Summary: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.

Top Publications

  1. Juliano C, Wessel G. Developmental biology. Versatile germline genes. Science. 2010;329:640-1 pubmed publisher
  2. Barone V, Lang M, Krens S, Pradhan S, Shamipour S, Sako K, et al. An Effective Feedback Loop between Cell-Cell Contact Duration and Morphogen Signaling Determines Cell Fate. Dev Cell. 2017;43:198-211.e12 pubmed publisher
    ..cell-cell contact duration, morphogen signaling, and mesendoderm cell-fate specification during zebrafish gastrulation. We show that long-lasting cell-cell contacts enhance the competence of prechordal plate (ppl) progenitor cells ..
  3. Harrison S, Sozen B, Christodoulou N, Kyprianou C, Zernicka Goetz M. Assembly of embryonic and extraembryonic stem cells to mimic embryogenesis in vitro. Science. 2017;356: pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates the ability of distinct stem cell types to self-assemble in vitro to generate embryos whose morphogenesis, architecture, and constituent cell types resemble those of natural embryos. ..
  4. Abdol A, Röttinger E, Jansson F, Kaandorp J. A novel technique to combine and analyse spatial and temporal expression datasets: A case study with the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis to identify potential gene interactions. Dev Biol. 2017;428:204-214 pubmed publisher that the analysis of spatial gene expression patterns reveals functional regions of the embryo during the gastrulation. The clustering results from qPCR time series unveils significant temporal events and highlights genes ..
  5. Krens S, Veldhuis J, Barone V, Capek D, Maître J, Brodland G, et al. Interstitial fluid osmolarity modulates the action of differential tissue surface tension in progenitor cell segregation during gastrulation. Development. 2017;144:1798-1806 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have analyzed the role of differential TST for germ layer progenitor cell segregation during zebrafish gastrulation. Contrary to previous observations that differential TST drives germ layer progenitor cell segregation in ..
  6. Chien Y, Srinivasan S, Keller R, Kintner C. Mechanical Strain Determines Cilia Length, Motility, and Planar Position in the Left-Right Organizer. Dev Cell. 2018;45:316-330.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that these different cilia features are specified in the prospective LRO during gastrulation, based on anisotropic mechanical strain that is oriented along the A-P axis, and graded in levels along the ..
  7. Nikaido M, Navajas Acedo J, Hatta K, Piotrowski T. Retinoic acid is required and Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling inhibit posterior lateral line placode induction in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2017;431:215-225 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report that the aLLp and pLLp depend on different inductive mechanisms and that pLLp induction requires the inhibition of Fgf, Wnt and Bmp signaling. ..
  8. Díaz Díaz C, Fernandez de Manuel L, Jimenez Carretero D, Montoya M, Claveria C, Torres M. Pluripotency Surveillance by Myc-Driven Competitive Elimination of Differentiating Cells. Dev Cell. 2017;42:585-599.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..In the mouse embryo, cell competition promotes pluripotency maintenance by elimination of primed lineages before gastrulation. The mechanism described here is relevant to mammalian embryo development and induced pluripotency.
  9. Li Y, Shao M, Shi D. Rac1 signalling coordinates epiboly movement by differential regulation of actin cytoskeleton in zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1059-1065 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovers novel roles of different actin structures in orchestrating epiboly movement. It helps to provide insight into the mechanisms regulating cellular polarization during early development. ..

More Information


  1. Heer N, Miller P, Chanet S, Stoop N, Dunkel J, Martin A. Actomyosin-based tissue folding requires a multicellular myosin gradient. Development. 2017;144:1876-1886 pubmed publisher
    ..As predicted by the model, experimental broadening of the myosin domain in vivo disrupts tissue curvature where myosin is uniform. Our data argue that apical contractility gradients are important for tissue folding. ..
  2. Keller R. Developmental biology. Physical biology returns to morphogenesis. Science. 2012;338:201-3 pubmed publisher
  3. Johnson T, Moore K, Whisstock J, Warr C. Maternal Torso-Like Coordinates Tissue Folding During Drosophila Gastrulation. Genetics. 2017;206:1459-1468 pubmed publisher
    The rapid and orderly folding of epithelial tissue during developmental processes such as gastrulation requires the precise coordination of changes in cell shape...
  4. Kobayashi T, Zhang H, Tang W, Irie N, Withey S, Klisch D, et al. Principles of early human development and germ cell program from conserved model systems. Nature. 2017;546:416-420 pubmed publisher
    ..We use this model together with human and monkey in vitro models simulating peri-gastrulation development to show the conserved principles of epiblast development for competency for primordial germ cell ..
  5. Amiel A, Johnston H, Chock T, Dahlin P, Iglesias M, LAYDEN M, et al. A bipolar role of the transcription factor ERG for cnidarian germ layer formation and apical domain patterning. Dev Biol. 2017;430:346-361 pubmed publisher
    ..we identified a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, Nverg that is bi-polarily expressed prior to gastrulation. We further describe the crucial role of NvERG for gastrulation, endomesoderm as well as apical domain ..
  6. Janssen R, Budd G. Investigation of endoderm marker-genes during gastrulation and gut-development in the velvet worm Euperipatoides kanangrensis. Dev Biol. 2017;427:155-164 pubmed publisher
    The ancestral state of animal gastrulation and its bearing for our understanding of bilaterian evolution still is one of the most controversially discussed topics in the field of evolutionary and developmental biology...
  7. Simon C, Downes D, Gosden M, Telenius J, Higgs D, Hughes J, et al. Functional characterisation of cis-regulatory elements governing dynamic Eomes expression in the early mouse embryo. Development. 2017;144:1249-1260 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, diverse regulatory mechanisms govern activation of lineage specifying TFs during early development. ..
  8. Zhang X, Li S, Wang C, Tian H, Wang W, Ru S. Effects of monocrotophos pesticide on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems during early development in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;328:46-53 pubmed publisher
    ..High ChAT and AChE activity were observed at the gastrulation-completed stage and the two-armed pluteus stage, respectively, MCP inhibited ChAT activity and AChE activity/..
  9. Plouhinec J, Medina Ruiz S, Borday C, Bernard E, Vert J, Eisen M, et al. A molecular atlas of the developing ectoderm defines neural, neural crest, placode, and nonneural progenitor identity in vertebrates. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2004045 pubmed publisher