darkness

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage
    Antony N Dodd
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK
    Science 309:630-3. 2005
  2. pmc Evolution of a behavioral shift mediated by superficial neuromasts helps cavefish find food in darkness
    Masato Yoshizawa
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA
    Curr Biol 20:1631-6. 2010
  3. ncbi Darkness induces mobility, and saturation deficit limits questing duration, in the tick Ixodes ricinus
    Jean Luc Perret
    Institute of Zoology, University of Neuchatel, Rue Emile Argand 11, 2007 Neuchatel, Switzerland
    J Exp Biol 206:1809-15. 2003
  4. ncbi Constitutive expression of the CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) gene disrupts circadian rhythms and suppresses its own expression
    Z Y Wang
    Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 1606, USA
    Cell 93:1207-17. 1998
  5. ncbi Resetting central and peripheral circadian oscillators in transgenic rats
    S Yamazaki
    NSF Center for Biological Timing and Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2477, USA
    Science 288:682-5. 2000
  6. pmc Rods-cones and melanopsin detect light and dark to modulate sleep independent of image formation
    C M Altimus
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19998-20003. 2008
  7. doi Impacts of drought on leaf respiration in darkness and light in Eucalyptus saligna exposed to industrial-age atmospheric CO₂ and growth temperature
    Gohar Ayub
    Plant Sciences Division, Research School of Biology, Building 46, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    New Phytol 190:1003-18. 2011
  8. ncbi A critical role for ureides in dark and senescence-induced purine remobilization is unmasked in the Atxdh1 Arabidopsis mutant
    Galina Brychkova
    The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, The Albert Katz Department of Dryland Biotechnologies, Ben Gurion University, PO Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
    Plant J 54:496-509. 2008
  9. doi Cerebellum shapes hippocampal spatial code
    Christelle Rochefort
    Neurobiologie des Processus Adaptatifs UMR 7102, Navigation, Memory, and Aging ENMVI Team, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, F 75005 Paris, France
    Science 334:385-9. 2011
  10. pmc HY5, Circadian Clock-Associated 1, and a cis-element, DET1 dark response element, mediate DET1 regulation of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein 2 expression
    Bridey B Maxwell
    Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Plant Physiol 133:1565-77. 2003

Research Grants

  1. TRP channel expression and function in ON-bipolar cells
    ROBERT M contact DUVOISIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. Human circadian sensitivity to very short light pulses
    ELIZABETH KLERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
  3. Human circadian sensitivity to very short light pulses
    Elizabeth B Klerman; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas T Norton; Fiscal Year: 2012
  5. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS NORTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
  6. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas T Norton; Fiscal Year: 2010
  7. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS NORTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
  8. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas T Norton; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas T Norton; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. THE CONTROL OF TISSUE-SENSITIVITY TO AUTONOMIC AGENTS
    LASZLO BITO; Fiscal Year: 1980

Detail Information

Publications293 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage
    Antony N Dodd
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK
    Science 309:630-3. 2005
    ..This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control...
  2. pmc Evolution of a behavioral shift mediated by superficial neuromasts helps cavefish find food in darkness
    Masato Yoshizawa
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA
    Curr Biol 20:1631-6. 2010
    How cave animals adapt to life in darkness is a poorly understood aspect of evolutionary biology [1]...
  3. ncbi Darkness induces mobility, and saturation deficit limits questing duration, in the tick Ixodes ricinus
    Jean Luc Perret
    Institute of Zoology, University of Neuchatel, Rue Emile Argand 11, 2007 Neuchatel, Switzerland
    J Exp Biol 206:1809-15. 2003
    ..Almost all locomotor activities of I. ricinus occurred during darkness under either a 14 h:10 h L:D or a 8 h:4 h L:D cycle. We established that all life stages of I...
  4. ncbi Constitutive expression of the CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) gene disrupts circadian rhythms and suppresses its own expression
    Z Y Wang
    Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 1606, USA
    Cell 93:1207-17. 1998
    ..Furthermore, the expression of both endogenous CCA1 and the related LHY gene was suppressed. Our results suggest that CCA1 is a part of a feedback loop that is closely associated with the circadian clock in Arabidopsis...
  5. ncbi Resetting central and peripheral circadian oscillators in transgenic rats
    S Yamazaki
    NSF Center for Biological Timing and Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2477, USA
    Science 288:682-5. 2000
    ....
  6. pmc Rods-cones and melanopsin detect light and dark to modulate sleep independent of image formation
    C M Altimus
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19998-20003. 2008
    ..Thus, in addition to their known role in aligning circadian physiology with day and night, ipRGCs also relay light and dark information from both rod-cone and melanopsin-based pathways to modulate sleep and wakefulness...
  7. doi Impacts of drought on leaf respiration in darkness and light in Eucalyptus saligna exposed to industrial-age atmospheric CO₂ and growth temperature
    Gohar Ayub
    Plant Sciences Division, Research School of Biology, Building 46, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    New Phytol 190:1003-18. 2011
    ..Rates of R in darkness (R(dark) ) and light (R(light) ), photosynthesis (A) and related leaf traits (mass : area relationships, and ..
  8. ncbi A critical role for ureides in dark and senescence-induced purine remobilization is unmasked in the Atxdh1 Arabidopsis mutant
    Galina Brychkova
    The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, The Albert Katz Department of Dryland Biotechnologies, Ben Gurion University, PO Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
    Plant J 54:496-509. 2008
    ..We observed that in wild-type plants conditions of extended darkness or increasing leaf age caused induction of transcripts related to purine catabolism, resulting in marked ..
  9. doi Cerebellum shapes hippocampal spatial code
    Christelle Rochefort
    Neurobiologie des Processus Adaptatifs UMR 7102, Navigation, Memory, and Aging ENMVI Team, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, F 75005 Paris, France
    Science 334:385-9. 2011
    ..Together, these results suggest that cerebellar PKC-dependent mechanisms are involved in processing self-motion signals essential to the shaping of hippocampal spatial representation...
  10. pmc HY5, Circadian Clock-Associated 1, and a cis-element, DET1 dark response element, mediate DET1 regulation of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein 2 expression
    Bridey B Maxwell
    Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Plant Physiol 133:1565-77. 2003
    ..We conclude that DET1 represses the CAB2 promoter in the dark by regulating the binding of two factors, CAB2 DET1-associated factor 1 and Circadian Clock-Associated 1, to the DtRE...
  11. ncbi Rhythmic growth explained by coincidence between internal and external cues
    Kazunari Nozue
    Section of Plant Biology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Nature 448:358-61. 2007
    ..This interaction may serve as a paradigm for understanding how endogenous and environmental signals cooperate to control other processes...
  12. pmc Differential coloring reveals that plastids do not form networks for exchanging macromolecules
    Martin H Schattat
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1, Canada
    Plant Cell 24:1465-77. 2012
    ....
  13. pmc Light-induced structural and functional plasticity in Drosophila larval visual system
    Quan Yuan
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of California, San Francisco, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Science 333:1458-62. 2011
    ....
  14. pmc Overexpression of Arabidopsis acyl-CoA binding protein ACBP3 promotes starvation-induced and age-dependent leaf senescence
    Shi Xiao
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China
    Plant Cell 22:1463-82. 2010
    ..Accelerated senescence in ACBP3-OEs is dependent on salicylic acid but not jasmonic acid signaling...
  15. ncbi Gibberellins modulate light signaling pathways to prevent Arabidopsis seedling de-etiolation in darkness
    David Alabadi
    Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas CSIC UPV, Av De Los Naranjos s n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
    Plant J 53:324-35. 2008
    ..Seedlings deficient in gibberellin (GA) synthesis or signaling display a de-etiolated phenotype when grown in darkness, equivalent to the phenotype of cop1 mutants, which indicates that the switch between photo- and ..
  16. pmc Light deprivation damages monoamine neurons and produces a depressive behavioral phenotype in rats
    M M C Gonzalez
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6100, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4898-903. 2008
    ..We recently showed that rats kept for 6 weeks in constant darkness (DD) have anatomical and behavioral features similar to depressed patients, including dysregulation of circadian ..
  17. doi Scototaxis as anxiety-like behavior in fish
    Caio Maximino
    Laboratório de Neurociências e Comportamento, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, Brazil
    Nat Protoc 5:209-16. 2010
    ..When individual animals are exposed to the apparatus on only one occasion, results can be obtained in 20 min per fish...
  18. doi Constant darkness induces IL-6-dependent depression-like behavior through the NF-κB signaling pathway
    Francisco J Monje
    Department of Neurophysiology and Neuropharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    J Neurosci 31:9075-83. 2011
    ..Here we investigate whether long-term light deprivation in the constant darkness (DD) paradigm affects depression-like behavior in mice and concomitantly modulates the levels of proinflammatory ..
  19. ncbi Reactivation of ocular dominance plasticity in the adult visual cortex
    Tommaso Pizzorusso
    Scuola Normale Superiore, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    Science 298:1248-51. 2002
    ..The mature ECM is thus inhibitory for experience-dependent plasticity, and degradation of CSPGs reactivates cortical plasticity...
  20. ncbi Image statistics and the perception of surface qualities
    Isamu Motoyoshi
    Human and Information Science Lab, NTT Communication Science Labs, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, 3 1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, 243 0198, Japan
    Nature 447:206-9. 2007
    ..We suggest that there are neural mechanisms sensitive to skewed statistics, and that their outputs can be used in estimating surface properties...
  21. ncbi The genetic basis of singlet oxygen-induced stress responses of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Daniela Wagner
    Institute of Plant Sciences, Plant Genetics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 306:1183-5. 2004
    ..Instead, seedling lethality and growth inhibition of mature plants result from genetic programs that are activated after the release of singlet oxygen has been perceived by the plant...
  22. pmc Circadian rhythms confer a higher level of fitness to Arabidopsis plants
    Rachel M Green
    Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, P O Box 160606, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Plant Physiol 129:576-84. 2002
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that two other circadian rhythm mutants, LHY-ox and elf3, have low-viability phenotypes. Our findings demonstrate the adaptive advantage of circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis...
  23. pmc ATP consumption by mammalian rod photoreceptors in darkness and in light
    Haruhisa Okawa
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, USC Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
    Curr Biol 18:1917-21. 2008
    ..In darkness, rods consume 10(8) ATP s(-1), about the same as Drosophila photoreceptors...
  24. ncbi The F-box protein slimb controls the levels of clock proteins period and timeless
    Brigitte Grima
    Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard NGI, CNRS UPR 2216, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, av de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Nature 420:178-82. 2002
    ..In constant darkness, highly phosphorylated forms of the Per and Tim proteins are constitutively present in the mutants, indicating ..
  25. ncbi A transcription factor response element for gene expression during circadian night
    Hiroki R Ueda
    Molecular Medicine Laboratories, Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8585, Japan
    Nature 418:534-9. 2002
    ..We profiled suprachiasmatic nuclei and liver genome-wide expression patterns under light/dark cycles and constant darkness. We determined transcription start sites of human orthologues for newly identified cycling genes and then ..
  26. ncbi Differential effects of eyes open or closed in darkness on brain activation patterns in blind subjects
    K Hufner
    Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 466:30-4. 2009
    ..specific task conditions can be compared to a reference condition which is often eyes-open or eyes-closed in darkness without the execution of a specific task...
  27. doi It is darkness and not light: Depression-like behaviors of diurnal unstriped Nile grass rats maintained under a short photoperiod schedule
    Tal Ashkenazy-Frolinger
    Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    J Neurosci Methods 186:165-70. 2010
    ....
  28. doi Darkness reduces BDNF expression in the visual cortex and induces repressive chromatin remodeling at the BDNF gene in both hippocampus and visual cortex
    Nina N Karpova
    Sigrid Jusélius Laboratory, Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 30:1117-23. 2010
    Neuronal activity regulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in brain. In darkness, reduced neuronal activity in the visual cortex markedly decreases total BDNF transcription level in adult rats...
  29. pmc Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird
    Manuela Zapka
    AG Neurosensorik, Institut für Biologie und Umweltwissenschaften, University of Oldenburg, D 26111 Oldenburg, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 32:619-24. 2010
    ....
  30. ncbi Role of melanopsin in circadian responses to light
    Norman F Ruby
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 298:2211-3. 2002
    ..Although melanopsin is not essential for the circadian clock to receive photic input, it contributes significantly to the magnitude of photic responses...
  31. ncbi The changing biological roles of melatonin during evolution: from an antioxidant to signals of darkness, sexual selection and fitness
    Dun Xian Tan
    Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 85:607-23. 2010
    ..These functions likely include the chemical expression of darkness in vertebrates, environmental tolerance in fungi and plants, sexual signaling in birds and fish, seasonal ..
  32. ncbi Dark rearing alters the development of GABAergic transmission in visual cortex
    Bernardo Morales
    Mind Brain Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    J Neurosci 22:8084-90. 2002
    ..Thus, sensory experience appears to play a permissive role in the maturation of intracortical GABAergic circuits...
  33. ncbi Light during darkness and cancer: relationships in circadian photoreception and tumor biology
    Samar A Jasser
    Department of Neurology, Light Research Program, Thomas Jefferson University, 1025 Walnut Street, Suite 507, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Cancer Causes Control 17:515-23. 2006
    ..Continued rigorous empirical inquiry into the physiology and clinical implications of these habitual, integrated aspects of life is highly warranted at this time...
  34. ncbi Alterations in serum melatonin and sleep in individuals in a sub-arctic region from winter to spring
    Trond Bratlid
    Psychiatric Department, University of Tromsø, Norway
    Int J Circumpolar Health 62:242-54. 2003
    ....
  35. ncbi Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night
    Sean E Weise
    Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI 53706 USA
    Planta 218:474-82. 2004
    ..we determined that maltose was distributed equally between the chloroplast and cytosolic fractions during darkness. In the light there was approximately 24% more maltose in the cytosol than the chloroplast...
  36. pmc Differences of acute versus chronic ethanol exposure on anxiety-like behavioral responses in zebrafish
    Priya Mathur
    Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Programs in Biological Sciences and Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 2811, United States
    Behav Brain Res 219:234-9. 2011
    ....
  37. pmc Response of the human circadian system to millisecond flashes of light
    Jamie M Zeitzer
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e22078. 2011
    ..These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the circadian system can temporally integrate extraordinarily brief light exposures...
  38. ncbi Directional control of hippocampal place fields
    K J Jeffery
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, UK
    Exp Brain Res 117:131-42. 1997
    ..When room cues were present, distal visual cues predominated over internal cues in establishing place field orientation...
  39. pmc Arabidopsis nitric oxide synthase1 is targeted to mitochondria and protects against oxidative damage and dark-induced senescence
    Fang Qing Guo
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, 92093 0116, USA
    Plant Cell 17:3436-50. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that NOS1 is a mitochondrial NOS that reduces ROS levels, mitigates oxidative damage, and acts as an antisenescence agent...
  40. ncbi Quantitative x-ray dark-field computed tomography
    M Bech
    Physik Department, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85748 Garching, Germany
    Phys Med Biol 55:5529-39. 2010
    ....
  41. ncbi Expression of the circadian clock-related gene pex in cyanobacteria increases in darkness and is required to delay the clock
    Naoki Takai
    International Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Yokohama City University, Seto 22 2, Yokohama 236 0027, Japan
    J Biol Rhythms 21:235-44. 2006
    ..Levels of pex mRNA increased significantly in a 12-h exposure to darkness. Western blotting with a GST-Pex antibody revealed a 13...
  42. pmc Genome-wide dynamic transcriptional profiling of the light-to-dark transition in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803
    Ryan T Gill
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Bacteriol 184:3671-81. 2002
    ....
  43. doi Effects of anxiolytics in zebrafish: similarities and differences between benzodiazepines, buspirone and ethanol
    Daiane L Gebauer
    Laboratório de Neuroquímica e Psicofarmacologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Programa de Pós Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Faculdade de Biociencias, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Ipiranga, 6681, 90619 900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 99:480-6. 2011
    ..Height in the tank and shoal cohesion seem to be useful behavioral parameters in discriminating different classes of these drugs...
  44. pmc Molecular analysis of photic inhibition of blood-feeding in Anopheles gambiae
    Suchismita Das
    W, Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 2179, USA
    BMC Physiol 8:23. 2008
    ....
  45. pmc Evidence from opsin genes rejects nocturnality in ancestral primates
    Ying Tan
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, 1101 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:14712-6. 2005
    ..This view is further supported by the distribution pattern of the middle-wavelength (M) and long-wavelength (L) opsin genes among prosimians...
  46. ncbi The chlorophyllases AtCLH1 and AtCLH2 are not essential for senescence-related chlorophyll breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Nicole Schenk
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH 3013 Bern, Switzerland
    FEBS Lett 581:5517-25. 2007
    ..From our data we conclude that AtCLHs are not required for senescence-related chlorophyll breakdown in vivo and propose that genuine chlorophyllase has not yet been molecularly identified...
  47. ncbi Entrainment of the rat motor activity rhythm: effects of the light-dark cycle and physical exercise
    T Cambras
    Departament de Fisiologia, Divisió IV, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Physiol Behav 70:227-32. 2000
    ..Rats were maintained first under LD cycles and afterwards under constant darkness (DD). Motor activity was recorded throughout the whole experiment by means of activity meters with infrared beams...
  48. pmc Flow of energy in the outer retina in darkness and in light
    Jonathan D Linton
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8599-604. 2010
    ..energy flows from these central mitochondria as phosphocreatine toward the photoreceptor's synaptic terminal in darkness. In light, it flows in the opposite direction as ATP toward the outer segment...
  49. pmc Rapid induction of distinct stress responses after the release of singlet oxygen in Arabidopsis
    Roel G L op den Camp
    Institute of Plant Sciences, Plant Genetics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Plant Cell 15:2320-32. 2003
    ..Its biological activity in Arabidopsis exhibits a high degree of specificity that seems to be derived from the chemical identity of this reactive oxygen species and/or the intracellular location at which it is generated...
  50. pmc Visual deprivation decreases somatic GAD65 puncta number on layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex
    Alicja Kreczko
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA
    Neural Plast 2009:415135. 2009
    ..There was no change in GAD65-puncta volume or intensity. These results support the reorganization of inhibitory circuitry within layer 2/3 of visual cortex in response to changes in visual experience...
  51. pmc Biological clock in total darkness: the Clock/MOP3 circadian system of the blind subterranean mole rat
    A Avivi
    Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:13751-6. 2001
    ..Understanding Clock/MOP3 function could highlight circadian mechanisms in blind mammals and their unique pattern as a result of adapting to life underground...
  52. ncbi Circadian adaptation to night-shift work by judicious light and darkness exposure
    Diane B Boivin
    Centre for Study and Treatment of Circadian Rhythms, Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H4H 1R3, Canada
    J Biol Rhythms 17:556-67. 2002
    ..On work days, participants maintained regular sleep/wake schedules including a single 8-h sleep/darkness episode beginning 2 h after the end of the night shift...
  53. pmc Multiple phytochrome-interacting bHLH transcription factors repress premature seedling photomorphogenesis in darkness
    Pablo Leivar
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Curr Biol 18:1815-23. 2008
    ..in colonizing the land was the evolution of a developmental strategy, termed skotomorphogenesis, whereby postgerminative seedlings emerging from buried seed grow vigorously upward in the subterranean darkness toward the soil surface.
  54. pmc The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor PIF5 acts on ethylene biosynthesis and phytochrome signaling by distinct mechanisms
    Rajnish Khanna
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Plant Cell 19:3915-29. 2007
    ..data thus indicate that overexpressed PIF5 causes altered ethylene levels, which promote the triple response in darkness, whereas in the light, the interaction of photoactivated phyB with PIF5 causes degradation of the photoreceptor ..
  55. pmc Transient release of oxygenated volatile organic compounds during light-dark transitions in Grey poplar leaves
    Martin Graus
    Institut fur Ionenphysik, Leopold Franzens Universitat Innsbruck, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Plant Physiol 135:1967-75. 2004
    ....
  56. pmc Persistence of experience-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity through adulthood in superficial layers of mouse visual cortex
    Anubhuthi Goel
    Department of Biology, College of Chemical and Life Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    J Neurosci 27:6692-700. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate that the superficial layers of adult mouse visual cortex retain the ability to undergo reversible experience-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity...
  57. ncbi A comparison of the expression patterns of several senescence-associated genes in response to stress and hormone treatment
    L M Weaver
    Dept of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 53706, USA
    Plant Mol Biol 37:455-69. 1998
    ..genes (SAGs) in attached and/or detached leaves was compared in response to age, dehydration, darkness, abscisic acid, cytokinin, and ethylene treatments...
  58. ncbi Light-regulated subcellular translocation of Drosophila TRPL channels induces long-term adaptation and modifies the light-induced current
    Monika Bähner
    Zoological Institute, Department of Cell and Neurobiology, University of Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Neuron 34:83-93. 2002
    ..background lights, and they respond to a wider range of light intensities, which fit them to function better in darkness or dim background illumination...
  59. ncbi Comparative study on nocturnal behavior of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
    Hitoshi Kawada
    Department of Vector Ecology and Environment, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852 8523, Japan
    J Med Entomol 42:312-8. 2005
    ..01 foot candle) in Ae. aegypti and >10 lx (approximately 1 foot candle) in Ae. albopictus. Complete darkness during the daytime deactivated the host-seeking activity of both species, irrespective of their increasing flight ..
  60. pmc Isolation and characterization of rice phytochrome A mutants
    M Takano
    Department of Plant Physiology, National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8602, Japan
    Plant Cell 13:521-34. 2001
    ....
  61. pmc Gibberellins repress photomorphogenesis in darkness
    David Alabadi
    Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Valencia 46022, Spain
    Plant Physiol 134:1050-7. 2004
    Plants undergo two different developmental programs depending on whether they are growing in darkness (skotomorphogenesis) or in the presence of light (photomorphogenesis)...
  62. ncbi Melanopsin (Opn4) requirement for normal light-induced circadian phase shifting
    Satchidananda Panda
    Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John J Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Science 298:2213-6. 2002
    ..entrain to a light/dark cycle and do not exhibit any overt defect in circadian activity rhythms under constant darkness. However, they display severely attenuated phase resetting in response to brief pulses of monochromatic light, ..
  63. doi Melatonin, hormone of darkness and more: occurrence, control mechanisms, actions and bioactive metabolites
    R Hardeland
    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    Cell Mol Life Sci 65:2001-18. 2008
    ..Moreover, melatonin is a source of bioactive metabolites, such as 5-methoxytryptamine, N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine...
  64. ncbi Light and darkness regulate melanopsin in the retinal ganglion cells of the albino Wistar rat
    Jens Hannibal
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, DK 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark
    J Mol Neurosci 27:147-55. 2005
    ..of melanopsin at the mRNA and protein level during a day/night cycle and during prolonged periods of light and darkness in the retina of albino Wistar rats...
  65. ncbi Visual deprivation alters development of synaptic function in inner retina after eye opening
    N Tian
    Department of Ophthalmology, UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neuron 32:439-49. 2001
    ..These findings indicate there is a degree of activity-dependent plasticity in the mammalian retina that has not been previously described...
  66. doi Influence of photoperiod duration and light-dark transitions on entrainment of Per1 and Per2 gene and protein expression in subdivisions of the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus
    Serhiy Sosniyenko
    Department of Neurohumoral Regulations, Institute of Physiology, v v i, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic
    Eur J Neurosci 30:1802-14. 2009
    ..The data indicate that the twilight photoperiod provides stronger synchronization among the individual SCN cell subpopulations than the rectangular one, and the effect is more pronounced under the short than under the long photoperiod...
  67. pmc Circadian clock gene expression in the coral Favia fragum over diel and lunar reproductive cycles
    Kenneth D Hoadley
    Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e19755. 2011
    ..fragum. Our results suggest a molecular clock mechanism, potentially similar to that in described in fruit flies, exists within F. fragum...
  68. ncbi Rice tillering dwarf mutant dwarf3 has increased leaf longevity during darkness-induced senescence or hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death
    Haifang Yan
    Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Tokyo, Japan
    Genes Genet Syst 82:361-6. 2007
    Senescence or cell death in plant leaves is known to be inducible by darkness or H(2)O(2). When the Arabidopsis gene MAX2/ORE9 is disrupted, leaf senescence or cell death in response to the above stimuli is delayed...
  69. ncbi The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera presents a different nonphotochemical quenching control than higher plants
    Ernesto García-Mendoza
    Departamento de Oceanografía Biológica, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana Ensenada, Ensenada, BC, México CP 22860
    New Phytol 173:526-36. 2007
    ..pyrifera, in contrast to higher plants, the transthylakoid proton gradient alone does not induce NPQ. The role of this gradient seems to be related only to the activation of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase enzyme...
  70. pmc Does night-time transpiration contribute to anisohydric behaviour in a Vitis vinifera cultivar?
    Suzy Y Rogiers
    National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
    J Exp Bot 60:3751-63. 2009
    ..Night-time and daytime water loss and insufficient stomatal regulation therefore account for the tendency to anisohydric behaviour shown by Semillon...
  71. ncbi Complex circadian regulation of pineal melatonin and wheel-running in Syrian hamsters
    J A Elliott
    Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, CA 93950
    J Comp Physiol A 174:469-84. 1994
    ..and activity duration (alpha) were both 4-5 h longer after 12 or 27 weeks than after 5 or 6 days in continuous darkness (DD)...
  72. pmc Vasopressin receptor V1a regulates circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and expression of clock-controlled genes in the suprachiasmatic nuclei
    Jia Da Li
    Dept of Pharmacology, Univ of California, Irvine, 92697, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296:R824-30. 2009
    ..These studies thus indicate that AVP-V1a signaling plays an important role in the generation of overt circadian rhythms...
  73. ncbi Hedgehog signalling controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish
    Yoshiyuki Yamamoto
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Nature 431:844-7. 2004
    ..These features can be mimicked in surface fish by twhh and/or shh overexpression, supporting the role of hh signalling in the evolution of cavefish eye regression...
  74. pmc Alteration of organic acid metabolism in Arabidopsis overexpressing the maize C4 NADP-malic enzyme causes accelerated senescence during extended darkness
    Holger Fahnenstich
    Botanisches Institut, Universitat zu Koln, 50931 Cologne, Germany
    Plant Physiol 145:640-52. 2007
    ..Thus, in prolonged darkness these metabolites are consumed faster than in the wild type and, as a consequence, MEm plants enter irreversible ..
  75. ncbi Altered patterns of sleep and behavioral adaptability in NPAS2-deficient mice
    Carol A Dudley
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9152, USA
    Science 301:379-83. 2003
    ..Our results indicate that NPAS2 plays a substantive role in maintaining circadian behaviors in normal LD and feeding conditions and that NPAS2 is critical for adaptability to food restriction...
  76. ncbi Nuclear targeted AtS40 modulates senescence associated gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana during natural development and in darkness
    Isabell Fischer-Kilbienski
    Institute of Botany, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, 24098 Kiel, Germany
    Plant Mol Biol 73:379-90. 2010
    ..While in the wildtype expression of AtS40-3 was activated by darkness, in the s40-3a mutant the expression of AtS40-3 stayed at a low level...
  77. ncbi Response to darkness of late-responsive dark-inducible genes is positively regulated by leaf age and negatively regulated by calmodulin-antagonist-sensitive signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Yuki Fujiki
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Hongo, Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 46:1741-6. 2005
    Induction after prolonged darkness distinguishes the late-responsive genes din2 and din9 from the early-responsive gene din3 in Arabidopsis...
  78. ncbi The growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hypocotyls in the light and in darkness differentially involves auxin
    Y Kraepiel
    Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire des Plantes, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
    Plant Sci 161:1067-74. 2001
    ..Interestingly, the dgt mutant and NPA-treated seedlings exhibit a looped phenotype only under red light, indicating that the negative gravitropism of hypocotyls also differentially involves auxin in the various light conditions...
  79. ncbi Time-course of tomato whole-plant respiration and fruit and stem growth during prolonged darkness in relation to carbohydrate reserves
    C Gary
    INRA, Unité Plantes et Systèmes de culture Horticoles, Domaine St Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon Cedex 9, France
    Ann Bot 91:429-38. 2003
    ..the dynamics of growth, respiration and carbohydrate reserves of tomato plants were observed in prolonged darkness. Four days prior to the experiments, plants were exposed to high or low light levels and CO(2) concentrations...
  80. ncbi The sunflower HD-Zip transcription factor HAHB4 is up-regulated in darkness, reducing the transcription of photosynthesis-related genes
    Pablo A Manavella
    Cátedra de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CONICET, CC 242 Ciudad Universitaria, 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina
    J Exp Bot 59:3143-55. 2008
    ..In this study it is shown that the expression of HAHB4 is induced in darkness and quickly disappears when plants are exposed to light...
  81. ncbi Fear of the dark: interactive effects of beliefs about danger and ambient darkness on ethnic stereotypes
    Mark Schaller
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull 29:637-49. 2003
    Two studies examined effects of ambient darkness and chronic beliefs about danger on activation of stereotypes about Blacks. Chronic beliefs were measured by a Belief in a Dangerous World (BDW) questionnaire...
  82. ncbi Intracellular phosphorus metabolism of Microcystis aeruginosa under various redox potential in darkness
    Xiaoli Shi
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, PR China
    Microbiol Res 158:345-52. 2003
    ..Phosphorus metabolism of Microcystis aeruginosa was studied under gradient redox potential from 252 mV to -70 mV in darkness. The release of phosphorus occurred in all the treatments, and this process was accelerated in darkness when the ..
  83. pmc Synaptic influences on rat ganglion-cell photoreceptors
    Kwoon Y Wong
    Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Box G L471, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    J Physiol 582:279-96. 2007
    ..In constant darkness all ipRGCs received spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs...
  84. ncbi The role of low soil temperature in the inhibition of growth and PSII function during dark chilling in soybean genotypes of contrasting tolerance
    Abram J Strauss
    Section Botany, School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom 2522, South Africa
    Physiol Plant 131:89-105. 2007
    ....
  85. pmc Rice NTRC is a high-efficiency redox system for chloroplast protection against oxidative damage
    Juan Manuel Pérez-Ruiz
    Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville, Spain
    Plant Cell 18:2356-68. 2006
    ..Constitutive expression of wild-type NTRC in mutant transgenic lines rescued this phenotype. Moreover, prolonged darkness followed by light/dark incubation produced an increase in hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation in leaves and ..
  86. pmc Retina is structured to process an excess of darkness in natural scenes
    Charles P Ratliff
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17368-73. 2010
    ....
  87. ncbi The darkness at the end of the tunnel: summary and evaluation of an international symposium on light, endocrine systems and cancer
    Charles Poole
    Department of Epidemiology CB 7435, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 23:71-8. 2002
    ..In the near future, both epidemiologic and laboratory research in this area are expected to grow appreciably in scope and scale...
  88. ncbi Sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in darkness depends on the presence of gibberellins
    Yongqiang Zhang
    Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou Gansu, People s Republic of China
    J Plant Physiol 167:1130-6. 2010
    ..We conclude that sucrose can stimulate hypocotyl elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark in a GA-dependent manner...
  89. doi Experiments on mixotrophic protists and catastrophic darkness
    Harriet Jones
    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ UK
    Astrobiology 9:563-71. 2009
    ..Previous studies on the response of phototrophs to sudden prolonged darkness have focused on the survival of axenic strains...
  90. ncbi Of rodents and ungulates and melatonin: creating a uniform code for darkness by different signaling mechanisms
    J H Stehle
    Dr Senckenbergische Anatomie, Anatomisches Institut II, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat Frankfurt, Germany
    J Biol Rhythms 16:312-25. 2001
    ....
  91. pmc Patterns of expression and normalized levels of the five Arabidopsis phytochromes
    Robert A Sharrock
    Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, 119 ABS Building, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 3140, USA
    Plant Physiol 130:442-56. 2002
    ..These studies indicate that, with the exception of phytochrome A, the family of phytochrome photoreceptors in Arabidopsis constitutes a quite stable and very broadly distributed array of sensory molecules...
  92. ncbi Morning and evening peaks of activity rely on different clock neurons of the Drosophila brain
    Brigitte Grima
    Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard NGI, CNRS UPR 2216, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, av de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Nature 431:869-73. 2004
    ..Furthermore, we show that the LN(v)s alone can generate 24 h activity rhythms in constant darkness, indicating that the morning oscillator is sufficient to drive the circadian system.
  93. ncbi The autophagy-associated Atg8 gene family operates both under favourable growth conditions and under starvation stresses in Arabidopsis plants
    Silvia Slavikova
    Department of Plant Sciences, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    J Exp Bot 56:2839-49. 2005
    ..analysed in young Arabidopsis plants grown under favourable growth conditions or following exposure to prolonged darkness or sugar starvation...
  94. ncbi The mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein complex is essential for survival of Arabidopsis in extended darkness
    Kimitsune Ishizaki
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Plant J 47:751-60. 2006
    ..mutants of the ETFbeta gene revealed accelerated senescence and early death compared to wild-type during extended darkness. Furthermore in contrast to wild-type, the etfb mutants demonstrated a significant accumulation of several amino ..
  95. ncbi DELLA protein function in growth responses to canopy signals
    Tanja Djakovic-Petrovic
    Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Plant J 51:117-26. 2007
    ..These data provide novel information on the regulation of shade-avoidance under ecologically important conditions, defining the importance of DELLA proteins and GA and unravelling the existence of GA- and DELLA-independent mechanisms...
  96. pmc Distinct roles of GIGANTEA in promoting flowering and regulating circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis
    Tsuyoshi Mizoguchi
    Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8572, Japan
    Plant Cell 17:2255-70. 2005
    ..that do not control flowering are altered in 35S:GI and gi mutant plants under continuous light and continuous darkness, and the phase of expression of these genes is changed under diurnal cycles...
  97. ncbi Light-dependent sequestration of TIMELESS by CRYPTOCHROME
    M F Ceriani
    Department of Cell Biology and NSF Center for Biological Timing, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 285:553-6. 1999
    ..clocks consisting of negative feedback loops of gene regulation that facilitate adaptation to cycles of light and darkness. In this study, CRYPTOCHROME (CRY), a protein involved in circadian photoperception in Drosophila, is shown to ..
  98. pmc The critical role of Arabidopsis electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase during dark-induced starvation
    Kimitsune Ishizaki
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 17:2587-600. 2005
    ..insertional mutants of Arabidopsis ETFQO revealed a dramatic reduction in their ability to withstand extended darkness, resulting in senescence and death within 10 d after transfer, whereas wild-type plants remained viable for at ..
  99. pmc Elongated mesocotyl1, a phytochrome-deficient mutant of maize
    Ruairidh J H Sawers
    Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Tower Road, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Plant Physiol 130:155-63. 2002
    ..Thus, the elm1 mutant of maize provides the first direct evidence for phytochrome-mediated modulation of flowering time in this agronomically important species...
  100. pmc Impact of light on Hypocrea jecorina and the multiple cellular roles of ENVOY in this process
    Andre Schuster
    Division of Gene Technology and Applied Biochemistry, Institute for Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9 1665, A 1060 Wien, Austria
    BMC Genomics 8:449. 2007
    ..Based on these data, we analyzed whether these genes are influenced by ENVOY and if overexpression of ENVOY in darkness would be sufficient to execute its function.
  101. pmc Daily rhythms of food-anticipatory behavioral activity do not require the known circadian clock
    Kai Florian Storch
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6808-13. 2009
    ..known circadian clock function in all tissues exhibit normal FAA both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness, regardless of whether the mutation disables the positive or negative limb of the clock feedback mechanism...

Research Grants79

  1. TRP channel expression and function in ON-bipolar cells
    ROBERT M contact DUVOISIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..synapse, the tonic release of glutamate from photoreceptor terminals maintains a high synaptic concentration in darkness that decreases in response to light...
  2. Human circadian sensitivity to very short light pulses
    ELIZABETH KLERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We also will investigate the duration of darkness exposure required to reset circadian sensitivity...
  3. Human circadian sensitivity to very short light pulses
    Elizabeth B Klerman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We also will investigate the duration of darkness exposure required to reset circadian sensitivity...
  4. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas T Norton; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Specific Aim 3 will use an "association" paradigm in which three different methods (darkness, form deprivation, and minus-lens wear) will be used to induce myopia to identify the pattern of retinal gene ..
  5. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS NORTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Specific Aim 3 will use an "association" paradigm in which three different methods (darkness, form deprivation, and minus-lens wear) will be used to induce myopia to identify the pattern of retinal gene ..
  6. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas T Norton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specific Aim 3 will use an "association" paradigm in which three different methods (darkness, form deprivation, and minus-lens wear) will be used to induce myopia to identify the pattern of retinal gene ..
  7. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS NORTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Specific Aim 3 will use an "association" paradigm in which three different methods (darkness, form deprivation, and minus-lens wear) will be used to induce myopia to identify the pattern of retinal gene ..
  8. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas T Norton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specific Aim 3 will use an "association" paradigm in which three different methods (darkness, form deprivation, and minus-lens wear) will be used to induce myopia to identify the pattern of retinal gene ..
  9. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas T Norton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specific Aim 3 will use an "association" paradigm in which three different methods (darkness, form deprivation, and minus-lens wear) will be used to induce myopia to identify the pattern of retinal gene ..
  10. THE CONTROL OF TISSUE-SENSITIVITY TO AUTONOMIC AGENTS
    LASZLO BITO; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Supersensitivity will be induced by intravitreal hemicholinium injections, stimulus deprivation (continuous darkness), ciliary ganglionectomy or retrobulbar injection of ethyl alcohol...
  11. Manganese-Enhanced MRI Studies of Vision Loss with Aging
    DAVID PHILIP BISSIG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..patch one eye and measure retinal and brain Mn2+ uptake in response to visual stimulation (unpatched eye) and darkness (patched eye) with MEMRI...
  12. Circadian and Aminergic Regulation of Orexin Neurons
    THOMAS SCAMMELL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..mediates circadian influences on sleep/wake architecture by studying rodents in a light/dark cycle or in constant darkness; these experiments will use two models of orexin deficiency: orexin knockout mice and transgenic rats with an ..
  13. Circadian and Aminergic Regulation of Orexin Neurons
    THOMAS SCAMMELL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..mediates circadian influences on sleep/wake architecture by studying rodents in a light/dark cycle or in constant darkness; these experiments will use two models of orexin deficiency: orexin knockout mice and transgenic rats with an ..
  14. Circadian and Aminergic Regulation of Orexin Neurons
    THOMAS SCAMMELL; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..mediates circadian influences on sleep/wake architecture by studying rodents in a light/dark cycle or in constant darkness; these experiments will use two models of orexin deficiency: orexin knockout mice and transgenic rats with an ..
  15. Circadian and Aminergic Regulation of Orexin Neurons
    THOMAS SCAMMELL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..mediates circadian influences on sleep/wake architecture by studying rodents in a light/dark cycle or in constant darkness; these experiments will use two models of orexin deficiency: orexin knockout mice and transgenic rats with an ..
  16. Circadian and Aminergic Regulation of Orexin Neurons
    THOMAS SCAMMELL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..mediates circadian influences on sleep/wake architecture by studying rodents in a light/dark cycle or in constant darkness; these experiments will use two models of orexin deficiency: orexin knockout mice and transgenic rats with an ..
  17. Circadian and Aminergic Regulation of Orexin Neurons
    THOMAS SCAMMELL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..mediates circadian influences on sleep/wake architecture by studying rodents in a light/dark cycle or in constant darkness; these experiments will use two models of orexin deficiency: orexin knockout mice and transgenic rats with an ..
  18. Retinal Circadian Signaling in a Transgenic Model
    Allan Wiechmann; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In the retina, melatonin acts as a paracrine signal of darkness by activating specific receptors that ultimately leads to increased sensitivity to light...
  19. Retinal Circadian Signaling in a Transgenic Frog Model
    Allan Wiechmann; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In the retina, melatonin acts as a paracrine signal of darkness by activating specific receptors that ultimately leads to increased sensitivity to light...
  20. Retinal Circadian Signaling in a Transgenic Model
    Allan Wiechmann; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In the retina, melatonin acts as a paracrine signal of darkness by activating specific receptors that ultimately leads to increased sensitivity to light...
  21. REVERSIBLE ADP-RIBOSYLATION OF NITROGENASE
    PAUL LUDDEN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..ADP-ribosylation occurs in vivo in response to darkness or ammonium and is catalyzed by the dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT)...
  22. The role of dopaminergic transmission in the development of manic-like behaviors
    SADE MONIQUE SPENCER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..rhythms by assaying gene expression over six time points under both 12 hour light-dark (LD) and constant darkness (DD) conditions...
  23. REVERSIBLE ADP-RIBOSYLATION OF NITROGENASE
    PAUL LUDDEN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..enzyme in Rhodospirillum rubrum is inactivated by ADP{-ribosylation of arg101 in response to ammonium or darkness. DRAT is the ADP-ribosyltransferase responsible for inactivation and DRAG is the glycohydrolase that activates ..
  24. Circadian Clock Function in the Mammalian Retina
    Christophe Ribelayga; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The primary hallmark of clocks is that they continue to run in constant environmental conditions (e.g., total darkness) with periods of approximately 24 h (circadian clocks), and are synchronized to environmental rhythms through ..
  25. Circadian Clock Function in the Mammalian Retina
    Christophe P Ribelayga; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The primary hallmark of clocks is that they continue to run in constant environmental conditions (e.g., total darkness) with periods of approximately 24 h (circadian clocks), and are synchronized to environmental rhythms through ..
  26. LIGHT DURING DARKNESS AND BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION
    David Blask; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The long-term goal of this research is to determine if light, present during darkness, is a risk factor for breast cancer progression...
  27. REVERSIBLE ADP-RIBOSYLATION OF NITROGENASE
    PAUL LUDDEN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..enzyme in Rhodospirillum rubrum is inactivated by ADP{-ribosylation of arg101 in response to ammonium or darkness. DRAT is the ADP-ribosyltransferase responsible for inactivation and DRAG is the glycohydrolase that activates ..
  28. REVERSIBLE ADP-RIBOSYLATION OF NITROGENASE
    PAUL LUDDEN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..enzyme in Rhodospirillum rubrum is inactivated by ADP{-ribosylation of arg101 in response to ammonium or darkness. DRAT is the ADP-ribosyltransferase responsible for inactivation and DRAG is the glycohydrolase that activates ..
  29. LIGHT DURING DARKNESS AND BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION
    David Blask; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The long-term goal of this research is to determine if light, present during darkness, is a risk factor for breast cancer progression...
  30. Circadian Clock Function in the Mammalian Retina
    Christophe Ribelayga; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The primary hallmark of clocks is that they continue to run in constant environmental conditions (e.g., total darkness) with periods of approximately 24 h (circadian clocks), and are synchronized to environmental rhythms through ..
  31. LIGHT DURING DARKNESS AND BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION
    David Blask; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The long-term goal of this research is to determine if light, present during darkness, is a risk factor for breast cancer progression...
  32. LIGHT DURING DARKNESS AND BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION
    David Blask; Fiscal Year: 2001
    The long-term goal of this research is to determine if light, present during darkness, is a risk factor for breast cancer progression...
  33. REVERSIBLE ADP-RIBOSYLATION OF NITROGENASE
    PAUL LUDDEN; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..enzyme in Rhodospirillum rubrum is inactivated by ADP{-ribosylation of arg101 in response to ammonium or darkness. DRAT is the ADP-ribosyltransferase responsible for inactivation and DRAG is the glycohydrolase that activates ..
  34. REVERSIBLE ADP-RIBOSYLATION OF NITROGENASE
    PAUL LUDDEN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..enzyme in Rhodospirillum rubrum is inactivated by ADP{-ribosylation of arg101 in response to ammonium or darkness. DRAT is the ADP-ribosyltransferase responsible for inactivation and DRAG is the glycohydrolase that activates ..
  35. MECHANISMS OF SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN THE RETINA
    Scott Nawy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The synapse is sign-inverting because glutamate, released in darkness by rod and cone photoreceptors, hyperpolarizes the membrane of ON bipolar cells...
  36. Circadian Modulation of Drug-Seeking Behavior
    HEIKO JANSEN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aims 1 and 2 will use sham and SCN-lesioned rats and test cocaine extinction and reinstatement under constant darkness to define the role of the SCN and extra-SCN brain regions on time-of-day variation in cocaine-seeking behavior...
  37. Circadian Modulation of Drug-Seeking Behavior
    Heiko T Jansen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..CPP Aims 1 and 2 will use sham and SCN-lesioned rats and test cocaine extinction and reinstatement under constant darkness to define the role of the SCN and extra-SCN brain regions on time-of-day variation in cocaine-seeking behavior...
  38. Circadian Modulation of Drug-Seeking Behavior
    HEIKO JANSEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..CPP Aims 1 and 2 will use sham and SCN-lesioned rats and test cocaine extinction and reinstatement under constant darkness to define the role of the SCN and extra-SCN brain regions on time-of-day variation in cocaine-seeking behavior...
  39. LIGHT RESPONSIVE GENES
    Nam Hai Chua; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Interaction domains will be mapped by in vitro pull- down assays. Factor association in vivo in response to darkness and FR will be determined by co-immunoprecipitation and the physiological impact on phyA responses will be ..
  40. LIGHT RESPONSIVE GENES
    Nam Hai Chua; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Interaction domains will be mapped by in vitro pull- down assays. Factor association in vivo in response to darkness and FR will be determined by co-immunoprecipitation and the physiological impact on phyA responses will be ..
  41. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS NORTON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Specific Aim 3 will use three different methods of inducing myopia (darkness, form deprivation, and minus-lens wear) to identify components of the retinal and scleral gene expression that ..
  42. Light-regulated genes affecting the pathogen potential of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Alexander Idnurm; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..light using a whole genome microarray analysis of transcription, comparing a wild type strain grown in constant darkness or treated with a pulse of light...
  43. COMPUTATIONAL BASIS OF THE HEAD DIRECTION CELL SIGNAL
    Patricia Sharp; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Rather, the cells are influenced, in part, by visual cues; salient visual landmarks can "set" the darkness. Thus, the cells must also use cues which signal angular head motion (e.g...
  44. COMPUTATIONAL BASIS OF THE HEAD DIRECTION CELL SIGNAL
    Patricia Sharp; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Rather, the cells are influenced, in part, by visual cues; salient visual landmarks can "set" the darkness. Thus, the cells must also use cues which signal angular head motion (e.g...
  45. BLOTING TRANSITION SPECIFIC GENETIC & BIOCHEMICAL EVENTS IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
    ROBERT VELLANOWETH; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of the ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant etr1-1 for mutants exhibiting delayed following in response to darkness-induced senescence...
  46. METHOXYINDOLES IN RETINA--FUNCTION AND REGULATION
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..will be conducted to investigate: (1) the signal transduction cascade that regulates the effects of light and darkness on NAT activity in photoreceptor cells; (2) the molecular basis for the effects of light and cAMP on NAT mRNA and ..
  47. METHOXYINDOLES IN RETINA--FUNCTION AND REGULATION
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..will be conducted to investigate: (1) the signal transduction cascade that regulates the effects of light and darkness on NAT activity in photoreceptor cells; (2) the molecular basis for the effects of light and cAMP on NAT mRNA and ..
  48. METHOXYINDOLES IN RETINA--FUNCTION AND REGULATION
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..will be conducted to investigate: (1) the signal transduction cascade that regulates the effects of light and darkness on NAT activity in photoreceptor cells; (2) the molecular basis for the effects of light and cAMP on NAT mRNA and ..
  49. METHOXYINDOLES IN RETINA--FUNCTION AND REGULATION
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..will be conducted to investigate: (1) the signal transduction cascade that regulates the effects of light and darkness on NAT activity in photoreceptor cells; (2) the molecular basis for the effects of light and cAMP on NAT mRNA and ..
  50. METHOXYINDOLES IN RETINA--FUNCTION AND REGULATION
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..will be conducted to investigate: (1) the signal transduction cascade that regulates the effects of light and darkness on NAT activity in photoreceptor cells; (2) the molecular basis for the effects of light and cAMP on NAT mRNA and ..
  51. Signaling mechanisms of retinal bipolar cells
    CATHERINE MORGANS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..synapse, the tonic release of glutamate from photoreceptor terminals maintains a high synaptic concentration in darkness that rapidly decreases in response to light...
  52. Signaling mechanisms of retinal bipolar cells
    Catherine W Morgans; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..synapse, the tonic release of glutamate from photoreceptor terminals maintains a high synaptic concentration in darkness that rapidly decreases in response to light...
  53. The Roles of Neuropeptide S System in the Regulation of Sleep and Wakefulness
    Yanling Xu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..NPS peptide, NPS precursor and receptor mRNA contents at different circadian times and in conditions of constant darkness and after sleep deprivation...
  54. PINEAL GAP JUNCTION--CHARACTERIZATION AND REGULATION
    JUAN SAEZ; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..of environmental factors including normal innervation, light/dark cycles, constant illumination, and constant darkness. Using immunological techniques and Northern blot analysis we found that rat pineals express both connexins 43 ..
  55. NEURONAL PLASTICITY IN THE RETINA
    Stuart C Mangel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. constant darkness)...
  56. SPECTRAL AND METABOLIC BASIS OF VISUAL RESPONSES
    M Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Measurements will be made in darkness before and following bleaching and following exogenous incorporation of retinal and its analogs...
  57. SPECTRAL AND METABOLIC BASIS OF VISUAL RESPONSES
    M Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Measurements will be made in darkness before and following bleaching and following exogenous incorporation of retinal and its analogs...
  58. MEMBRANE MORPHOGENESIS AND DIFFERENTIATION IN BACTERIA
    ROBERT UFFEN; Fiscal Year: 1980
    Rhodospirillum rubrum grows anaerobically in light, or fermentatively in darkness with pyruvate. Fermenting cells resemble light-grown R. rubrum by containing "chromatophores"...
  59. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN MAMMALS: ROLE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
    Fred Turek; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..g., pulses of light or darkness, exposure to a novel running wheel or treatment with short-acting benzodiazepines) will be identified...
  60. MELATONIN FOR CIRCADIAN SLEEP DISORDERS IN THE BLIND
    Robert Sack; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Nightly oral administration of melatonin may act as a "darkness signal" that can synchronize internal rhythms to desired sleep times...
  61. SPECTRAL AND METABOLIC BASIS OF VISUAL RESPONSES
    M Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..will be obtained from solitary rods and cones in which retinal and its analogs have been incorporated in darkness and following bright light (bleaching) to determine how cytosolic messenger substances are regulated during dark-..
  62. SPECTRAL AND METABOLIC BASIS OF VISUAL RESPONSES
    M Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..will be obtained from solitary rods and cones in which retinal and its analogs have been incorporated in darkness and following bright light (bleaching) to determine how cytosolic messenger substances are regulated during dark-..
  63. SPECTRAL AND METABOLIC BASIS OF VISUAL RESPONSES
    M Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..will be obtained from solitary rods and cones in which retinal and its analogs have been incorporated in darkness and following bright light (bleaching) to determine how cytosolic messenger substances are regulated during dark-..
  64. LIGHT RESPONSIVE GENES
    Nam Hai Chua; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Interaction domains will be mapped by in vitro pull-down assays. Factor association in vivo in response to darkness and FR will be determined by co-immunoprecipitation and the physiological impact on phyA responses will be ..
  65. Circadian Expression of Procolipase in the Liver: A Metabolic Signal
    Mark E Lowe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) expression in the liver and other tissues when mice are kept in constant darkness raises the possibility that these proteins contribute to the regulation of feeding behavior and lipid metabolism ..
  66. Circadian Expression of Procolipase in the Liver: A Metabolic Signal
    Mark Lowe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) expression in the liver and other tissues when mice are kept in constant darkness raises the possibility that these proteins contribute to the regulation of feeding behavior and lipid metabolism ..
  67. MANAGEMENT OF SLEEP-ACTIVITY DISRUPTION IN ALZHEIMERS
    Glenna Dowling; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..light exposure and exogenous administration of melatonin (a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland during darkness) are needed...
  68. OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM AND BODY POSTURAL MECHANISMS
    Bernard Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..of the body, head and eyes can be characterized and it will be possible to determine the effects of lesions of the vestibular apparatus on natural straight and circular locomotion of monkeys running in light and darkness.
  69. OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM AND BODY POSTURAL MECHANISMS
    Bernard Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..of the body, head and eyes can be characterized and it will be possible to determine the effects of lesions of the vestibular apparatus on natural straight and circular locomotion of monkeys running in light and darkness.
  70. MANAGEMENT OF SLEEP-ACTIVITY DISRUPTION IN ALZHEIMERS
    Glenna Dowling; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..light exposure and exogenous administration of melatonin (a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland during darkness) are needed...
  71. OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM AND BODY POSTURAL MECHANISMS
    Bernard Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of the body, head and eyes can be characterized and it will be possible to determine the effects of lesions of the vestibular apparatus on natural straight and circular locomotion of monkeys running in light and darkness.
  72. OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM AND BODY POSTURAL MECHANISMS
    Bernard Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of the body, head and eyes can be characterized and it will be possible to determine the effects of lesions of the vestibular apparatus on natural straight and circular locomotion of monkeys running in light and darkness.
  73. MANAGEMENT OF SLEEP-ACTIVITY DISRUPTION IN ALZHEIMERS
    Glenna Dowling; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..light exposure and exogenous administration of melatonin (a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland during darkness) are needed...
  74. DOSE-RESPONSE CURVE FOR MELATONIN IN THE ELDERLY
    Alfred Lewy; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..adapted from investigator's abstract): Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland only during nighttime darkness. It acts like a dark signal and therefore resets the body clock, especially if administered during the day...
  75. PLASTICITY OF MAMMALIAN CIRCADIAN AXIS
    Gianluca Tosini; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..the raphe nuclei, appear in large numbers in the SCN of hamsters that have been held for 16-20 weeks in constant darkness. Our second aim is to explore this observation further by testing two hypotheses: 1) that the effect is caused ..
  76. PLASTICITY OF MAMMALIAN CIRCADIAN AXIS
    Gianluca Tosini; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..the raphe nuclei, appear in large numbers in the SCN of hamsters that have been held for 16-20 weeks in constant darkness. Our second aim is to explore this observation further by testing two hypotheses: 1) that the effect is caused ..