waist hip ratio


Summary: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)

Top Publications

  1. Canoy D. Distribution of body fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2008;23:591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although far from perfect, waist-hip ratio may capture separate effects of central and peripheral adiposity. This simple and inexpensive measure could be used to help improve coronary heart disease risk assessment. ..
  2. Hadaegh F, Shafiee G, Azizi F. Anthropometric predictors of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in Iranian women. Ann Saudi Med. 2009;29:194-200 pubmed
    ..WHtR had the highest area under the ROC curve. In Iranian women, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR were predictive of development of type 2 diabetes, but WHtR was a better predictor than BMI. ..
  3. Pischon T, Boeing H, Hoffmann K, Bergmann M, Schulze M, Overvad K, et al. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2105-20 pubmed publisher
    ..001). These data suggest that both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity are associated with the risk of death and support the use of waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio in addition to BMI in assessing the risk of death. ..
  4. Nyamdorj R, Qiao Q, Soderberg S, Pitkäniemi J, Zimmet P, Shaw J, et al. BMI compared with central obesity indicators as a predictor of diabetes incidence in Mauritius. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17:342-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The relation of BMI with the development of diabetes was as strong as that for indicators of central obesity in this study population. ..
  5. Chambers J, Elliott P, Zabaneh D, Zhang W, Li Y, Froguel P, et al. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance. Nat Genet. 2008;40:716-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Homozygotes for the risk allele of rs12970134 have approximately 2 cm increased waist circumference. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with risk of adiposity and insulin resistance. ..
  6. Nazmi A, Oliveira I, Victora C. Correlates of C-reactive protein levels in young adults: a population-based cohort study of 3827 subjects in Brazil. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008;41:357-67 pubmed
    ..We conclude that both distal (socio-demographic) and proximal (anthropometric and behavioral) factors exert strong effects on C-reactive protein levels and that the former are mediated to some degree by the latter. ..
  7. Nyamdorj R, Qiao Q, Lam T, Tuomilehto J, Ho S, Pitkaniemi J, et al. BMI compared with central obesity indicators in relation to diabetes and hypertension in Asians. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1622-35 pubmed publisher
    ..760 (0.766) than WHR 0.748 (0.751), but their 95% CIs were all overlapped. WSR was stronger than BMI in association with diabetes, but these indicators were equally strongly associated with hypertension in Asians. ..
  8. Qidwai W, Hamza H, Qureshi R, Gilani A. Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:639-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Favorable impact of powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsule was noted on almost all variables, but results were not statistically significant. A larger study with adequate sample size is recommended. ..
  9. Peeters A, Beckers S, Verrijken A, Mertens I, Van Gaal L, Van Hul W. Possible role for ENPP1 polymorphism in obesity but not for INSIG2 and PLIN variants. Endocrine. 2009;36:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus indicate that K121Q, rs7566605, and rs894160 are not major contributing factors for obesity. ..

More Information


  1. Caixas A, Tirado R, Vendrell J, Gallart L, Megia A, Simon I, et al. Plasma visfatin concentrations increase in both hyper and hypothyroid subjects after normalization of thyroid function and are not related to insulin resistance, anthropometric or inflammatory parameters. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71:733-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that visfatin may play a role in the hormone stabilization process independent of anthropometric, inflammatory or insulin resistance variables. ..
  2. Krachler B, Eliasson M, Stenlund H, Johansson I, Hallmans G, Lindahl B. Population-wide changes in reported lifestyle are associated with redistribution of adipose tissue. Scand J Public Health. 2009;37:545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..3 mm), and a higher intake of saturated fatty acids from meat among men (+1.8 mm). We identified physical activity and the intake of meat and whole-grain products as prime candidates for lifestyle interventions in northern Sweden. ..
  3. Roopakala M, Suresh A, Ashtalakshmi -, Srinath -, Ashok -, Giridhar -, et al. Anthropometric measurements as predictors of intraabdominal fat thickness. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;53:259-64 pubmed
    ..Waist circumference was found to be the best predictor of intraabdominal fat thickness in normal subjects and therefore of central obesity. ..
  4. Qiao Q, Nyamdorj R. Is the association of type II diabetes with waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio stronger than that with body mass index?. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:30-4 pubmed publisher
  5. Wu I, Shiesh S, Kuo P, Lin X. High oxidative stress is correlated with frailty in elderly chinese. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:1666-71 pubmed publisher
    ..High oxidative stress, characterized by high serum 8-OHdG level, was independently associated with frailty in the selected sample of elderly Chinese. ..
  6. Giugliano F, Maiorino M, Di Palo C, Autorino R, De Sio M, Giugliano D, et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and sexual function in women with type 2 diabetes. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1883-90 pubmed publisher
    ..01). These associations remained significant after adjustment for many potential confounders. In women with type 2 diabetes, greater adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower prevalence of FSD. ..
  7. Tsai H, Tsai A. The association of plasma C-reactive protein levels with anthropometric and lipid parameters in elderly Taiwanese. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17:651-6 pubmed
    ..Whereas low HDL-C is a predictor among the plasma lipid parameters for elevated plasma CRP, at least in women. Gender differences exist in the association of CRP with anthropometric and lipid parameters. ..
  8. Zhu N, Pankow J, Ballantyne C, Couper D, Hoogeveen R, Pereira M, et al. High-molecular-weight adiponectin and the risk of type 2 diabetes in the ARIC study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:5097-104 pubmed publisher
    ..In this community-based sample of U.S. adults, higher total and HMW adiponectin concentrations were similarly associated with a lower incidence of diabetes over 9 yr of follow-up. ..
  9. Agarwal R, Bills J, Light R. Diagnosing obesity by body mass index in chronic kidney disease: an explanation for the "obesity paradox?". Hypertension. 2010;56:893-900 pubmed publisher
    ..Skinfold thickness measurements may be a better test to classify obesity among those with CKD. Given the low negative predictive value of BMI for obesity, our study may provide an explanation of the "obesity paradox." ..
  10. Gelbrich G, Bluher S, Reich A, Müller G, Kiess W. Prevalence of obesity and elevated blood pressure as well as onset of puberty in German school children attending different educational tracks. Horm Res. 2008;70:340-8 pubmed publisher
  11. Kesler A, Kliper E, Shenkerman G, Stern N. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is associated with lower body adiposity. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. ..
  12. Flegal K, Graubard B. Estimates of excess deaths associated with body mass index and other anthropometric variables. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this population-based study, attributable fractions of deaths were similar across measures. ..
  13. Trovato G, Castro A, Tonzuso A, Garozzo A, Martines G, Pirri C, et al. Human obesity relationship with Ad36 adenovirus and insulin resistance. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:1402-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the relationship, if any, among these factors and an earlier Ad36 infection, and the hypothesis of a mechanism involving IR are investigated...
  14. Ho J, Cannaday J, Barlow C, Willis B, Haskell W, FitzGerald S. Comparative relation of general, central, and visceral adiposity measures for coronary artery calcium in subjects without previous coronary events. Am J Cardiol. 2009;104:943-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the total amount of central obesity is more important than the relative distribution of visceral versus subcutaneous fat. ..
  15. Siavash M, Sadeghi M, Salarifar F, Amini M, Shojaee Moradie F. Comparison of body mass index and waist/height ratio in predicting definite coronary artery disease. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;53:162-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a significant positive correlation between CAD score and age (p<0.01), WC (p<0.05), and WHtR (p<0.01) in male participants. WHtR may be a better marker of central obesity and may better predict CAD than BMI and WC. ..
  16. Fatouros I, Chatzinikolaou A, Tournis S, Nikolaidis M, Jamurtas A, Douroudos I, et al. Intensity of resistance exercise determines adipokine and resting energy expenditure responses in overweight elderly individuals. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:2161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It appears that resistance exercise may represent an effective approach for weight management and metabolic control in overweight elderly individuals. ..
  17. Lapice E, Maione S, Patti L, Cipriano P, Rivellese A, Riccardi G, et al. Abdominal adiposity is associated with elevated C-reactive protein independent of BMI in healthy nonobese people. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1734-6 pubmed publisher
    ..96 +/- 2.60 vs. 1.53 +/- 1.74 mg/dl; P < 0.01), and a twofold prevalence of elevated CRP values (>3 mg/dl). In nonobese people, moderate abdominal adiposity is associated with markers of subclinical inflammation independent of BMI. ..
  18. Hänninen M, Niiranen T, Puukka P, Jula A. Comparison of home and ambulatory blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis of masked hypertension. J Hypertens. 2010;28:709-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Their agreement in the diagnosis of masked hypertension is only moderate. Our results suggest that HBP measurement can be used to diagnose masked hypertension, but this diagnosis is not analogous with that made with ABP measurement. ..
  19. Lee K. Waist circumference percentile criteria for the pediatric metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17:422-8 pubmed
    ..The IDF's definition of abdominal obesity may be less sensitive in screening adolescents with pediatric MS compared to WC thresholds. ..
  20. Palomba S, Falbo A, Giallauria F, Russo T, Tolino A, Zullo F, et al. Effects of metformin with or without supplementation with folate on homocysteine levels and vascular endothelium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:246-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Metformin exerts a slight but significant deleterious effect on serum Hcy levels in patients with PCOS, and supplementation with folate is useful to increase the beneficial effect of metformin on the vascular endothelium. ..
  21. Yamborisut U, Riabroy N, Phonrat B, Tungtrongchitr R. Serum leptin levels and body composition in obese Thai children. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40:544-52 pubmed
    ..A prospective study should investigate the influence of leptin levels on weight gain and subcutaneous adiposity, and the interrelationship between food intake and circulating leptin levels in children. ..
  22. Levitan E, Yang A, Wolk A, Mittleman M. Adiposity and incidence of heart failure hospitalization and mortality: a population-based prospective study. Circ Heart Fail. 2009;2:202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Strength of the association between BMI and HF events declined with age. In women, higher WC was associated with HF at all levels of BMI. Both BMI and WC were predictors among men. ..
  23. Riestra P, Garcia Anguita A, Viturro E, Schoppen S, de Oya M, Garces C. Influence of the leptin G-2548A polymorphism on leptin levels and anthropometric measurements in healthy Spanish adolescents. Ann Hum Genet. 2010;74:335-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the LEP G-2548A polymorphism is associated with variations in leptin levels, BMI and HC in Spanish pubertal children, and evidence suggests a link between the G allele and presence of overweight in girls. ..
  24. Turkbey E, McClelland R, Kronmal R, Burke G, Bild D, Tracy R, et al. The impact of obesity on the left ventricle: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3:266-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Ejection fraction showed no significant association with measures of obesity. Obesity was associated with concentric LV remodeling without change in ejection fraction in a large, multiethnic cohort study. ..
  25. Polasek O, Marusic A, Rotim K, Hayward C, Vitart V, Huffman J, et al. Genome-wide association study of anthropometric traits in Korcula Island, Croatia. Croat Med J. 2009;50:7-16 pubmed
  26. Vyssoulis G, Karpanou E, Tzamou V, Kyvelou S, Michaelidis A, Stefanadis C. Serum phosphate in white-coat hypertensive patients: focus on dipping status and metabolic syndrome. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:825-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation may be important for the stratification of the cardiovascular risk in WCH patients. ..
  27. Evolahti A, Hultcrantz M, Collins A. Psychosocial work environment and lifestyle as related to lipid profiles in perimenopausal women. Climacteric. 2009;12:131-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the argument is now compelling that psychosocial factors should be included in the risk profiles for cardiovascular disease in women. ..
  28. Il yasova D, Wang F, D Agostino R, Hanley A, Wagenknecht L. Prospective association between fasting NEFA and type 2 diabetes: impact of post-load glucose. Diabetologia. 2010;53:866-74 pubmed publisher
    ..47 (95% CI 0.27-0.81). Our results indicate that 2 h glucose strongly confounds the prospective association between fasting NEFA and diabetes; carefully adjusted fasting NEFA levels are inversely associated with diabetes risk. ..
  29. He H, Zhao Z, Pu Y, Chen J, Ni Y, Zhong J, et al. [Relationship of different types of abdominal obesity to risk of metabolic syndrome]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;88:1251-4 pubmed
    ..01-1.02), respectively, P < 0.01). Different types of abdominal obesity have important impacts on the risk of metabolic syndrome. Masked VFO, even though with normal WC, and pseudo-VFO have considerably higher cardiometabolic risks. ..
  30. Suh S, Choi S, Ahn H, Yang H, Kim Y, Sung N. The association between normal alanine aminotransferase levels and the metabolic syndrome: 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Metabolism. 2009;58:1731-6 pubmed publisher
    ..High-normal alanine aminotransferase levels (> or =27 IU/L in men, > or =15 IU/L in women) were strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. ..
  31. Lecube A, Hernandez C, Pelegri D, Simo R. Factors accounting for high ferritin levels in obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32:1665-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that ferritin should not be used as a reliable index of iron overload in obese patients with diabetes. ..
  32. Marmot M, Shipley M, Hemingway H, Head J, Brunner E. Biological and behavioural explanations of social inequalities in coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II study. Diabetologia. 2008;51:1980-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This was, to an important degree, independent of the contribution of health behaviours to the socioeconomic differentials in CHD. ..
  33. Pengelly C, Morris J. Body mass index and weight distribution. Scott Med J. 2009;54:17-21 pubmed
    ..We believe that BMI, W and W/H should be recorded in every subject at life assurance examination so that the insurance companies in the long term will be able to reach valid conclusions about their individual and collective value. ..
  34. Berker D, Koparal S, Isik S, Pasaoglu L, Aydin Y, Erol K, et al. Compatibility of different methods for the measurement of visceral fat in different body mass index strata. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2010;16:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Anthropometric measurements and visceral fat tissue measurement methods such as US and BIA exhibit differences with respect to compliance with CT results in visceral fat tissue measurements by gender and BMI levels. ..
  35. Bixler E, Vgontzas A, Lin H, Liao D, Calhoun S, Vela Bueno A, et al. Sleep disordered breathing in children in a general population sample: prevalence and risk factors. Sleep. 2009;32:731-6 pubmed
    ..The strong linear relationship between waist circumference and BMI across all degrees of severity of SDB suggests that, as in adults, metabolic factors may be among the most important risk factors for SDB in children. ..
  36. Yeung E, Hu F, Solomon C, Chen L, Louis G, Schisterman E, et al. Life-course weight characteristics and the risk of gestational diabetes. Diabetologia. 2010;53:668-78 pubmed publisher
  37. Li Y, Yang M, Meng X, He X, Wang B. [The relationship of leptin and adiponectin with insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2010;18:459-62 pubmed publisher
    ..495, P less than 0.01 ) and BMI (beta value = -0.314, P less than 0.01) respectively. The increased serum leptin level and decreased serum adiponectin level in NAFLD patients independently associated with HOMA-IR. ..
  38. Choi S. Diet-specific family support and glucose control among Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2009;35:978-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive impact of family support on glucose outcome was significantly stronger in men than in women, even after other factors were taken into consideration. ..
  39. Crist B, Alekel D, Ritland L, Hanson L, Genschel U, Reddy M. Association of oxidative stress, iron, and centralized fat mass in healthy postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009;18:795-801 pubmed publisher
    ..0%, p = 0.025). Our study suggests that reducing centralized fat mass and maintaining a favorable lipid profile, antioxidant status, and iron status all may be important in protecting postmenopausal women from atherosclerotic CVD. ..
  40. Kuliczkowska Płaksej J, Bednarek Tupikowska G, Filus A. [Receptor CD36 expression on peripheral blood monocytes in women with visceral obesity]. Endokrynol Pol. 2008;59:483-9 pubmed
    ..Expression of scavenger receptor CD36 on monocytes in obese women is significantly lower than in lean individuals. This observation needs further investigations. ..
  41. Zepeda Ortega B, Ito Tsuchiya F, Espinola Reyna G, Adell Gras A, Del Rio Navarro B. [Determination and comparison of pulmonary function with anthropometric indexes in asthmatic and non-asthmatic obese teenagers]. Rev Alerg Mex. 2008;55:92-102 pubmed
    ..05 cm and HC: 103.28 +/- 10.6 cm. In NAO post-beta2 Raw diminished whereas Sgaw increased. Greater BMI in AO displayed greater FEV1 with statistic significance. Obstructive ventilator pattern mechanics was observed in both groups. ..
  42. Onat A, Can G, Ayhan E, Kaya Z, Hergenc G. Impaired protection against diabetes and coronary heart disease by high-density lipoproteins in Turks. Metabolism. 2009;58:1393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This highly important observation may result from a setting of prevailing chronic subclinical inflammation. ..
  43. Razzouk L, Muntner P. Ethnic, gender, and age-related differences in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2009;11:127-32 pubmed
    ..Understanding the basic pathophysiology underlying the metabolic syndrome may help explain the age, gender, and ethnic differences in its prevalence and guide preventive and therapeutic efforts. ..
  44. Rosário T, Scala L, França G, Pereira M, Jardim P. Prevalence, control and treatment of arterial hypertension in Nobres - MT. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2009;93:622-8, 672-8 pubmed
    ..Levels of control and treatment of hypertension in the population were higher than those observed in similar studies, but were considered not satisfactory. ..
  45. Kvehaugen A, Andersen L, Staff A. Anthropometry and cardiovascular risk factors in women and offspring after pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia or diabetes mellitus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89:1478-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential intervention strategies could focus on life style alterations after delivery, with emphasis on weight management. ..
  46. Borch K, Braekkan S, Mathiesen E, Njølstad I, Wilsgaard T, Størmer J, et al. Anthropometric measures of obesity and risk of venous thromboembolism: the Tromso study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..92 (95% CI: 1.05 to 3.48) in women and 2.78 (95% CI: 1.47 to 5.27) in men. Our findings indicate that WC is the preferable anthropometric measure of obesity to identify subjects at risk and to predict risk of VTE. ..
  47. Gao X, Schwarzschild M, Wang H, Ascherio A. Obesity and restless legs syndrome in men and women. Neurology. 2009;72:1255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Further prospective studies are warranted to clarify causative association between obesity and risk of developing RLS. ..
  48. Yaylali G, Tekekoglu S, Akin F. Sexual dysfunction in obese and overweight women. Int J Impot Res. 2010;22:220-6 pubmed publisher
    ..01, r=-0.385). We found that 86% of obese women and 83% of controls had sexual dysfunction. Although obesity does not seem to be a major contributor to sexual dysfunction, it affects several aspects of sexuality. ..
  49. Vergnaud A, Estaquio C, Czernichow S, Peneau S, Hercberg S, Galan P, et al. Energy density and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged adult cohort. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:302-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This relationship could be mediated by physical activity level. Further research needs to be performed in other populations to determine whether ED could be effective strategies to prevent weight gain. ..
  50. Zavorsky G. Cardiopulmonary aspects of obesity in women. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2009;36:267-84, viii pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiac output, heart rate, and total blood volume are higher in obese women whereas ejection fraction is lower compared with normal-weight women; substantial weight loss normalizes these parameters. ..
  51. Bosy Westphal A, Plachta Danielzik S, Dörhöfer R, Muller M. Short stature and obesity: positive association in adults but inverse association in children and adolescents. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, short stature is associated with an increased risk of obesity in adults. Cardiometabolic risk in short stature is not explained by an adverse body composition. ..
  52. Wang W, Zhao D, Sun J, Liu J, Liu J, Qin L, et al. [Predictive value of combined measurements of body mass index and waist circumference for the risk of cardiovascular disease]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2008;36:655-8 pubmed
    ..570, 95% CI 1.226 - 2.010) in obese subjects with elevated WC. Combined measurements of BMI and WC provide a better prediction for the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and ischemic cardiovascular disease. ..
  53. Kelly D, Wehring H, Linthicum J, Feldman S, McMahon R, Love R, et al. Cardiac-related findings at autopsy in people with severe mental illness treated with clozapine or risperidone. Schizophr Res. 2009;107:134-8 pubmed publisher