced changes in albumin transport function with a fluorescent probe k-35. Effect of hypochlorite. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012;152:712-6 pubmed
    ..Oxidative modification of probe K-35 binding sites with hypochlorite contributes to a decrease in effective concentration of albumin under pathological conditions. ..
  43. Liu Q, Simpson D, Gronert S. Carbonylation of mitochondrial aconitase with 4-hydroxy-2-(E)-nonenal: localization and relative reactivity of addition sites. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1834:1144-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, both enzyme activity assay and iTRAQ relative abundance plots appeared to be trending toward horizontal asymptotes, rather than completion. ..
  44. Jung S, Nam K, Ahn D, Kim H, Jo C. Effect of phosvitin on lipid and protein oxidation in ground beef treated with high hydrostatic pressure. Meat Sci. 2013;95:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that phosvitin could enhance the stability of lipids and proteins but not color changes of raw ground beef caused by HHP. ..
  45. Linares M, Marín García P, Martínez Chacón G, Pérez Benavente S, Puyet A, Diez A, et al. Glutathione peroxidase contributes with heme oxygenase-1 to redox balance in mouse brain during the course of cerebral malaria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:2009-18 pubmed publisher
    ..and redox proteomics and immunohistochemistry failed to detect quantitative or qualitative differences in protein carbonylation. Thus, the loss of antioxidant capacity was compensated for in all cerebral regions by progressive ..
  46. Sadowska Bartosz I, Adamczyk Sowa M, Gajewska A, Bartosz G. Oxidative modification of blood serum proteins in multiple sclerosis after interferon or mitoxantrone treatment. J Neuroimmunol. 2014;266:67-74 pubmed publisher
    ..03±2.18 vs 10.83±2.75ng/ml) with respect to control. The level of OS was higher in untreated RRMS patients and in SPMS patients treated with mitoxantrone than in patients treated with interferon. ..
  47. Piao M, Kim K, Zheng J, Yao C, Cha J, Kang H, et al. Gracilaria bursa-pastoris (Gmelin) Silva extract attenuates ultraviolet B radiation-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2014;33:33-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GBE exerts cytoprotective actions against UVB-stimulated oxidative stress by scavenging ROS and absorbing UVB rays, thereby attenuating injury to cellular constituents and preventing cell death. ..
  48. Baltatzis M, Pavlidis T, Ouroumidis O, Koliakos G, Nikolaidou C, Venizelos I, et al. Aprotinin reduces oxidative stress induced by pneumoperitoneum in rats. J Surg Res. 2014;189:238-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Aprotinin reduced inflammatory response and oxidative stress induced by pneumoperitoneum in liver, small intestine, and lungs. ..
  49. Awasthi S, Saraswathi N. Sinigrin, a major glucosinolate from cruciferous vegetables restrains non-enzymatic glycation of albumin. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;83:410-5 pubmed publisher
  50. Matozzo V, Battistara M, Marisa I, Bertin V, Orsetti A. Assessing the Effects of Amoxicillin on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, Lipid Peroxidation and Protein Carbonyl Content in the Clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;97:521-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained demonstrated that AMX affected slightly biomarker responses of molluscs. ..
  51. Bors M, Michałowicz J, Pilarski R, Sicinska P, Gulewicz K, Bukowska B. Studies of biological properties of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on human blood mononuclear cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;142:669-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The kind of extractant used had a significant influence of the chemical composition of the tested extracts. The ethanol extract from bark containing a high amount of polyphenols and alkaloids revealed the highest pro-apoptotic effect. ..
  52. Lakshmi S, Naushad S, Reddy C, Saumya K, Rao D, Kotamraju S, et al. Oxidative stress in coronary artery disease: epigenetic perspective. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;374:203-11 pubmed publisher
  53. Sreelakshmi V, Abraham A. Anthraquinones and flavonoids of Cassia tora leaves ameliorate sodium selenite induced cataractogenesis in neonatal rats. Food Funct. 2016;7:1087-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present study indicates the therapeutic potential of Cassia tora leaves in preventing cataract and the effect is endorsed by the presence of antioxidants in Cassia tora leaves. ..