chloramphenicol resistance


Summary: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.

Top Publications

  1. Singer R, Patterson S, Meier A, Gibson J, Lee H, Maddox C. Relationship between phenotypic and genotypic florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:4047-9 pubmed
    ..The flo gene was detected in 164 isolates, all of which expressed resistance to florfenicol at MICs of >/=256 microg/ml. The florfenicol MICs for all isolates that lacked flo were </=16 microg/ml...
  2. Crénès G, Ivo D, Hérisson J, Dion S, Renault S, Bigot Y, et al. The bacterial Tn9 chloramphenicol resistance gene: an attractive DNA segment for Mos1 mariner insertions. Mol Genet Genomics. 2009;281:315-28 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these motifs are not sufficient to constitute an attractive dinucleotide, since four TATA and TA x TA sites are cold spots. ..
  3. Cloeckaert A, Baucheron S, Chaslus Dancla E. Nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance mediated by IncC plasmid R55 is encoded by a floR gene variant. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:2381-2 pubmed
    ..R55, initially described in the 1970s and isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae, confers nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance. The gene coding for this resistance was cloned and sequenced and shows 95 to 97% nucleotide identity ..
  4. Bissonnette L, Champetier S, Buisson J, Roy P. Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the product to transmembrane transport proteins. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:4493-502 pubmed
    ..On the In4 integron of Tn1696, a precisely inserted gene cassette of 1,549 bp conferring nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance (cmlA) is present between the streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance (aadA2) gene cassette and the 3'-..
  5. Dittrich W, Betzler M, Schrempf H. An amplifiable and deletable chloramphenicol-resistance determinant of Streptomyces lividans 1326 encodes a putative transmembrane protein. Mol Microbiol. 1991;5:2789-97 pubmed
    A genetically unstable chloramphenicol resistance gene from Streptomyces lividans 1326 was cloned and characterized. This gene and adjacent DNA regions can be lost spontaneously or amplify within variants...
  6. Morii H, Hayashi N, Uramoto K. Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance gene on conjugative R plasmids from the fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;53:107-13 pubmed
    ..8 kDa, a size consistent with the molecular mass of known cat gene products, and the ORF had maximum homology (99.5%) with a Type II CAT variant from Haemophilus influenzae...
  7. Roca I, Marti S, Espinal P, Martinez P, Gibert I, Vila J. CraA, a major facilitator superfamily efflux pump associated with chloramphenicol resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4013-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we have identified a major facilitator superfamily efflux pump present in most A. baumannii strains, displaying strong substrate specificity toward chloramphenicol. ..
  8. Vecchione J, Alexander B, Sello J. Two distinct major facilitator superfamily drug efflux pumps mediate chloramphenicol resistance in Streptomyces coelicolor. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4673-7 pubmed publisher
    ..While reserpine is known to potentiate drug activity against gram-positive bacteria, this is the first time that Phe-Arg-beta-naphthylamide has been shown to potentiate drug activity against a gram-positive bacterium...
  9. Mingoia M, Vecchi M, Cochetti I, Tili E, Vitali L, Manzin A, et al. Composite structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae containing the erythromycin efflux resistance gene mefI and the chloramphenicol resistance gene catQ. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:3983-7 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae strain TIGR4 than to that of strain R6. The 5216IQ complex was apparently nonmobile, with no detectable transfer of erythromycin resistance being obtained in repeated transformation and conjugation assays. ..

More Information


  1. Trieu Cuot P, de Cespedes G, Horaud T. Nucleotide sequence of the chloramphenicol resistance determinant of the streptococcal plasmid pIP501. Plasmid. 1992;28:272-6 pubmed
    We have sequenced the chloramphenicol resistance determinant (cat) of plasmid pIP501 from Streptococcus agalactiae to investigate its relationship with other cognate cat determinants...
  2. Lyras D, Storie C, Huggins A, Crellin P, Bannam T, Rood J. Chloramphenicol resistance in Clostridium difficile is encoded on Tn4453 transposons that are closely related to Tn4451 from Clostridium perfringens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:1563-7 pubmed
    The chloramphenicol resistance gene catD from Clostridium difficile was shown to be encoded on the transposons Tn4453a and Tn4453b, which were structurally and functionally related to Tn4451 from Clostridium perfringens...
  3. Lovett P. Translation attenuation regulation of chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria--a review. Gene. 1996;179:157-62 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the site of ribosome stalling in the leader is selected by a cis effect of the nascent leader peptide on its translating ribosome. ..
  4. Lukomski S, Hull R, Hull S. Identification of the O antigen polymerase (rfc) gene in Escherichia coli O4 by insertional mutagenesis using a nonpolar chloramphenicol resistance cassette. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:240-7 pubmed
    ..To identify the rfc gene, these two ORFs were subjected to insertional mutagenesis. A chloramphenicol resistance cassette was designed which, when properly inserted, does not cause a polar effect in downstream genes...
  5. Bunny K, Hall R, Stokes H. New mobile gene cassettes containing an aminoglycoside resistance gene, aacA7, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, catB3, in an integron in pBWH301. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39:686-93 pubmed
    ..The catB3 gene displays a relatively high degree of sequence identity to a chromosomally located open reading frame in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and this may represent evidence for the acquisition by a cassette of a chromosomal gene...
  6. Bischoff K, White D, McDermott P, Zhao S, Gaines S, Maurer J, et al. Characterization of chloramphenicol resistance in beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli associated with diarrhea in neonatal swine. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:389-94 pubmed
    ..The identification of the cmlA gene among diverse hemolytic enterotoxigenic E. coli strains demonstrates its broad dissemination in the swine production environment and its persistence even in the absence of CHL selection pressure. ..
  7. Lang K, Anderson J, Schwarz S, Williamson L, Handelsman J, Singer R. Novel florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance gene discovered in Alaskan soil by using functional metagenomics. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:5321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A gene that mediated reduced susceptibility to florfenicol was identified and designated pexA. The predicted PexA protein showed a structure similar to that of efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily. ..
  8. Takamatsu D, Osaki M, Sekizaki T. Chloramphenicol resistance transposable element TnSs1 of Streptococcus suis, a transposon flanked by IS6-family elements. Plasmid. 2003;49:143-51 pubmed
    ..On transposition, TnSs1 duplicated an 8-bp sequence at the target site. ..
  9. Bischoff K, White D, Hume M, Poole T, Nisbet D. The chloramphenicol resistance gene cmlA is disseminated on transferable plasmids that confer multiple-drug resistance in swine Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;243:285-91 pubmed
    ..To identify the factors governing the persistence of chloramphenicol resistance in the absence of specific selection pressure, the location of the chloramphenicol resistance gene cmlA ..
  10. Ploy M, Courvalin P, Lambert T. Characterization of In40 of Enterobacter aerogenes BM2688, a class 1 integron with two new gene cassettes, cmlA2 and qacF. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:2557-63 pubmed
    ..The cmlA2 gene had 83.7% identity with the previously described nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance cmlA1 gene...
  11. Curtis N, Duke T, Fuller D, Shann F. Return of Haemophilus influenzae type b infections. Lancet. 2003;361:1564 pubmed
  12. Bissler J, Meng Q, Emery T. C1 inhibitor gene sequence facilitates frameshift mutations. Mol Med. 1998;4:795-806 pubmed
    ..Mutations that revert bacteria to chloramphenicol resistance (Cmr) were scored. Both pairs of isogenic strains had reversion frequencies of approximately 10(-8)...
  13. Sohaskey C. Enzymatic inactivation and reactivation of chloramphenicol by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;240:187-92 pubmed was inserted into the chromosome of both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis resulting in a level of chloramphenicol resistance that could be used to select for transformants. CAT assays in the resistant strain of M...
  14. Ozaktas T, Taskin B, Gozen A. High level multiple antibiotic resistance among fish surface associated bacterial populations in non-aquaculture freshwater environment. Water Res. 2012;46:6382-90 pubmed publisher
  15. Bernard P. New ccdB positive-selection cloning vectors with kanamycin or chloramphenicol selectable markers. Gene. 1995;162:159-60 pubmed
    ..New pKIL-derived vectors with kanamycin (KmR) or chloramphenicol (CmR) resistance-encoding genes were also constructed. In addition, a new host derived from the DH2 strain was developed. ..
  16. Dempsey W, Fee B. Integration host factor affects expression of two genes at the conjugal transfer origin of plasmid R100. Mol Microbiol. 1990;4:1019-28 pubmed
    ..Transcript analyses by Northern blots showed a reduction in size of the principal gene X and traJ transcripts in the absence of IHF. ..
  17. Muhe L, Klugman K. Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in a children's hospital in Ethiopia: serotypes and susceptibility patterns. Trop Med Int Health. 1999;4:421-7 pubmed
    ..Our study highlights the possibility of resistant pyogenic meningitis in children in Ethiopia due to emerging resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae isolates. ..
  18. Ng L, Mulvey M, Martin I, Peters G, Johnson W. Genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Canadian isolates of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:3018-21 pubmed
    ..The two integrons were separated by the pasppflo-like gene and the tet(G) gene. The kanamycin resistance determinant (aphA-1) was present on a 2.0-MDa plasmid (five isolates) or on the chromosome (three isolates). ..
  19. Morel Deville F, Ehrlich S. Theta-type DNA replication stimulates homologous recombination in the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:587-98 pubmed
  20. Ling J, Zhou G, Woo T, French G. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and beta-lactamase production of Hong Kong isolates of gastroenteric salmonellae and Salmonella typhi. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1991;28:877-85 pubmed
    ..Genetic determinants for these enzymes were usually borne on plasmids ranging in size from 2 to 143.7 Md but half of the OXA-1 genes were chromosomally located...
  21. Soler V T, Salamanca F L, Molina E. [In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria isolated from pleuropulmonary infections]. Rev Med Chil. 2006;134:465-8 pubmed
    ..As CM and CAF are active "in vitro", high rates of clinical response should be expected. In contrast, PNC is less effective, especially against pigmented Prevotella. ..
  22. Cerdá Zolezzi P, Laplana L, Calvo C, Cepero P, Erazo M, Gómez Lus R. Molecular basis of resistance to macrolides and other antibiotics in commensal viridans group streptococci and Gemella spp. and transfer of resistance genes to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3462-7 pubmed
    ..The mef(E) and mel genes were successfully transferred from both groups of bacteria to Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 by transformation. Viridans group streptococci and Gemella spp. seem to be important reservoirs of resistance genes...
  23. Schwarz S, Kehrenberg C, Doublet B, Cloeckaert A. Molecular basis of bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2004;28:519-42 pubmed
  24. Doublet B, Schwarz S, Kehrenberg C, Cloeckaert A. Florfenicol resistance gene floR is part of a novel transposon. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:2106-8 pubmed
    The florfenicol/chloramphenicol resistance gene floR was found to be part of the novel 4,284-bp transposon TnfloR from Escherichia coli. TnfloR consists of the gene floR, a putative regulatory gene, and the transposase gene tnpA...
  25. Tennigkeit J, Matzura H. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a chloramphenicol-resistance determinant from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and identification of its gene product. Gene. 1991;98:113-6 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the A. tumefaciens CAT and various CAT proteins of Gram+ and Gram- origin shows no homology between this and the other enzymes. ..
  26. Farfan M, Flores O, Navarro N, Prado V, Mora G, Toro C. [Molecular characterization of resistance mechanisms to chloramphenicol in Shigella flexneri strains isolated from Chilean children with acute diarrhea]. Rev Med Chil. 2002;130:275-80 pubmed
    ..Southern blot analyses indicated that this gene was located in the bacterial chromosome. Resistance to chloramphenicol in this group of Shigella flexneri strains was mediated by a chromosomally located cat gene. ..
  27. Satish N, Manoharan A, Pai R, Lalitha M. Rapid assay for detection of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase in Haemophilus influenzae. Indian J Med Res. 2001;114:47-50 pubmed
    ..The modified Slack's method, a simple assay, has been evaluated in this study for the early detection of chloramphenicol resistance. Fifty isolates of H. influenzae from invasive and non-invasive sites were included...
  28. Spigaglia P, Mastrantonio P. Comparative analysis of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates belonging to different genetic lineages and time periods. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:1129-36 pubmed
  29. Shears P, Hussein M, Chowdhury A, Mamun K. Water sources and environmental transmission of multiply resistant enteric bacteria in rural Bangladesh. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1995;89:297-303 pubmed
    ..These findings are of importance in understanding the spread of multiply resistant enteric pathogens. ..
  30. Kuoppa K, Forsberg A, Norqvist A. Construction of a reporter plasmid for screening in vivo promoter activity in Francisella tularensis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;205:77-81 pubmed
    ..Approximately 15% of the recombinant bacteria showed chloramphenicol resistance in vitro...
  31. Shultz T, Tapsall J, White P, Ryan C, Lyras D, Rood J, et al. Chloramphenicol-resistant Neisseria meningitidis containing catP isolated in Australia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52:856-9 pubmed
    Earlier workers have described chloramphenicol resistance in meningococci isolated from cerebrospinal fluid sampled in patients in Vietnam (11 cases) and France (one case) during 1987-1996...
  32. Ji X, Lin L, Jing S, Wei Y. [Cloning and characterization of the chloramphenicol resistant gene of Serratia marcescens strain KMR-3]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2008;24:1016-21 pubmed
    ..Regulation elements including promoter, terminator, Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence and transcription start site also were identified. ..
  33. Boehme S, Werner G, Klare I, Reissbrodt R, Witte W. Occurrence of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteria in agricultural foodstuffs. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2004;48:522-31 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, a contribution of sprouts contaminated with multiresistant, Gram-negative enterobacteria to a common gene pool among human commensal and pathogenic bacteria cannot be excluded...
  34. Mthwalo M, Wasas A, Huebner R, Koornhof H, Klugman K. Antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Lesotho. Bull World Health Organ. 1998;76:641-50 pubmed
    ..001). The very low incidence of antibiotic resistance in rural Lesotho and the higher incidence in Maseru are in stark contrast with the much higher frequencies found in the Republic of South Africa, many European countries, and the USA. ..
  35. Burioni R, Plaisant P, Bugli F, Delli Carri V, Clementi M, Fadda G. A vector for the expression of recombinant monoclonal Fab fragments in bacteria. J Immunol Methods. 1998;217:195-9 pubmed
  36. Sloan J, Warner T, Scott P, Bannam T, Berryman D, Rood J. Construction of a sequenced Clostridium perfringens-Escherichia coli shuttle plasmid. Plasmid. 1992;27:207-19 pubmed
    ..The versatility of pJIR418 and its applicability for the cloning of toxin genes from C. perfringens have been demonstrated by the manipulation of a cloned gene encoding the production of phospholipase C...
  37. Kadlec K, Kehrenberg C, Schwarz S. Efflux-mediated resistance to florfenicol and/or chloramphenicol in Bordetella bronchiseptica: identification of a novel chloramphenicol exporter. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59:191-6 pubmed
    ..bronchiseptica isolates. The identification of the first member of a new subclass of cml genes, cmlB1 from B. bronchiseptica, extends our knowledge on specific chloramphenicol exporters. ..
  38. Chuang J, Rivoire O, Leibler S. Simpson's paradox in a synthetic microbial system. Science. 2009;323:272-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The synthetic approach described here thus provides a way to study generic mechanisms of natural selection. ..
  39. Adams V, Lucet I, Lyras D, Rood J. DNA binding properties of TnpX indicate that different synapses are formed in the excision and integration of the Tn4451 family. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:1195-207 pubmed
    ..resolvase TnpX is a serine recombinase that is responsible for the movement of the Tn4451/3 family of chloramphenicol resistance elements, which are found within two genera of the medically important clostridia...
  40. Seppälä H, Al Juhaish M, Järvinen H, Laitinen R, Huovinen P. Effect of prophylactic antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance of viridans streptococci in the normal flora of cataract surgery patients. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30:307-15 pubmed
    ..Routine use of prophylactic vancomycin is discouraged, however, because of the lack of scientific proof of its efficacy in preventing postoperative endophthalmitis. ..
  41. Butaye P, Cloeckaert A, Schwarz S. Mobile genes coding for efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2003;22:205-10 pubmed
  42. Wareham D, Wilson P. Chloramphenicol in the 21st century. Hosp Med. 2002;63:157-61 pubmed
    ..This article will review the activity, pharmacology, toxicology, uses and potential uses of chloramphenicol in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance. ..
  43. Culasso C, Carvajal L, Paolucci R, Ceballos A, Paredes M. [Streptococcus pneumoniae: evolution of antibiotic resistance in a pediatric hospital in Córdoba, Argentina]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2001;33:149-54 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae during the last years, and the importance of antimicrobial resistance surveillance of adequate empirical therapy involving local and regional susceptibility patterns. ..
  44. Wust J, Hardegger U. Studies on the resistance of Clostridium difficile to antimicrobial agents. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1988;267:383-94 pubmed
    ..No connection between plasmid DNA and antimicrobial resistance could be established. Especially, no plasmid DNA was involved in the transfer of resistance determinants from resistant to susceptible strains. ..
  45. Su C, Chen Y, Chang S. Changing characteristics of typhoid fever in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2004;37:109-14 pubmed
    ..It is important to include this disease in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients with abdominal symptoms. ..
  46. Pomerantsev A, Obuchi M, Ohara Y. Nucleotide sequence, structural organization, and functional characterization of the small recombinant plasmid pOM1 that is specific for Francisella tularensis. Plasmid. 2001;46:86-94 pubmed publisher
    ..A 40-kDa protein was encoded by the repA gene and found essential for replication. Expression of the tetC gene is regulated by an Escherichia coli sigma(70)-like promoter and is dependent on the F. tularensis strain and its environment...
  47. Mavroidi A, Tzouvelekis L, Kyriakis K, Avgerinou H, Daniilidou M, Tzelepi E. Multidrug-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Greece. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:2651-4 pubmed
    ..Study of one isolate revealed mutations in the penA, mtrR, and porB genes that may explain the multidrug-resistant phenotype. ..
  48. Coenen A, Croft J, Slakhorst M, Debets F, Hoekstra R. Mitochondrial inheritance in Aspergillus nidulans. Genet Res. 1996;67:93-100 pubmed
    ..The chloramphenicol resistance marker was inherited preferentially to the oligomycin resistance marker probably due to the inhibited ..
  49. Vester B, Garrett R. The importance of highly conserved nucleotides in the binding region of chloramphenicol at the peptidyl transfer centre of Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA. EMBO J. 1988;7:3577-87 pubmed
    ..A mechanistic model is also presented to explain the disruptive effect of chloramphenicol (and other antibiotics) on peptide bond formation at the ribosomal subunit interface. ..
  50. López Pérez M, Mirete S, Jardón Valadez E, Gonzalez Pastor J. Identification and modeling of a novel chloramphenicol resistance protein detected by functional metagenomics in a wetland of Lerma, Mexico. Int Microbiol. 2013;16:103-11 pubmed
    ..In this work, a culture-independent approach based on functional metagenomics was applied to search for chloramphenicol resistance genes in agro-industrial wastewater in Lerma de Villada, Mexico...
  51. Nagy I, Schoofs G, Vanderleyden J, De Mot R. Transposition of the IS21-related element IS1415 in Rhodococcus erythropolis. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4635-8 pubmed
    ..Accurate transposition of IS1415 carrying a chloramphenicol resistance gene (Tn5561) was demonstrated following delivery from a suicide vector to R. erythropolis SQ1.
  52. Harrod R, Lovett P. Leader peptides of inducible chloramphenicol resistance genes from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria bind to yeast and Archaea large subunit rRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:1720-6 pubmed
    ..The rRNA target for binding the leader peptides is therefore conserved across kingdoms. ..
  53. Kenri T, Kohno K, Goshima N, Imamoto F, Kano Y. Construction and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant with a deletion of the metZ gene encoding tRNA (f1Met). Gene. 1991;103:31-6 pubmed
    ..coli and that the start codons, AUG and GUG, are both recognized by tRNA (f1Met), a minor N-formyl methionine-specific tRNA, in the tRNA (f1Met)-depleted cells. ..