body surface area

Summary

Summary: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.

Top Publications

  1. Rostoker G, Andrivet P, Pham I, Griuncelli M, Adnot S. A modified Cockcroft-Gault formula taking into account the body surface area gives a more accurate estimation of the glomerular filtration rate. J Nephrol. 2007;20:576-85 pubmed
    We sought to validate the improvement by adjustment for body surface area (BSA) of the accuracy of the original Cockcroft-Gault equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), in a prospective cross-sectional study of 269 European ..
  2. Dommasch E, Shin D, Troxel A, Margolis D, Gelfand J. Reliability, validity and responsiveness to change of the Patient Report of Extent of Psoriasis Involvement (PREPI) for measuring body surface area affected by psoriasis. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:835-42 pubmed publisher
    ..of the Patient Report of Extent of Psoriasis Involvement (PREPI), a single-question method for measuring body surface area affected by psoriasis...
  3. Voges I, Jerosch Herold M, Hedderich J, Pardun E, Hart C, Gabbert D, et al. Normal values of aortic dimensions, distensibility, and pulse wave velocity in children and young adults: a cross-sectional study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2012;14:77 pubmed publisher
    ..047 to 0.009; aortic distensibility r?=?-0.43 to -0.62, p?<?0.001) correlated with height, weight, body surface area, and age. There were no significant sex differences...
  4. Chang S, Choe Y, Jang S, Kim S, Lee S, Oh J. Assessment of left and right ventricular parameters in healthy Korean volunteers using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: change in ventricular volume and function based on age, gender and body surface area. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;28 Suppl 2:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..All parameters were analyzed based on age and gender, and normalized to body surface area (BSA). LV volume, mass and cardiac output were significantly greater in males than in females...
  5. Uray T, Haugk M, Sterz F, Arrich J, Richling N, Janata A, et al. Surface cooling for rapid induction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest: design determines efficacy. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17:360-7 pubmed publisher
    ..004). With adequate design and storage temperature, the cooling pad proved to be efficient for rapid in-hospital cooling of patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. ..
  6. Van Velsen S, Knol M, Haeck I, Bruijnzeel Koomen C, Pasmans S. The Self-administered Eczema Area and Severity Index in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis: better estimation of AD body surface area than severity. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27:470-5 pubmed publisher
    ..61, p = <0.001), mainly based on high correlation between the body surface area (BSA) measurements of both scores (? = 0.50, p = <0.001)...
  7. Tapia Rombo C, González Arenas M, Carpio Hernández J, Santiago Romo J. [An index internal diameter ductus arteriosus/body surface area as a need for closure of duct in the preterm newborn]. Rev Invest Clin. 2013;65:12-23 pubmed
    To determine a rate of internal diameter (ID), the narrowest of ductus arteriosus (DA)/body surface area (BSA) in preterm newborns (PTNB) for need for closure of DA either medically or surgically...
  8. Si H, Lei Z, Li S, Liu J, Geng J, Chen S. Lean body mass is better than body surface area in correcting GFR. Clin Nucl Med. 2013;38:e210-5 pubmed publisher
    The Gates-based renography (gGFR) and plasma-based clearance rate (pGFR) are conventionally corrected with body surface area (BSA). Limited studies indicated that the lean body mass (LBM) might be better than BSA in correcting pGFR...
  9. Clero E, Leux C, Brindel P, Truong T, Anger A, Teinturier C, et al. Pooled analysis of two case-control studies in New Caledonia and French Polynesia of body mass index and differentiated thyroid cancer: the importance of body surface area. Thyroid. 2010;20:1285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage [BF%], and body surface area [BSA]), at age 18 and before diagnosis, were analyzed by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Fukazawa K, Nishida S, Volsky A, Tzakis A, Pretto E. Body surface area index predicts outcome in orthotopic liver transplantation. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2011;18:216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine whether a new parameter, the ratio of donor to recipient body surface area (BSAi), is predictive of size mismatch and/or post-transplant morbidity or mortality...
  2. Kao Y, Tan E, Ng C, Goh S. Clinical implications of the body surface area method versus partition model dosimetry for yttrium-90 radioembolization using resin microspheres: a technical review. Ann Nucl Med. 2011;25:455-61 pubmed publisher
    ..For resin microspheres, the 'body surface area (BSA)' method and the partition model can both be used for Y-90 activity calculation...
  3. Maceira A, Cosin Sales J, Roughton M, Prasad S, Pennell D. Reference left atrial dimensions and volumes by steady state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2010;12:65 pubmed publisher
    ..We used SSFP cines to define normal ranges for LA volumes and dimensions relative to gender, age and body surface area (BSA), and examine the relative value of 2D atrial imaging techniques in patients...
  4. Ruggieri G, Rocca A. Analysis of past and present methods of measuring and estimating body surface area and the resulting evaluation of its doubtful suitability to universal application. Blood Purif. 2010;30:296-305 pubmed publisher
    b>Body surface area (BSA) is probably the most used tool for indexing physiological functions...
  5. Kartheuser A, Leonard D, Penninckx F, Paterson H, Brandt D, Remue C, et al. Waist circumference and waist/hip ratio are better predictive risk factors for mortality and morbidity after colorectal surgery than body mass index and body surface area. Ann Surg. 2013;258:722-30 pubmed publisher
    ..is a better predictor of mortality and morbidity after colorectal surgery than body mass index (BMI) or body surface area (BSA)...
  6. Pazhenkottil A, Husmann L, Buechel R, Herzog B, Nkoulou R, Burger I, et al. Validation of a new contrast material protocol adapted to body surface area for optimized low-dose CT coronary angiography with prospective ECG-triggering. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;26:591-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As increased blood volume is well paralleled by body surface area (BSA) we assessed a BSA-adapted CM protocol to compensate for dilution effects...
  7. Bogh M, Schmedes A, Philipsen P, Thieden E, Wulf H. Interdependence between body surface area and ultraviolet B dose in vitamin D production: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation...
  8. Izamis M, Sharma N, Uygun B, Bieganski R, Saeidi N, Nahmias Y, et al. In situ metabolic flux analysis to quantify the liver metabolic response to experimental burn injury. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2011;108:839-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Rats received a sham (control uninjured), 20% or 40% total body surface area (TBSA) scald burn, and were allowed to develop a hypermetabolic response...
  9. Delanaye P, Krzesinski J. Indexing of renal function parameters by body surface area: intelligence or folly?. Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;119:c289-92 pubmed publisher
    Indexation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by body surface area (BSA) is often done without raising any questions...
  10. Gouma E, Simos Y, Verginadis I, Lykoudis E, Evangelou A, Karkabounas S. A simple procedure for estimation of total body surface area and determination of a new value of Meeh's constant in rats. Lab Anim. 2012;46:40-5 pubmed publisher
    Precise calculation of total body surface area (TBSA) or premarked surface areas (P-MSAs) is of great importance in many biomedical applications...
  11. Pai M. Drug dosing based on weight and body surface area: mathematical assumptions and limitations in obese adults. Pharmacotherapy. 2012;32:856-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Drugs are generally dosed according to one of three approaches: fixed dosing, weight-based dosing, or body surface area-based dosing...
  12. Ramirez S, Kapke A, Port F, Wolfe R, Saran R, Pearson J, et al. Dialysis dose scaled to body surface area and size-adjusted, sex-specific patient mortality. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7:1977-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to determine whether rescaling dose to body surface area (SA) might reveal different associations among dose, sex, and mortality...
  13. Pouliquen A, Escalup L, Jourdan N, Cottu P, Faure P, Madelaine Chambrin I. Dose standardisation of anticancer drugs. Int J Clin Pharm. 2011;33:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that dose standardisation is a help to optimise the productivity and improve the organisation of the preparation unit. ..
  14. Pazaitou Panayiotou K, Papapetrou P, Chrisoulidou A, Konstantinidou S, Doumala E, Georgiou E, et al. Height, whole Body Surface Area, gender, working outdoors, and sunbathing in previous summer are important determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2012;120:14-22 pubmed publisher
    To investigate if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is related to the whole Body Surface Area (BSA), and to several other anthropometric and environmental factors...
  15. Daugirdas J, Greene T, Chertow G, Depner T. Can rescaling dose of dialysis to body surface area in the HEMO study explain the different responses to dose in women versus men?. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1628-36 pubmed publisher
    ..95), P = 0.002. Within gender, V/SA did not modify the effect of dose on mortality. When normalized to body surface area rather than V, the dose of dialysis in women in the HEMO Study was substantially lower than in men...
  16. Daugirdas J, Hanna M, Becker Cohen R, Langman C. Dose of dialysis based on body surface area is markedly less in younger children than in older adolescents. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:821-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Normalizing Kt/V to body surface area (S) has been proposed, but the implications of doing this in children have not been examined...
  17. Rawlins J, Carre F, Kervio G, Papadakis M, Chandra N, Edwards C, et al. Ethnic differences in physiological cardiac adaptation to intense physical exercise in highly trained female athletes. Circulation. 2010;121:1078-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a maximal left ventricular wall thickness >13 mm or deep T-wave inversions in the inferior and lateral leads are rare and warrant further investigation. ..
  18. Fukazawa K, Yamada Y, Nishida S, Hibi T, Arheart K, Pretto E. Determination of the safe range of graft size mismatch using body surface area index in deceased liver transplantation. Transpl Int. 2013;26:724-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a multivariate survival model (generalized additive model) to estimate hazard risk of body surface area index (BSAi) for 3-year graft survival using data derived from the national registry database between 2005 ..
  19. Cleemann L, Mortensen K, Holm K, Smedegaard H, Skouby S, Wieslander S, et al. Aortic dimensions in girls and young women with turner syndrome: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Pediatr Cardiol. 2010;31:497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..The thoracic aortic diameters of the patients were measured at nine positions. Adjustment for body surface area (BSA) was performed...
  20. Aalberts J, Waterbolk T, van Tintelen J, Hillege H, Boonstra P, van den Berg M. Prophylactic aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome: 10 years' experience with a protocol based on body surface area. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2008;34:589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, aortic root diameter is a function of body surface area (BSA). Here, we report our experience with a protocol for prophylactic aortic root replacement based on BSA...
  21. Vaudry W, Ettenger R, Jara P, Varela Fascinetto G, Bouw M, Ives J, et al. Valganciclovir dosing according to body surface area and renal function in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2009;9:636-43 pubmed publisher
    ..up to 100 days' valganciclovir prophylaxis; dosage was calculated using the algorithm: dose (mg) = 7 x body surface area x creatinine clearance (Schwartz method; CrCLS)...
  22. Miller A. Body surface area in dosing anticancer agents: scratch the surface!. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:1822-3 pubmed
  23. Morgenstern B, Wühl E, Nair K, Warady B, Schaefer F. Anthropometric prediction of total body water in children who are on pediatric peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:285-93 pubmed
    ..37 x weight; for girls, TBW = 0.14 x (HtWt)0.64 - 0.35 x weight. The height x weight parameter also predicts body surface area (BSA). These equations can be simplified, with slightly less precision, to the following: For boys, TBW = 20...
  24. Sievers B, Kirchberg S, Franken U, Bakan A, Addo M, John Puthenveettil B, et al. Determination of normal gender-specific left atrial dimensions by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2005;7:677-83 pubmed
    ..We provide reference values for CMR using prospective triggering in the evaluation of left atrial diameters to identify patients with enlarged left atria and for follow-up studies. ..
  25. Geraghty E, Boone J. Determination of height, weight, body mass index, and body surface area with a single abdominal CT image. Radiology. 2003;228:857-63 pubmed
    Techniques for estimation of an individual's height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body surface area (BSA) with a single abdominal computed tomographic (CT) image were developed...
  26. Park S, Choi I, Seo H, Sung H, Park K, Kim S, et al. Reduced dose of imatinib for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and low body surface area. Acta Haematol. 2007;118:219-21 pubmed
  27. Mathijssen R, de Jong F, Loos W, van der Bol J, Verweij J, Sparreboom A. Flat-fixed dosing versus body surface area based dosing of anticancer drugs in adults: does it make a difference?. Oncologist. 2007;12:913-23 pubmed
    ..Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. ..
  28. Kouno T, Katsumata N, Mukai H, Ando M, Watanabe T. Standardization of the body surface area (BSA) formula to calculate the dose of anticancer agents in Japan. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2003;33:309-13 pubmed
    The importance of deciding the appropriate dose of anticancer agents cannot be overemphasized. Body surface area (BSA) has been used to calculate the dose in anticancer therapy since the 1950s...
  29. Roberson D, Cui W. Right ventricular Tei index in children: effect of method, age, body surface area, and heart rate. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2007;20:764-70 pubmed
    ..the effects of the methods of Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) versus pulse wave Doppler (PWD) and age, body surface area (BSA), and heart rate on the RVTX in a population of 308 children with normal echocardiogram findings...
  30. Cuspidi C, Meani S, Negri F, Giudici V, Valerio C, Sala C, et al. Indexation of left ventricular mass to body surface area and height to allometric power of 2.7: is the difference limited to obese hypertensives?. J Hum Hypertens. 2009;23:728-34 pubmed publisher
    ..7) in women. Overall, 687 out of 2213 patients (31.0%) were found to have LVH when LVM was indexed to body surface area (BSA) and 1030 (46.5%) when indexed to height(2.7). A total of 845 patients (38...
  31. Sparreboom A. BSA-based dosing and alternative approaches. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2005;3:448-50 pubmed
  32. Piketty A, Flechon A, Laplanche A, Nouyrigat E, Droz J, Theodore C, et al. The risk of thrombo-embolic events is increased in patients with germ-cell tumours and can be predicted by serum lactate dehydrogenase and body surface area. Br J Cancer. 2005;93:909-14 pubmed
    ..In multivariate analysis, two factors had independent predictive value for TEE: a high body surface area (>1.9 m2) (RR: 5 (1.8-13.9)) and an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (RR: 6.4 (2.3-18.2))...
  33. Berman A. Effects of body surface area estimates on predicted energy requirements and heat stress. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:3605-10 pubmed
    The 0.09 x W(0.67) equation (where W = weight in kilograms) used to estimate body surface area (SA) in cattle energy requirements models was developed using measurements of sheep that weighed between 24 and 38 kg...
  34. Mickuviene N, Krasauskiene A, Kazanavicius G. [The results of thyroid ultrasound examination in randomly selected schoolchildren]. Medicina (Kaunas). 2006;42:751-8 pubmed
    ..There were no differences in means and medians of age and all body parameters (height, weight, body surface area, body mass index) in boys and girls of the same age...
  35. Kaestner S, Sewell G. Chemotherapy dosing part I: scientific basis for current practice and use of body surface area. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2007;19:23-37 pubmed
    ..In an attempt to reduce this variability, most chemotherapy doses are individualised according to patient body surface area (BSA)...
  36. Roberson D, Cui W, Chen Z, Madronero L, Cuneo B. Annular and septal Doppler tissue imaging in children: normal z-score tables and effects of age, heart rate, and body surface area. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2007;20:1276-84 pubmed
    ..normal echocardiograms from 634 children aged 1 day to 18 years, heart rate (HR) range of 50 to 194/min, and body surface area (BSA) range of 0.1 to 2.8 m2...
  37. Hempel G, Boos J. Flat-fixed dosing versus body surface area based dosing of anticancer drugs: there is a difference. Oncologist. 2007;12:924-6 pubmed
  38. Baker S, Verweij J, Rowinsky E, Donehower R, Schellens J, Grochow L, et al. Role of body surface area in dosing of investigational anticancer agents in adults, 1991-2001. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:1883-8 pubmed
    The prescribed dose of anticancer agents is most commonly calculated using body surface area as the only independent variable, and it has been shown that this approach still results in large interpatient variability in drug exposure...
  39. Fischbach M, Dheu C, Seugé Dargnies L, Delobbe J. Adequacy of peritoneal dialysis in children: consider the membrane for optimal prescription. Perit Dial Int. 2007;27 Suppl 2:S167-70 pubmed
    ..Fill volume should be scaled for body surface area (mL/m2) and, to avoid a hyperpermeable exchange, for a not-too-small amount...
  40. Cui W, Roberson D, Chen Z, Madronero L, Cuneo B. Systolic and diastolic time intervals measured from Doppler tissue imaging: normal values and Z-score tables, and effects of age, heart rate, and body surface area. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2008;21:361-70 pubmed
    ..intervals measured by Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) and to determine the effects of age, heart rate (HR), and body surface area on DTI-derived time intervals in children. We studied 593 children with normal echocardiogram results...
  41. Bae K, Seeck B, Hildebolt C, Tao C, Zhu F, Kanematsu M, et al. Contrast enhancement in cardiovascular MDCT: effect of body weight, height, body surface area, body mass index, and obesity. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190:777-84 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of body weight, height, body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI), and obesity on aortic contrast enhancement in cardiac MDCT...
  42. Abernethy W, Choo J, Hutter A. Echocardiographic characteristics of professional football players. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:280-4 pubmed
    ..There was a correlation between LVID and body weight (p = 0.01) and body surface area (BSA) (p = 0.01). The average LVID indexed to BSA was 23 +/- 2 mm/M(2)...
  43. Wolak A, Gransar H, Thomson L, Friedman J, Hachamovitch R, Gutstein A, et al. Aortic size assessment by noncontrast cardiac computed tomography: normal limits by age, gender, and body surface area. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2008;1:200-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Subjects were then regrouped by gender, age, and body surface area (BSA) for ascending and descending aorta, separately, and for each group, the mean, standard deviation, and ..
  44. Cheung M, Spalding P, Gutierrez J, Balkan W, Namias N, Koniaris L, et al. Body surface area prediction in normal, hypermuscular, and obese mice. J Surg Res. 2009;153:326-31 pubmed publisher
    Accurate determination of body surface area (BSA) in experimental animals is essential for modeling effects of burn injury or drug metabolism...
  45. Eckardt L, Bruns H, Paul M, Kirchhof P, Schulze Bahr E, Wichter T, et al. Body surface area of ST elevation and the presence of late potentials correlate to the inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in Brugada syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2002;13:742-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the body surface area of ST elevation and the presence of late potentials were compared to the inducibility of VT in patients with ..
  46. Verbraecken J, Van de Heyning P, De Backer W, Van Gaal L. Body surface area in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults. A comparison study. Metabolism. 2006;55:515-24 pubmed
    Values for body surface area (BSA) are commonly used in medicine, particularly to calculate doses of chemotherapeutic agents and index cardiac output. Various BSA formulas have been developed over the years...
  47. Hoy W, Hughson M, Singh G, Douglas Denton R, Bertram J. Reduced nephron number and glomerulomegaly in Australian Aborigines: a group at high risk for renal disease and hypertension. Kidney Int. 2006;70:104-10 pubmed
    ..Optimization of fetal growth should ultimately reduce the florid epidemic of renal disease, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease...
  48. Heaf J. The origin of the 1 x 73-m2 body surface area normalization: problems and implications. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2007;27:135-7 pubmed
    A historical review of the origins of body surface area (BSA) determination reveals a number of theoretical and methodological errors, as does the choice of 1 x 73 m(2) as the normal BSA for humans...
  49. Delanaye P, Radermecker R, Rorive M, Depas G, Krzesinski J. Indexing glomerular filtration rate for body surface area in obese patients is misleading: concept and example. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:2024-8 pubmed
  50. Lee J, Choi J, Kim H. Determination of body surface area and formulas to estimate body surface area using the alginate method. J Physiol Anthropol. 2008;27:71-82 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine the body surface area (BSA) based on the alginate method, to derive formulae for estimating BSA, and to compare the error of the present formula to previous formulas obtained from other ..
  51. George K, Birch K, Pennell D, Myerson S. Magnetic-resonance-imaging-derived indices for the normalization of left ventricular morphology by body size. Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;27:207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The traditional method of simple ratio scaling using, for example, body surface area (BSA) assumes a linear and proportional relationship and accurate measurement of both LV mass and BSA...
  52. Sarnari R, Kamal R, Friedberg M, Silverman N. Doppler assessment of the ratio of the systolic to diastolic duration in normal children: relation to heart rate, age and body surface area. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009;22:928-32 pubmed publisher
    ..S/D ratio in children without heart disease and to investigate its variation with heart rate (HR), age, and body surface area. Of 752 children found to have functional murmurs by clinical means, 179 (24% of the total database) had ..
  53. Biaggi P, Matthews F, Braun J, Rousson V, Kaufmann P, Jenni R. Gender, age, and body surface area are the major determinants of ascending aorta dimensions in subjects with apparently normal echocardiograms. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009;22:720-5 pubmed publisher
    ..0 cm for the AA. The sizes of the SoV and the AA showed strong correlations with age, age squared, and body surface area. The 5th and 95th percentile curves for the SoV and AA showed faster growth of diameters in early adulthood ..