Summary: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Howell R. Auger processes in the 21st century. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008;84:959-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The field has advanced considerably. A glimpse of the potential of this unique form of ionizing radiation to contribute to future progress in a variety of fields of study is proffered. ..
  2. Turhan S, Ozçıtak E, Taskin H, Varinlioğlu A. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples. Water Res. 2013;47:3103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross ? in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1). ..
  3. Iwanishi K, Watabe H, Hayashi T, Miyake Y, Minato K, Iida H. Influence of residual oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide radioactivity on cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction in a dual-tracer autoradiographic method. Ann Nucl Med. 2009;23:363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..C(15)O has a high affinity for red blood cells and a very slow washout rate, and residual radioactivity from C(15)O might exist during a (15)O(2)-C(15)O(2) PET scan...
  4. Carvalho F, Reis M, Oliveira J, Malta M, Silva L. Radioactivity from Fukushima nuclear accident detected in Lisbon, Portugal. J Environ Radioact. 2012;114:152-6 pubmed publisher
    The radioactivity released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident was transported around the globe by atmospheric processes...
  5. Loaiza P, Brudanin V, Piquemal F, Reyss J, Stekl I, Warot G, et al. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France. J Environ Radioact. 2012;114:66-70 pubmed publisher
    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011...
  6. Sasaki K, Morikawa H, Kishibe T, Mikami A, Harada T, Ohta M. Practical removal of radioactivity from sediment mud in a swimming pool in Fukushima, Japan by immobilized photosynthetic bacteria. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76:859-62 pubmed
  7. Tositti L, Brattich E, Cinelli G, Previti A, Mostacci D. Comparison of radioactivity data measured in PM10 aerosol samples at two elevated stations in northern Italy during the Fukushima event. J Environ Radioact. 2012;114:105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Cimone (Modena) and Montecuccolino (Bologna). Radioactivity data collected at both stations are described, including comparison between local natural background of ..
  8. Khrutchinsky A, Drozdovitch V, Kutsen S, Minenko V, Khrouch V, Luckyanov N, et al. Mathematical modeling of a survey-meter used to measure radioactivity in human thyroids: Monte Carlo calculations of the device response and uncertainties. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of the SRP-68-01 survey meter used to measure exposure rates near the thyroid glands of persons exposed to radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident. This device was not designed to measure radioactivity in humans...
  9. Charmasson S, Sarradin P, Le Faouder A, Agarande M, Loyen J, Desbruyères D. High levels of natural radioactivity in biota from deep-sea hydrothermal vents: a preliminary communication. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:522-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Though the number of data is low, the results reveal various trends in relation to the site, the location within the mixing zone and/or the organisms' trophic regime. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Trevisi R, Risica S, D Alessandro M, Paradiso D, Nuccetelli C. Natural radioactivity in building materials in the European Union: a database and an estimate of radiological significance. J Environ Radioact. 2012;105:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the percentage could be assessed of materials possibly subject to restrictions, if either of the two dose criteria proposed by the technical guidance were to be adopted. ..
  2. Shen Y, Liu H, Shi P. Limited view PET reconstruction of tissue radioactivity maps. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2010;34:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The continuous-discrete Kalman filter is adopted to calculate the radioactivity value recursively...
  3. Kurnaz A, Kucukomeroglu B, Keser R, Okumusoglu N, Korkmaz F, Karahan G, et al. Determination of radioactivity levels and hazards of soil and sediment samples in Firtina Valley (Rize, Turkey). Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:1281-9 pubmed
    The natural radioactivity levels in soil and sediment samples of Firtina Valley have been determined. To our knowledge, there seems to be no information about radioactivity level in the Firtina Valley soils and sediments so far...
  4. Ren X, Paehler T, Zimmer M, Guo Z, Zane P, Emmons G. Impact of various factors on radioactivity distribution in different DBS papers. Bioanalysis. 2010;2:1469-75 pubmed publisher
  5. Kirchner G, Bossew P, De Cort M. Radioactivity from Fukushima Dai-ichi in air over Europe; part 2: what can it tell us about the accident?. J Environ Radioact. 2012;114:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The caesium activity ratios indicate emissions from the core of unit 4 which had been unloaded into the fuel storage pool prior to the accident...
  6. Andersson J, Truong P, Halldin C. In-target produced [11C]methane: Increased specific radioactivity. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:106-10 pubmed publisher
    ..the target production of [(11)C]CH(4) and the gas phase iodination to produce [(11)C]CH(3)I with high specific radioactivity (SA)...
  7. Shegokar R, Jansch M, Singh K, Muller R. In vitro protein adsorption studies on nevirapine nanosuspensions for HIV/AIDS chemotherapy. Nanomedicine. 2011;7:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, intravenous nevirapine (a poorly water-soluble antiretroviral drug) nanosuspensions were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized. ..
  8. Gaul W, Underhill D. A simple calculation for the buildup and decay of radon progeny. Health Phys. 2001;80:616-7 pubmed
  9. Głuszewski W, Zagórski Z. [The development of radiation technologies since Maria Sk?odowska-Curie]. Kwart Hist Nauki Tech. 2012;57:71-88 pubmed
  10. Mathew S, Rajagopalan M, Abraham J, Balakrishnan D, Umadevi A. Natural radioactivity content in soil and indoor air of Chellanam. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;152:80-3 pubmed publisher the soil and indoor air of Chellanam were investigated with an aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity level and radiation hazard to the population...
  11. Candela A, Pasquarè Mariotto F. Italian news coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century: A qualitative and quantitative analysis. Public Underst Sci. 2016;25:236-51 pubmed publisher
    ..generally focused on present-day news, our work revolves around the ground-breaking discovery of X-rays and radioactivity at the dawn of the last century...
  12. Fröberg A, de Jong M, Nock B, Breeman W, Erion J, Maina T, et al. Comparison of three radiolabelled peptide analogues for CCK-2 receptor scintigraphy in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:1265-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These DOTA-linked compounds are considered unlikely to be useful for radionuclide therapy because of low tumour uptake. ..
  13. Sukul P, Lamshöft M, Zühlke S, Spiteller M. Photolysis of 14C-sulfadiazine in water and manure. Chemosphere. 2008;71:717-25 pubmed
    ..Investigation revealed further persistence behavior of SDZ in manure. The half-life value of SDZ in manure was 158h. ..
  14. Kramer G, Lee T, Lee J, Chang S. Chest wall thickness measurements and the dosimetric implications for male workers in the south Korean uranium industry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2001;95:31-5 pubmed
    ..This paper shows that the KAERI lung counter probably cannot detect an intake of Type S natural uranium in a worker with a chest wall thickness equal to the average value (2.7 cm) under routine counting conditions. ..
  15. Onstott T, McGown D, Kessler J, Lollar B, Lehmann K, Clifford S. Martian CH(4): sources, flux, and detection. Astrobiology. 2006;6:377-95 pubmed
    ..Cavity ring-down spectrometers represent the instrument type that would be most capable of performing the C and H measurements of CH(4) on near future rover missions and pinpointing the cause and source of the CH(4) emissions. ..
  16. Dabayneh K, Mashal L, Hasan F. Radioactivity concentration in soil samples in the southern part of the West Bank, Palestine. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;131:265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..4 nGy h(-1). The radium equivalent activity (R(aeq)), dose rate (D(r)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and radioactivity level index (I(gamma)) in all samples are presented...
  17. Song L, Able S, Johnson E, Vallis K. Accumulation of 111In-Labelled EGF-Au-PEG Nanoparticles in EGFR-Positive Tumours is Enhanced by Coadministration of Targeting Ligand. Nanotheranostics. 2017;1:232-243 pubmed publisher
    ..treatment of solid tumours may be limited by radioresistance, which necessitates delivery of a high dose of radioactivity. Nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems possess a large surface area for attachment of radioisotopes and so ..
  18. Orekhova N, Modorov M. East Urals Radioactive Trace: Dose-dependent functional-metabolic effects in the myocardium of the pygmy wood mouse (Apodemus uralensis) taking into account population size. J Environ Radioact. 2017;175-176:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The harmful effects (cardiac decompensation stage) of synergies resulting from non-radiation and radiation factors manifest after population abundance above 30 ind./100 trap-day and a radiation burden above 0.1 mGy/day. ..
  19. Otansev P, Taskin H, Bassari A, Varinlioğlu A. Distribution and environmental impacts of heavy metals and radioactivity in sediment and seawater samples of the Marmara Sea. Chemosphere. 2016;154:266-275 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in the sediment samples collected from the Marmara Sea in Turkey were determined...
  20. Kidera D, Kihara K, Akamatsu G, Mikasa S, Taniguchi T, Tsutsui Y, et al. The edge artifact in the point-spread function-based PET reconstruction at different sphere-to-background ratios of radioactivity. Ann Nucl Med. 2016;30:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..reconstructed using the point-spread function (PSF) algorithm at different sphere-to-background ratios of radioactivity (SBRs)...
  21. McNaughton M, Brock B, Eisele W, Fuehne D, Green A, Whicker J. Addressing nuclides not in the CAP88-PC Version-3 library. Health Phys. 2013;105:S182-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Surrogates are often used to substitute for nuclides not in the library, though the results are usually overestimates. This paper addresses nuclides that are not in the library and describes methods to obtain more accurate results. ..
  22. Abbady A. Estimation of radiation hazard indices from sedimentary rocks in Upper Egypt. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;60:111-4 pubmed
    ..The results indicate no radiological anomaly. The data presented here will serve as a baseline survey for primordial radionuclide concentrations in rocks of the areas. ..
  23. Isik U, Damla N, Akkoca D, Cevik U. Mineralogical, geochemical and radiological characterisation of Selmo Formation in Batman area, Turkey. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2012;48:302-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that the concentrations of radioactivities in the measured samples were within the recommended safety limits and did not pose to be any significant source of radiation hazard. ..
  24. Kijewska I, Hawlicka E. A new radiochemical method to investigate ion binding with polyelectrolytes. Carbohydr Res. 2005;340:1185-91 pubmed
    ..The fraction of the specifically bound ions becomes negligible when the ionic strength exceeds 0.01 M, whereas the fraction of territorially bound ions can be neglected at ionic strengths higher than 0.45 M. ..
  25. Hasegawa T, Yoshida E, Sato Y, Oda K, Wada Y, Yamada T, et al. Point-like radioactive source with multiple absorber capsules for evaluating PET scanners. Ann Nucl Med. 2010;24:427-32 pubmed publisher
    Radioactive sources for evaluating sensitivity and uncertainty in the radioactivity measurements performed using PET scanners must be equipped with absorber materials that ensure the annihilation of positrons...
  26. Butler D. Radioactivity spreads in Japan. Nature. 2011;471:555-6 pubmed publisher
  27. Yi P, Luffer Atlas D. A radiocalibration method with pseudo internal standard to estimate circulating metabolite concentrations. Bioanalysis. 2010;2:1195-210 pubmed publisher
  28. Shan J, Jiang B, Yu B, Li C, Sun Y, Guo H, et al. Isomer-specific degradation of branched and linear 4-nonylphenol isomers in an oxic soil. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:8283-9 pubmed publisher
    ..At the end of incubation (58 days), bound residues of 4-NP(111) amounted to 54% of the initially applied radioactivity and resided almost exclusively in the humin fraction of soil organic matter, in which chemically humin-bound ..
  29. Chen X, Zhao L, Qin H, Zhao M, Zhou Y, Yang S, et al. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection. Health Phys. 2014;106:545-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body...
  30. Zhang F, Lowe E, Rick D, Qiu X, Leibold E, Cruzan G, et al. In vitro metabolism, glutathione conjugation, and CYP isoform specificity of epoxidation of 4-vinylphenol. Xenobiotica. 2011;41:6-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This present study provides better insight on the lung toxicity seen with 4VP, the toxic metabolite of commercial styrene. ..
  31. Dyer C, Truscott P, Evans H, Sims A, Hammond N, Comber C. Secondary radiation environments in heavy space vehicles and instruments. Adv Space Res. 1996;17:53-8 pubmed
    ..well as metal activation foils and passive detector crystals of sodium iodide which were counted for induced radioactivity soon after return to earth...
  32. Pirzkall A, Carol M, Pickett B, Xia P, Roach M, Verhey L. The effect of beam energy and number of fields on photon-based IMRT for deep-seated targets. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;53:434-42 pubmed
    ..The clinical significance of this increased dose distant from the target, in terms of complications, remains to be determined. ..
  33. Roesch F. Maturation of a key resource - the germanium-68/gallium-68 generator: development and new insights. Curr Radiopharm. 2012;5:202-11 pubmed
  34. Povinec P, Sykora I, Holý K, Gera M, Kovacik A, Brest áková L. Aerosol radioactivity record in Bratislava/Slovakia following the Fukushima accident--a comparison with global fallout and the Chernobyl accident. J Environ Radioact. 2012;114:81-8 pubmed publisher
    Results of radioactivity measurements in Bratislava aerosols following the Fukushima accident showed that at least three radioactive plumes arrived to Bratislava as indicated by (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratios...
  35. Fitzgerald R. An automated ionization chamber for secondary radioactivity standards. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:1507-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these values agree with the accepted literature values, within their combined uncertainties. ..
  36. Jabbar A, Arshed W, Bhatti A, Ahmad S, Akhter P, Rehman S, et al. Measurement of soil radioactivity levels and radiation hazard assessment in southern Rechna interfluvial region, Pakistan. Environ Monit Assess. 2010;169:429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..It is the area which is lying between River Ravi and River Chenab, alluvial-filled. Radioactivity levels in soil samples, collected from southern Rechna interfluvial region, Pakistan, have been estimated by ..
  37. Law M, Wagner S, Kopka K, Pike V, Schober O, Schäfers M. Are [O-methyl-11C]derivatives of ICI 89,406 beta1-adrenoceptor selective radioligands suitable for PET?. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008;35:174-85 pubmed
    ..The S-enantiomer of an [O-methyl-(11)C] derivative of ICI 89,406 ((S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe) was synthesised. Tissue radioactivity after i.v...
  38. Ghosh V, Schaefer C, Kahnhauser H. Induced Radioactivity in Lead Shielding at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Health Phys. 2017;112:533-543 pubmed publisher
    ..package for the interaction and transport of particles and nuclei in matter, was used to estimate induced radioactivity in this shielding and stainless steel beam pipe from known beam losses...
  39. Karangelos D, Petropoulos N, Anagnostakis M, Hinis E, Simopoulos S. Radiological characteristics and investigation of the radioactive equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants. J Environ Radioact. 2004;77:233-46 pubmed
    ..An extensive research project for the determination of the natural radioactivity of lignite and ashes from Greek lignite-fired power plants is in progress in the Nuclear Engineering ..
  40. Chattopadhyay S, Das S, Barua L. A simple and rapid technique for recovery of 99mTc from low specific activity (n,gamma)99Mo based on solid-liquid extraction and column chromatography methodologies. Nucl Med Biol. 2010;37:17-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The separated Na[(99m)Tc]TcO(4) was of high radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities. The method can be adopted for routine processing and use of (99m)Tc in radiopharmacy operations. ..
  41. Volkert W, Goeckeler W, Ehrhardt G, Ketring A. Therapeutic radionuclides: production and decay property considerations. J Nucl Med. 1991;32:174-85 pubmed
    ..This consideration is especially important for the various MAbs and their fragments that are currently under investigation as carrier molecules to RIT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  42. Tomarchio E. Measurement of radionuclide activities induced in target components of an IBA CYCLONE 18/9 by gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe and LaBr3: Ce detectors. Health Phys. 2014;107:S143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..For a longer time, only long-lived radionuclides (57)Co, (60)Co, and (54)Mn contribute to dose rate. ..
  43. Ellington A, Cherry J. Characteristics of amino acids. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2001;Appendix 1:Appendix 1C pubmed publisher
    ..abbreviations, useful measurements and data, characteristics of amino acids and nucleic acids, information on radioactivity and the safe use of radioisotopes and other hazardous chemicals, conversions for centrifuges and rotors, ..
  44. Ning S, Wang X, Zou Q, Shi W, Tang F, He L, et al. Direct separation of minor actinides from high level liquid waste by Me 2 -CA-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbent. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14679 pubmed publisher of great significance for the whole nuclear fuel cycle, especially in the aspects of reducing long-term radioactivity and simplifying the post-processing separation process...
  45. Wood R, Stuenkel D, Rosnick R. CAP88-PC Version 4, an updated radionuclide NESHAPS model. Health Phys. 2013;105:S169-75 pubmed publisher
  46. Rajamannan B, Viruthagiri G, Suresh Jawahar K. Natural radionuclides in ceramic building materials available in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;156:531-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, studies have been planned to obtain the radioactivity of ceramic building materials used in Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India...
  47. Griffiths N, Wilk J, Abram M, Renault D, Chau Q, Helfer N, et al. Internal contamination by actinides after wounding: a robust rodent model for assessment of local and distant actinide retention. Health Phys. 2012;103:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This experimental approach could be applied to other situations involving contamination following wounding including rupture of the dermal, vascular, and muscle barriers. ..
  48. Levi M, Kelly H. Weapons of mass disruption. Sci Am. 2002;287:76-81 pubmed
  49. Perez Andujar A, Pibida L. Performance of CdTe, HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors for radioactivity measurements. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;60:41-7 pubmed
    ..This makes it a suitable detector only for relatively high activity measurements restricted to the 35 keV to 200 keV energy range. ..
  50. Jones A. Transport issues. J Radiol Prot. 2004;24:99-100 pubmed
  51. Walichiewicz P, Wilczek K, Petelenz B, Jachec W, Jochem J, Tomasik A, et al. Post-dilatation intravascular brachytherapy trials on hypercholesterolemic rabbits using 32P-phosphate solutions in angioplasty balloons. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2004;27:42-50 pubmed
    ..Only application of highest irradiation doses was effective. The irradiation dose should be planned and calculated for adventitia. ..
  52. Montes M, Mercader R, Taylor M, Runco J, Desimoni J. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and their relationship with soil characteristics in undisturbed soils of the northeast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. J Environ Radioact. 2012;105:30-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A negative correlation was found between the activity concentrations and the ?-Fe?O? and Fe?O? relative fractions, whereas a positive correlation was found between the Fe³? relative fraction and the ??K activity. ..
  53. Kang J, Asai D, Tsuchiya A, Mori T, Niidome T, Katayama Y. Peptide substrates for Rho-associated kinase 2 (Rho-kinase 2/ROCK2). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22699 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that R22, R133, and R135 can be useful peptide substrates for ROCK2. ..