body fat distribution


Summary: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.

Top Publications

  1. Ezeh U, Pall M, Mathur R, Dey D, Berman D, Chen I, et al. Effects of endogenous androgens and abdominal fat distribution on the interrelationship between insulin and non-insulin-mediated glucose uptake in females. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:1541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased general obesity, SAT, and hyperandrogenism are primary predictors of the deterioration of NIMGU in PCOS. ..
  2. Kitahara C, Platz E, Park Y, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A, Berrington de González A. Body fat distribution, weight change during adulthood, and thyroid cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:1411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..No clear association for weight gain in later life was observed. These results support a potential role for hormonal and metabolic parameters common to central adiposity in thyroid carcinogenesis. ..
  3. Foster M, Hwang S, Porter S, Massaro J, Hoffmann U, Fox C. Development and reproducibility of a computed tomography-based measurement of renal sinus fat. BMC Nephrol. 2011;12:52 pubmed publisher
    ..48, p < 0.0001). Similar correlations were observed for volumetric renal sinus fat in the right kidney. Measuring renal sinus fat is feasible and reproducible using MDCT scans in a community-based sample. ..
  4. Tanamas S, Wluka A, Berry P, Menz H, Strauss B, Davies Tuck M, et al. Relationship between obesity and foot pain and its association with fat mass, fat distribution, and muscle mass. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64:262-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing BMI, specifically android fat mass, is strongly associated with foot pain and disability. This may imply both biomechanical and metabolic mechanisms. ..
  5. Fox C, White C, Lohman K, Heard Costa N, Cohen P, Zhang Y, et al. Genome-wide association of pericardial fat identifies a unique locus for ectopic fat. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002705 pubmed publisher
    ..rs10198628 near TRIB2 is associated with pericardial fat but not measures of generalized or visceral adiposity, reinforcing the concept that there are unique genetic underpinnings to ectopic fat distribution. ..
  6. Kaess B, Pedley A, Massaro J, Murabito J, Hoffmann U, Fox C. The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat, a metric of body fat distribution, is a unique correlate of cardiometabolic risk. Diabetologia. 2012;55:2622-2630 pubmed publisher
    ..006) remained significant. VAT/SAT ratio is a correlate of cardiometabolic risk, above and beyond BMI and VAT. The propensity to store fat viscerally versus subcutaneously may be a unique risk factor independent of absolute fat volumes. ..
  7. Liu C, Monda K, Taylor K, Lange L, Demerath E, Palmas W, et al. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003681 pubmed publisher
    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association ..
  8. Segerström A, Elgzyri T, Eriksson K, Groop L, Thorsson O, Wollmer P. Exercise capacity in relation to body fat distribution and muscle fibre distribution in elderly male subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes and matched controls. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;94:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..WHR and capillary density also influenced the variance of VO(2peak). Exercise capacity is independently related to insulin sensitivity, muscle fibre composition and WHR in subjects with NGT, IGT and T2D who are matched for age and BMI. ..
  9. Liu X, Hamnvik O, Petrou M, Gong H, Chamberland J, Christophi C, et al. Circulating lipocalin 2 is associated with body fat distribution at baseline but is not an independent predictor of insulin resistance: the prospective Cyprus Metabolism Study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that lipocalin 2 is not an independent predictor of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in young men cross-sectionally or prospectively. ..

More Information


  1. Chen G, Liu C, Chen F, Yao J, Jiang Q, Chen N, et al. Body fat distribution and their associations with cardiovascular risk, insulin resistance and ?-cell function: are there differences between men and women?. Int J Clin Pract. 2011;65:592-601 pubmed publisher
    ..There were differences in the gender-specific relevance of measures of body fat distribution in assessing the insulin resistance, ?-cell function and thus the risk of diabetes...
  2. Hermsdorff H, Volp A, Puchau B, Barbosa K, Zulet M, Bressan J, et al. Contribution of gender and body fat distribution to inflammatory marker concentrations in apparently healthy young adults. Inflamm Res. 2012;61:427-35 pubmed publisher
    This cross-sectional study assessed the potential contribution of gender, body fat distribution, and their interactions to some inflammatory marker concentrations [C-reactive protein (CRP), complement factor 3 (C3), and ceruloplasmin (Cp)..
  3. Valantin M, Kolta S, Flandre P, Algarte Genin M, Meynard J, Ponscarme D, et al. Body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients treated for 96 weeks with darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy versus darunavir/ritonavir plus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: the MONOI-ANRS136 substudy. HIV Med. 2012;13:505-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was a substudy of the randomized, multicentre, open-label MONOI-ANRS 136 trial. Body fat distribution and metabolic parameters were measured at baseline, week 48 and week 96...
  4. Lee M, Wu Y, Fried S. Adipose tissue heterogeneity: implication of depot differences in adipose tissue for obesity complications. Mol Aspects Med. 2013;34:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In this chapter, we will review the phenotypic characteristics of different adipose depots and mechanisms that link their depot-specific biology to metabolic complications in men and women. ..
  5. Borruel S, Fernández Durán E, Alpañés M, Marti D, Alvarez Blasco F, Luque Ramírez M, et al. Global adiposity and thickness of intraperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue depots are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:1254-63 pubmed publisher
    Sexual dimorphism suggests a role for androgens in body fat distribution. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a mainly androgen excess disorder, often present with abdominal obesity and visceral adiposity.
  6. Goedecke J, Micklesfield L, Levitt N, Lambert E, West S, Maartens G, et al. Effect of different antiretroviral drug regimens on body fat distribution of HIV-infected South African women. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:557-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Changing to a PI-based regimen in ART2, which also substitutes stavudine with zidovudine, partially reversed the peripheral fat loss observed on ART1. ..
  7. Park J, Lim Y, Kim K, Kim S, Kim J, Lim H, et al. Changes in body fat distribution through menopause increase blood pressure independently of total body fat in middle-aged women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. Hypertens Res. 2013;36:444-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As the menopausal transition is known to induce changes in body fat distribution, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body fat distribution as compared with the effect ..
  8. Szymanska E, Bouwman J, Strassburg K, Vervoort J, Kangas A, Soininen P, et al. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: towards metabolomics diagnostics. OMICS. 2012;16:652-67 pubmed publisher
    ..17 low-molecular-weight metabolites, 12 clinical markers) and 28 phenotype parameters (including different body fat distribution parameters such as android (A), gynoid (G), abdominal visceral (VAT), subcutaneous (SAT) fat) in 215 ..
  9. Jacobson D, Patel K, Siberry G, Van Dyke R, DiMeglio L, Geffner M, et al. Body fat distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: outcomes from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:1485-95 pubmed publisher
    Associations between abnormal body fat distribution and clinical variables are poorly understood in pediatric HIV disease...
  10. Chang S, Beason T, Hunleth J, Colditz G. A systematic review of body fat distribution and mortality in older people. Maturitas. 2012;72:175-91 pubmed publisher
    We conducted a systematic review investigating body fat distribution in older adults and its association with morbidity and mortality. Our search yielded 2702 citations...
  11. Boghossian N, Yeung E, Mumford S, Zhang C, Gaskins A, Wactawski Wende J, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and body fat distribution in reproductive aged women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..060, 95% CI: 0.002, 0.117). Adherence to the aMED was associated with lower total and regional adiposity, adding to the mounting evidence of the health benefits of the MD. ..
  12. Britton K, Massaro J, Murabito J, Kreger B, Hoffmann U, Fox C. Body fat distribution, incident cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62:921-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Visceral adiposity is associated with incident cardiovascular disease and cancer after adjustment for clinical risk factors and generalized adiposity. These findings support the growing appreciation of a pathogenic role of ectopic fat. ..
  13. Koutsari C, Ali A, Mundi M, Jensen M. Storage of circulating free fatty acid in adipose tissue of postabsorptive humans: quantitative measures and implications for body fat distribution. Diabetes. 2011;60:2032-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Regional differences in lipolysis and meal fat storage cannot explain sex differences in body fat distribution. We examined the potential role of the novel free fatty acid (FFA) storage pathway in determining body fat ..
  14. Kilpeläinen T, Zillikens M, Stančákova A, Finucane F, Ried J, Langenberg C, et al. Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile. Nat Genet. 2011;43:753-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insights into adiposity and insulin resistance. ..
  15. Ogundiran T, Huo D, Adenipekun A, Campbell O, Oyesegun R, Akang E, et al. Body fat distribution and breast cancer risk: findings from the Nigerian breast cancer study. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23:565-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that central adiposity, measured by waist circumference and waist/hip ratio, was an important risk factor for breast cancer in Nigerian women, and the effect of central adiposity was strong in normal-weight women. ..
  16. Curran A, Martinez E, Saumoy M, del Rio L, Crespo M, Larrousse M, et al. Body composition changes after switching from protease inhibitors to raltegravir: SPIRAL-LIP substudy. AIDS. 2012;26:475-81 pubmed publisher
    To compare 48-week changes in body fat distribution and bone mineral density (BMD) between patients switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) to raltegravir (RAL) and patients continuing with PI/r...
  17. Stults Kolehmainen M, Stanforth P, Bartholomew J. Fat in android, trunk, and peripheral regions varies by ethnicity and race in college aged women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:660-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research needs to determine if ethnic differences in central body fat in young women are associated with health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. ..
  18. Dencker M, Wollmer P, Karlsson M, Linden C, Andersen L, Thorsson O. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101:852-7 pubmed publisher
    We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children...
  19. Senbanjo I, Oshikoya K, Olutekunbi O, Njokanma O. Body fat distribution of children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2013;150:647-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to compare the body fat distribution patterns of children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria with international reference standards...
  20. Dencker M, Thorsson O, Karlsson M, Linden C, Andersen L, Wollmer P. Body fat, abdominal fat, and body fat distribution is related to left atrial diameter in young children. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:1104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter...
  21. Karabulut A, Yaylali G, Demirlenk S, Sevket O, Acun A. Evaluation of body fat distribution in PCOS and its association with carotid atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012;28:111-4 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to compare body fat distribution in PCOS with healthy controls and to investigate the factors associated with carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and insulin resistance...
  22. Delouya G, Taussky D, Ji C, Sylvestre M, Donath D. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen bounce body fat distribution and body mass index in permanent seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Brachytherapy. 2012;11:214-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0615). All other factors, including VF, did not have any influence on a PSA bounce. Patients with a lower BMI are more likely to experience a PSA bounce ?0.50ng/mL. VF did not have an influence on a PSA bounce. ..
  23. Reed D, Duke F, Ellis H, Rosazza M, Lawler M, Alarcon L, et al. Body fat distribution and organ weights of 14 common strains and a 22-strain consomic panel of rats. Physiol Behav. 2011;103:523-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To that end, we assessed the body fat distribution and organ weights of groups of adult male rats from 3 outbred strains, 11 inbred strains and 22 consomic ..
  24. Lubrano C, Saponara M, Barbaro G, Specchia P, Addessi E, Costantini D, et al. Relationships between body fat distribution, epicardial fat and obstructive sleep apnea in obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47059 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether the occurrence of OSA could be associated with an altered body fat distribution and a more evident cardio metabolic risk independently from obesity and metabolic syndrome...
  25. Signorini D, Oliveira Netto A, Monteiro M, Signorini D, Codeço C, Bastos F, et al. Differences in body fat distribution assessed by ultrasonography in patients receiving antiretroviral drugs. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2012;58:197-203 pubmed
    ..2 mm more visceral fat than women, on average. Ultrasonography is a method capable of measuring the thickness of BFCs and is applicable to clinical practice to diagnose HIV-LD. ..
  26. Liedtke S, Schmidt M, Vrieling A, Lukanova A, Becker S, Kaaks R, et al. Postmenopausal sex hormones in relation to body fat distribution. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:1088-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a woman's body fat distribution shows a BMI-independent association with these breast cancer-related biomarkers...
  27. Kwakernaak A, Zelle D, Bakker S, Navis G. Central body fat distribution associates with unfavorable renal hemodynamics independent of body mass index. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:987-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results suggest that central body fat distribution, independent of BMI, is associated with an unfavorable pattern of renal hemodynamic measures that could ..
  28. Hooton H, Dubern B, Henegar C, Paternoster L, Nohr E, Alili R, et al. Association between CST3 rs2424577 polymorphism and corpulence related phenotypes during lifetime in populations of European ancestry. Obes Facts. 2011;4:131-44 pubmed publisher
    ..CST3 rs2424577 is associated with BMI in a complex fashion. This association is probably caused by the interaction between several functional variants. ..
  29. Martinez Hervas S, Mansego M, de Marco G, Martinez F, Alonso M, Morcillo S, et al. Polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene are associated with body fat distribution and risk of abdominal obesity in Spanish population. Eur J Clin Invest. 2012;42:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene (rs660339 and rs659366) were associated with central obesity. This study shows association between the UCP2 gene and the susceptibility to obesity and body fat distribution in a south European population.
  30. Shay C, Carnethon M, Church T, Hankinson A, Chan C, Jacobs D, et al. Lower extremity fat mass is associated with insulin resistance in overweight and obese individuals: the CARDIA study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:2248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Weight status presents additional complexity since the metabolic influence of adipose tissue may not be homogenous across anatomic regions or level of obesity. ..
  31. Kim J, Choi H, Kim M, Shin C, Cho N. Fat mass is negatively associated with bone mineral content in Koreans. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23:2009-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, abdominal obesity as measured by WC was significantly associated with BMC independent of total fat mass. ..
  32. Fox C, Gona P, Hoffmann U, Porter S, Salton C, Massaro J, et al. Pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and measures of left ventricular structure and function: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2009;119:1586-91 pubmed publisher
    ..An important exception is left atrial dimension in men. These results suggest that the systemic effects of obesity on cardiac structure and function may outweigh the local pathogenic effects of pericardial fat. ..
  33. Ali A, Ferris W, Naran N, Crowther N. Insulin resistance in the control of body fat distribution: a new hypothesis. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43:77-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This system may have functioned in our evolutionary past to limit excessive adiposity by causing lipid deposition to occur at a site that has maximal effects on insulin resistance but involves minimal weight gain. ..
  34. Lindgren C, Heid I, Randall J, Lamina C, Steinthorsdottir V, Qi L, et al. Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three Loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000508 pubmed publisher
    ..By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity. ..
  35. Ducluzeau P, Manchec Poilblanc P, Roullier V, Cesbron E, Lebigot J, Bertrais S, et al. Distribution of abdominal adipose tissue as a predictor of hepatic steatosis assessed by MRI. Clin Radiol. 2010;65:695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..52, 0.63, 0.71, 0.73 and 0.75. Adipose tissue distribution is more relevant than total fat mass when assessing the possibility of liver steatosis in overweight patients. ..
  36. Freitas P, Santos A, Carvalho D, Pereira J, Marques R, Martinez E, et al. Fat mass ratio: an objective tool to define lipodystrophy in hiv-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Densitom. 2010;13:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..63-0.86], p<0.001), with a sensitivity 51.4%, a specificity 94.6%, a PPV of 90.5%, and an NPV of 66.0%. The FMR evaluated by DXA with the gender-specific cutoffs defined here is an objective way to define HIV-related lipodystrophy. ..
  37. Gerschenson M, Kim C, Berzins B, Taiwo B, LiButti D, Choi J, et al. Mitochondrial function, morphology and metabolic parameters improve after switching from stavudine to a tenofovir-containing regimen. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;63:1244-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from this study demonstrate that systemic and peripheral fat mitochondria improve in patients switched to tenofovir following long-term exposure to stavudine, while continuing protease inhibitor therapy. ..
  38. Khera A, Vega G, Das S, Ayers C, McGuire D, Grundy S, et al. Sex differences in the relationship between C-reactive protein and body fat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:3251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantity and distribution of body fat influence CRP to a greater extent in women compared with men. Adiposity as a contributor to subclinical inflammation may be particularly relevant in women. ..
  39. Rutters F, Nieuwenhuizen A, Lemmens S, Born J, Westerterp Plantenga M. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in relation to body fat distribution. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010;72:738-43 pubmed publisher
    To relate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and HPA feedback functioning to body fat distribution in normal weight to obese subjects...
  40. Mundi M, Karpyak M, Koutsari C, Votruba S, O Brien P, Jensen M. Body fat distribution, adipocyte size, and metabolic characteristics of nondiabetic adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:67-73 pubmed publisher
    It is unclear whether adipocyte size or body fat distribution is most strongly linked to the metabolic complications of obesity...
  41. Varady K, Allister C, Roohk D, Hellerstein M. Improvements in body fat distribution and circulating adiponectin by alternate-day fasting versus calorie restriction. J Nutr Biochem. 2010;21:188-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study evaluated the effects of ADF versus CR on body fat distribution and circulating adiponectin levels and examined the kinetic mechanisms that underlie changes in fat ..
  42. Masia M, Padilla S, Garcia N, Jarrin I, Bernal E, López N, et al. Endothelial function is impaired in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy. Antivir Ther. 2010;15:101-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding and the accompanying profile of pro-atherosclerotic biomarkers support an increased cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy. ..
  43. Pimenta N, Santa Clara H, Fragoso I. Comparison of body composition and body fat distribution of patients following a cardiac rehabilitation program and sedentary patients. Rev Port Cardiol. 2010;29:1163-80 pubmed
    The aim of this investigation was to analyze differences in body composition and body fat distribution between subjects following a structured cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) and subjects not involved in any CRP...
  44. Ujcic Voortman J, Bos G, Baan C, Verhoeff A, Seidell J. Obesity and body fat distribution: ethnic differences and the role of socio-economic status. Obes Facts. 2011;4:53-60 pubmed publisher
    This study investigates differences in overweight and body fat distribution between Turkish and Moroccan migrants and the ethnic Dutch population, and the contribution of socio-economic status to their higher obesity prevalence...
  45. Wulan S, Westerterp K, Plasqui G. Ethnic differences in body composition and the associated metabolic profile: a comparative study between Asians and Caucasians. Maturitas. 2010;65:315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetics may play a role and the interaction with environmental factors (changes in lifestyle) could increase the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. ..
  46. Kim S, Park S, Hwang I, Lee Y, Cho Y. High fat stores in ectopic compartments in men with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: an anthropometric determinant of carotid atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34:105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, altered lipid partitioning within muscle was independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. ..
  47. Freedman D, Sherry B. The validity of BMI as an indicator of body fatness and risk among children. Pediatrics. 2009;124 Suppl 1:S23-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A BMI for age at >or=95th percentile of the CDC reference population is a moderately sensitive and a specific indicator of excess adiposity among children. ..
  48. De Pergola G, Ciampolillo A, Alo D, Sciaraffia M, Guida P. Free triiodothyronine is associated with smoking habit, independently of obesity, body fat distribution, insulin, and metabolic parameters. J Endocrinol Invest. 2010;33:815-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05), age (p<0.001), male sex (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.05), and insulin levels (p<0.001). Smoking increases FT3 levels independently of age, gender, obesity, body fat distribution and metabolic parameters.
  49. Wu B, Fukuo K, Suzuki K, Yoshino G, Kazumi T. Relationships of systemic oxidative stress to body fat distribution, adipokines and inflammatory markers in healthy middle-aged women. Endocr J. 2009;56:773-82 pubmed
    ..Positive associations between 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) and PAI-1, hsCRP, leptin support the notion that oxidative-stress-induced dysregulation of inflammation and adipokines may mediate the obesity-related metabolic derangement. ..
  50. Schautz B, Later W, Heller M, Muller M, Bosy Westphal A. Associations between breast adipose tissue, body fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk in women: cross-sectional data and weight-loss intervention. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65:784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the relationships between breast adipose tissue (BrAT), body fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors. In all, 97 healthy females (age 19-46 years, BMI 16.8-46...
  51. Nishida C, Ko G, Kumanyika S. Body fat distribution and noncommunicable diseases in populations: overview of the 2008 WHO Expert Consultation on Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:2-5 pubmed publisher
    ..for indices and action levels in order to characterize health risks associated with these measures of body fat distribution-alternative or complementary to the existing WHO guidelines for assessments of generalized obesity on the ..
  52. Harris H, Willett W, Terry K, Michels K. Body fat distribution and risk of premenopausal breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study II. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:273-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the association between body fat distribution, assessed in 1993 by self-reported waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio, and the ..
  53. van Hees A, Saris W, Dallinga Thie G, Hul G, Martinez J, Oppert J, et al. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution. J Nutr. 2008;138:2399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, plasma RLP-C concentrations are mainly associated with plasma TG concentrations. Interestingly, the high-fat diet was more effective at decreasing fasting RLP-C concentrations in obese participants than the low-fat diet. ..