waist circumference


Summary: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.

Top Publications

  1. Okauchi Y, Kishida K, Funahashi T, Noguchi M, Ogawa T, Ryo M, et al. Changes in serum adiponectin concentrations correlate with changes in BMI, waist circumference, and estimated visceral fat area in middle-aged general population. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:e122 pubmed publisher
  2. Dittmann K, Hannemann A, Wallaschofski H, Rettig R, Stracke S, Volzke H, et al. U-shaped association between central body fat and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and microalbuminuria. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:87 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate whether anthropometric parameters [waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI)] are associated with renal function in a ..
  3. Alberti K, Eckel R, Grundy S, Zimmet P, Cleeman J, Donato K, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; Internati. Circulation. 2009;120:1640-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required...
  4. Cheng Y, Tsao Y, Tzeng I, Chuang H, Li W, Tung T, et al. Body mass index and waist circumference are better predictors of insulin resistance than total body fat percentage in middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8126 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or body fat percentage (BF%) could be a better predictor of IR in a middle-aged and elderly ..
  5. Arnold T, Schweitzer A, Hoffman H, Onyewu C, Hurtado M, Hoffman E, et al. Neck and waist circumference biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in a cohort of predominantly African-American college students: a preliminary study. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114:107-16 pubmed publisher
    Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the value of measuring neck and waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in college students (18 to 25 years of age)...
  6. Wang G, Li B, Zhang X, Niu C, Li J, Li L, et al. No seasonal variation in physical activity of Han Chinese living in Beijing. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14:48 pubmed publisher
    ..5). Single week long measurements of physical activity could provide a representative measurement of the physical active levels in this population. ..
  7. Blasco G, Moreno Navarrete J, Rivero M, Perez Brocal V, Garre Olmo J, Puig J, et al. The Gut Metagenome Changes in Parallel to Waist Circumference, Brain Iron Deposition, and Cognitive Function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2962-2973 pubmed publisher
    ..R2* increased in both obese and nonobese subjects, independent of weight variations. Changes in waist circumference, but not in body mass index, were associated with brain iron deposition (R2*) in the striatum, amygdala, ..
  8. Smart C, Aslander van Vliet E, Waldron S. Nutritional management in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;10 Suppl 12:100-17 pubmed publisher
  9. Mameli C, Krakauer J, Krakauer N, Bosetti A, Ferrari C, Schneider L, et al. Effects of a multidisciplinary weight loss intervention in overweight and obese children and adolescents: 11 years of experience. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181095 pubmed publisher
    ..BMI) in children and adolescents suffering overweight and obesity, changes in A Body Shape Index (ABSI, waist circumference normalized to height and weight) and Hip Index (HI, normalized hip circumference) during treatment and ..

More Information


  1. Naderian M, Kolahdoozan S, Sharifi A, Garmaroudi G, Yaseri M, Poustchi H, et al. Assessment of Lean Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Middle Income Country; Prevalence and Its Association with Metabolic Disorders: A Cross-sectional Study. Arch Iran Med. 2017;20:211-217 pubmed publisher
    ..01). BMI cut-offs in men and women along with waist circumference cut-off in men could significantly predict the presence of NAFLD in lean patients...
  2. Salaroli L, Cattafesta M, Molina M, Zandonade E, Bissoli N. Insulin resistance and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of bank employees. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2017;72:224-230 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome-associated metabolic abnormalities were observed, and insulin resistance may be a risk factor in this group of professionals. ..
  3. Zając Gawlak I, Kłapcińska B, Kroemeke A, Pośpiech D, Pelclová J, Přidalová M. Associations of visceral fat area and physical activity levels with the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Biogerontology. 2017;18:357-366 pubmed publisher
    ..Fasting levels of serum lipids (TG, HDL), serum glucose, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were measured to diagnose MetS according to NCEP-ATP III criteria...
  4. Scott R, Langenberg C, Sharp S, Franks P, Rolandsson O, Drogan D, et al. The link between family history and risk of type 2 diabetes is not explained by anthropometric, lifestyle or genetic risk factors: the EPIC-InterAct study. Diabetologia. 2013;56:60-9 pubmed publisher
    ..72, 95% CI 2.48, 2.99). Adjustment for established risk factors including BMI and waist circumference only modestly attenuated this association (HR 2.44, 95% CI 2.03, 2...
  5. Nguyen K, Peer N, de Villiers A, Mukasa B, Matsha T, Mills E, et al. Optimal waist circumference threshold for diagnosing metabolic syndrome in African people living with HIV infection. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183029 pubmed publisher
    The applicability of the internationally advocated cut-off points of waist circumference (WC) derived from Caucasians to diagnose metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected Africans is unknown...
  6. Stern D, Middaugh N, Rice M, Laden F, Lopez Ridaura R, Rosner B, et al. Changes in Sugar-Sweetened Soda Consumption, Weight, and Waist Circumference: 2-Year Cohort of Mexican Women. Am J Public Health. 2017;107:1801-1808 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate 2-year changes in soda consumption, weight, and waist circumference.
  7. Schaap L, Koster A, Visser M. Adiposity, muscle mass, and muscle strength in relation to functional decline in older persons. Epidemiol Rev. 2013;35:51-65 pubmed publisher
    ..older persons aged 65 years or more, and at least one of the measures that follow: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, midarm circumference, fat mass, muscle fat infiltration, muscle mass, or strength as ..
  8. Betts K. Unclear relationship: prenatal but not concurrent bisphenol a exposure linked to lower weight and less fat. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:A135 pubmed publisher
  9. Rodríguez Ramírez G, Simental Mendia L, Carrera Gracia M, Quintanar Escorza M. Vitamin E Deficiency and Oxidative Status are Associated with Prediabetes in Apparently Healthy Subjects. Arch Med Res. 2017;48:257-262 pubmed publisher
    ..8%) compared with the control group (35.1%), p = 0.03. The logistic regression analysis adjusted by age, waist circumference and body mass index, revealed a significant association between vitamin E deficiency (OR 3.23; 95% CI: 1...
  10. Arabshahi S, Lahmann P, Hughes M, Williams G, van der Pols J. Dietary behaviours, weight loss attempts and change in waist circumference: 15-year longitudinal study in Australian adults. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017;26:657-664 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated associations between dietary behaviours, weight loss attempts and waist circumference change...
  11. de Oliveira C, Ulbrich A, Neves F, Dias F, Horimoto A, Krieger J, et al. Association between anthropometric indicators of adiposity and hypertension in a Brazilian population: Baependi Heart Study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185225 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the aim of this study was to compare which of the four indicators of adiposity (waist circumference-WC, body mass index-BMI, body adiposity index-BAI, and visceral adiposity index-VAI) were better associated ..
  12. Fenger Grøn M, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Frost L. Lean Body Mass Is the Predominant Anthropometric Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69:2488-2497 pubmed publisher
    ..sought to assess mutually adjusted associations among AF risk and height, weight, body mass index, hip and waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and bioelectrical impedance-derived measures of fat mass, lean body mass, and fat ..
  13. Favre G, Grangeon Chapon C, Raffaelli C, François Chalmin F, Iannelli A, Esnault V. Perirenal fat thickness measured with computed tomography is a reliable estimate of perirenal fat mass. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175561 pubmed publisher
    ..6 ± 18.1 years and a mean body mass index of 28.9 ± 2.9 kg/m2. Despite comparable waist circumference, women had a greater SC-fat thickness compared to men, and therefore a smaller amount of visceral fat, as ..
  14. Nagao H, Kashine S, Nishizawa H, Okada T, Kimura T, Hirata A, et al. Vascular complications and changes in body mass index in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:88 pubmed publisher
    ..We enrolled 88 Japanese hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients. Abdominal obesity represented waist circumference (WC) of ?85 cm for males and ?90 cm for females (corresponding to visceral fat area of 100 cm²)...
  15. Nicolucci A, Hume M, Martínez I, Mayengbam S, Walter J, Reimer R. Prebiotics Reduce Body Fat and Alter Intestinal Microbiota in Children Who Are Overweight or With Obesity. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:711-722 pubmed publisher
    ..Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter...
  16. Giblin L, Boyd L, Rainchuso L, Chadbourne D. Short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on clinical measures of impaired glucose tolerance in people with prediabetes and chronic periodontitis. J Dent Hyg. 2014;88 Suppl 1:23-30 pubmed
    ..The robustness of measures is limited due to the small sample size and lack of a control group. Further larger scale studies using a randomized control design would be informative. ..
  17. Yang Z, Ding X, Liu J, Duan P, Si L, Wan B, et al. Associations between anthropometric parameters and lipid profiles in Chinese individuals with age ?40 years and BMI <28kg/m2. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178343 pubmed publisher
    ..Some simple anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), may link to increased risk of ..
  18. Ballestri S, Nascimbeni F, Baldelli E, Marrazzo A, Romagnoli D, Targher G, et al. Ultrasonographic fatty liver indicator detects mild steatosis and correlates with metabolic/histological parameters in various liver diseases. Metabolism. 2017;72:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..US-FLI was also correlated with waist circumference, body mass index and insulin resistance both in the whole sample and in each liver disease group...
  19. Li D, Xu Y, Nie Q, Li Y, Mao G. Predictors of urinary incontinence between abdominal obesity and non-obese male adults. Postgrad Med. 2017;129:747-755 pubmed publisher
    ..We define abdominal obesity as a waist circumference >102 cm. Men with Incontinence Severity Index ?3 were defined as having UI...
  20. Ding E, Smit L, Hu F. The metabolic syndrome as a cluster of risk factors: is the whole greater than the sum of its parts?: comment on "The metabolic syndrome, its component risk factors, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis". Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:484-5 pubmed publisher
  21. Fletcher G. Central obesity--more weight in cardiovascular disease prevention. Am J Cardiol. 2009;103:1408-10 pubmed publisher
  22. Oki E, Norde M, Carioca A, Souza J, Castro I, Marchioni D, et al. Polymorphisms of the TNF-? gene interact with plasma fatty acids on inflammatory biomarker profile: a population-based, cross-sectional study in São Paulo, Brazil. Br J Nutr. 2017;117:1663-1673 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study contributes to knowledge on TNF-? SNP and their association with inflammatory biomarker levels, plasma FA and the interaction among them, of particular interest for the Brazilian population. ..
  23. Carson V, Tremblay M, Chastin S. Cross-sectional associations between sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity, and adiposity indicators among Canadian preschool-aged children using compositional analyses. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:848 pubmed publisher
    ..Adiposity indicators included waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) z-scores based on World Health Organization growth standards...
  24. Pinho C, Diniz A, de Arruda I, Leite A, Petribú M, Rodrigues I. Predictive models for estimating visceral fat: The contribution from anthropometric parameters. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178958 pubmed publisher
    ..A quick and precise AVT estimate, especially for men, can be obtained using only AC, WHpR, and CI for men, and age, SD, CI, and NC for women. These equations can be used as a clinical and epidemiological tool for overweight individuals. ..
  25. Demerath E. Causes and consequences of human variation in visceral adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:1-2 pubmed publisher
  26. Potera C. In the neighborhood: metabolic outcomes among residents exposed to aircraft noise. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;122:A193 pubmed publisher
  27. Shestakova M, Suhareva O, Chernova T, Shmushkovich I, Aleksandrov A, Il in A, et al. [A combination of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor and metformin in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effective control of glycemia, weight, and quantitative body composition]. Ter Arkh. 2013;85:49-55 pubmed
    ..body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and tissue fat percentage without considering bone mass, as well as waist circumference (WC), which was attended by an elevation of adiponectin levels...
  28. Despres J. Targeting abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome to manage cardiovascular disease risk. Heart. 2009;95:1118-24 pubmed publisher
  29. Silva E Oliveira J, Amélio P, Abranches I, Damasceno D, Furtado F. Heart rate variability based on risk stratification for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2017;15:141-147 pubmed publisher
    ..The groups at higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus had significantly lower linear and nonlinear heart rate variability indexes. The individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus have lower heart rate variability. ..
  30. Yu J, Baik I, Cho H, Seo J, Kim S, Choi K, et al. The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism is associated with short leukocyte telomere length in nonobese individuals. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7565 pubmed publisher
    ..5% of the total subjects. Among the 1184 nonobese subjects, body mass index, waist circumference, and visceral fat area were higher in subjects with the FTO risk allele than in noncarriers...
  31. YAN L, Chen X, Chen B, Bai Y, Li J, Zhang X, et al. Gender-specific Association of Sleep Duration with Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Body Fat in Chinese Adults. Biomed Environ Sci. 2017;30:157-169 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the association between habitual sleep duration and obesity among Chinese adults...
  32. Farook V, Reddivari L, Mummidi S, Puppala S, Arya R, Lopez Alvarenga J, et al. Genetics of serum carotenoid concentrations and their correlation with obesity-related traits in Mexican American children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106:52-58 pubmed publisher
    ..both carotenoids and examined their genetic relation with 10 obesity-related traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fat mass (FM), systolic and diastolic ..
  33. Savas M, Muka T, Wester V, Van Den Akker E, Visser J, Braunstahl G, et al. Associations Between Systemic and Local Corticosteroid Use With Metabolic Syndrome and Body Mass Index. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:3765-3774 pubmed publisher
    ..Although evidence is accumulating that local CSs have considerable systemic effects, their effects on cardiometabolic factors in the general population remain unclear...
  34. Chen C, Liu K, Hsu C, Chang H, Chung H, Liu J, et al. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST). Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6025 pubmed publisher
    ..study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index...
  35. Warner M, Wesselink A, Harley K, Bradman A, Kogut K, Eskenazi B. Prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and obesity at 9 years of age in the CHAMACOS study cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179:1312-22 pubmed publisher
    ..of maternal serum concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy with body mass index, obesity, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat in 9-year-old children (n = 261) in the Center for the Health Assessment of ..
  36. Berentzen N, Wijga A, van Rossem L, Postma D, Gehring U, Smit H. Pubertal Timing and Cardiometabolic Markers at Age 16 Years. J Pediatr. 2017;187:158-164 pubmed publisher
    ..of the exposure variables (pubertal timing and/or age at menarche) and any of the cardiometabolic markers (waist circumference, cholesterol, blood pressure [BP], glycated hemoglobin) measured at age 16 years...
  37. Mumme K, Stonehouse W. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115:249-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with LCTs, MCTs decreased body weight (-0.51 kg [95% CI-0.80 to -0.23 kg]; P<0.001; I(2)=35%); waist circumference (-1.46 cm [95% CI -2.04 to -0.87 cm]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), hip circumference (-0.79 cm [95% CI -1.27 to -0...
  38. Ohta M, Midorikawa T, Hikihara Y, Sakamoto S, Kawakami Y, Fukunaga T, et al. Body mass-to-waist ratio strongly correlates with skeletal muscle volume in children. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177155 pubmed publisher
    ..The current results indicate that body mass-to-waist ratio can be a convenient outcome measure for assessing the total-body skeletal muscle volume in children. ..
  39. Christofaro D, Casonatto J, Vanderlei L, Cucato G, Dias R. Relationship between Resting Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure in Adolescents. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017;108:405-410 pubmed publisher
    ..Weight and height were measured with an electronic scale and a stadiometer, respectively, and waist circumference with a non-elastic tape...
  40. Ekelund U, Palla L, Brage S, Franks P, Peters T, Balkau B, et al. Physical activity reduces the risk of incident type 2 diabetes in general and in abdominally lean and obese men and women: the EPIC-InterAct Study. Diabetologia. 2012;55:1944-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Physical activity was assessed by a four-category index. Obesity was measured by BMI and waist circumference (WC)...
  41. Farhat G, Drummond S, Al Dujaili E. Polyphenols and Their Role in Obesity Management: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials. Phytother Res. 2017;31:1005-1018 pubmed publisher
    ..Further larger trials with a duration of 12 months or more are needed to elucidate the effect of polyphenols on body weight status. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ..
  42. Zhai Y, Fang H, Yu W, Yu D, Zhao L, Liang X, et al. Changes in Waist Circumference and Abdominal Obesity among Chinese Adults over a Ten-year Period. Biomed Environ Sci. 2017;30:315-322 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe changes in waist circumference (WC) and prevalence of abdominal obesity over a period of 10 years among Chinese adults in different socio-economic status (SES).
  43. Pimenta E, Stowasser M. Uncontrolled hypertension: beyond pharmacological treatment. Hypertens Res. 2009;32:729-31 pubmed publisher
  44. Owen N, Sparling P, Healy G, Dunstan D, Matthews C. Sedentary behavior: emerging evidence for a new health risk. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85:1138-41 pubmed publisher
  45. Snijder M, Nicolaou M, van Valkengoed I, Brewster L, Stronks K. Newly proposed body adiposity index (bai) by Bergman et al. is not strongly related to cardiovascular health risk. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:1138-9 pubmed publisher
  46. Peltzer K, Pengpid S. Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference among Young Adults from 24 Low- and Middle-Income and Two High-Income Countries. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances...
  47. Rådholm K, Tengblad A, Dahlen E, Lanne T, Engvall J, Nystrom F, et al. The impact of using sagittal abdominal diameter to predict major cardiovascular events in European patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27:418-422 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored if sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a better predictor of major cardiovascular events than waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in type 2 diabetes...
  48. Langenberg C, Sharp S, Schulze M, Rolandsson O, Overvad K, Forouhi N, et al. Long-term risk of incident type 2 diabetes and measures of overall and regional obesity: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. PLoS Med. 2012;9:e1001230 pubmed publisher
    b>Waist circumference (WC) is a simple and reliable measure of fat distribution that may add to the prediction of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but previous studies have been too small to reliably quantify the relative and absolute risk of future ..
  49. Murer S, Saarsalu S, Zimmermann M, Aeberli I. Pediatric adiposity stabilized in Switzerland between 1999 and 2012. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53:865-75 pubmed
    ..b>Waist circumference was measured in 2007 and 2012, and multiple skinfold thicknesses assessed in 2002 and 2012...
  50. Retnakaran R, Wen S, Tan H, Zhou S, Ye C, Shen M, et al. Maternal pre-gravid cardiometabolic health and infant birthweight: A prospective pre-conception cohort study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27:723-730 pubmed publisher
    ..93 per kg, 0.89-0.97). Maternal weight before and during pregnancy is the predominant cardiometabolic determinant of infant birthweight, rather than pre-gravid blood pressure, glucose or lipid profile. ..
  51. Celis Morales C, Marsaux C, Livingstone K, Navas Carretero S, San Cristobal R, Fallaize R, et al. Can genetic-based advice help you lose weight? Findings from the Food4Me European randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105:1204-1213 pubmed publisher
    ..Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were self-measured and reported at baseline and months 3 and 6...
  52. Farr O, Rifas Shiman S, Oken E, Taveras E, Mantzoros C. Current child, but not maternal, snoring is bi-directionally related to adiposity and cardiometabolic risk markers: A cross-sectional and a prospective cohort analysis. Metabolism. 2017;76:70-80 pubmed publisher
    ..02, 0.14; p=0.01) after correction for covariates. Prospectively, adiposity (BMI, trunk fat, fat mass, and waist circumference) and cardiometabolic (leptin, HOMA-IR, CRP, and global metabolic risk) measures at mid-childhood (~7y) were ..
  53. Marcadenti A, Fuchs F, Matte U, Sperb F, Moreira L, Fuchs S. Effects of FTO RS9939906 and MC4R RS17782313 on obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:103 pubmed publisher
    ..Common genetic variants of FTO rs9939609 have positive associations with BMI and neck circumference and MC4R rs17782313 in women, but a negative association with diastolic and mean blood pressure in men with hypertension. ..