cell enlargement


Summary: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.

Top Publications

  1. Aiello F, Furian L, Della Barbera M, Marino S, Seveso M, Cardillo M, et al. Glomerulitis and endothelial cell enlargement in C4d+ and C4d- acute rejections of renal transplant patients. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:2157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..transplant, glomerulitis is characterized by mononuclear cells in glomerular capillaries and endothelial cell enlargement. In association with C4d deposition in peritubular capillaries, glomerulitis is a feature of acute antibody-..
  2. Spartz A, Lee S, Wenger J, Gonzalez N, Itoh H, Inze D, et al. The SAUR19 subfamily of SMALL AUXIN UP RNA genes promote cell expansion. Plant J. 2012;70:978-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this possibility, SAUR19-24 proteins predominantly localize to the plasma membrane. ..
  3. Godin M, Delgado F, Son S, Grover W, Bryan A, Tzur A, et al. Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells. Nat Methods. 2010;7:387-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that for individual cells of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mouse lymphoblasts, heavier cells grew faster than lighter cells. ..
  4. Zhang L, Bai M, Wu J, Zhu J, Wang H, Zhang Z, et al. Antagonistic HLH/bHLH transcription factors mediate brassinosteroid regulation of cell elongation and plant development in rice and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3767-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a conserved mechanism of BR regulation of plant development through a pair of antagonizing HLH/bHLH transcription factors that act downstream of BZR1 in Arabidopsis and rice. ..
  5. Piel M, Tran P. Cell shape and cell division in fission yeast. Curr Biol. 2009;19:R823-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Microtubules also position the cell nucleus at the cell middle, marking sites of cell division. Here, we review the microtubule-dependent mechanisms that regulate cell shape and cell division in fission yeast. ..
  6. Oh E, Zhu J, Wang Z. Interaction between BZR1 and PIF4 integrates brassinosteroid and environmental responses. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:802-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the BZR1-PIF4 interaction controls a core transcription network, enabling plant growth co-regulation by the steroid and environmental signals...
  7. Bai M, Shang J, Oh E, Fan M, Bai Y, Zentella R, et al. Brassinosteroid, gibberellin and phytochrome impinge on a common transcription module in Arabidopsis. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:810-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that GA releases DELLA-mediated inhibition of BZR1, and that the DELLA-BZR1-PIF4 interaction defines a core transcription module that mediates coordinated growth regulation by GA, BR and light signals. ..
  8. Demidenko Z, Blagosklonny M. Quantifying pharmacologic suppression of cellular senescence: prevention of cellular hypertrophy versus preservation of proliferative potential. Aging (Albany NY). 2009;1:1008-16 pubmed
    ..When p21 was switched off, competent cells, by resuming proliferation, became progressively less hypertrophic. Preservation of proliferative potential is a sensitive and quantitative measure of suppression of mTOR-driven senescence. ..
  9. Das M, Wiley D, Chen X, Shah K, Verde F. The conserved NDR kinase Orb6 controls polarized cell growth by spatial regulation of the small GTPase Cdc42. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the conserved NDR kinase Orb6 regulates cell polarity by spatially restricting the localization and activity of Cdc42 GTPase. ..

More Information


  1. Tzur A, Kafri R, LeBleu V, Lahav G, Kirschner M. Cell growth and size homeostasis in proliferating animal cells. Science. 2009;325:167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The probability of cell division varies independently with cell size and cell age. We conclude that proliferating mammalian cells have an intrinsic mechanism that maintains cell size. ..
  2. Derbyshire P, Findlay K, McCann M, Roberts K. Cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls involves dynamic changes in cell wall thickness. J Exp Bot. 2007;58:2079-89 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that control of wall thickness in different cell types is tightly regulated during hypocotyl development, and that wall deposition and cell elongation are not invariably coupled. ..
  3. Kay S, Hahn S, Marois E, Hause G, Bonas U. A bacterial effector acts as a plant transcription factor and induces a cell size regulator. Science. 2007;318:648-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, AvrBs3 and likely other members of this family provoke developmental reprogramming of host cells by mimicking eukaryotic transcription factors...
  4. Goranov A, Cook M, Ricicova M, Ben Ari G, Gonzalez C, Hansen C, et al. The rate of cell growth is governed by cell cycle stage. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1408-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study uncovers a fundamental relationship whereby cell cycle position regulates growth. ..
  5. Tatebe H, Nakano K, Maximo R, Shiozaki K. Pom1 DYRK regulates localization of the Rga4 GAP to ensure bipolar activation of Cdc42 in fission yeast. Curr Biol. 2008;18:322-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the established role of Cdc42 in F-actin formation, these observations provide a new insight into how the microtubule system achieves localized formation of F-actin to generate cell polarity. ..
  6. Reshes G, Vanounou S, Fishov I, Feingold M. Cell shape dynamics in Escherichia coli. Biophys J. 2008;94:251-64 pubmed
    ..This is further supported by the relations that hold between the corresponding growth rates. These methods could be further extended to study the dynamics of cell components, e.g., the nucleoid and the Z-ring. ..
  7. Popescu G, Park Y, Lue N, Best Popescu C, Deflores L, Dasari R, et al. Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C538-44 pubmed publisher
  8. Braun N, Wyrzykowska J, Muller P, David K, Couch D, Perrot Rechenmann C, et al. Conditional repression of AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 reveals that it coordinates cell division and cell expansion during postembryonic shoot development in Arabidopsis and tobacco. Plant Cell. 2008;20:2746-62 pubmed publisher
  9. Ferjani A, Horiguchi G, Yano S, Tsukaya H. Analysis of leaf development in fugu mutants of Arabidopsis reveals three compensation modes that modulate cell expansion in determinate organs. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:988-99 pubmed
    ..cell expansion in fugu2-1, fugu5-1, an3-4, and er-102 mutants is induced postmitotically, indicating that cell enlargement is not caused by the uncoupling of cell division from cell growth...
  10. Qi R, John P. Expression of genomic AtCYCD2;1 in Arabidopsis induces cell division at smaller cell sizes: implications for the control of plant growth. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:1587-97 pubmed
    ..Initiation and termination of expansion did not correlate with cell dimension or number and may be determined by tissue-wide signals acting across cellular boundaries. ..
  11. Manning B, Cantley L. AKT/PKB signaling: navigating downstream. Cell. 2007;129:1261-74 pubmed
    ..In addition, we discuss those Akt substrates that are most likely to contribute to the diverse cellular roles of Akt, which include cell survival, growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, metabolism, and migration. ..
  12. Saito M, Tanaka H, Sasaki M, Kurose H, Nakahata N. Involvement of aquaporin in thromboxane A2 receptor-mediated, G 12/13/RhoA/NHE-sensitive cell swelling in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Cell Signal. 2010;22:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report that the TXA(2) receptor mediates water influx through aquaporins in astrocytoma cells via TXA(2) receptor-mediated activation of G alpha(12/13), Rho A, Rho kinase and Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger. ..
  13. Guo W, Zhao J, Li X, Qin L, Yan X, Liao H. A soybean ?-expansin gene GmEXPB2 intrinsically involved in root system architecture responses to abiotic stresses. Plant J. 2011;66:541-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has great agricultural potential for improving crop P uptake on both low-P and P-fertilized soils. ..
  14. Mantilidewi K, Murata Y, Mori M, Otsubo C, Kotani T, Kusakari S, et al. Shear stress-induced redistribution of vascular endothelial-protein-tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) in endothelial cells and its role in cell elongation. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:6451-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the polarized redistribution of VE-PTP in response to SS plays an important role in the regulation of EC function by blood flow. ..
  15. Markworth J, Cameron Smith D. Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances in vitro skeletal muscle cell growth via a COX-2-dependent pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C56-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro AA supplementation stimulates PG release and skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy via a COX-2-dependent pathway. ..
  16. Magallanes Perdomo M, De Aza A, Mateus A, Teixeira S, Monteiro F, De Aza S, et al. In vitro study of the proliferation and growth of human bone marrow cells on apatite-wollastonite-2M glass ceramics. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:2254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that the cells were able to adhere and proliferate on the designed material due to the essentiality of silicon and calcium as accessory factors for cell activity stimulation. ..
  17. Gawlitta D, Van Rijen M, Schrijver E, Alblas J, Dhert W. Hypoxia impedes hypertrophic chondrogenesis of human multipotent stromal cells. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:1957-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has implications for cartilage tissue engineering as well as for endochondral bone tissue engineering, as these approaches deal with, respectively, the inhibition or enhancement of hypertrophic chondrogenesis. ..
  18. Petrasek J, Schwarzerová K. Actin and microtubule cytoskeleton interactions. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2009;12:728-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we summarize recent advances in our knowledge about the candidate proteins or protein complexes that interact with both AFs and MTs and their role in fundamental cellular and developmental processes. ..
  19. Kumar V, Sahai V, Bisaria V. High-density spore production of Piriformospora indica, a plant growth-promoting endophyte, by optimization of nutritional and cultural parameters. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:3169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..25×10(7) spores/mL) was achieved in comparison to the original Kaefer medium. The high spore yield obtained in the present study seems to be economical for commercial production of P. indica. ..
  20. Fridman Y, Elkouby L, Holland N, Vragović K, Elbaum R, Savaldi Goldstein S. Root growth is modulated by differential hormonal sensitivity in neighboring cells. Genes Dev. 2014;28:912-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated ethylene and deposition of crystalline cellulose underlie the inhibitory effect of BRI1. We propose that the relative spatial distribution of BRI1, and not its absolute level, fine-tunes growth. ..
  21. Zhang S, Zhang X, Cai Q, Wang B, Deng X, Yang X. Microfibrous ?-TCP/collagen scaffolds mimic woven bone in structure and composition. Biomed Mater. 2010;5:065005 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the woven-bone-like matrix that we constructed favored the attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells in three dimensions. It has great potential ability to shorten the time of formation of new bone. ..
  22. Karagiannis T, Lin A, Ververis K, Chang L, Tang M, Okabe J, et al. Trichostatin A accentuates doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes. Aging (Albany NY). 2010;2:659-68 pubmed
    ..More generally, our findings highlight the importance of investigating potential side effects that may be associated with emerging combination therapies for cancer. ..
  23. Cole R, McInally S, Fowler J. Developmentally distinct activities of the exocyst enable rapid cell elongation and determine meristem size during primary root growth in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:386 pubmed publisher
  24. Thomas R, Favell K, Morante Redolat J, Pool M, Kent C, Wright M, et al. LGI1 is a Nogo receptor 1 ligand that antagonizes myelin-based growth inhibition. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6607-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that NgR1 and ADAM22 physically associate to form a receptor complex in which NgR1 facilitates LGI1 binding to ADAM22. ..
  25. Mathew M, Amat Roldan I, Andres R, Santos S, Artigas D, Soriano E, et al. Signalling effect of NIR pulsed lasers on axonal growth. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;186:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Such effect could possibly indicate the capacity of neurons to interpret the pulsating NIR light as the source of other nearby cells, resulting in extension of processes in the direction of the source. ..
  26. Jeon J, Quaranta V, Cummings P. An off-lattice hybrid discrete-continuum model of tumor growth and invasion. Biophys J. 2010;98:37-47 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a combination of the strength of cell-cell adhesion and haptotaxis in which fingerlike shapes, characteristic of invasive tumor, are observed. ..
  27. Takeda H, Sugahara T, Kotake T, Nakagawa N, Sakurai N. Sugar treatment inhibits IAA-induced expression of endo-1,3:1,4-beta-glucanase EI transcripts in barley coleoptile segments. Physiol Plant. 2010;139:413-20 pubmed publisher
  28. Greese B, Wester K, Bensch R, Ronneberger O, Timmer J, Huulskamp M, et al. Influence of cell-to-cell variability on spatial pattern formation. IET Syst Biol. 2012;6:143-53 pubmed publisher
  29. Altomare L, Gadegaard N, Visai L, Tanzi M, Farè S. Biodegradable microgrooved polymeric surfaces obtained by photolithography for skeletal muscle cell orientation and myotube development. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:1948-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The most encouraging results were observed in the case of microstructured PLLA-TMC films with grooves of 2.5 and 1microm depth, presenting, in particular, a groove width of 50 and 25microm. ..
  30. Liu M, Chen L, Lin C, Lai Y, Huang J, Sung Z. Molecular and functional characterization of broccoli EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 genes. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:1217-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the restored gene expression pattern in Rescued emf2 provides insights into the molecular basis of PcG-mediated growth and development. ..
  31. Shin Y, Kim S, Du H, Choi S, Verma D, Cheon C. Possible dual regulatory circuits involving AtS6K1 in the regulation of plant cell cycle and growth. Mol Cells. 2012;33:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this kinase assay under the stress conditions revealed the salt- and sugar-dependencies of AtS6K1 phosphorylations. ..
  32. Li Y, Naveed H, Kachalo S, Xu L, Liang J. Mechanical forces mediate localized topological change in epithelia. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:178-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that mechanical forces in addition to localized differential proliferation are required to produce the distorted topological change which significantly impacts the overall cell shape and tissue morphogenesis. ..
  33. Sartini S, Sestili P, Colombo E, Martinelli C, Bartolini F, Ciuffoli S, et al. Creatine affects in vitro electrophysiological maturation of neuroblasts and protects them from oxidative stress. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:435-46 pubmed publisher
  34. Martinelli V, Cellot G, Toma F, Long C, Caldwell J, Zentilin L, et al. Carbon nanotubes instruct physiological growth and functionally mature syncytia: nongenetic engineering of cardiac myocytes. ACS Nano. 2013;7:5746-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These properties are unique in the current vexing field of tissue engineering, and offer unprecedented perspectives in the development of innovative therapies for cardiac repair. ..
  35. Maurel C, Santoni V, Luu D, Wudick M, Verdoucq L. The cellular dynamics of plant aquaporin expression and functions. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2009;12:690-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple cellular functions are now attributed to plant aquaporins. They include the dynamic equilibration and subcellular partitioning of their various substrates and a contribution to cell expansion and possibly cell division. ..
  36. Welting T, Caron M, Emans P, Janssen M, Sanen K, Coolsen M, et al. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 impacts chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation during endochondral ossification. Eur Cell Mater. 2011;22:420-36; discussion 436-7 pubmed
  37. Koga T, Niikura T, Lee S, Dogaki Y, Okumachi E, Nishida K, et al. In vitro hypertrophy and calcification of human fracture haematoma-derived cells in chondrogenic differentiation. Int Orthop. 2013;37:961-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the opinion that the haematoma should be preserved for biological fracture healing. ..
  38. Ferreira A, Lipowska D, Lipowski A. Statistical mechanics model of angiogenic tumor growth. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2012;85:010901 pubmed
    ..Such a correlation affects also the morphology of the growing tumors and drastically raises tumor-survival probability. ..
  39. Chowdhury H, Zorec R. Adipocyte cell size enlargement involves plasma membrane area increase. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2012;118:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1 ± 0.6%. We conclude that insulin induces membrane area increase, which may in chronic hyperinsulinemia promote the enlargement of plasma membrane area, acting in concert with other insulin-mediated metabolic effects on adipocytes. ..
  40. Abdel Basset R, Ozuka S, Demiral T, Furuichi T, Sawatani I, Baskin T, et al. Aluminium reduces sugar uptake in tobacco cell cultures: a potential cause of inhibited elongation but not of toxicity. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:1597-610 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the inhibition of sucrose uptake is a mechanism whereby aluminium inhibits elongation, but does not account for the induction of cell death. ..
  41. Godin J, Colombo K, Molina Calavita M, Keryer G, Zala D, Charrin B, et al. Huntingtin is required for mitotic spindle orientation and mammalian neurogenesis. Neuron. 2010;67:392-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Drosophila huntingtin restores spindle misorientation in mammalian cells. These findings reveal an unexpected role for huntingtin in dividing cells, with potential important implications in health and disease. ..
  42. Fobian K, Owczarek S, Budtz C, Bock E, Berezin V, Pedersen M. Peptides derived from the solvent-exposed loops 3 and 4 of BDNF bind TrkB and p75(NTR) receptors and stimulate neurite outgrowth and survival. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:1170-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, two peptides derived from BDNF induced neurite outgrowth and enhanced neuronal survival, probably through binding to BDNF receptors. ..
  43. Zhang P, Hamamura K, Turner C, Yokota H. Lengthening of mouse hindlimbs with joint loading. J Bone Miner Metab. 2010;28:268-75 pubmed publisher
    ..01) as well as their cellular height (P < 0.001) along the length of the tibia. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time the potential effectiveness of knee loading in adjusting limb length discrepancy. ..
  44. Yano F, Saito T, Ogata N, Yamazawa T, Iino M, Chung U, et al. ?-catenin regulates parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor signals and chondrocyte hypertrophy through binding to the intracellular C-terminal region of the receptor. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:429-35 pubmed publisher
  45. Martina E, Degen M, Ruegg C, Merlo A, Lino M, Chiquet Ehrismann R, et al. Tenascin-W is a specific marker of glioma-associated blood vessels and stimulates angiogenesis in vitro. FASEB J. 2010;24:778-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Martina, E., Degen, M., Rüegg, C., Merlo, A., Lino, M. M., Chiquet-Ehrismann, R., Brellier, F. Tenascin-W is a specific marker of glioma-associated blood vessels and stimulates angiogenesis in vitro. ..
  46. Willis M, Dyer L, Ren R, Lockyer P, Moreno Miralles I, Schisler J, et al. BMPER regulates cardiomyocyte size and vessel density in vivo. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2013;22:228-40 pubmed publisher
    ..BMPER appears to play a role in regulating both vessel density and cardiac development in vivo; however, BMPER haploinsufficiency does not result in marked effects on cardiac function or adaptation to pressure overload hypertrophy. ..
  47. Tromas A, Braun N, Muller P, Khodus T, Paponov I, Palme K, et al. The AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 is required for differential auxin responses mediating root growth. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6648 pubmed publisher
  48. Gandou C, Ohtani A, Senzaki K, Shiga T. Neurotensin promotes the dendrite elongation and the dendritic spine maturation of the cerebral cortex in vitro. Neurosci Res. 2010;66:246-55 pubmed publisher
  49. Nakajima I, Oe M, Ojima K, Muroya S, Shibata M, Chikuni K. Cellularity of developing subcutaneous adipose tissue in Landrace and Meishan pigs: adipocyte size differences between two breeds. Anim Sci J. 2011;82:144-9 pubmed publisher
  50. Gervais L, Casanova J. In vivo coupling of cell elongation and lumen formation in a single cell. Curr Biol. 2010;20:359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the similarities in the formation of fine respiratory tubes and capillaries, we propose that an inward membrane growth model could account for lumen formation in both processes. ..
  51. Keeley P, Reese B. Morphology of dopaminergic amacrine cells in the mouse retina: independence from homotypic interactions. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1220-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results are considered in light of recent studies on the role of cell adhesion molecules expressed by developing DA cells. ..
  52. Chen Y, Li S, Berezin V, Bock E. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) agonist FGF1 and the neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide FGL activate FGFR substrate 2alpha differently. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:1882-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the activation of FRS2alpha by FGL was significantly lower than the activation by FGF1, indicating a differential signaling profile induced by NCAM compared with the cognate growth factor. ..
  53. Delanoue R, Slaidina M, Leopold P. The steroid hormone ecdysone controls systemic growth by repressing dMyc function in Drosophila fat cells. Dev Cell. 2010;18:1012-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present work reveals an unexpected function of dMyc in the systemic control of growth in response to steroid hormone signaling. ..