tetracycline resistance


Summary: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.

Top Publications

  1. Hellweger F. Escherichia coli adapts to tetracycline resistance plasmid (pBR322) by mutating endogenous potassium transport: in silico hypothesis testing. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2013;83:622-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolved Trk mutant relies on TetA to take up K(+) , and thus, carrying the plasmid is advantageous even in the absence of the antibiotic. ..
  2. Zhang X, Zhang T. Occurrence, abundance, and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes in 15 sewage treatment plants across China and other global locations. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:2598-604 pubmed publisher
    ..STPs) across China and other global locations to investigate the occurrence, abundance and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes (tet) in the STPs...
  3. Wu N, Qiao M, Zhang B, Cheng W, Zhu Y. Abundance and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes in soils adjacent to representative swine feedlots in China. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:6933-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetracycline resistance was determined in soils sampled from farmlands in the vicinity of nine swine farms located in three ..
  4. Kim S, Park H, Chandran K. Propensity of activated sludge to amplify or attenuate tetracycline resistance genes and tetracycline resistant bacteria: a mathematical modeling approach. Chemosphere. 2010;78:1071-7 pubmed publisher
    ..wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to amplify or attenuate tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRG)...
  5. Seville L, Patterson A, Scott K, Mullany P, Quail M, Parkhill J, et al. Distribution of tetracycline and erythromycin resistance genes among human oral and fecal metagenomic DNA. Microb Drug Resist. 2009;15:159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We have determined that tet(M) and tet(W) are the most prevalent tetracycline resistance genes assayed for in the oral and fecal metagenomes, respectively...
  6. Zhang W, Huang M, Qi F, Sun P, Van Ginkel S. Effect of trace tetracycline concentrations on the structure of a microbial community and the development of tetracycline resistance genes in sequencing batch reactors. Bioresour Technol. 2013;150:9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of different concentrations of tetracycline (TC) on the microbial community and development of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs)...
  7. Liu M, Zhang Y, Yang M, Tian Z, Ren L, Zhang S. Abundance and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes and mobile elements in an oxytetracycline production wastewater treatment system. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:7551-7 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the abundance and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes (tet genes) in an oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotic production wastewater (APW) treatment system...
  8. Albert M, Udo E, Jose B, Haridas S, Rotimi V. Tetracycline resistance is frequent among Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Kuwait. Microb Drug Resist. 2009;15:115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Tetracycline is one of the antibiotics recommended for treatment, but no data exist for tetracycline resistance in C. jejuni for the Arabian Gulf region. We characterized the tetracycline susceptibility of 85 C...
  9. Bojesen A, Bager R, Ifrah D, Aarestrup F. The rarely reported tet(31) tetracycline resistance determinant is common in Gallibacterium anatis. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:497-9 pubmed publisher
    The present investigation was undertaken to identify and characterize the tetracycline resistance determinant in 22 Gallibacterium anatis strains for which no determinant was identified using primers specific for tet(A, B, C, D, E, G, H, ..

More Information


  1. Ammor M, Gueimonde M, Danielsen M, Zagorec M, van Hoek A, de Los Reyes Gavil n C, et al. Two different tetracycline resistance mechanisms, plasmid-carried tet(L) and chromosomally located transposon-associated tet(M), coexist in Lactobacillus sakei Rits 9. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:1394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..However, tetracycline-resistant L. sakei strains have already been observed. In this paper, we show that tetracycline resistance in L...
  2. Akinbowale O, Peng H, Barton M. Diversity of tetracycline resistance genes in bacteria from aquaculture sources in Australia. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;103:2016-25 pubmed
    To determine the genetic determinants responsible for tetracycline resistance in oxytetracycline resistant bacteria from aquaculture sources in Australia...
  3. Muñoz Aguayo J, Lang K, LaPara T, Gonzalez G, Singer R. Evaluating the effects of chlortetracycline on the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a simulated river water ecosystem. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:5421-5 pubmed
    ..Low levels of CTC in this in vitro experiment did not select for increased levels of tetracycline resistance among cultivable aerobic bacteria...
  4. Phelan R, Clarke C, Morrissey J, Dobson A, O Gara F, Barbosa T. Tetracycline resistance-encoding plasmid from Bacillus sp. strain #24, isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:327-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide the first report of a tetracycline resistance-encoding plasmid, pBHS24, from a marine sponge-associated bacterium, Bacillus sp...
  5. Peak N, Knapp C, Yang R, Hanfelt M, Smith M, Aga D, et al. Abundance of six tetracycline resistance genes in wastewater lagoons at cattle feedlots with different antibiotic use strategies. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:143-51 pubmed
    The abundance of six tetracycline resistance genes tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tet(B) and tet(L), were quantified over time in wastewater lagoons at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) to assess how feedlot operation ..
  6. Rather M, Aulakh R, Gill J, Mir A, Hassan M. Detection and sequencing of plasmid encoded tetracycline resistance determinants (tetA and tetB) from food-borne Bacillus cereus isolates. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5:709-12 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the detection and sequencing of plasmid encoded tetracycline resistance genes (tetA and tetB) from food-borne and standard strains of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus)...
  7. Alexander T, Reuter T, Sharma R, Yanke L, Topp E, McAllister T. Longitudinal characterization of resistant Escherichia coli in fecal deposits from cattle fed subtherapeutic levels of antimicrobials. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:7125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Occurrence of determinants was influenced by the feeding of antimicrobials. Fecal deposits remain a source of resistant E. coli even after a considerable period of environmental exposure. ..
  8. Agersø Y, Sandvang D. Class 1 integrons and tetracycline resistance genes in alcaligenes, arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from pigsties and manured soil. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:7941-7 pubmed
    The presence of tetracycline resistance (Tc(r)) genes and class I integrons (in-1), and their ability to cotransfer were investigated in Tc(r) gram-negative (185 strains) and gram-positive (72 strains) bacteria from Danish farmland and ..
  9. Brown M, Mitchell E, Balkwill D. Tet 42, a novel tetracycline resistance determinant isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:4518-21 pubmed publisher
    Tet 42, a novel tetracycline resistance determinant from deep subsurface bacteria, was characterized and found to have a 30% sequence similarity to TetA(Z)...
  10. Kadlec K, Schwarz S. Identification of a novel trimethoprim resistance gene, dfrK, in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 strain and its physical linkage to the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:776-8 pubmed publisher
    A novel trimethoprim resistance gene, designated dfrK, was detected in close proximity to the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L) on the ca...
  11. Whetstine C, Slusser J, Zückert W. Development of a single-plasmid-based regulatable gene expression system for Borrelia burgdorferi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:6553-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Since target protein, operator, and repressor are carried by a single plasmid, the system's application is independent of a particular strain background. ..
  12. de Vries L, Christensen H, Skov R, Aarestrup F, Agersø Y. Diversity of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) and identification of Tn916- and Tn5801-like (Tn6014) transposons in Staphylococcus aureus from humans and animals. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64:490-500 pubmed publisher
    To analyse the sequence diversity of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) in Staphylococcus aureus from humans and animals and to determine mobile elements associated with tet(M) in S. aureus...
  13. Caryl J, Cox G, Trimble S, O Neill A. "tet(U)" is not a tetracycline resistance determinant. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:3378-9 pubmed publisher
    The enterococcal plasmid pKQ10 has been reported to carry a poorly characterized tetracycline resistance determinant designated tet(U)...
  14. Yu Z, Michel F, Hansen G, Wittum T, Morrison M. Development and application of real-time PCR assays for quantification of genes encoding tetracycline resistance. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:6926-33 pubmed
    ..and use of three real-time PCR assays to quantify the abundance of the following three groups of tetracycline resistance genes: tet(A) and tet(C); tet(G); and tet genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins, including tet(M), ..
  15. Barkovskii A, Green C, Hurley D. The occurrence, spatial and temporal distribution, and environmental routes of tetracycline resistance and integrase genes in Crassostrea virginica beds. Mar Pollut Bull. 2010;60:2215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes (TRG) and integrons (INT) have been monitored for 2 years in seven oyster beds located in the ..
  16. Li X, Wang H. Tetracycline resistance associated with commensal bacteria from representative ready-to-consume deli and restaurant foods. J Food Prot. 2010;73:1841-8 pubmed
    ..Our data revealed a common avenue in AR exposure and will assist in proper risk assessment and the development of comprehensive mitigation strategies to effectively combat AR. ..
  17. Patterson A, Rincon M, Flint H, Scott K. Mosaic tetracycline resistance genes are widespread in human and animal fecal samples. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:1115-8 pubmed
    Mosaic tetracycline resistance genes comprising tet(O), tet(W), and tet(32) sequences were abundant in DNA extracted from pig and human fecal samples, accounting for 78% (50/64) and 46% (37/80) of genes amplified with a tet(O) primer set,..
  18. Volkers G, Palm G, Weiss M, Wright G, Hinrichs W. Structural basis for a new tetracycline resistance mechanism relying on the TetX monooxygenase. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:1061-6 pubmed publisher
  19. Lau S, Wong G, Li M, Woo P, Yuen K. Distribution and molecular characterization of tetracycline resistance in Laribacter hongkongensis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;61:488-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the distribution and molecular characterization of tetracycline resistance in 48 L. hongkongensis isolates from humans and fish. ..
  20. Zhang X, Wu B, Zhang Y, Zhang T, Yang L, Fang H, et al. Class 1 integronase gene and tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetC in different water environments of Jiangsu Province, China. Ecotoxicology. 2009;18:652-60 pubmed publisher
    Class 1 integronase gene (intI1) and tetracycline resistance genes (tetA and tetC) from various environmental sites in Jiangsu Province (China) were detected using qualitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and quantified with SYBR ..
  21. Mullany P, Allan E, Warburton P. Tetracycline resistance genes and mobile genetic elements from the oral metagenome. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18 Suppl 4:58-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetracycline resistance genes are common in the human oral cavity...
  22. Auerbach E, Seyfried E, McMahon K. Tetracycline resistance genes in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Water Res. 2007;41:1143-51 pubmed
    ..In the current study, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were investigated as possible sources of tetracycline resistance via qualitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
  23. Checkley S, Campbell J, Chirino Trejo M, Janzen E, Waldner C. Associations between antimicrobial use and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli from feedlot cattle in western Canada. Can Vet J. 2010;51:853-61 pubmed
    ..coli isolates resistant to tetracycline between the treatment groups preslaughter. However, there were significantly more animals with tetracycline resistant isolates of E. coli preslaughter than at arrival. ..
  24. Manuzon M, Hanna S, Luo H, Yu Z, Harper W, Wang H. Quantitative assessment of the tetracycline resistance gene pool in cheese samples by real-time TaqMan PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:1676-7 pubmed
    ..This protocol offers a rapid, specific, sensitive, and culture-independent method for assessing antibiotic resistance genes in food samples rich in fats and proteins. ..
  25. Barile S, Devirgiliis C, Perozzi G. Molecular characterization of a novel mosaic tet(S/M) gene encoding tetracycline resistance in foodborne strains of Streptococcus bovis. Microbiology. 2012;158:2353-62 pubmed publisher
  26. Agersø Y, Pedersen A, Aarestrup F. Identification of Tn5397-like and Tn916-like transposons and diversity of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) in enterococci from humans, pigs and poultry. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;57:832-9 pubmed
    To analyse the sequence diversity of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) and its location on mobile elements in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis from humans, pigs and poultry in Denmark...
  27. Guarddon M, Miranda J, Rodriguez J, Vazquez B, Cepeda A, Franco C. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for the quantitative detection of tetA and tetB bacterial tetracycline resistance genes in food. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;146:284-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both tet genes are two of the most frequently present tetracycline resistance genes in gram-negative bacteria. A set of primers and Taqman probes was designed for each gene...
  28. Ciric L, Mullany P, Roberts A. Antibiotic and antiseptic resistance genes are linked on a novel mobile genetic element: Tn6087. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:2235-9 pubmed publisher
  29. Kyselková M, Chronáková A, Volná L, Nemec J, Ulmann V, Scharfen J, et al. Tetracycline resistance and presence of tetracycline resistance determinants tet(V) and tap in rapidly growing mycobacteria from agricultural soils and clinical isolates. Microbes Environ. 2012;27:413-22 pubmed
    ..Their simple presence, however, does not attest to resistance, and therefore their diversity, function and expression merit further research...
  30. Li W, Atkinson G, Thakor N, Allas U, Lu C, Chan K, et al. Mechanism of tetracycline resistance by ribosomal protection protein Tet(O). Nat Commun. 2013;4:1477 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetracycline resistance protein Tet(O), which protects the bacterial ribosome from binding the antibiotic tetracycline, is a translational GTPase with significant similarity in both sequence and structure to the elongation factor EF-G...
  31. Seyfried E, Newton R, Rubert K, Pedersen J, McMahon K. Occurrence of tetracycline resistance genes in aquaculture facilities with varying use of oxytetracycline. Microb Ecol. 2010;59:799-807 pubmed publisher
    ..e., prevalence) of tetracycline resistance (tet(R)) genes relative to facilities with no recent OTC treatment...
  32. Ghosh S, Ramsden S, LaPara T. The role of anaerobic digestion in controlling the release of tetracycline resistance genes and class 1 integrons from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;84:791-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that anaerobic thermophilic treatment was more efficient in reducing quantities of genes associated with the spread of antibiotic resistance compared to mesophilic digestion. ..
  33. Wu S, Dalsgaard A, Vieira A, Emborg H, Jensen L. Prevalence of tetracycline resistance and genotypic analysis of populations of Escherichia coli from animals, carcasses and cuts processed at a pig slaughterhouse. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009;135:254-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Total and tetracycline-resistant E. coli were counted for each sample and tetracycline resistance prevalence per sample was calculated by the fraction of tetracycline-resistant E. coli out of total E...
  34. Suchland R, Sandoz K, Jeffrey B, Stamm W, Rockey D. Horizontal transfer of tetracycline resistance among Chlamydia spp. in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4604-11 pubmed publisher
    There are no examples of stable tetracycline resistance in clinical strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. However, the swine pathogen Chlamydia suis is commonly tetracycline resistant, both in America and in Europe. In tested U.S...
  35. Zhang T, Zhang M, Zhang X, Fang H. Tetracycline resistance genes and tetracycline resistant lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae in activated sludge of sewage treatment plants. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:3455-60 pubmed
    ..Among the tested 14 tetracycline resistance (tet) genes, nine genes encompassing efflux pumps (tetA, tetC, tetE, and tetG), ribosomal protection ..
  36. Flórez A, Ammor M, Alvarez Martín P, Margolles A, Mayo B. Molecular analysis of tet(W) gene-mediated tetracycline resistance in dominant intestinal Bifidobacterium species from healthy humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:7377-9 pubmed
    tet(W) was found responsible for tetracycline resistance (MICs, 4 to > or =32 microg ml(-1)) in dominant bifidobacterial species from the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy humans...
  37. Gibreel A, Wetsch N, Taylor D. Contribution of the CmeABC efflux pump to macrolide and tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:3212-6 pubmed
    ..These data confirm contribution of the CmeABC efflux pump to acquired resistance of Campylobacter jejuni to tetracycline and macrolides. ..
  38. Mazi W, Senok A, Al Mahmeed A, Arzese A, Bindayna K, Botta G. Trends in antibiotic sensitivity pattern and molecular detection of tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance in campylobacter jejuni isolates from human and poultry sources. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008;61:82-4 pubmed
    ..b>Tetracycline resistance was higher in chicken (80.9%) compared to human (41.3%) isolates (P<0.01)...
  39. Nikolakopoulou T, Egan S, van Overbeek L, Guillaume G, Heuer H, Wellington E, et al. PCR detection of oxytetracycline resistance genes otr(A) and otr(B) in tetracycline-resistant streptomycete isolates from diverse habitats. Curr Microbiol. 2005;51:211-6 pubmed
    ..Our results indicated that the occurrence of otr(A) and otr(B) genes in natural environments was limited and that otr(B), in comparison to otr(A), seemed to be more common. ..
  40. Pei R, Kim S, Carlson K, Pruden A. Effect of river landscape on the sediment concentrations of antibiotics and corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Water Res. 2006;40:2427-35 pubmed
    ..were conducted for four sulfonamide resistance gene families, using newly designed primers, and five tetracycline resistance gene families, using previously published primers...
  41. Warburton P, Ciric L, Lerner A, Seville L, Roberts A, Mullany P, et al. TetAB46, a predicted heterodimeric ABC transporter conferring tetracycline resistance in Streptococcus australis isolated from the oral cavity. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:17-22 pubmed publisher
    To identify the genes responsible for tetracycline resistance in a strain of Streptococcus australis isolated from pooled saliva from healthy volunteers in France. S...
  42. Degrange S, Renaudin H, Charron A, Bebear C, Bebear C. Tetracycline resistance in Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis: prevalence in Bordeaux, France, from 1999 to 2002 and description of two tet(M)-positive isolates of M. hominis susceptible to tetracyclines. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:742-4 pubmed
    ..For M. hominis, we also found an increase in tetracycline resistance and two tet(M)-positive isolates that were susceptible to tetracyclines.
  43. Flórez A, Ammor M, Mayo B. Identification of tet(M) in two Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from a Spanish traditional starter-free cheese made of raw milk and conjugative transfer of tetracycline resistance to lactococci and enterococci. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;121:189-94 pubmed
    ..Molecular analysis of the tetracycline resistance loci, including the upstream and downstream regions of the genes, showed them to be identical to one ..
  44. Harvey R, Funk J, Wittum T, Hoet A. A metagenomic approach for determining prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes in the fecal flora of conventionally raised feedlot steers and feedlot steers raised without antimicrobials. Am J Vet Res. 2009;70:198-202 pubmed publisher
    To compare prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes in the fecal flora of conventionally raised feedlot steers and feedlot steers raised without antimicrobials...
  45. Akhtar M, Hirt H, Zurek L. Horizontal transfer of the tetracycline resistance gene tetM mediated by pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis in the house fly (Musca domestica L.) alimentary canal. Microb Ecol. 2009;58:509-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize the importance of this insect as a potential vector of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains...
  46. Lancaster H, Bedi R, Wilson M, Mullany P. The maintenance in the oral cavity of children of tetracycline-resistant bacteria and the genes encoding such resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56:524-31 pubmed
    To investigate the maintenance of tetracycline-resistant oral bacteria and the genes encoding tetracycline resistance in these bacteria in children (aged 4--6 years) over a period of 12 months...
  47. Toledo H, López Solís R. Tetracycline resistance in Chilean clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:470-3 pubmed publisher
    Since high-level tetracycline resistance in Helicobacter pylori has been associated with a AGA926-928-->TTC substitution in the 16S rRNA genes rrnA/B, the aim of the study was to screen for tetracycline resistance in H...
  48. Devirgiliis C, Barile S, Caravelli A, Coppola D, Perozzi G. Identification of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant Gram-positive cocci within the fermenting microflora of an Italian dairy food product. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;109:313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are of particular relevance from the food safety viewpoint, especially in the light of the potential risk of horizontal transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes among foodborne commensal bacteria. ..
  49. Rahman M, Sakamoto K, Nonaka L, Suzuki S. Occurrence and diversity of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) in enteric bacteria of Antarctic Adelie penguins. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:627-8 pubmed publisher
  50. Ayer V, Tewodros W, Manoharan A, Skariah S, Luo F, Bessen D. Tetracycline resistance in group a streptococci: emergence on a global scale and influence on multiple-drug resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:1865-8 pubmed
    A global sample of group A streptococci (GAS) revealed > or =80 separate acquisitions of tetracycline resistance. Of 244 clones, 38 and 25% displayed resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin, respectively; a relatively high ..
  51. Mackie R, Koike S, Krapac I, Chee Sanford J, Maxwell S, Aminov R. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resistance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities. Anim Biotechnol. 2006;17:157-76 pubmed
    ..5 microg/L. Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic ..
  52. Borgo F, Ricci G, Arends K, Schiwon K, Grohmann E, Fortina M. Evaluation of plasmid content and tetracycline resistance conjugative transfer in Enterococcus italicus strains of dairy origin. Curr Microbiol. 2009;59:261-6 pubmed publisher
    Five Enterococcus italicus strains harbouring tet genes responsible for the tetracycline resistance were subjected to plasmid profile determination studies...
  53. Zhang W, Sturm B, Knapp C, Graham D. Accumulation of tetracycline resistance genes in aquatic biofilms due to periodic waste loadings from swine lagoons. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:7643-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, ARGs migrate rapidly to biofilms where they persist longer than adjacent waters, which suggests biofilms likely act as reservoirs for ARGs in nature. ..