atherogenic diet


Summary: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.

Top Publications

  1. Rai S, Hare D, Zulli A. A physiologically relevant atherogenic diet causes severe endothelial dysfunction within 4 weeks in rabbit. Int J Exp Pathol. 2009;90:598-604 pubmed publisher
    ..This model could be used to study the early onset of endothelial dysfunction prior to the initiation of atherosclerosis. ..
  2. Riss J, Decorde K, Sutra T, Delage M, Baccou J, Jouy N, et al. Phycobiliprotein C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis is powerfully responsible for reducing oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase expression induced by an atherogenic diet in hamsters. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:7962-7 pubmed
    ..Forty hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 8 and fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. They received by gavage either 7...
  3. Decorde K, Teissedre P, Auger C, Cristol J, Rouanet J. Phenolics from purple grape, apple, purple grape juice and apple juice prevent early atherosclerosis induced by an atherogenic diet in hamsters. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52:400-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Five groups of eight hamsters each were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 wk. They received daily by gavage either 7...
  4. Hakimoğlu F, Kizil G, Kanay Z, Kizil M, Isi H. The effect of ethanol extract of Hypericum lysimachioides on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rabbits and its in vitro antioxidant activity. Atherosclerosis. 2007;192:113-22 pubmed
    ..Antioxidative activities of ethanol extract of HL was found to be comparable with Vitamin E. In conclusion, the use of this extract could be useful in the management of cardiovascular disease in which atherosclerosis is important. ..
  5. Venkatesan N, Devaraj S, Devaraj H. A fibre cocktail of fenugreek, guar gum and wheat bran reduces oxidative modification of LDL induced by an atherogenic diet in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;294:145-53 pubmed
    ..a novel fibre mix of fenugreek seed powder, guar gum and wheat bran (Fibernat) on LDL oxidation induced by an atherogenic diet. Male Wistar albino rats were administered one of the following diets: (1) a control diet that was fibre-free ..
  6. Karantonis H, Antonopoulou S, Perrea D, Sokolis D, Theocharis S, Kavantzas N, et al. In vivo antiatherogenic properties of olive oil and its constituent lipid classes in hyperlipidemic rabbits. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006;16:174-85 pubmed
    ..Rabbits were fed for 45 days with atherogenic diet (Group A) supplemented with OO (Group B), OOPLE (Group C) or OONLE (Group D)...
  7. Appeldoorn C, Bonnefoy A, Lutters B, Daenens K, Van Berkel T, Hoylaerts M, et al. Gallic acid antagonizes P-selectin-mediated platelet-leukocyte interactions: implications for the French paradox. Circulation. 2005;111:106-12 pubmed
    ..7+/-0.3 and 1.5+/-0.4 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1), respectively). Our findings provide a solid mechanistic foundation through which GA intervenes in major inflammatory pathobiologies by binding and antagonizing P-selectin. ..
  8. Ahn J, Cho I, Kim S, Kwon D, Ha T. Dietary resveratrol alters lipid metabolism-related gene expression of mice on an atherogenic diet. J Hepatol. 2008;49:1019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a mouse model in which steatohepatitis can be induced by an atherogenic diet (Ath diet) to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on steatotic hepatitis and hepatic gene expression...
  9. Ramesh E, Jayakumar T, Elanchezhian R, Sakthivel M, Geraldine P, Thomas P. Green tea catechins, alleviate hepatic lipidemic-oxidative injury in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;180:10-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When male albino Wistar rats were fed an atherogenic diet for 30 days and then treated with saline for 7 or 15 days, there was a significant decline in hepatic mean ..

More Information


  1. Parmar H, Kar A. Possible amelioration of atherogenic diet induced dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and hyperglycemia by the peel extracts of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris fruits in rats. Biofactors. 2008;33:13-24 pubmed
    ..In the second experiment rats were maintained on pre-standardized atherogenic diet CCT (supplemented with 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0...
  2. Desai M, Mariscalco M, Tawil A, Vallejo J, Smith C. Atherogenic diet-induced hepatitis is partially dependent on murine TLR4. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:1336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR2 deletion had no effect on diet-induced hepatitis but increased the amount of steatosis. We conclude that the early inflammatory liver injury but not hepatic lipid loading induced by the ATH diet in mice is mediated in part by TLR4. ..
  3. Provost A, Vede L, Bigot K, Keller N, Tailleux A, Jaïs J, et al. Morphologic and electroretinographic phenotype of SR-BI knockout mice after a long-term atherogenic diet. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3931-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings lend further support to the hypothesis that atherosclerosis causes retinal and subretinal damage that increases susceptibility to some forms of AMD. ..
  4. Hsu H, Culley N. Effects of dietary calcium on atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus in rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet. Lipids Health Dis. 2006;5:16 pubmed
    ..New Zealand White male rabbit littermates were fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil...
  5. Potteaux S, Deleuze V, Merval R, Bureau M, Esposito B, Scherman D, et al. In vivo electrotransfer of interleukin-10 cDNA prevents endothelial upregulation of activated NF-kappaB and adhesion molecules following an atherogenic diet. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2006;17:13-8 pubmed
    ..C57BL/6J mice were fed an atherogenic diet for 10 days...
  6. Niemeier A, Kovacs W, Strobl W, Stangl H. Atherogenic diet leads to posttranslational down-regulation of murine hepatocyte SR-BI expression. Atherosclerosis. 2009;202:169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In SREBP-1a and -1c transgenic mice on normal chow, SR-BI was transcriptionally down-regulated. When fed the atherogenic diet, the posttranslational SR-BI regulation was still functional on this background...
  7. Davis P, Valacchi G, Pagnin E, Shao Q, Gross H, Calo L, et al. Walnuts reduce aortic ET-1 mRNA levels in hamsters fed a high-fat, atherogenic diet. J Nutr. 2006;136:428-32 pubmed
    ..Finally, the results indicate that the walnut fat compartment is a likely location for the components responsible for the reduced aortic CE concentration...
  8. Simón E, Macarulla M, Churruca I, Fernández Quintela A, Portillo M. trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid prevents adiposity but not insulin resistance induced by an atherogenic diet in hamsters. J Nutr Biochem. 2006;17:126-31 pubmed was to analyse the effects of trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer on insulin sensitivity in hamsters fed an atherogenic diet. Hamsters were divided into three groups: one group was fed a chow diet (control) and the other two a ..
  9. Moore K, Kunjathoor V, Koehn S, Manning J, Tseng A, Silver J, et al. Loss of receptor-mediated lipid uptake via scavenger receptor A or CD36 pathways does not ameliorate atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2192-201 pubmed, Apoe-/- mice lacking SR-A or CD36, backcrossed into the C57BL/6 strain for 7 generations, were fed an atherogenic diet for 8 weeks...
  10. Sivakumar V, Sivakumar S. Effect of an indigenous herbal compound preparation 'Trikatu' on the lipid profiles of atherogenic diet and standard diet fed Rattus norvegicus. Phytother Res. 2004;18:976-81 pubmed
    ..Hence 'Trikatu' can be used as a potent hypolipidaemic agent and it can reduce the atherosclerosis associated with a high fat diet. ..
  11. Moon M, Kang D, Lee A, Yeom K, Kim J, Lee H. Anti-atherogenic effects of the aqueous extract of rhubarb in rats fed an atherogenic diet. Am J Chin Med. 2008;36:555-68 pubmed
    ..the development of atherosclerosis through regulating vascular inflammatory processes in rats fed with an atherogenic diet. AR significantly reduced plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and increased plasma high-density ..
  12. Dyson M, Alloosh M, Vuchetich J, Mokelke E, Sturek M. Components of metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in female Ossabaw swine fed excess atherogenic diet. Comp Med. 2006;56:35-45 pubmed
    ..We conclude that relatively brief feeding of excess atherogenic diet produces striking features of metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in female Ossabaw swine.
  13. Zhao Y, Chan M, Zhou S, Heng C. Effects of atherogenic diet and atorvastatin treatment on gene expression profiles in the C57BL/6J mouse liver. Gene Expr. 2008;14:149-58 pubmed
    This study investigated the early and long-term effects of atherogenic diet on hepatic gene expression, and the restorative effects of atorvastatin in treating hypercholesterolemia...
  14. Mercer J, Figg N, Stoneman V, Braganza D, Bennett M. Endogenous p53 protects vascular smooth muscle cells from apoptosis and reduces atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice. Circ Res. 2005;96:667-74 pubmed
    ..We conclude that endogenous levels of p53 protect VSMCs and stromal cells against apoptosis, while promoting apoptosis in macrophages, and protect against atherosclerosis development. ..
  15. Ando H, Tsuruoka S, Yamamoto H, Takamura T, Kaneko S, Fujimura A. Regulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in C57BL/6 mice fed an atherogenic diet. Atherosclerosis. 2005;178:265-9 pubmed
    ..the following five diets for 2 weeks: a standard diet, cholic acid, cholesterol, cholesterol+high fat, or an atherogenic diet (cholic acid+cholesterol+high fat)...
  16. Rideout T, Yuan Z, Bakovic M, Liu Q, Li R, Mine Y, et al. Guar gum consumption increases hepatic nuclear SREBP2 and LDL receptor expression in pigs fed an atherogenic diet. J Nutr. 2007;137:568-72 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the hypocholesterolemic effects of GG consumption are related to a reduction in hepatic free cholesterol concentration and associated increases in nuclear active SREBP2 expression and hepatic LDLr abundance. ..
  17. Sharman M, Fernandez M, Zern T, Torres Gonzalez M, Kraemer W, Volek J. Replacing dietary carbohydrate with protein and fat decreases the concentrations of small LDL and the inflammatory response induced by atherogenic diets in the guinea pig. J Nutr Biochem. 2008;19:732-8 pubmed publisher
  18. Shockley K, Witmer D, Burgess Herbert S, Paigen B, Churchill G. Effects of atherogenic diet on hepatic gene expression across mouse strains. Physiol Genomics. 2009;39:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene expression data and phenotype data have been made publicly available as an online tool for exploring the effects of atherogenic diet in inbred mouse strains (
  19. Dhandapani R. Hypolipidemic activity of Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. leaf extract in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007;45:617-9 pubmed
    In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with the aqueous extract of the leaves of E...
  20. Matsuzawa N, Takamura T, Kurita S, Misu H, Ota T, Ando H, et al. Lipid-induced oxidative stress causes steatohepatitis in mice fed an atherogenic diet. Hepatology. 2007;46:1392-403 pubmed
    ..This model suggests the critical role of lipids in causing oxidative stress and insulin resistance leading to steatohepatitis. ..
  21. Reddy R, Srinivasan K. Fenugreek seeds reduce atherogenic diet-induced cholesterol gallstone formation in experimental mice. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;87:933-43 pubmed publisher
    ..77-0.99 in fenugreek treatments compared with 2.57 in the high-cholesterol group. Thus, fenugreek seed offers health-beneficial antilithogenic potential by virtue of its favourable influence on cholesterol metabolism. ..
  22. Gulledge A, McShea C, Schwartz T, Koch G, Lord S. Effects of hyperfibrinogenemia on vasculature of C57BL/6 mice with and without atherogenic diet. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:130-5 pubmed
    ..Normal and transgenic mice were fed either an atherogenic diet or simple breeder chow...
  23. Webb N, Bostrom M, Szilvassy S, van der Westhuyzen D, Daugherty A, de Beer F. Macrophage-expressed group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 increases atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:263-8 pubmed
    ..9%; P<0.005) and aortic sinus (0.3+/-0.03 mm(2) versus 0.2+/-0.04 mm(2); P<0.05). Group IIA sPLA(2) can contribute to atherosclerotic lesion development through a mechanism that is independent of systemic lipoprotein metabolism. ..
  24. Aguilera C, Mesa M, Ramirez Tortosa M, Quiles J, Gil A. Virgin olive and fish oils enhance the hepatic antioxidant defence system in atherosclerotic rabbits. Clin Nutr. 2003;22:379-84 pubmed
    ..A control group was fed with a standard chow. The atherogenic diet caused important changes in the hepatic mitochondria lipid profile and in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic ..
  25. Vergnes L, Phan J, Strauss M, Tafuri S, Reue K. Cholesterol and cholate components of an atherogenic diet induce distinct stages of hepatic inflammatory gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42774-84 pubmed
  26. Lee H, Choi C, Cho C, Song Y. Attenuating effect of chlorella supplementation on oxidative stress and NFkappaB activation in peritoneal macrophages and liver of C57BL/6 mice fed on an atherogenic diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003;67:2083-90 pubmed
    ..nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activation in peritoneal macrophages and liver of C57BL/6 mice fed on an atherogenic diet. The animals were maintained on an atherogenic diet (control), or an atherogenic diet supplemented with 3% (w/..
  27. Hsu H, Tawfik O, Sun F. Mechanism of dystrophic calcification in rabbit aortas: temporal and spatial distributions of calcifying vesicles and calcification-related structural proteins. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2004;13:3-10 pubmed
    ..The coordinated changes in the accumulation of collagen, disintegration of internal elastic fibers, and the appearance of calcifying vesicles in the lesions before calcification may set the stage for aortic calcification. ..
  28. Navarro V, Zabala A, Macarulla M, Fernández Quintela A, Rodriguez V, Simon E, et al. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accumulation and serum lipids in hamsters fed an atherogenic diet. J Physiol Biochem. 2003;59:193-9 pubmed
    ..effects of c-9,t-11 and t-10,c-12 CLA isomers on body fat accumulation and serum lipids in hamsters fed an atherogenic diet. Hamsters were divided in four groups: one group was fed a chow diet (control) and the other three groups ..
  29. Hatipoglu A, Kanbagli O, Balkan J, Kucuk M, Cevikbas U, Aykac Toker G, et al. Hazelnut oil administration reduces aortic cholesterol accumulation and lipid peroxides in the plasma, liver, and aorta of rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004;68:2050-7 pubmed
    ..HO did not alter the antioxidant system in the liver in the HC group. Our findings indicate that HO reduced oxidative stress and cholesterol accumulation in the aortas of rabbits fed an HC diet. ..
  30. Sussan T, Jun J, Thimmulappa R, Bedja D, Antero M, Gabrielson K, et al. Disruption of Nrf2, a key inducer of antioxidant defenses, attenuates ApoE-mediated atherosclerosis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3791 pubmed publisher
    ..ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-)Nrf2(-/-) mice were fed an atherogenic diet for 20 weeks, and plaque area was assessed in the aortas...
  31. Ramirez Tortosa M, Granados S, Ramirez Tortosa C, Ochoa J, Camacho P, García Valdés L, et al. Oxidative stress status in liver mitochondria and lymphocyte DNA damage of atherosclerotic rabbits supplemented with water soluble coenzyme Q10. Biofactors. 2008;32:263-73 pubmed
    ..3% cholesterol), were investigated in the plasma and liver mitochondria of rabbits. Results showed that this atherogenic diet enhanced lipid levels both in plasma and liver mitochondria, reduced plasma and mitochondrial concentrations ..
  32. Akila M, Devaraj H. Synergistic effect of tincture of Crataegus and Mangifera indica L. extract on hyperlipidemic and antioxidant status in atherogenic rats. Vascul Pharmacol. 2008;49:173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect could be attributed to the synergistic activity of flavonoids in TCR and polyphenols of MNG. ..
  33. Anderson K, Ribar T, Lin F, Noeldner P, Green M, Muehlbauer M, et al. Hypothalamic CaMKK2 contributes to the regulation of energy balance. Cell Metab. 2008;7:377-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the loss of CaMKK2 protects mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. These data underscore the potential of targeting CaMKK2 as a therapeutic intervention. ..
  34. Srivastava R, Jahagirdar R, Azhar S, Sharma S, Bisgaier C. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha selective ligand reduces adiposity, improves insulin sensitivity and inhibits atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;285:35-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that potent PPAR-alpha activators may be useful in the treatment of syndrome X. ..
  35. Katcher H, Kunselman A, Dmitrovic R, Demers L, Gnatuk C, Kris Etherton P, et al. Comparison of hormonal and metabolic markers after a high-fat, Western meal versus a low-fat, high-fiber meal in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:1175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Cortisol decreased during the 6-hour period after both meals. Diet plays a role in the regulation of T levels in women with PCOS. Further studies are needed to determine the role of diet composition in the treatment of PCOS. ..
  36. Miller A, Xu D, Asquith D, Denby L, Li Y, Sattar N, et al. IL-33 reduces the development of atherosclerosis. J Exp Med. 2008;205:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, IL-33 may play a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis via the induction of IL-5 and ox-LDL antibodies. ..
  37. Lin J, Watanabe J, Rozengurt N, Narasimha A, Martin M, Wang J, et al. Atherogenic diet causes lethal ileo-ceco-colitis in cyclooxygenase-2 deficient mice. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2007;84:98-107 pubmed
    ..COX-2(-/-) mice fed an atherogenic diet or diet containing cholate, but not chow or fat alone, had a high mortality whereas COX-1(-/-) mice and wild-..
  38. Ito Y, Abril E, Bethea N, McCuskey M, McCuskey R. Dietary steatotic liver attenuates acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in mice. Microcirculation. 2006;13:19-27 pubmed
  39. Hashimoto M, Kadowaki T, Tsukuba T, Yamamoto K. Selective proteolysis of apolipoprotein B-100 by Arg-gingipain mediates atherosclerosis progression accelerated by bacterial exposure. J Biochem. 2006;140:713-23 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that degradation of apoB-100 by Rgp plays a crucial role in the promotion of atherosclerosis by P. gingivalis infection. ..
  40. Wang B, Guan S, Li X. [Effects of micrometer compound rhizoma coptidis on nuclear factor-kappaB and inflammatory factors in rabbit fed with high lipid diet]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1207-10 pubmed
    ..The micrometer compound rhizoma coptidis can inhibit the expression of inflammatory factor possibly through inhibitting the expression and activity of NF-kappaB. ..
  41. Lussana F, Painter R, Ocke M, Buller H, Bossuyt P, Roseboom T. Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine is associated with a preference for fatty foods and a more atherogenic lipid profile. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:1648-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We now investigate whether the excess in hypercholesterolemia may be a result of a more atherogenic diet or a reduction in physical activity...
  42. Kelder B, Berryman D, Clark R, Li A, List E, Kopchick J. CIDE-A gene expression is decreased in white adipose tissue of growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene disrupted mice and with high-fat feeding of normal mice. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2007;17:346-51 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that CIDE-A levels are reduced in two different mouse models of obesity and this reduction may contribute to altered lipid metabolism. ..
  43. Berecochea Lopez A, Decorde K, Ventura E, Godard M, Bornet A, Teissedre P, et al. Fungal chitin-glucan from Aspergillus niger efficiently reduces aortic fatty streak accumulation in the high-fat fed hamster, an animal model of nutritionally induced atherosclerosis. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:1093-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Three groups of 12 hamsters were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. They received by gavage either water (control group) or CG in water at a dose of 21...
  44. Wilhelm A, Zabalawi M, Grayson J, Weant A, Major A, Owen J, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I and its role in lymphocyte cholesterol homeostasis and autoimmunity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:843-9 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an atherogenic diet on immune function in LDLr(-/-), ApoA-I(-/-) mice...
  45. Chen C, Chang M, Lin Y, Lin D, Chen S, Chao P. A herbal extract with acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase inhibitory activity and its potential for treating metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2009;58:1297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that EP, acting by inhibiting ACC activity, is effective in alleviating the symptoms associated with metabolic disease. ..
  46. Hwang B, Jeoung N, Harris R. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDHK4) deficiency attenuates the long-term negative effects of a high-saturated fat diet. Biochem J. 2009;423:243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings support the hypothesis that PDHK4 is a viable target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..
  47. Stokes K, Gurwara S, Granger D. T-cell derived interferon-gamma contributes to arteriolar dysfunction during acute hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:1998-2004 pubmed
  48. Liang C, Oest M, Prater M. Intrauterine exposure to high saturated fat diet elevates risk of adult-onset chronic diseases in C57BL/6 mice. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2009;86:377-84 pubmed publisher
  49. Yamajuku D, Okubo S, Haruma T, Inagaki T, Okuda Y, Kojima T, et al. Regular feeding plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis through the liver circadian clock. Circ Res. 2009;105:545-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated that not only the amount and quality of food but also the timing of meals has crucial health implications. ..
  50. Appleton K, Woodside J, Yarnell J, Arveiler D, Haas B, Amouyel P, et al. Type A behaviour and consumption of an atherogenic diet: no association in the PRIME study. Appetite. 2007;49:554-60 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that any association between Type A behaviour and CHD is unlikely to be mediated through diet. ..
  51. Daradka H, Almasad M, Qazan W, El Banna N, Samara O. Hypolipidaemic effects of Citrullus colocynthis L. in rabbits. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:2768-71 pubmed
    ..The plant extract was orally administered to the atherogenic rabbits (atherogenic diet + cholesterol powder supplement 400 mg/kg/body weight/day dissolved in 5 mL coconut oil) at dose of 1...
  52. Jia X, Chen Y, Zidichouski J, Zhang J, Sun C, Wang Y. Co-administration of berberine and plant stanols synergistically reduces plasma cholesterol in rats. Atherosclerosis. 2008;201:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that BBR and PS, when combined, synergistically lower plasma cholesterol levels and significantly reduce liver cholesterol, without the observation of any toxic effects. ..
  53. Walker S, Adams M, Franke A, Register T. Effects of dietary soy protein on iliac and carotid artery atherosclerosis and gene expression in male monkeys. Atherosclerosis. 2008;196:106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The negative associations of arterial ER alpha expression with atherosclerosis lend support to a mechanistic role for estrogen receptors in atherosclerosis susceptibility which merits further study...