convection

Summary

Summary: Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Bernal G, Lariviere M, Mansour N, Pytel P, Cahill K, Voce D, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery and in vivo imaging of polymeric nanoparticles for the treatment of malignant glioma. Nanomedicine. 2014;10:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can disperse nanoparticles through the rodent brain and their distribution is accurately ..
  2. Saito R, Krauze M, Noble C, Drummond D, Kirpotin D, Berger M, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery of Ls-TPT enables an effective, continuous, low-dose chemotherapy against malignant glioma xenograft model. Neuro Oncol. 2006;8:205-14 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate the use of a minimally invasive surgical technique, convection-enhanced delivery (CED), for local administration of a novel nanoparticle liposome containing topotecan...
  3. Kunwar S, Prados M, Chang S, Berger M, Lang F, Piepmeier J, et al. Direct intracerebral delivery of cintredekin besudotox (IL13-PE38QQR) in recurrent malignant glioma: a report by the Cintredekin Besudotox Intraparenchymal Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:837-44 pubmed
    ..b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a locoregional-administration method leading to high-tissue concentrations with large ..
  4. Murad G, Walbridge S, Morrison P, Szerlip N, Butman J, Oldfield E, et al. Image-guided convection-enhanced delivery of gemcitabine to the brainstem. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:351-6 pubmed
    ..while monitoring its distribution using a surrogate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging tracer, the authors used convection-enhanced delivery to perfuse the primate brainstem with gemcitabine and Gd-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (..
  5. Neeves K, Sawyer A, Foley C, Saltzman W, Olbricht W. Dilation and degradation of the brain extracellular matrix enhances penetration of infused polymer nanoparticles. Brain Res. 2007;1180:121-32 pubmed
    ..of manipulating the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) to enhance the penetration of nanoparticle drug carriers in convection-enhanced delivery (CED)...
  6. Inoue T, Yamashita Y, Nishihara M, Sugiyama S, Sonoda Y, Kumabe T, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of a polymeric micellar doxorubicin infused by convection-enhanced delivery against intracranial 9L brain tumor models. Neuro Oncol. 2009;11:151-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) with various drug carrier systems has recently emerged as a novel chemotherapeutic method to overcome the problems of current chemotherapies against brain tumors...
  7. Basile C. The effect of convection on the nutritional status of haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18 Suppl 7:vii46-9; discussion vii58-9 pubmed
    ..usually performed utilizing synthetic biocompatible membranes, it is very difficult to separate the effects of convection from those of biocompatibility on a given outcome, e.g. the nutritional status of HD patients...
  8. Oiwa Y, Sanchez Pernaute R, Harvey White J, Bankiewicz K. Progressive and extensive dopaminergic degeneration induced by convection-enhanced delivery of 6-hydroxydopamine into the rat striatum: a novel rodent model of Parkinson disease. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:136-44 pubmed
    ..To make an extensive lesion, the authors used a convection-enhanced delivery (CED) method for intrastriatal infusion of 6-OHDA and evaluated the animals for a model of ..
  9. Richardson R, Kells A, Martin A, Larson P, Starr P, Piferi P, et al. Novel platform for MRI-guided convection-enhanced delivery of therapeutics: preclinical validation in nonhuman primate brain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2011;89:141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In anticipation of upcoming gene therapy clinical trials, we adapted this device for real-time convection-enhanced delivery of therapeutics via a custom-designed infusion cannula...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ding D, Kanaly C, Bigner D, Cummings T, Herndon J, Pastan I, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery of free gadolinium with the recombinant immunotoxin MR1-1. J Neurooncol. 2010;98:1-7 pubmed publisher
    A major obstacle in glioblastoma (GBM) therapy is the restrictive nature of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a novel method of drug administration which allows direct parenchymal infusion of ..
  2. Rogawski M. Convection-enhanced delivery in the treatment of epilepsy. Neurotherapeutics. 2009;6:344-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a novel drug-delivery technique that uses positive hydrostatic pressure to deliver a fluid containing a therapeutic substance by bulk flow directly into the interstitial space within a localized ..
  3. Song D, Lonser R. Convection-enhanced delivery for the treatment of pediatric neurologic disorders. J Child Neurol. 2008;23:1231-7 pubmed publisher
    Direct perfusion of specific regions of the central nervous system by convection-enhanced delivery is becoming more widely used for the delivery of compounds in the research and treatment of various neural disorders...
  4. Hadjipanayis C, Fellows Mayle W, DeLuca N. Therapeutic efficacy of a herpes simplex virus with radiation or temozolomide for intracranial glioblastoma after convection-enhanced delivery. Mol Ther. 2008;16:1783-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of either the replication-defective, ICP0-producing HSV-1 mutant, d106, or the ..
  5. Perlstein B, Ram Z, Daniels D, Ocherashvilli A, Roth Y, Margel S, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery of maghemite nanoparticles: Increased efficacy and MRI monitoring. Neuro Oncol. 2008;10:153-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED) is a novel approach to delivering drugs into brain tissue...
  6. Wang P, Olbricht W. Retro-convection enhanced drug delivery: a computational study. Ann Biomed Eng. 2010;38:2512-9 pubmed publisher
    Retro-convection enhanced delivery (R-CED) is an emerging drug delivery method to overcome the blood brain barrier (BBB)...
  7. Debinski W, Tatter S. Convection-enhanced delivery to achieve widespread distribution of viral vectors: Predicting clinical implementation. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2010;12:647-53 pubmed
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has been introduced to overcome the inability of many pharmacological agents to cross the blood-brain barrier, making these agents potentially effective in situ and suitable for the treatment of brain ..
  8. Huynh G, Ozawa T, Deen D, Tihan T, Szoka F. Retro-convection enhanced delivery to increase blood to brain transfer of macromolecules. Brain Res. 2007;1128:181-90 pubmed
    A retro-convection enhanced delivery (R-CED) method has been developed to improve the entry of intravenously administered therapeutics within solid brain tumors...
  9. Sugiyama S, Yamashita Y, Kikuchi T, Sonoda Y, Kumabe T, Tominaga T. Enhanced antitumor effect of combined-modality treatment using convection-enhanced delivery of hydrophilic nitrosourea with irradiation or systemic administration of temozolomide in intracranial brain tumor xenografts. Neurol Res. 2008;30:960-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a local infusion technique that delivers chemotherapeutic agents directly to the central nervous system, circumventing the blood-brain barrier and reducing systemic side effects...
  10. Kioi M, Husain S, Croteau D, Kunwar S, Puri R. Convection-enhanced delivery of interleukin-13 receptor-directed cytotoxin for malignant glioma therapy. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2006;5:239-50 pubmed
    ..These clinical trials involved convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of IL-13 cytotoxin either intratumoral or intraparenchymal after resection of tumor...
  11. Krauze M, Saito R, Noble C, Tamas M, Bringas J, Park J, et al. Reflux-free cannula for convection-enhanced high-speed delivery of therapeutic agents. J Neurosurg. 2005;103:923-9 pubmed
    Clinical application of the convection-enhanced delivery (CED) technique is currently limited by low infusion speed and reflux of the delivered agent...
  12. Mardor Y, Roth Y, Lidar Z, Jonas T, Pfeffer R, Maier S, et al. Monitoring response to convection-enhanced taxol delivery in brain tumor patients using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Cancer Res. 2001;61:4971-3 pubmed
    b>Convection-enhanced drug delivery (CEDD) is a novel approach to enhance the delivery of drugs directly into brain tumors...
  13. Dickinson P, LeCouteur R, Higgins R, Bringas J, Larson R, Yamashita Y, et al. Canine spontaneous glioma: a translational model system for convection-enhanced delivery. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:928-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We used spontaneously occurring canine gliomas to investigate the use of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of liposomal nanoparticles, containing topoisomerase inhibitor CPT-11...
  14. Krishnan M, Ugaz V, Burns M. PCR in a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell. Science. 2002;298:793 pubmed
  15. Degen J, Walbridge S, Vortmeyer A, Oldfield E, Lonser R. Safety and efficacy of convection-enhanced delivery of gemcitabine or carboplatin in a malignant glioma model in rats. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:893-8 pubmed
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can be used safely to perfuse regions of the central nervous system (CNS) with therapeutic agents in a manner that bypasses the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
  16. Richardson R, Gimenez F, Salegio E, Su X, Bringas J, Berger M, et al. T2 imaging in monitoring of intraparenchymal real-time convection-enhanced delivery. Neurosurgery. 2011;69:154-63; discussion 163 pubmed publisher
    Real-time convection-enhanced delivery (RCD) of adeno-associated viral vectors by co-infusion of gadoteridol allows T1 magnetic resonance imaging (T1 MRI) prediction of areas of subsequent gene expression...
  17. Lidar Z, Mardor Y, Jonas T, Pfeffer R, Faibel M, Nass D, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery of paclitaxel for the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma: a phase I/II clinical study. J Neurosurg. 2004;100:472-9 pubmed
    ..The authors investigated the safety and efficacy of intratumoral convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of paclitaxel in patients harboring histologically confirmed recurrent GBMs and ..
  18. Saito R, Bringas J, Panner A, Tamas M, Pieper R, Berger M, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand with systemic administration of temozolomide prolongs survival in an intracranial glioblastoma xenograft model. Cancer Res. 2004;64:6858-62 pubmed
    ..b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can effectively distribute TRAIL protein throughout a brain tumor mass...
  19. Heys J, Barocas V. A boussinesq model of natural convection in the human eye and the formation of Krukenberg's spindle. Ann Biomed Eng. 2002;30:392-401 pubmed
    ..The model predicts convection currents in the anterior chamber with velocities comparable to those resulting from forced flow through the gap ..
  20. Roberts M, Anissimov Y, Weiss M. Commentary: using the convection-dispersion model and transit time density functions in the analysis of organ distribution kinetics. J Pharm Sci. 2000;89:1579-86 pubmed
    The convection-dispersion model and its extended form have been used to describe solute disposition in organs and to predict hepatic availabilities...
  21. Popperl G, Goldbrunner R, Gildehaus F, Kreth F, Tanner P, Holtmannspotter M, et al. O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET for monitoring the effects of convection-enhanced delivery of paclitaxel in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2005;32:1018-25 pubmed
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of paclitaxel is a new locoregional approach for patients with recurrent glioblastoma...
  22. Sonabend A, Stuart R, Yun J, Yanagihara T, Mohajed H, Dashnaw S, et al. Prolonged intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan with a subcutaneously implantable infusion pump. Neuro Oncol. 2011;13:886-93 pubmed publisher
    Intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of chemotherapeutic agents currently requires an externalized catheter and infusion system, which limits its duration because of the need for hospitalization and the risk of infection...
  23. Oh S, Odland R, Wilson S, Kroeger K, Liu C, Lowenstein P, et al. Improved distribution of small molecules and viral vectors in the murine brain using a hollow fiber catheter. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:568-77 pubmed
    ..Dye was infused into the mouse brain through convection-enhanced delivery (CED) using a 28-gauge needle compared with a 3-mm-long hollow fiber catheter...
  24. Nakamura T, Saito R, Sugiyama S, Sonoda Y, Kumabe T, Tominaga T. Local convection-enhanced delivery of chemotherapeutic agent transiently opens blood-brain barrier and improves efficacy of systemic chemotherapy in intracranial xenograft tumor model. Cancer Lett. 2011;310:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..into the brain parenchyma induce opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we evaluated the opening of BBB after convection-enhanced delivery of nimustine hydrochloride into the brain parenchyma...
  25. Corem Salkmon E, Ram Z, Daniels D, Perlstein B, Last D, Salomon S, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery of methotrexate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:1595-602 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a novel approach for delivering drugs directly into brain tumors by intracranial infusion, enabling the distribution of high drug concentrations over large tissue volumes...
  26. Phillips W, Goins B, Bao A, Vargas D, Guttierez J, Trevino A, et al. Rhenium-186 liposomes as convection-enhanced nanoparticle brachytherapy for treatment of glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2012;14:416-25 pubmed publisher
    ..efficacy of the highly specific activity of (186)Re-liposomes, we evaluated their intracranial application by convection-enhanced delivery in an orthotopic U87 glioma rat model...
  27. White E, Bienemann A, Malone J, Megraw L, Bunnun C, Wyatt M, et al. An evaluation of the relationships between catheter design and tissue mechanics in achieving high-flow convection-enhanced delivery. J Neurosci Methods. 2011;199:87-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a rational technique for the direct intracranial administration of a range of therapeutic agents. CED critically depends on the use of a catheter with a narrow outer diameter and low infusion rate...
  28. Kim J, Astary G, Nobrega T, Kantorovich S, Carney P, Mareci T, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of Gd-albumin delivery to the rat hippocampus in vivo by convection-enhanced delivery. J Neurosci Methods. 2012;209:62-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) shows promise in treating neurological diseases due to its ability to circumvent the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and deliver therapeutics directly to the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  29. Brady M, Raghavan R, Alexander A, Kubota K, Sillay K, Emborg M. Pathways of infusate loss during convection-enhanced delivery into the putamen nucleus. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2013;91:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has been proposed as a method to improve intracerebral distribution of therapies...
  30. Weng K, Hashizume R, Noble C, Serwer L, Drummond D, Kirpotin D, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery of targeted quantum dot-immunoliposome hybrid nanoparticles to intracranial brain tumor models. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2013;8:1913-25 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work is to evaluate combining targeting strategy and convection-enhanced delivery in brain tumor models by imaging quantum dot-immunoliposome hybrid nanoparticles...
  31. Lonser R, Walbridge S, Garmestani K, Butman J, Walters H, Vortmeyer A, et al. Successful and safe perfusion of the primate brainstem: in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of macromolecular distribution during infusion. J Neurosurg. 2002;97:905-13 pubmed
    ..The authors used convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of a macromolecular tracer visible on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to examine the ..
  32. Yin D, Forsayeth J, Bankiewicz K. Optimized cannula design and placement for convection-enhanced delivery in rat striatum. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;187:46-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Good distribution of infusates by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) depends very much on cannula design, precise cannula placement and infusion rates...
  33. Vinchon Petit S, Jarnet D, Paillard A, Benoit J, Garcion E, Menei P. In vivo evaluation of intracellular drug-nanocarriers infused into intracranial tumours by convection-enhanced delivery: distribution and radiosensitisation efficacy. J Neurooncol. 2010;97:195-205 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the present study was to investigate the interest of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) for the administration of a nanocarrier-based radiosensitizing chemotherapy in the rat brain...
  34. Krauze M, Forsayeth J, Park J, Bankiewicz K. Real-time imaging and quantification of brain delivery of liposomes. Pharm Res. 2006;23:2493-504 pubmed
    ..that real-time monitoring of liposomal drug infusion is likely to improve outcomes of clinical trials where convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is being used to target drugs to specific brain structures through limitation of ..
  35. Chen G, Palmer A. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier and convection enhanced oxygen transport in a hollow fiber bioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;102:1603-12 pubmed publisher
    A mathematical model was developed to study O(2) transport in a convection enhanced hepatic hollow fiber (HF) bioreactor, with hemoglobin-based O(2) carriers (HBOCs) present in the flowing cell culture media stream of the HF lumen...
  36. Krauze M, VandenBerg S, Yamashita Y, Saito R, Forsayeth J, Noble C, et al. Safety of real-time convection-enhanced delivery of liposomes to primate brain: a long-term retrospective. Exp Neurol. 2008;210:638-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is gaining popularity in direct brain infusions...
  37. Lonser R, Schiffman R, Robison R, Butman J, Quezado Z, Walker M, et al. Image-guided, direct convective delivery of glucocerebrosidase for neuronopathic Gaucher disease. Neurology. 2007;68:254-61 pubmed
    To determine if convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of glucocerebrosidase could be used to treat targeted sites of disease progression in the brain and brainstem of a patient with neuronopathic Gaucher disease while monitoring enzyme ..
  38. Shah J, Dos Santos I, Haemmerich D, Valvano J. Instrument to measure the heat convection coefficient on the endothelial surface of arteries and veins. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2005;43:522-7 pubmed
    The primary objective of the paper was to present the design and analysis of an instrument to measure the heat convection coefficient h on the endothelial surfaces of arteries and veins...
  39. Krauze M, Noble C, Kawaguchi T, Drummond D, Kirpotin D, Yamashita Y, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery of nanoliposomal CPT-11 (irinotecan) and PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) in rodent intracranial brain tumor xenografts. Neuro Oncol. 2007;9:393-403 pubmed
    We have previously shown that convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of highly stable nanoparticle/liposome agents encapsulating chemotherapeutic drugs is effective against intracranial rodent brain tumor xenografts...
  40. Saito R, Krauze M, Bringas J, Noble C, McKnight T, Jackson P, et al. Gadolinium-loaded liposomes allow for real-time magnetic resonance imaging of convection-enhanced delivery in the primate brain. Exp Neurol. 2005;196:381-9 pubmed
    Drug delivery to brain tumors has long posed a major challenge. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has been developed as a drug delivery strategy to overcome this difficulty...
  41. Mardor Y, Rahav O, Zauberman Y, Lidar Z, Ocherashvilli A, Daniels D, et al. Convection-enhanced drug delivery: increased efficacy and magnetic resonance image monitoring. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6858-63 pubmed
    b>Convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED) is a novel approach to directly deliver drugs into brain tissue and brain tumors...
  42. Murad G, Walbridge S, Morrison P, Garmestani K, Degen J, Brechbiel M, et al. Real-time, image-guided, convection-enhanced delivery of interleukin 13 bound to pseudomonas exotoxin. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:3145-51 pubmed
    ..while monitoring its distribution in real-time using a surrogate magnetic resonance imaging tracer, we used convection-enhanced delivery to perfuse rat and primate brainstems with IL13-PE and gadolinium-bound albumin (Gd-albumin)...
  43. Saito R, Krauze M, Noble C, Tamas M, Drummond D, Kirpotin D, et al. Tissue affinity of the infusate affects the distribution volume during convection-enhanced delivery into rodent brains: implications for local drug delivery. J Neurosci Methods. 2006;154:225-32 pubmed
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a recently developed technique for local delivery of agents to a large volume of tissue in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  44. Saito R, Tominaga T. Convection-enhanced delivery: from mechanisms to clinical drug delivery for diseases of the central nervous system. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2012;52:531-8 pubmed
    ..b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a method for distributing large and small molecular weight compounds bypassing the BBB, ..
  45. Herrera Gutierrez M, Seller Pérez G, Arias Verdú D, Granados M, Dominguez J, Navarrete R, et al. A comparison of the effect of convection against diffusion in hemodynamics and cytokines clearance in an experimental model of septic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73:855-60 pubmed publisher
    Replacement therapies based on the use of convection have value for the removal of inflammatory mediators...
  46. Foley C, Nishimura N, Neeves K, Schaffer C, Olbricht W. Real-time imaging of perivascular transport of nanoparticles during convection-enhanced delivery in the rat cortex. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012;40:292-303 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a promising technique for administering large therapeutics that do not readily cross the blood brain barrier to neural tissue...
  47. Valli P, Buizza A, Botta L, Zucca G, Ghezzi L, Valli S. Convection, buoyancy or endolymph expansion: what is the actual mechanism responsible for the caloric response of semicircular canals?. J Vestib Res. 2002;12:155-65 pubmed
    ..Only the predictions of the model based on buoyancy were fully consistent with the experimental results whereas those provided by the other models were not...
  48. Bruce J, Fine R, Canoll P, Yun J, Kennedy B, Rosenfeld S, et al. Regression of recurrent malignant gliomas with convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan. Neurosurgery. 2011;69:1272-9; discussion 1279-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery of chemotherapeutics for the treatment of malignant glioma is a technique that delivers drugs directly into a tumor and the surrounding interstitium through continuous, low-grade positive-pressure infusion...
  49. Croteau D, Walbridge S, Morrison P, Butman J, Vortmeyer A, Johnson D, et al. Real-time in vivo imaging of the convective distribution of a low-molecular-weight tracer. J Neurosurg. 2005;102:90-7 pubmed
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is increasingly used to distribute therapeutic agents to locations in the central nervous system...
  50. Heiss J, Walbridge S, Asthagiri A, Lonser R. Image-guided convection-enhanced delivery of muscimol to the primate brain. J Neurosurg. 2010;112:790-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine if muscimol delivered to the brain by convection-enhanced delivery could be monitored using a coinfused surrogate MR imaging tracer, the authors perfused the ..
  51. Carty N, Lee D, Dickey C, Ceballos Diaz C, Jansen West K, Golde T, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery and systemic mannitol increase gene product distribution of AAV vectors 5, 8, and 9 and increase gene product in the adult mouse brain. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;194:144-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The convection enhanced delivery (CED) method with the step-design cannula was used to deliver rAAV vector serotypes 5, 8 and 9 ..
  52. HAAR P, Broaddus W, Chen Z, Fatouros P, Gillies G, Corwin F. Quantification of convection-enhanced delivery to the ischemic brain. Physiol Meas. 2010;31:1075-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) could have clinical application in the delivery of neuroprotective agents following ischemic stroke...
  53. Plata A, Sherwin S, Krams R. Endothelial nitric oxide production and transport in flow chambers: The importance of convection. Ann Biomed Eng. 2010;38:2805-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The results emphasize the role of convection on NO transport within flow chambers, which has been overlooked or misinterpreted in most previous theoretical ..