photons

Summary

Summary: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. doi Advances in single-molecule fluorescence methods for molecular biology
    Chirlmin Joo
    Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 77:51-76. 2008
  2. doi Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma
    N Patrik Brodin
    Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Acta Oncol 50:806-16. 2011
  3. doi Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases : a feasibility study of advanced techniques with modulated photons and protons
    Marta Scorsetti
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano Milan, Italy
    Strahlenther Onkol 187:238-44. 2011
  4. pmc On the benefits and risks of proton therapy in pediatric craniopharyngioma
    Chris Beltran
    Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82:e281-7. 2012
  5. pmc Efficacy of intracerebral delivery of cisplatin in combination with photon irradiation for treatment of brain tumors
    Julia Rousseau
    INSERM U836, Equipe 6, ESRF, Medical Beamline, BP 220, 38043, Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    J Neurooncol 98:287-95. 2010
  6. doi A trust region method in adaptive finite element framework for bioluminescence tomography
    Bo Zhang
    Sino Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School of Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110004, China
    Opt Express 18:6477-91. 2010
  7. doi Assembly of hybrid photonic architectures from nanophotonic constituents
    Oliver Benson
    Nano Optik, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany
    Nature 480:193-9. 2011
  8. doi Neurobiology with caged calcium
    Graham C R Ellis-Davies
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102, USA
    Chem Rev 108:1603-13. 2008
  9. pmc Two-photon imaging of the trabecular meshwork
    David A Ammar
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA
    Mol Vis 16:935-44. 2010
  10. pmc Two-photon single-cell optogenetic control of neuronal activity by sculpted light
    Bertalan K Andrasfalvy
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:11981-6. 2010

Detail Information

Publications356 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Advances in single-molecule fluorescence methods for molecular biology
    Chirlmin Joo
    Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 77:51-76. 2008
    ..In this exciting era of transitioning from in vitro to in vivo and in situ conditions, it is anticipated that SM fluorescence methodology will become a common tool of molecular biology...
  2. doi Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma
    N Patrik Brodin
    Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Acta Oncol 50:806-16. 2011
    ..The aim was also to find dose-volume toxicity parameters relevant to children undergoing RT to be used in the inverse planning of RA and IMPT, and to use in the risk estimations...
  3. doi Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases : a feasibility study of advanced techniques with modulated photons and protons
    Marta Scorsetti
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano Milan, Italy
    Strahlenther Onkol 187:238-44. 2011
    To compare advanced treatment techniques with photons and protons as a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal glands metastases.
  4. pmc On the benefits and risks of proton therapy in pediatric craniopharyngioma
    Chris Beltran
    Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82:e281-7. 2012
    ..We compared photon- and proton-based irradiation methods to determine the effect of tumor volume change on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation in these patients...
  5. pmc Efficacy of intracerebral delivery of cisplatin in combination with photon irradiation for treatment of brain tumors
    Julia Rousseau
    INSERM U836, Equipe 6, ESRF, Medical Beamline, BP 220, 38043, Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    J Neurooncol 98:287-95. 2010
    ....
  6. doi A trust region method in adaptive finite element framework for bioluminescence tomography
    Bo Zhang
    Sino Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School of Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110004, China
    Opt Express 18:6477-91. 2010
    ..In the TRM, all the parameters are fixed, while in the Tikhonov method the regularization parameter needs to be well selected...
  7. doi Assembly of hybrid photonic architectures from nanophotonic constituents
    Oliver Benson
    Nano Optik, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany
    Nature 480:193-9. 2011
    ..Particularly rapid progress is seen in the combination of plasmonic-dielectric constituents with quantum emitters that can be assembled on demand into fundamental model systems for future optical elements...
  8. doi Neurobiology with caged calcium
    Graham C R Ellis-Davies
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102, USA
    Chem Rev 108:1603-13. 2008
  9. pmc Two-photon imaging of the trabecular meshwork
    David A Ammar
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA
    Mol Vis 16:935-44. 2010
    ..To image the trabecular meshwork (TM) in its native unfixed state using a non-invasive, non-destructive technique...
  10. pmc Two-photon single-cell optogenetic control of neuronal activity by sculpted light
    Bertalan K Andrasfalvy
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:11981-6. 2010
    ..The demonstrated spatiotemporal resolution and the selectivity provided by TEFO allow manipulation of neuronal activity, with a large number of applications in studies of neuronal microcircuit function in vitro and in vivo...
  11. pmc Intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comparative treatment planning study of photons and protons
    Zahra Taheri-Kadkhoda
    Göteborg University and Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden
    Radiat Oncol 3:4. 2008
    ..The aim of this treatment planning study was to investigate the potential advantages of intensity-modulated (IM) proton therapy (IMPT) compared with IM photon therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)...
  12. doi Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy with standard fluorescent probes
    Sebastian van de Linde
    Department of Biotechnology and Biophysics, Julius Maximilians University Würzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Nat Protoc 6:991-1009. 2011
    ..Furthermore, we discuss labeling strategies, acquisition parameters, and temporal and spatial resolution. The ultimate step of data acquisition and data processing can be performed in seconds to minutes...
  13. doi Comparison of the effectiveness of radiotherapy with photons, protons and carbon-ions for non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis
    Janneke P C Grutters
    Department of Radiation Oncology Maastro Clinic, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Radiother Oncol 95:32-40. 2010
    To provide a comparison between radiotherapy with photons, protons and carbon-ions in the treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), performing a meta-analysis of observational studies.
  14. pmc Violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality with weak measurements of photons
    M E Goggin
    Department of Physics and Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1256-61. 2011
    ..Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that there is a one-to-one correlation between achieving strange weak values and violating the Leggett-Garg inequality...
  15. ncbi On the dosimetric behaviour of photon dose calculation algorithms in the presence of simple geometric heterogeneities: comparison with Monte Carlo calculations
    Antonella Fogliata
    Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona, Switzerland
    Phys Med Biol 52:1363-85. 2007
    ..035 g cm(-3)), enhanced for the most energetic beam. For denser, and more clinical, densities a better agreement among the sophisticated algorithms with respect to MC was observed...
  16. ncbi Comparison of dose calculation algorithms for treatment planning in external photon beam therapy for clinical situations
    Tommy Knöös
    Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, S 221 85 Lund, Sweden
    Phys Med Biol 51:5785-807. 2006
    ..planning systems (TPSs) for common treatment sites regarding their ability to model heterogeneities and scattered photons has been performed...
  17. ncbi Induction of persistent double strand breaks following multiphoton irradiation of cycling and G1-arrested mammalian cells-replication-induced double strand breaks
    Jane V Harper
    DNA Damage Group, Radiation Oncology Biology, Old Road Campus Research Building, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Photochem Photobiol 84:1506-14. 2008
    ..Cell cycle studies have shown that in G1 cells, a significant fraction of multiphoton laser-induced prompt DSBs persists for > 4 h in addition to those induced at replication...
  18. ncbi Coherence dynamics in photosynthesis: protein protection of excitonic coherence
    Hohjai Lee
    Department of Chemistry and QB3 Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA
    Science 316:1462-5. 2007
    ....
  19. ncbi Testing of the analytical anisotropic algorithm for photon dose calculation
    Ann Van Esch
    7Sigma, QA team in Radiotherapy Physics, Belgium and Clinique Ste Elisabeth, Namur, Belgium
    Med Phys 33:4130-48. 2006
    ..Particular progress was made with respect to the penumbra and low dose regions. In heterogeneous materials, improvements are substantial and more pronounced for high (18 MV) than for low (6 MV) energies...
  20. ncbi Dosimetric validation of the anisotropic analytical algorithm for photon dose calculation: fundamental characterization in water
    Antonella Fogliata
    Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona, Switzerland
    Phys Med Biol 51:1421-38. 2006
    ..Additional tests were carried out for enhanced dynamic wedges with results comparable to previous results. The basic dosimetric validation of the AAA was therefore considered satisfactory...
  21. ncbi Visual outcome of accelerated fractionated radiation for advanced sinonasal malignancies employing photons/protons
    Damien C Weber
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Radiother Oncol 81:243-9. 2006
    ..To investigate the visual outcomes of patients with advanced sinonasal malignancies treated with proton/photon accelerated fractionated radiation (AFR)...
  22. ncbi Enhancement of radiation effect by heavy elements
    K Kobayashi
    Photon Factory, KEK, Tsukuba, Japan
    Mutat Res 704:123-31. 2010
    ..After discussion on the required characteristics for radiosensitizers, possibility of nanoparticles of Au or Pt is mentioned since they could be synthesized or modified as ideal radiosensitizers...
  23. doi Comparison of fluorescence tomographic imaging in mice with early-arriving and quasi-continuous-wave photons
    Mark Niedre
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Opt Lett 35:369-71. 2010
    ..In this work we investigated the use of time-gated detection of early-arriving photons for reducing the effects of light scatter in mice relative to quasi-cw photons...
  24. pmc Improved rejection of multiply scattered photons in confocal microscopy using dual-axes architecture
    Larry K Wong
    Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    Opt Lett 32:1674-6. 2007
    ..simulations to show that the dual-axes (DA) confocal architecture has superior rejection of multiply scattered photons in tissue to that of single axis...
  25. ncbi Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: in-air output ratio, Sc, for megavoltage photon beams
    Timothy C Zhu
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Med Phys 36:5261-91. 2009
    ..The authors discussed the use of Sc in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of Sc data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes...
  26. doi A biosensor based on photonic crystal surface waves with an independent registration of the liquid refractive index
    Valery N Konopsky
    Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region, Russia
    Biosens Bioelectron 25:1212-6. 2010
    ..The attained baseline noise is 5x10(-13) m/Hz(1/2) for adlayer thickness changes and 9x10(-8) RIU/Hz(1/2) for RI changes...
  27. pmc Imaging of ultraweak spontaneous photon emission from human body displaying diurnal rhythm
    Masaki Kobayashi
    Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, Japan
    PLoS ONE 4:e6256. 2009
    ..We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. The diurnal changes in photon emission might be linked to changes in energy metabolism...
  28. ncbi Proton therapy in chordoma of the base of the skull: a systematic review
    Maurizio Amichetti
    ATreP Provincial Agency for Proton Therapy, Via F lli Perini, 181, 38100 Trento, Italy
    Neurosurg Rev 32:403-16. 2009
    ..postoperative treatment of choice, but no controlled studies have yet confirmed the superiority of protons over photons. During January 2008, two independent researchers conducted a systematic review of the current data on the ..
  29. doi Efficacy of intracerebral delivery of Carboplatin in combination with photon irradiation for treatment of F98 glioma-bearing rats
    Julia Rousseau
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U836, Equipe 6, Grenoble, France
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 73:530-6. 2009
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of prolonged intracerebral (i.c.) administration of carboplatin by means of ALZET osmotic pumps, in combination with radiotherapy for the treatment of intracranial F98 glioma in rats...
  30. doi Detection of the tagged or untagged photons in acousto-optic imaging of thick highly scattering media by photorefractive adaptive holography
    M Gross
    Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UMR 8552 ENS, CNRS, UMPC, Ecole Normale Superieure, 10 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 28:173-82. 2009
    ..We describe here our present state of the art and understanding on the problem of breast imaging with PR detection of the acousto-optic signal...
  31. ncbi High-energy photons in IMRT: uncertainties and risks for questionable gain
    J S Welsh
    Department
    Technol Cancer Res Treat 6:147-9. 2007
  32. pmc Radiation therapy planning with photons and protons for early and advanced breast cancer: an overview
    Damien C Weber
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
    Radiat Oncol 1:22. 2006
    ..Protons have superior dose distributional qualities compared to photons, as dose deposition occurs in a modulated narrow zone, called the Bragg peak...
  33. doi Proton stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of benign meningiomas
    Lia M Halasz
    Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81:1428-35. 2011
    ..Here, we report the first series of proton stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) used for the treatment of meningiomas...
  34. doi Assessment of early toxicity and response in patients treated with proton and carbon ion therapy at the Heidelberg ion therapy center using the raster scanning technique
    Stefan Rieken
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81:e793-801. 2011
    ..PUROPOSE: To asses early toxicity and response in 118 patients treated with scanned ion beams to validate the safety of intensity-controlled raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center...
  35. pmc Comparison of therapeutic dosimetric data from passively scattered proton and photon craniospinal irradiations for medulloblastoma
    Rebecca M Howell
    Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Radiat Oncol 7:116. 2012
    ....
  36. doi A polymer-based functional pattern on one-dimensional photonic crystals for photon sorting of fluorescence radiation
    Mirko Ballarini
    Department of Applied Sciences and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
    Opt Express 20:6703-11. 2012
    ..This working principle can be advantageously extended to a multi-step nanometric relief structure for self-referencing biosensing or frequency-multiplexed fluorescence detection...
  37. doi Craniospinal irradiation techniques: a dosimetric comparison of proton beams with standard and advanced photon radiotherapy
    Myonggeun Yoon
    Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81:637-46. 2011
    ..To evaluate the dosimetric benefits of advanced radiotherapy techniques for craniospinal irradiation in cancer in children...
  38. doi Results of a multicentric in silico clinical trial (ROCOCO): comparing radiotherapy with photons and protons for non-small cell lung cancer
    Erik Roelofs
    Department of Radiation Oncology MAASTRO, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center MUMC, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    J Thorac Oncol 7:165-76. 2012
    ..The hypothesis is that proton radiotherapy decreases the dose and the volume of irradiated normal tissues even when escalating to the maximum tolerable dose of one or more of the organs at risk (OAR)...
  39. doi Bio-inspired variable structural color materials
    Yuanjin Zhao
    State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
    Chem Soc Rev 41:3297-317. 2012
    ..We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references)...
  40. ncbi Benign meningioma: partially resected, biopsied, and recurrent intracranial tumors treated with combined proton and photon radiotherapy
    E Wenkel
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:1363-70. 2000
    ..To evaluate the recurrence-free survival and complications of combined proton and photon radiotherapy of patients with incompletely resected or recurrent histologically-confirmed benign meningioma...
  41. ncbi Two-photon imaging to a depth of 1000 microm in living brains by use of a Ti:Al2O3 regenerative amplifier
    Patrick Theer
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Johnstrasse 29, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Opt Lett 28:1022-4. 2003
    ..The achieved imaging depth approaches the theoretical limit set by excitation of out-of-focus fluorescence...
  42. ncbi Two-photon absorption standards in the 550-1600 nm excitation wavelength range
    Nikolay S Makarov
    Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
    Opt Express 16:4029-47. 2008
    ..The data are corrected for the variations of the pulse duration and the beam profile with the excitation wavelength, and are applicable as reference standards for 2PA measurements...
  43. ncbi Intensity modulation in radiotherapy: photons versus protons in the paranasal sinus
    Anthony John Lomax
    Division of Radiation Oncology, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
    Radiother Oncol 66:11-8. 2003
    ....
  44. ncbi Optimal treatment planning for skull base chordoma: photons, protons, or a combination of both?
    Mylin A Torres
    Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74:1033-9. 2009
    ..We compared dosimetry of proton (PR), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) photon (PH), and combined PR and IMRT PH (PP) irradiation of skull base chordomas to determine the most optimal technique...
  45. pmc Hydrostatic pressure sensing with high birefringence photonic crystal fibers
    Fernando C Favero
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453 900 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Sensors (Basel) 10:9698-711. 2010
    ..From the analysis of experimental results, it is concluded that, in principle, an operating limit of 92 MPa in pressure could be achieved with 0.0003% of full scale resolution...
  46. ncbi Dose calculation validation of Vmc++ for photon beams
    J Gardner
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0058, USA
    Med Phys 34:1809-18. 2007
    ..VMC + + can be used for photon beam MC patient dose computations without a clinically significant loss in accuracy...
  47. pmc Precise nanometer localization analysis for individual fluorescent probes
    Russell E Thompson
    Cornell University, School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Biophys J 82:2775-83. 2002
    ..The precision of localization scales as the inverse square root of the number of photons in the spot for the shot noise limited case and as the inverse of the number of photons for the background noise ..
  48. doi How costly is particle therapy? Cost analysis of external beam radiotherapy with carbon-ions, protons and photons
    Andrea Peeters
    Maastricht Radiation Oncology MAASTRO Clinic, 6229 ET Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Radiother Oncol 95:45-53. 2010
    ..Particle therapy has potentially a better therapeutic ratio than photon therapy. However, investment costs are much higher. This study provides an estimation and comparison of the costs of these therapies...
  49. pmc Optimized localization analysis for single-molecule tracking and super-resolution microscopy
    Kim I Mortensen
    Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
    Nat Methods 7:377-81. 2010
    ....
  50. doi Dosimetric validation of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm: fundamental characterization in water
    Antonella Fogliata
    Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona, Switzerland
    Phys Med Biol 56:1879-904. 2011
    ..The basic validation of the Acuros XB algorithm was therefore considered satisfactory for both conventional photon beams as well as for FFF beams of new generation linacs such as the Varian TrueBeam...
  51. ncbi Dosimetric validation of Acuros XB with Monte Carlo methods for photon dose calculations
    K Bush
    Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Island Center, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5, Canada
    Med Phys 38:2208-21. 2011
    ....
  52. ncbi Validation of a new grid-based Boltzmann equation solver for dose calculation in radiotherapy with photon beams
    Oleg N Vassiliev
    Department of Radiation Physics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Phys Med Biol 55:581-98. 2010
    ..Additionally, since Acuros calculation times are only weakly dependent on the number of beams, Acuros may ideally be suited to arc therapies, where current clinical algorithms may incur long calculation times...
  53. pmc Feasibility of a multigroup deterministic solution method for three-dimensional radiotherapy dose calculations
    Oleg N Vassiliev
    Department of Radiation Physics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 72:220-7. 2008
    ..To investigate the potential of a novel deterministic solver, Attila, for external photon beam radiotherapy dose calculations...
  54. doi A 3D pencil-beam-based superposition algorithm for photon dose calculation in heterogeneous media
    L Tillikainen
    Varian Medical Systems Finland Oy, Paciuksenkatu 21, FIN 00270 Helsinki, Finland
    Phys Med Biol 53:3821-39. 2008
    ..The presented method was found to be accurate in a wide range of conditions making it suitable for clinical planning purposes...
  55. pmc Two-photon excited fluorescence from higher electronic states of chlorophylls in photosynthetic antenna complexes: a new approach to detect strong excitonic chlorophyll a/b coupling
    Dieter Leupold
    Max Born Institut fur Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, D 12489 Berlin, Germany
    Biophys J 82:1580-5. 2002
    ..In comparison with LHC II, the experiments with CP29 provide further evidence that the lowest energy chlorophyll a transition (at approximately 680 nm) is not excitonically coupled to chlorophyll b...
  56. pmc Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in 3D turbid media accelerated by graphics processing units
    Qianqian Fang
    Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th St, Charlestown, Massachusetts, 02129, USA
    Opt Express 17:20178-90. 2009
    ..By taking advantage of the massively parallel threads and low-memory latency, this algorithm allows many photons to be simulated simultaneously in a GPU...
  57. ncbi Highly conformal therapy using proton component in the management of meningiomas. Preliminary experience of the Centre de Protonthérapie d'Orsay
    Georges Noel
    Centre de protonthérapie d Orsay, France
    Strahlenther Onkol 178:480-5. 2002
    To evaluate the efficacy and the tolerance of an escalated dose of external conformal fractionated radiation therapy combining photons and protons in the treatment of intracranial meningiomas.
  58. ncbi Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy
    P T So
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2:399-429. 2000
    ..Two-photon excitation of fluorophores results from the simultaneous absorption of two photons. This excitation process has a number of unique advantages, such as reduced specimen photodamage and enhanced ..
  59. pmc Two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2 at saturation
    John Peter Rickgauer
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:15025-30. 2009
    ..We show that TPE, like visible-light excitation, can be used to stimulate action potentials in cultured CR-expressing neurons...
  60. ncbi Advantage of protons compared to conventional X-ray or IMRT in the treatment of a pediatric patient with medulloblastoma
    W H St Clair
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58:727-34. 2004
    ..To compare treatment plans from standard photon therapy to intensity modulated X-rays (IMRT) and protons for craniospinal axis irradiation and posterior fossa boost in a patient with medulloblastoma...
  61. ncbi New fluorescent tools for watching nanometer-scale conformational changes of single molecules
    Erdal Toprak
    Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 36:349-69. 2007
    ..Here we describe some of the most commonly used fluorescence imaging tools to measure nanoscale movements and the rotational dynamics of biomolecules...
  62. ncbi Particle irradiation suppresses metastatic potential of cancer cells
    Toshiyuki Ogata
    Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Cancer Res 65:113-20. 2005
    ....
  63. pmc In vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal networks
    Christoph Stosiek
    Physiologisches Institut, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Pettenkoferstrasse 12, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7319-24. 2003
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate the suitability of this technique for real-time analyses of intact neuronal circuits with the resolution of individual cells...
  64. ncbi Optical recording of action potentials and other discrete physiological events: a perspective from signal detection theory
    Lucas Sjulson
    Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Physiology (Bethesda) 22:47-55. 2007
    ..This review illustrates these principles, using as an example action potential recording with optical voltage reporters...
  65. ncbi Radiotherapy for advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma: neutrons, photons or mixed beam?
    P E Huber
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Radiother Oncol 59:161-7. 2001
    To compare retrospectively radiotherapy with neutrons, photons, and a photon/neutron mixed beam in patients with advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck...
  66. pmc Using photons to manipulate enzyme inhibition by an azobenzene-modified nucleic acid probe
    Youngmi Kim
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 7200, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6489-94. 2009
    ..Thus, we can report the development of DNA probes in the form of photon-controllable (thrombin) inhibitors, termed PCIs, and we expect that this approach will be highly beneficial in future biomedical and pharmaceutical applications...
  67. ncbi Management of atypical and malignant meningiomas: role of high-dose, 3D-conformal radiation therapy
    E B Hug
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Neurooncol 48:151-60. 2000
    ..Atypical and malignant meningiomas are at high risk for local failure. The role of radiation therapy (RT) and dose levels required to improve tumor control are poorly defined. This study reviews our experience with RT...
  68. doi 3D structural imaging of the brain with photons and electrons
    Moritz Helmstaedter
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Biomedical Optics, Heidelberg, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 18:633-41. 2008
    ..Both photon-based and electron-based imaging methods will ultimately need highly automated data analysis, because the manual tracing of most networks of interest would require hundreds to tens of thousands of years in human labor...
  69. ncbi Potential role of intensity-modulated photons and protons in the treatment of the breast and regional nodes
    Antony J Lomax
    Division of Radiation Medicine, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 55:785-92. 2003
    ..treatment planning, the potential improvements that could result through the use of intensity-modulated photons (intensity-modulated radiation therapy [IMRT]) and protons for the locoregional treatment of complex-target ..
  70. ncbi Exciton analysis in 2D electronic spectroscopy
    Minhaeng Cho
    Department of Chemistry and Center for Multidimensional Spectroscopy, Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136 701, Korea
    J Phys Chem B 109:10542-56. 2005
    ..We find that there are two noncascading exciton energy relaxation pathways...
  71. pmc Enhanced survival and cure of F98 glioma-bearing rats following intracerebral delivery of carboplatin in combination with photon irradiation
    Julia Rousseau
    Equipe 6, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U836, France
    Clin Cancer Res 13:5195-201. 2007
    ..c.) administration of carboplatin by means of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) in combination with fractionated, external beam photon irradiation for the treatment of F98 glioma-bearing rats...
  72. ncbi Autoluminescence imaging: a non-invasive tool for mapping oxidative stress
    Michel Havaux
    Laboratoire d Ecophysiologie Moléculaire des Plantes, UMR 6191 CEA CNRS Aix Marseille University, F 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance, France
    Trends Plant Sci 11:480-4. 2006
    ..Using highly sensitive cameras, it is now possible to remotely image spontaneous luminescence with a good spatial resolution, providing a new non-invasive tool for mapping oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in plants...
  73. ncbi Functional outcome of patients with benign meningioma treated by 3D conformal irradiation with a combination of photons and protons
    Georges Noel
    Institut Curie, Orsay, France
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62:1412-22. 2005
    ..To evaluate efficacy and tolerance of external fractionated combination of photon and proton radiation therapy (RT) for intracranial benign meningiomas...
  74. ncbi Experimental validation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm
    Karen Breitman
    Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Appl Clin Med Phys 8:76-92. 2007
    ....
  75. ncbi A technique for the quantitative evaluation of dose distributions
    D A Low
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Med Phys 25:656-61. 1998
    ..The determination of gamma throughout the measured dose distribution provides a presentation that quantitatively indicates the calculation accuracy. Examples of a 6 MV beam penumbra are used to illustrate the gamma index...
  76. ncbi Determination of parameters for a multiple-source model of megavoltage photon beams using optimization methods
    L Tillikainen
    Varian Medical Systems Finland Oy, Paciuksenkatu 21, FIN 00270 Helsinki, Finland
    Phys Med Biol 52:1441-67. 2007
    ..The developed procedure is applicable to a wide range of accelerators, and has an acceptable accuracy and processing time...
  77. doi Optical sensing of the ionic strength using photonic crystals in a hydrogel matrix
    Christoph Fenzl
    Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:173-8. 2013
    ..The red channel was found to be best suited for determination of the IS and resulted in calibration plots that are comparable if not better than those obtained by reflectometry...
  78. pmc Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes
    Ankush Prasad
    Department of Biophysics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
    PLoS ONE 6:e22345. 2011
    ..the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non-invasive tool for the detection of ..
  79. ncbi Complete-angle projection diffuse optical tomography by use of early photons
    Gordon M Turner
    Laboratory for Bio optics and Molecular Imaging, Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Opt Lett 30:409-11. 2005
    ..Imaging is based on a complete-angle projection tomographic technique that utilizes transmitted early photons. Results are contrasted with measurements obtained at later gates as well as pseudocontinuous-wave data...
  80. doi Quantum and thermal phase slips in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) ultrathin crystalline nanowire: application to single photon detection
    Cécile Delacour
    Institut Neel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F 38042 Grenoble, France
    Nano Lett 12:3501-6. 2012
    ..The photoresponse of these nanowires is measured as a function of the light irradiation wavelength and temperature and exhibits a behavior comparable with previous results obtained on thicker films...
  81. ncbi [Advances in radio-oncology. From precision radiotherapy with photons to ion therapy with protons and carbon ions]
    S E Combs
    Klinik fur Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Universitatsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Deutschland
    Chirurg 77:1126-32. 2006
    ..Carbon ions also offer the advantage of increased relative biological effectiveness. For certain tumor types, a significant increase in local control and survival rates could be obtained with carbon ions...
  82. pmc Statistical treatment of photon/electron counting: extending the linear dynamic range from the dark count rate to saturation
    David J Kissick
    Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States
    Anal Chem 82:10129-34. 2010
    ..between the binomially distributed measurement of counted events and the underlying Poisson distribution of photons/electrons...
  83. ncbi Radiation tolerance of the rat spinal cord after 6 and 18 fractions of photons and carbon ions: experimental results and clinical implications
    Christian P Karger
    Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 66:1488-97. 2006
    ..The tolerance of the rat spinal cord to photon and carbon ion irradiations was investigated to determine the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions ((12)C) in the plateau region and in a 1 cm spread-out Bragg-peak...
  84. ncbi Microdosimetric study on influence of low energy photons on relative biological effectiveness under therapeutic conditions using 6 MV linac
    Hiroyuki Okamoto
    Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226 8502, Japan
    Med Phys 38:4714-22. 2011
    ..In this study, the changes of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values under the therapeutic conditions using a 6 MV linac were investigated with a microdosimetric method...
  85. ncbi Absorbed fractions for photons in ellipsoidal volumes
    E Amato
    Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Messina, Italy
    Phys Med Biol 54:N479-87. 2009
    We studied through Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 the absorbed fractions for photons, characterized by energies ranging from 10 keV to 1000 keV, which can be emitted by gamma radionuclides uniformly distributed in ellipsoidal volumes ..
  86. pmc Analysis of molecular concentration and brightness from fluorescence fluctuation data with an electron multiplied CCD camera
    Jay R Unruh
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    Biophys J 95:5385-98. 2008
    ..Finally, we demonstrate the ability of the technique to follow concentration changes and measure single-molecule brightness in real time in living cells...
  87. ncbi Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging for intracellular pH sensing in living tissues
    Carsten Hille
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, Karl Liebknecht Str 24 25, 14476, Potsdam Golm, Germany
    Anal Bioanal Chem 391:1871-9. 2008
    ....
  88. pmc Imaging input and output of neocortical networks in vivo
    Jason N D Kerr
    Department of Cell Physiology, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:14063-8. 2005
    ..The dissection of the various signal components in bulk-loaded tissue as demonstrated here will enable further studies of signal flow through cortical networks...
  89. doi Systematic review and meta-analysis of radiotherapy in various head and neck cancers: comparing photons, carbon-ions and protons
    Bram L T Ramaekers
    Department of Radiation Oncology MAASTRO, GROW, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Cancer Treat Rev 37:185-201. 2011
    ..To synthesize and compare available evidence considering the effectiveness of carbon-ion, proton and photon radiotherapy for head and neck cancer...
  90. ncbi A novel radiation therapy technique for malignant pleural mesothelioma combining electrons with intensity-modulated photons
    Maria F Chan
    Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Radiother Oncol 79:218-23. 2006
    ..To investigate the feasibility and potential benefits of combining electron and photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM)...
  91. ncbi Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency
    Adriana E Lita
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80305, USA
    Opt Express 16:3032-40. 2008
    ..The measured system detection efficiency at 1556 nm is 95 % +/- 2 %, which to our knowledge is the highest system detection efficiency reported for a near-infrared single-photon detector...
  92. doi RBE of low energy electrons and photons
    Hooshang Nikjoo
    Department of Oncology Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Phys Med Biol 55:R65-109. 2010
    ..work provides a review of the recently published data and the knowledge of the RBE of low energy electrons and photons. The review presents RBE values derived from experimental data and model calculations including cell inactivation,..
  93. pmc High-fidelity hydrophilic probe for two-photon fluorescence lysosomal imaging
    Xuhua Wang
    Department of ChemistryUniversity of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 132:12237-9. 2010
    ..2PFM was used to demonstrate lysosomal tracking with LT1...
  94. doi A quantitative study of factors affecting in vivo bioluminescence imaging
    Kemi Cui
    Department of Radiology, The Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell University, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Luminescence 23:292-5. 2008
    ..By counting the number of photons emitted from a specimen, BLI can quantify biological events such as tumour growth, gene expression and drug ..
  95. pmc Single-DNA molecule nanomotor regulated by photons
    Huaizhi Kang
    Center for Research at Bio nano Interface, Department of Chemistry, Shands Cancer Center, UF Genetics Institute and McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 7200, USA
    Nano Lett 9:2690-6. 2009
    We report the design of a single-molecule nanomotor driven by photons. The nanomotor is a DNA hairpin-structured molecule incorporated with azobenzene moieties to facilitate reversible photocontrollable switching...
  96. pmc Two-photon imaging of the mouse eye
    Andrew W Johnson
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:4098-105. 2011
    ..To image the conventional aqueous outflow pathway and adjacent structures within the intact enucleated mouse eye using a noninvasive microscopy technique...
  97. ncbi Converting absorbed dose to medium to absorbed dose to water for Monte Carlo based photon beam dose calculations
    J V Siebers
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA
    Phys Med Biol 45:983-95. 2000
    ..Pre-computed energy spectra for 60Co to 24 MV are used to compute the dose ratios for these photon beams and to determine an effective energy for evaluation of the dose ratio...
  98. doi Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes
    Nathaniel M Gabor
    Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Science 325:1367-71. 2009
    ..This process is both of fundamental interest and relevant for applications in future ultra-efficient photovoltaic devices...
  99. ncbi Fast simulation of yttrium-90 bremsstrahlung photons with GATE
    Erwann Rault
    Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP Ghent University IBBT IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185, Block B, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Med Phys 37:2943-50. 2010
    ..are useful for studying SPECT imaging, this study investigates the MC simulation of 90Y bremsstrahlung photons in SPECT...
  100. ncbi Biophoton imaging: a nondestructive method for assaying R gene responses
    Mark Bennett
    Department of Agricultural Science, Imperial College London, Wye Campus, Wye TN25 5AH, UK
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:95-102. 2005
    ..The ability to assay R responses nondestructively in real time and a chosen genetic background makes this technique amenable to subtle genetic dissection of plant defense responses...
  101. ncbi Critical energies for SSB and DSB induction in plasmid DNA by low-energy photons: action spectra for strand-break induction in plasmid DNA irradiated in vacuum
    K M Prise
    Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK
    Int J Radiat Biol 76:881-90. 2000
    ..for the induction of single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA by low-energy photons and provide estimates for the energy dependence of strand-break formation important for track-structure ..

Research Grants81

  1. Functional brain imaging by laser-induced PAT
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Any light, including both singly and multiply scattered photons, contributes to the imaging signal; as a result, the imaging depth in fPAT is better than in OCT...
  2. Personalized Clinical Diagnostics and Beyond: Integrated Ring Resonator Arrays
    Ryan Bailey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This technology promises to broadly impact the landscape of the biomedical sciences, both meeting the clinical diagnostic challenges of today and pioneering the paradigm-shifting discoveries of tomorrow. ..
  3. Probing the Structure of the Synapse Using Superresolution Light Microscopy
    Gina Turrigiano; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. Mechanism of signal transduction in photoreceptors
    Hartmut Luecke; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..receptors for light (photoreceptors) are the basis of all forms of vision where the energy from absorbed single photons is used to bring about a conformational change in the chromophore, usually the isomerization of a double bond ..
  5. The mechanism of signal transduction in photoreceptors
    Hartmut Luecke; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..receptors for light (photoreceptors) are the basis of all forms of vision where the energy from absorbed single photons is used to bring about a conformational change in the chromophore, usually the isomerization of a double bond ..
  6. The mechanism of signal transduction in photoreceptors
    Hartmut Luecke; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..receptors for light (photoreceptors) are the basis of all forms of vision where the energy from absorbed single photons is used to bring about a conformational change in the chromophore, usually the isomerization of a double bond ..
  7. The mechanism of signal transduction in photoreceptors
    Hartmut Luecke; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..receptors for light (photoreceptors) are the basis of all forms of vision where the energy from absorbed single photons is used to bring about a conformational change in the chromophore, usually the isomerization of a double bond ..
  8. Superior Near-IR Dyes for Bioimaging
    ARUNKUMAR EASWARAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..NIR) radiation (650-900 nm) a spectral window where hemoglobin and water absorb minimally and therefore allow photons to penetrate several centimeters through tissue...
  9. Bright and Stable Near-IR dyes for Bioimaging
    ARUNKUMAR EASWARAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..NIR) radiation (700-900 nm) a spectral window where hemoglobin and water absorb minimally and therefore allow photons to penetrate several centimeters through tissue...
  10. Functional brain imaging by laser-induced PAT
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Any light, including both singly and multiply scattered photons, contributes to the imaging signal; as a result, the imaging depth in fPAT is better than in OCT...
  11. Functional brain imaging by laser-induced PAT
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Any light, including both singly and multiply scattered photons, contributes to the imaging signal; as a result, the imaging depth in fPAT is better than in OCT...
  12. Functional brain imaging by laser-induced PAT
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Any light, including both singly and multiply scattered photons, contributes to the imaging signal; as a result, the imaging depth in fPAT is better than in OCT...
  13. Functional brain imaging by laser-induced PAT
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Any light, including both singly and multiply scattered photons, contributes to the imaging signal; as a result, the imaging depth in fPAT is better than in OCT...
  14. Functional brain imaging by laser-induced PAT
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Any light, including both singly and multiply scattered photons, contributes to the imaging signal; as a result, the imaging depth in fPAT is better than in OCT...
  15. Structure and Biomechanics of the Human Optic Nerve Head
    Donald J Brown; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These technologies take advantage of known non-linear optical affects that occur when high intensity photons generated by ultrafast lasers interact with tissue...
  16. AM-241 APPLICATORS FOR INTRACAVITARY IRRADIATION
    Ravinder Nath; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Sealed sources of Am-241 emit primarily 60 keV photons; produce relative dose distributions in water comparable to those from Cs- 137 or Ra-226 sources; and can produce dose rates up to 100 cG/hr at 1 cm in water...
  17. Simultaneous Dual Isotope SPECT W/Cross-Talk Correction
    Eric C Frey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..acquire projection data simultaneously from two or more pharmaceuticals each labeled with a radioisotope emitting photons with different energies, allowing simultaneous measurement of multiple physiological processes such as rest/..
  18. Simultaneous Dual Isotope SPECT W/Cross-Talk Correction
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..acquire projection data simultaneously from two or more pharmaceuticals each labeled with a radioisotope emitting photons with different energies, allowing simultaneous measurement of multiple physiological processes such as rest/..
  19. Msec Polymerase Chain Reaction with fMolar Detection Sensitivity using SPR
    DONALD ROPER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..SPR is collective oscillation of delocalized noble metal electrons polarized by incident resonant photons. It yields absorption cross-sections >106-fold higher than fluorescent dyes, allowing label-free detection of ..
  20. Msec Polymerase Chain Reaction with fMolar Detection Sensitivity using SPR
    DONALD ROPER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..SPR is collective oscillation of delocalized noble metal electrons polarized by incident resonant photons. It yields absorption cross-sections >106-fold higher than fluorescent dyes, allowing label-free detection of ..
  21. ENHANCEMENT OF IUDR SENSITIZATION BY LOW ENERGY PHOTONS
    Ravinder Nath; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Previous studies indicate that radiosensitization by IUdR can be enhanced substantially through the use of photons of energy just greater than 33.2 keV, the K-absorption edge of iodine...
  22. LIGHT RESPONSIVE GENES
    Nam Hai Chua; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Arabidopsis contains several photoreceptors that monitor photons at different wavelengths...
  23. LIGHT RESPONSIVE GENES
    Nam Hai Chua; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Arabidopsis contains several photoreceptors that monitor photons at different wavelengths...
  24. Sensitivity of the Colposcopy Exam After Sexual Assault
    Marilyn Sommers; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..non-consensual sex? 2) When viewed as colposcopic photons, what is the difference in number, type and location of injury to the female genitalia and/or anus after ..
  25. Sensitivity of the Colposcopy Exam After Sexual Assault
    Marilyn Sommers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..non-consensual sex? 2) When viewed as colposcopic photons, what is the difference in number, type and location of injury to the female genitalia and/or anus after ..
  26. Sensitivity of the Colposcopy Exam After Sexual Assault
    Marilyn Sommers; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..non-consensual sex? 2) When viewed as colposcopic photons, what is the difference in number, type and location of injury to the female genitalia and/or anus after ..
  27. SEARCH FOR ULTRA FAST, HEAVY ATOM SCINTILLATORS
    STEPHEN DERENZO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The primary objective is to develop new inorganic scintillators for detecting 511 keV photons with exceptional detection efficiency (similar to BGO), response time (1 ns), and energy resolution (3% fwhm)...
  28. BIOCHEMISTRY OF THE RETINA & PIGMENT EPITHELIUM
    JOHN SAARI; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..During daylight, a continual rain of photons bleaches visual pigments in photoreceptor cells of our retinas to initiate phototransduction...
  29. Optical probes for controlling cellular function
    Graham Ellis Davies; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..v.-absorbing chromophores. Uncaging using such lasers is produced by the simultaneous absorption of two red photons of equivalent energy to one blue photon...
  30. SEARCH FOR ULTRA FAST, HEAVY ATOM SCINTILLATORS
    STEPHEN DERENZO; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The primary objective is to develop new inorganic scintillators for detecting 511 keV photons with exceptional detection efficiency (similar to BGO), response time (1 ns), and energy resolution (3% fwhm)...
  31. SAMARIUM-145 SOURCES FOR BRACHYTHERAPY
    KRISHNAN SUTHANTHIRAN; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Encapsulated radioactive sources emitting ionizing radiation in the form of high energy photons are widely used for treatment of cancer, known as brachytherapy...
  32. SEARCH FOR ULTRA FAST, HEAVY ATOM SCINTILLATORS
    STEPHEN DERENZO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The primary objective is to develop new inorganic scintillators for detecting 511 keV photons with exceptional detection efficiency (similar to BGO), response time (1 ns), and energy resolution (3% fwhm)...
  33. IRRADIATION SHARED RESOURCE
    P Jack Hoopes; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..orthovoltage x-ray source (Pantak multiple energy, 300 KV x-irradiator), four linear accelerators from 6-20 MeV photons and 5-18 MeV electrons and an lr-192 high dose rate after-loader...
  34. RETINOIDS IN VISION
    Krzysztof Palczewski; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): When photons of light enter the eye, the retina converts them into an electrical signal through a biochemical process called phototransduction...
  35. RETINOIDS IN VISION
    Krzysztof Palczewski; Fiscal Year: 2007
    When photons of light enter the eye, the retina converts them into an electrical signal through a biochemical process called phototransduction...
  36. RETINOIDS IN VISION
    Krzysztof Palczewski; Fiscal Year: 2007
    When photons of light enter the eye, the retina converts them into an electrical signal through a biochemical process called phototransduction. This signal is then relayed to the visual cortex of the brain, where visual perception occurs...
  37. RETINOIDS IN VISION
    Krzysztof Palczewski; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): When photons of light enter the eye, the retina converts them into an electrical signal through a biochemical process called phototransduction...
  38. RETINOIDS IN VISION
    Krzysztof Palczewski; Fiscal Year: 2007
    When photons of light enter the eye, the retina converts them into an electrical signal through a biochemical process called phototransduction. This signal is then relayed to the visual cortex of the brain, where visual perception occurs...
  39. STUDIES OF RPE65
    Jian Xing Ma; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Upon activation by photons, 11-cis retinal is photo-isomerized to all-trans retinal, which triggers the activation of the phototransduction ..
  40. STUDIES OF RPE65
    Jian Xing Ma; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Upon activation by photons, 11-cis retinal is photo-isomerized to all-trans retinal, which triggers the activation of the phototransduction ..
  41. Modeling the photon propagation for optical molecular imaging
    Wenxiang Cong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Optical molecular imaging captures diffusive photons through the biological tissue...
  42. STUDIES OF RPE65
    Jian Xing Ma; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Upon activation by photons, 11-cis retinal is photo-isomerized to all-trans retinal, which triggers the activation of the phototransduction ..
  43. BIORAD 2-PHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY SYSTEM
    Arnold Kriegstein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..long- wavelength excitation light that penetrates deep into brain tissue and, through a quantum interaction of photons, only produces fluorophore excitation at the focal point...
  44. In vivo tomographic imaging of fluorescence protein
    Wenxiang Cong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, the fluorescence proteins emit photons in the visible light spectrum, where the biological tissue absorbs photons much more strongly than in the near-..
  45. In vivo tomographic imaging of fluorescence protein
    Wenxiang Cong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However, the fluorescence proteins emit photons in the visible light spectrum, where the biological tissue absorbs photons much more strongly than in the near-..
  46. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF SHORT WAVELENGTH VISUAL PIGMENTS
    BARRY KNOX; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Light responses initiate with the absorption of photons by the visual pigments (cone opsins)...
  47. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF SHORT WAVELENGTH VISUAL PIGMENTS
    BARRY KNOX; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Light responses initiate with the absorption of photons by the visual pigments (cone opsins)...
  48. Novel biosynthetic pathway for secosteroids and the skin
    Andrzej Slominski; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..with structures determined by the local type and activity of steroidogenic system, as well as the access to UVB photons. To test this hypothesis the following specific aims have been designed. 1...
  49. Novel biosynthetic pathway for secosteroids and the skin
    Andrzej Slominski; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..with structures determined by the local type and activity of steroidogenic system, as well as the access to UVB photons. To test this hypothesis the following specific aims have been designed. 1...
  50. Beta Imager 2000Z Digital Imaging System
    Jason Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..At each decay event, the electron avalanche produces gaseous scintillation; for argon, approximately 35 photons are produced per keV of beta particle energy with the output centered at 280 nm...
  51. Novel biosynthetic pathway for secosteroids and the skin
    Andrzej T Slominski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with structures determined by the local type and activity of steroidogenic system, as well as the access to UVB photons. To test this hypothesis the following specific aims have been designed. 1...
  52. Novel biosynthetic pathway for secosteroids and the skin
    Andrzej Slominski; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..with structures determined by the local type and activity of steroidogenic system, as well as the access to UVB photons. To test this hypothesis the following specific aims have been designed. 1...
  53. A Beta-Sensitive Probe System for Use in Endoscopy
    RAYMOND RAYLMAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..detection unit will consist of two stacked surface barrier detectors; the first device detects beta particles and photons, while the rear detector only detects photons (due to the shielding effects of the front detector)...
  54. Optical guidance of surgical excision of skin cancer
    Ken Lee; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The difference in the images yields the "polarized image". Such imaging accepts photons backscattered from the subsurface and superficial layers of skin, but rejects surface glare and deeply ..
  55. Optical guidance of surgical excision of skin cancer
    Ken Lee; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The difference in the images yields the "polarized image". Such imaging accepts photons backscattered from the subsurface and superficial layers of skin, but rejects surface glare and deeply ..
  56. PHOTOELECTRON IMAGING AND PROPERTIES OF MACROMOLECULES
    O Griffith; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Fluorescence involves emission of photons against a darker background whereas photoelectron imaging involves emission of electrons...
  57. Optical guidance of surgical excision of skin cancer
    Ken Lee; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The difference in the images yields the "polarized image". Such imaging accepts photons backscattered from the subsurface and superficial layers of skin, but rejects surface glare and deeply ..
  58. BRACHYTHERAPY DOSIMETRY USING PLASTIC SCINTILLATOR
    Jeffrey Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Solid organic scintillators convert energy absorbed from ionizing radiation fields into blue fluorescent photons, creating a measurable optical signal related to absorbed dose in the surrounding medium...
  59. High Resolution Multiplexed Fluorescence Tomography
    MARK JONATHAN NIEDRE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..high- speed time-gated photon counting detection of the earliest-transmitted and therefore least scattered photons through animals, thereby allowing imaging resolution approaching 250 5m without loss of sensitivity or accuracy, ..
  60. BRACHYTHERAPY DOSIMETRY USING PLASTIC SCINTILLATOR
    Jeffrey Williamson; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Solid organic scintillators convert energy absorbed from ionizing radiation fields into blue fluorescent photons, creating a measurable optical signal related to absorbed dose in the surrounding medium...
  61. BRACHYTHERAPY DOSIMETRY USING PLASTIC SCINTILLATOR
    Jeffrey Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Solid organic scintillators convert energy absorbed from ionizing radiation fields into blue fluorescent photons, creating a measurable optical signal related to absorbed dose in the surrounding medium...
  62. ULTRAFAST MULTIPHOTON LASER ACTIVATION SYSTEM
    WATT WEBB; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..100 femtosecond) pulses generated by mode-locked lasers allow simultaneous absorption of two or more photons from bright pulsed illumination for molecular excitation as in the multiphoton laser scanning fluorescence ..
  63. BREAST IMAGING USING PICOSECOND PULSES OF LIGHT
    Jeremy Hebden; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The imaging method involves recording and discriminating between the times-of-flight of all transmitted photons, and using a fraction of the light with the shortest travel times to construct an image through the breast...
  64. Simulaneous Dual Isotope SPECT w/Cross Talk Correction
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 2003
    One unique feature of SPECT is the ability to use two pharmaceuticals labeled with different isotopes emitting photons with different energies to make simultaneous measurements of different physiological processes...
  65. Simulaneous Dual Isotope SPECT w/Cross Talk Correction
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 2005
    One unique feature of SPECT is the ability to use two pharmaceuticals labeled with different isotopes emitting photons with different energies to make simultaneous measurements of different physiological processes...
  66. SIMULTANEOUS DUAL ISOTOPE SPECT W/ CROSS TALK CORRECTION
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 2001
    One unique feature of SPECT is the ability to use two pharmaceuticals labeled with different isotopes emiting photons with different energies to make simultaneous measurements of different physiological processes...
  67. High-resolution ultrasound-encoded optical tomography
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Both of the technologies depend primarily on singly backscattered photons for spatial resolution...
  68. A Dual Energy X-Ray Detector for Digital Mammography
    TUMAY TUMER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In our approach, we propose to implement a novel technology where the incoming x-ray photons are energy-separated...
  69. SIMULTANEOUS DUAL ISOTOPE SPECT W/ CROSS TALK CORRECTION
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 2002
    One unique feature of SPECT is the ability to use two pharmaceuticals labeled with different isotopes emiting photons with different energies to make simultaneous measurements of different physiological processes...
  70. High-resolution ultrasound-encoded optical tomography
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Both of the technologies depend primarily on singly backscattered photons for spatial resolution...
  71. Simulaneous Dual Isotope SPECT w/Cross Talk Correction
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 2007
    One unique feature of SPECT is the ability to use two pharmaceuticals labeled with different isotopes emitting photons with different energies to make simultaneous measurements of different physiological processes...
  72. High-resolution ultrasound-encoded optical tomography
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Both of the technologies depend primarily on singly backscattered photons for spatial resolution...
  73. SIMULTANEOUS DUAL ISOTOPE SPECT W/ CROSS TALK CORRECTION
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 2000
    One unique feature of SPECT is the ability to use two pharmaceuticals labeled with different isotopes emiting photons with different energies to make simultaneous measurements of different physiological processes...
  74. SIMULTANEOUS DUAL ISOTOPE SPECT W/ CROSS TALK CORRECTION
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 1999
    One unique feature of SPECT is the ability to use two pharmaceuticals labeled with different isotopes emiting photons with different energies to make simultaneous measurements of different physiological processes...
  75. Simulaneous Dual Isotope SPECT w/Cross Talk Correction
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    One unique feature of SPECT is the ability to use two pharmaceuticals labeled with different isotopes emitting photons with different energies to make simultaneous measurements of different physiological processes...
  76. Simulaneous Dual Isotope SPECT w/Cross Talk Correction
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 2004
    One unique feature of SPECT is the ability to use two pharmaceuticals labeled with different isotopes emitting photons with different energies to make simultaneous measurements of different physiological processes...