photons

Summary

Summary: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi 3D structural imaging of the brain with photons and electrons
    Moritz Helmstaedter
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Biomedical Optics, Heidelberg, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 18:633-41. 2008
  2. ncbi Advances in single-molecule fluorescence methods for molecular biology
    Chirlmin Joo
    Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 77:51-76. 2008
  3. pmc Optimized localization analysis for single-molecule tracking and super-resolution microscopy
    Kim I Mortensen
    Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
    Nat Methods 7:377-81. 2010
  4. ncbi Assembly of hybrid photonic architectures from nanophotonic constituents
    Oliver Benson
    Nano Optik, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany
    Nature 480:193-9. 2011
  5. pmc In vitro evaluation of photon and carbon ion radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy in glioblastoma cells
    Stephanie E Combs
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Radiat Oncol 7:9. 2012
  6. ncbi Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2
    Eirini Papagiakoumou
    Wavefront Engineering Microscopy Group, Neurophysiology and New Microscopies Laboratory, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8154, Institut National de Santé et de Recherche Médicale U603, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France
    Nat Methods 7:848-54. 2010
  7. ncbi Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences
    K Konig
    Laser Microscopy Division, Institute of Anatomy II, Friedrich Schiller University, D 07740 Jena, Germany
    J Microsc 200:83-104. 2000
  8. ncbi Two-photon probes for intracellular free metal ions, acidic vesicles, and lipid rafts in live tissues
    Hwan Myung Kim
    Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul, 136 701, Korea
    Acc Chem Res 42:863-72. 2009
  9. ncbi Coherence dynamics in photosynthesis: protein protection of excitonic coherence
    Hohjai Lee
    Department of Chemistry and QB3 Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA
    Science 316:1462-5. 2007
  10. ncbi Single-step fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal biosensors with polymer microfluidic channels
    Charles J Choi
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Nano Sensors Group, Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, 208 N Wright St, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Lab Chip 6:1373-80. 2006

Detail Information

Publications396 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi 3D structural imaging of the brain with photons and electrons
    Moritz Helmstaedter
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Biomedical Optics, Heidelberg, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 18:633-41. 2008
    ..Both photon-based and electron-based imaging methods will ultimately need highly automated data analysis, because the manual tracing of most networks of interest would require hundreds to tens of thousands of years in human labor...
  2. ncbi Advances in single-molecule fluorescence methods for molecular biology
    Chirlmin Joo
    Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 77:51-76. 2008
    ..In this exciting era of transitioning from in vitro to in vivo and in situ conditions, it is anticipated that SM fluorescence methodology will become a common tool of molecular biology...
  3. pmc Optimized localization analysis for single-molecule tracking and super-resolution microscopy
    Kim I Mortensen
    Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
    Nat Methods 7:377-81. 2010
    ....
  4. ncbi Assembly of hybrid photonic architectures from nanophotonic constituents
    Oliver Benson
    Nano Optik, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany
    Nature 480:193-9. 2011
    ..Particularly rapid progress is seen in the combination of plasmonic-dielectric constituents with quantum emitters that can be assembled on demand into fundamental model systems for future optical elements...
  5. pmc In vitro evaluation of photon and carbon ion radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy in glioblastoma cells
    Stephanie E Combs
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Radiat Oncol 7:9. 2012
    ..To evaluate the cytotoxic effect of carbon ion radiotherapy and chemotherapy in glioblastoma cells in vitro...
  6. ncbi Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2
    Eirini Papagiakoumou
    Wavefront Engineering Microscopy Group, Neurophysiology and New Microscopies Laboratory, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8154, Institut National de Santé et de Recherche Médicale U603, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France
    Nat Methods 7:848-54. 2010
    ..The amplitudes of the photocurrents can be precisely modulated by controlling the size and shape of the excitation volume and, thereby, be used to trigger single action potentials or trains of action potentials...
  7. ncbi Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences
    K Konig
    Laser Microscopy Division, Institute of Anatomy II, Friedrich Schiller University, D 07740 Jena, Germany
    J Microsc 200:83-104. 2000
    ..Moreover, cells remain alive. Non-invasive NIR laser surgery within a living cell or within an organelle is therefore possible...
  8. ncbi Two-photon probes for intracellular free metal ions, acidic vesicles, and lipid rafts in live tissues
    Hwan Myung Kim
    Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul, 136 701, Korea
    Acc Chem Res 42:863-72. 2009
    ..However, two-photon microscopy (TPM), which uses two photons of lower energy as the excitation source, is growing in popularity among biologists because of several distinct ..
  9. ncbi Coherence dynamics in photosynthesis: protein protection of excitonic coherence
    Hohjai Lee
    Department of Chemistry and QB3 Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA
    Science 316:1462-5. 2007
    ....
  10. ncbi Single-step fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal biosensors with polymer microfluidic channels
    Charles J Choi
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Nano Sensors Group, Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, 208 N Wright St, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Lab Chip 6:1373-80. 2006
    ..An imaging detection instrument is used to characterize the spatial distribution of the photonic crystal resonant wavelength, gathering thousands of independent sensor readings within a single fluid channel...
  11. ncbi Two-dimensional imaging of spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission from the human skin: role of reactive oxygen species
    Ankush Prasad
    Department of Biophysics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic
    J Biophotonics 4:840-9. 2011
    ..We propose here that the two-dimensional ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non-invasive tool for the spatial and temporal monitoring of oxidative stress in the human skin...
  12. ncbi Craniospinal irradiation techniques: a dosimetric comparison of proton beams with standard and advanced photon radiotherapy
    Myonggeun Yoon
    Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81:637-46. 2011
    ..To evaluate the dosimetric benefits of advanced radiotherapy techniques for craniospinal irradiation in cancer in children...
  13. pmc Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes
    Ankush Prasad
    Department of Biophysics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
    PLoS ONE 6:e22345. 2011
    ..the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non-invasive tool for the detection of ..
  14. ncbi Comparison of the effectiveness of radiotherapy with photons, protons and carbon-ions for non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis
    Janneke P C Grutters
    Department of Radiation Oncology Maastro Clinic, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Radiother Oncol 95:32-40. 2010
    To provide a comparison between radiotherapy with photons, protons and carbon-ions in the treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), performing a meta-analysis of observational studies.
  15. ncbi Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures
    Andrew R Parker
    Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK
    Nat Nanotechnol 2:347-53. 2007
    ..In this new approach, the nanoengineering efficiency of living cells is harnessed and natural organisms such as diatoms and viruses are used to make nanostructures that could have commercial applications...
  16. pmc Single-molecule fluorescence experiments determine protein folding transition path times
    Hoi Sung Chung
    Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 0520, USA
    Science 335:981-4. 2012
    ..A very simple model based on energy landscape theory can explain this result...
  17. ncbi Variable hematopoietic responses to acute photons, protons and simulated solar particle event protons
    Daila S Gridley
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
    In Vivo 22:159-69. 2008
    ..The goal of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the response of bone marrow-derived cell populations to protons mimicking a space radiation environment...
  18. pmc External-beam accelerated partial breast irradiation using multiple proton beam configurations
    Xiaochun Wang
    Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 80:1464-72. 2011
    ....
  19. pmc Comparison of therapeutic dosimetric data from passively scattered proton and photon craniospinal irradiations for medulloblastoma
    Rebecca M Howell
    Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Radiat Oncol 7:116. 2012
    ....
  20. ncbi A nanodiamond-tapered fiber system with high single-mode coupling efficiency
    Tim Schröder
    Institute of Physics, AG Nano Optik, Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Opt Express 20:10490-7. 2012
    ..are deposited on a tapered fiber of 273 nanometer in diameter providing a record-high number of 689,000 single photons per second from a defect center in a single-mode fiber...
  21. pmc On the benefits and risks of proton therapy in pediatric craniopharyngioma
    Chris Beltran
    Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82:e281-7. 2012
    ..We compared photon- and proton-based irradiation methods to determine the effect of tumor volume change on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation in these patients...
  22. ncbi Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases : a feasibility study of advanced techniques with modulated photons and protons
    Marta Scorsetti
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano Milan, Italy
    Strahlenther Onkol 187:238-44. 2011
    To compare advanced treatment techniques with photons and protons as a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for adrenal glands metastases.
  23. ncbi A trust region method in adaptive finite element framework for bioluminescence tomography
    Bo Zhang
    Sino Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School of Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110004, China
    Opt Express 18:6477-91. 2010
    ..In the TRM, all the parameters are fixed, while in the Tikhonov method the regularization parameter needs to be well selected...
  24. pmc Efficacy of intracerebral delivery of cisplatin in combination with photon irradiation for treatment of brain tumors
    Julia Rousseau
    INSERM U836, Equipe 6, ESRF, Medical Beamline, BP 220, 38043, Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    J Neurooncol 98:287-95. 2010
    ....
  25. doi Neurobiology with caged calcium
    Graham C R Ellis-Davies
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102, USA
    Chem Rev 108:1603-13. 2008
  26. pmc Two-photon imaging of the trabecular meshwork
    David A Ammar
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA
    Mol Vis 16:935-44. 2010
    ..To image the trabecular meshwork (TM) in its native unfixed state using a non-invasive, non-destructive technique...
  27. ncbi Secondary neutron dose during proton therapy using spot scanning
    Uwe Schneider
    Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, City Hospital Triemli, CH 8063 Zurich, Switzerland
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:244-51. 2002
    ..In this study, we estimated the neutron dose in patients from a spot scanning beam line by performing measurements and Monte Carlo simulations...
  28. ncbi Comparison of dose calculation algorithms for treatment planning in external photon beam therapy for clinical situations
    Tommy Knöös
    Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, S 221 85 Lund, Sweden
    Phys Med Biol 51:5785-807. 2006
    ..planning systems (TPSs) for common treatment sites regarding their ability to model heterogeneities and scattered photons has been performed...
  29. ncbi Subnanometre single-molecule localization, registration and distance measurements
    Alexandros Pertsinidis
    Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 466:647-51. 2010
    ..in the mean for an ensemble of identical single-molecule samples is limited only by the total number of collected photons, to s(loc) approximately 0.3 nm, which is approximately 3 x 10(-3) times the size of the optical PSF...
  30. ncbi Biophoton detection as a novel technique for cancer imaging
    Motohiro Takeda
    Division of Surgical Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8574, Japan
    Cancer Sci 95:656-61. 2004
    ..73). This non-invasive and simple technique has the potential to be used as an optical biopsy to detect tumor viability...
  31. ncbi Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy
    P T So
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2:399-429. 2000
    ..Two-photon excitation of fluorophores results from the simultaneous absorption of two photons. This excitation process has a number of unique advantages, such as reduced specimen photodamage and enhanced ..
  32. ncbi Particle irradiation suppresses metastatic potential of cancer cells
    Toshiyuki Ogata
    Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Cancer Res 65:113-20. 2005
    ....
  33. pmc How photons start vision
    D Baylor
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:560-5. 1996
    ..Another approach is to observe transduction in transgenic mouse rods in which specific proteins within the cascade are altered or deleted...
  34. pmc Cumulant analysis in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy
    Joachim D Müller
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Biophys J 86:3981-92. 2004
    ..Here, we derive analytical expressions for the second factorial cumulant as a function of the sampling time and demonstrate that the theory successfully models fluorescence fluctuation data...
  35. ncbi Dosimetric validation of Acuros XB with Monte Carlo methods for photon dose calculations
    K Bush
    Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Island Center, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5, Canada
    Med Phys 38:2208-21. 2011
    ....
  36. pmc Intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comparative treatment planning study of photons and protons
    Zahra Taheri-Kadkhoda
    Göteborg University and Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden
    Radiat Oncol 3:4. 2008
    ..The aim of this treatment planning study was to investigate the potential advantages of intensity-modulated (IM) proton therapy (IMPT) compared with IM photon therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)...
  37. ncbi Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy with standard fluorescent probes
    Sebastian van de Linde
    Department of Biotechnology and Biophysics, Julius Maximilians University Würzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Nat Protoc 6:991-1009. 2011
    ..Furthermore, we discuss labeling strategies, acquisition parameters, and temporal and spatial resolution. The ultimate step of data acquisition and data processing can be performed in seconds to minutes...
  38. pmc Violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality with weak measurements of photons
    M E Goggin
    Department of Physics and Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1256-61. 2011
    ..Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that there is a one-to-one correlation between achieving strange weak values and violating the Leggett-Garg inequality...
  39. pmc Two-photon single-cell optogenetic control of neuronal activity by sculpted light
    Bertalan K Andrasfalvy
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:11981-6. 2010
    ..The demonstrated spatiotemporal resolution and the selectivity provided by TEFO allow manipulation of neuronal activity, with a large number of applications in studies of neuronal microcircuit function in vitro and in vivo...
  40. ncbi On the dosimetric behaviour of photon dose calculation algorithms in the presence of simple geometric heterogeneities: comparison with Monte Carlo calculations
    Antonella Fogliata
    Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona, Switzerland
    Phys Med Biol 52:1363-85. 2007
    ..035 g cm(-3)), enhanced for the most energetic beam. For denser, and more clinical, densities a better agreement among the sophisticated algorithms with respect to MC was observed...
  41. pmc Two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin-2 at saturation
    John Peter Rickgauer
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:15025-30. 2009
    ..We show that TPE, like visible-light excitation, can be used to stimulate action potentials in cultured CR-expressing neurons...
  42. pmc Two-photon imaging of spatially extended neuronal network dynamics with high temporal resolution
    Kyle P Lillis
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, United States
    J Neurosci Methods 172:178-84. 2008
    ..Finally, we provide the code to make our technique generally available...
  43. ncbi Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes
    Nathaniel M Gabor
    Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Science 325:1367-71. 2009
    ..This process is both of fundamental interest and relevant for applications in future ultra-efficient photovoltaic devices...
  44. ncbi Testing of the analytical anisotropic algorithm for photon dose calculation
    Ann Van Esch
    7Sigma, QA team in Radiotherapy Physics, Belgium and Clinique Ste Elisabeth, Namur, Belgium
    Med Phys 33:4130-48. 2006
    ..Particular progress was made with respect to the penumbra and low dose regions. In heterogeneous materials, improvements are substantial and more pronounced for high (18 MV) than for low (6 MV) energies...
  45. ncbi Induction of persistent double strand breaks following multiphoton irradiation of cycling and G1-arrested mammalian cells-replication-induced double strand breaks
    Jane V Harper
    DNA Damage Group, Radiation Oncology Biology, Old Road Campus Research Building, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Photochem Photobiol 84:1506-14. 2008
    ..Cell cycle studies have shown that in G1 cells, a significant fraction of multiphoton laser-induced prompt DSBs persists for > 4 h in addition to those induced at replication...
  46. ncbi Dosimetric validation of the anisotropic analytical algorithm for photon dose calculation: fundamental characterization in water
    Antonella Fogliata
    Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona, Switzerland
    Phys Med Biol 51:1421-38. 2006
    ..Additional tests were carried out for enhanced dynamic wedges with results comparable to previous results. The basic dosimetric validation of the AAA was therefore considered satisfactory...
  47. ncbi Self-assembled DNA photonic wire for long-range energy transfer
    Jonas K Hannestad
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Physical Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
    J Am Chem Soc 130:15889-95. 2008
    ..We show that it is possible to create two component DNA-based photonic wires capable of long-range energy transfer using a straightforward self-assembly approach...
  48. ncbi From FRET imaging to practical methodology for kinase activity sensing in living cells
    François Sipieter
    Biophotonic Team BCF, IRI CNRS, University Lille1 University Lille2 USR 3078, Villeneuve d Ascq, France
    Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 113:145-216. 2013
    ..The march of the "in vivo biochemistry" has begun, already yielding breathtaking results...
  49. ncbi A two-photon fluorescent probe for thiols in live cells and tissues
    Jun Han Lee
    Department of Chemistry, Korea University, 1 Anamdong, Seoul, 136 701, Korea
    J Am Chem Soc 132:1216-7. 2010
    ....
  50. ncbi Macroscopic entanglement and violation of Bell's inequalities between two spatially separated quantum dots in a planar photonic crystal system
    P Yao
    Department of Physics, Queen s University Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
    Opt Express 17:11505-14. 2009
    ..The macroscopic entanglement is confirmed by investigating the Bell inequality, which is shown to be violated for hundreds of picoseconds...
  51. pmc Inhibition of firefly luciferase by general anesthetics: effect on in vitro and in vivo bioluminescence imaging
    Marleen Keyaerts
    In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging ICMI Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Brussels, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 7:e30061. 2012
    ..Often isoflurane anesthesia is used because of its ease of use and fast induction/recovery. However, general anesthetics have been described as important inhibitors of the luciferase enzyme reaction...
  52. ncbi Color-changing and color-tunable photonic bandgap fiber textiles
    B Gauvreau
    Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, C P 6079, succ Centre ville Montral, Qubec, Canada H3C 3A7
    Opt Express 16:15677-93. 2008
    ..Finally, we argue that plastic Bragg fibers offer economical solution demanded by textile applications...
  53. pmc Risk of second malignant neoplasm following proton versus intensity-modulated photon radiotherapies for hepatocellular carcinoma
    Phillip J Taddei
    Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Phys Med Biol 55:7055-65. 2010
    ..4% after PBT and 19.2% after IMRT. The results of this study suggest that using proton beams instead of photon beams for radiotherapy may reduce the risk of SMN incidence for some HCC patients...
  54. ncbi Ultraweak photon emission induced by visible light and ultraviolet A radiation via photoactivated skin chromophores: in vivo charge coupled device imaging
    Ankush Prasad
    Palacky University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biophysics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic
    J Biomed Opt 17:085004. 2012
    ..Two-dimensional photon imaging can serve as a potential tool for monitoring the oxidative stress in the human skin induced by various stress factors irrespective of its physical or chemical nature...
  55. ncbi Response of extracellular matrix regulators in mouse lung after exposure to photons, protons and simulated solar particle event protons
    Jian Tian
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Radiation Research Laboratories, Loma Linda University and Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
    Radiat Res 172:30-41. 2009
    This study compared the effects of photons (gamma rays), protons and simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE) on the expression of profibrotic factors/extracellular matrix (ECM) regulators in lung tissue after whole-body irradiation...
  56. ncbi Beaming photons with spin and orbital angular momentum via a dipole-coupled plasmonic spiral antenna
    Guanghao Rui
    Electro Optics Graduate Program, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469, USA
    Opt Express 20:18819-26. 2012
    ..antenna, the spiral structure couples the radiation from the electric dipole into circularly polarized emitted photons in the far field. The spin carried by the emitted photons is determined by the handedness of the spiral antenna...
  57. ncbi Targeting neurons and photons for optogenetics
    Adam M Packer
    Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK
    Nat Neurosci 16:805-15. 2013
    ..In combination with simultaneous recording and imaging techniques, these strategies will allow us to mimic the natural activity patterns of neurons in vivo, enabling previously impossible 'dream experiments'. ..
  58. ncbi Study of robustness of IMPT and IMRT for prostate cancer against organ movement
    Martin Soukup
    Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Hoppe Seyler Strasse 3, Tubingen, Germany
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 75:941-9. 2009
    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with photons (IMRT) and protons (IMPT) produces dose distributions that have high conformality to the planning target volume and sufficient sparing of the organs at risk if calculated on a single static ..
  59. ncbi Reversible two-photon photoswitching and two-photon imaging of immunofunctionalized nanoparticles targeted to cancer cells
    Ming Qiang Zhu
    Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
    J Am Chem Soc 133:365-72. 2011
    ..However, using two near-IR (NIR) photons that are lower in energy, we can circumvent such problems and replace NUV single-photon excitations (e.g...
  60. ncbi A complete energy balance from photons to new biomass reveals a light- and nutrient-dependent variability in the metabolic costs of carbon assimilation
    Torsten Jakob
    Biology I, Plant Physiology, University Leipzig, Johannisallee 21 23, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    J Exp Bot 58:2101-12. 2007
    ..For this purpose, the amount of photons absorbed has been related to electrons transported by photosystem II, to gas exchange rates, and to the newly ..
  61. ncbi Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating
    Antonio Pifferi
    IIT, ULTRAS INFM CNR and IFN CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Phys Rev Lett 100:138101. 2008
    ..distance of 2 mm were obtained on a homogeneous tissue phantom with a dynamic range of 10(6) and collecting photons at arrival times up to 4 ns...
  62. ncbi Low-dose photons modify liver response to simulated solar particle event protons
    Daila S Gridley
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratories, Loma Linda University and Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354, USA
    Radiat Res 169:280-7. 2008
    ..solar particle event (SPE) protons over 36 h, both with and without pre-exposure to low-dose/low-dose-rate photons ((57)Co, 0.049 Gy total at 0.024 cGy/h)...
  63. pmc Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor
    Yunbo Guo
    Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Anal Chem 82:5211-8. 2010
    ..By all important metrics for sensitivity, we anticipate this photonic crystal biosensor will provide new capabilities for highly sensitive measurements of biomolecular binding...
  64. ncbi Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma
    N Patrik Brodin
    Radiation Medicine Research Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Acta Oncol 50:806-16. 2011
    ..The aim was also to find dose-volume toxicity parameters relevant to children undergoing RT to be used in the inverse planning of RA and IMPT, and to use in the risk estimations...
  65. ncbi Effects of exercises on biophoton emission of the wrist
    Frédéric Laager
    Biomedical Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151 742, South Korea
    Eur J Appl Physiol 102:463-9. 2008
    ..To flesh out this hypothesis we compared our data to heart beat rates and oxygen consumption values measured while doing the same type of exercises...
  66. ncbi Quantum and thermal phase slips in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) ultrathin crystalline nanowire: application to single photon detection
    Cécile Delacour
    Institut Neel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F 38042 Grenoble, France
    Nano Lett 12:3501-6. 2012
    ..The photoresponse of these nanowires is measured as a function of the light irradiation wavelength and temperature and exhibits a behavior comparable with previous results obtained on thicker films...
  67. ncbi Homogeneity of Gafchromic EBT2 film
    Bernadette Hartmann
    Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Med Phys 37:1753-6. 2010
    ..Thus, in this article special focus was put on examining the homogeneity of EBT2 film...
  68. ncbi Quantitative 3D mapping of fluidic temperatures within microchannel networks using fluorescence lifetime imaging
    Richard K P Benninger
    Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
    Anal Chem 78:2272-8. 2006
    ..This technique allows optimization of the chip design for miniaturized processes, such as on-chip PCR, for which precise temperature control is important...
  69. pmc Radiosurgery with photons or protons for benign and malignant tumours of the skull base: a review
    Maurizio Amichetti
    ATreP, Provincial Agency for Proton Therapy, Via Perini 181, Trento 38122, Italy
    Radiat Oncol 7:210. 2012
    ..have been developed and several studies have compared treatment plan characteristics between protons and photons.The principles of classical radiobiology are similar for protons and photons even though they differ in terms of ..
  70. pmc Standardized treatment planning methodology for passively scattered proton craniospinal irradiation
    Annelise Giebeler
    Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Radiat Oncol 8:32. 2013
    ..This study presents and evaluates a standardized method of proton treatment planning for craniospinal irradiation (CSI)...
  71. ncbi Determination of photon attenuation coefficient, porosity and field capacity of soil by gamma-ray transmission for 60, 356 and 662 keV gamma rays
    D Demir
    Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
    Appl Radiat Isot 66:1834-7. 2008
    ..It was observed that gamma-ray transmission method for determination of the soil parameters has advantages such as practical, inexpensive, non-destructive and fast analysis...
  72. ncbi Proton therapy in chordoma of the base of the skull: a systematic review
    Maurizio Amichetti
    ATreP Provincial Agency for Proton Therapy, Via F lli Perini, 181, 38100 Trento, Italy
    Neurosurg Rev 32:403-16. 2009
    ..postoperative treatment of choice, but no controlled studies have yet confirmed the superiority of protons over photons. During January 2008, two independent researchers conducted a systematic review of the current data on the ..
  73. ncbi Detection of the tagged or untagged photons in acousto-optic imaging of thick highly scattering media by photorefractive adaptive holography
    M Gross
    Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UMR 8552 ENS, CNRS, UMPC, Ecole Normale Superieure, 10 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 28:173-82. 2009
    ..We describe here our present state of the art and understanding on the problem of breast imaging with PR detection of the acousto-optic signal...
  74. pmc Radiation therapy planning with photons and protons for early and advanced breast cancer: an overview
    Damien C Weber
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
    Radiat Oncol 1:22. 2006
    ..Protons have superior dose distributional qualities compared to photons, as dose deposition occurs in a modulated narrow zone, called the Bragg peak...
  75. ncbi Visual outcome of accelerated fractionated radiation for advanced sinonasal malignancies employing photons/protons
    Damien C Weber
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Radiother Oncol 81:243-9. 2006
    ..To investigate the visual outcomes of patients with advanced sinonasal malignancies treated with proton/photon accelerated fractionated radiation (AFR)...
  76. ncbi High-energy photons in IMRT: uncertainties and risks for questionable gain
    J S Welsh
    Department
    Technol Cancer Res Treat 6:147-9. 2007
  77. pmc Improved rejection of multiply scattered photons in confocal microscopy using dual-axes architecture
    Larry K Wong
    Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    Opt Lett 32:1674-6. 2007
    ..simulations to show that the dual-axes (DA) confocal architecture has superior rejection of multiply scattered photons in tissue to that of single axis...
  78. ncbi Efficacy of intracerebral delivery of Carboplatin in combination with photon irradiation for treatment of F98 glioma-bearing rats
    Julia Rousseau
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U836, Equipe 6, Grenoble, France
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 73:530-6. 2009
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of prolonged intracerebral (i.c.) administration of carboplatin by means of ALZET osmotic pumps, in combination with radiotherapy for the treatment of intracranial F98 glioma in rats...
  79. ncbi Enhancement of radiation effect by heavy elements
    K Kobayashi
    Photon Factory, KEK, Tsukuba, Japan
    Mutat Res 704:123-31. 2010
    ..After discussion on the required characteristics for radiosensitizers, possibility of nanoparticles of Au or Pt is mentioned since they could be synthesized or modified as ideal radiosensitizers...
  80. ncbi Assessment of early toxicity and response in patients treated with proton and carbon ion therapy at the Heidelberg ion therapy center using the raster scanning technique
    Stefan Rieken
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81:e793-801. 2011
    ..PUROPOSE: To asses early toxicity and response in 118 patients treated with scanned ion beams to validate the safety of intensity-controlled raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center...
  81. ncbi Results of a multicentric in silico clinical trial (ROCOCO): comparing radiotherapy with photons and protons for non-small cell lung cancer
    Erik Roelofs
    Department of Radiation Oncology MAASTRO, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center MUMC, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    J Thorac Oncol 7:165-76. 2012
    ..The hypothesis is that proton radiotherapy decreases the dose and the volume of irradiated normal tissues even when escalating to the maximum tolerable dose of one or more of the organs at risk (OAR)...
  82. ncbi Comparison of fluorescence tomographic imaging in mice with early-arriving and quasi-continuous-wave photons
    Mark Niedre
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Opt Lett 35:369-71. 2010
    ..In this work we investigated the use of time-gated detection of early-arriving photons for reducing the effects of light scatter in mice relative to quasi-cw photons...
  83. ncbi A polymer-based functional pattern on one-dimensional photonic crystals for photon sorting of fluorescence radiation
    Mirko Ballarini
    Department of Applied Sciences and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
    Opt Express 20:6703-11. 2012
    ..This working principle can be advantageously extended to a multi-step nanometric relief structure for self-referencing biosensing or frequency-multiplexed fluorescence detection...
  84. ncbi Bio-inspired variable structural color materials
    Yuanjin Zhao
    State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
    Chem Soc Rev 41:3297-317. 2012
    ..We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references)...
  85. ncbi Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: in-air output ratio, Sc, for megavoltage photon beams
    Timothy C Zhu
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Med Phys 36:5261-91. 2009
    ..The authors discussed the use of Sc in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of Sc data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes...
  86. ncbi A biosensor based on photonic crystal surface waves with an independent registration of the liquid refractive index
    Valery N Konopsky
    Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region, Russia
    Biosens Bioelectron 25:1212-6. 2010
    ..The attained baseline noise is 5x10(-13) m/Hz(1/2) for adlayer thickness changes and 9x10(-8) RIU/Hz(1/2) for RI changes...
  87. pmc Imaging of ultraweak spontaneous photon emission from human body displaying diurnal rhythm
    Masaki Kobayashi
    Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, Japan
    PLoS ONE 4:e6256. 2009
    ..We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. The diurnal changes in photon emission might be linked to changes in energy metabolism...
  88. ncbi Benign meningioma: partially resected, biopsied, and recurrent intracranial tumors treated with combined proton and photon radiotherapy
    E Wenkel
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:1363-70. 2000
    ..To evaluate the recurrence-free survival and complications of combined proton and photon radiotherapy of patients with incompletely resected or recurrent histologically-confirmed benign meningioma...
  89. ncbi Proton stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of benign meningiomas
    Lia M Halasz
    Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81:1428-35. 2011
    ..Here, we report the first series of proton stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) used for the treatment of meningiomas...
  90. ncbi Two-photon imaging to a depth of 1000 microm in living brains by use of a Ti:Al2O3 regenerative amplifier
    Patrick Theer
    Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Johnstrasse 29, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Opt Lett 28:1022-4. 2003
    ..The achieved imaging depth approaches the theoretical limit set by excitation of out-of-focus fluorescence...
  91. ncbi Intensity modulation in radiotherapy: photons versus protons in the paranasal sinus
    Anthony John Lomax
    Division of Radiation Oncology, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
    Radiother Oncol 66:11-8. 2003
    ....
  92. ncbi Two-photon absorption standards in the 550-1600 nm excitation wavelength range
    Nikolay S Makarov
    Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
    Opt Express 16:4029-47. 2008
    ..The data are corrected for the variations of the pulse duration and the beam profile with the excitation wavelength, and are applicable as reference standards for 2PA measurements...
  93. ncbi Dose calculation validation of Vmc++ for photon beams
    J Gardner
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 0058, USA
    Med Phys 34:1809-18. 2007
    ..VMC + + can be used for photon beam MC patient dose computations without a clinically significant loss in accuracy...
  94. ncbi Optimal treatment planning for skull base chordoma: photons, protons, or a combination of both?
    Mylin A Torres
    Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74:1033-9. 2009
    ..We compared dosimetry of proton (PR), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) photon (PH), and combined PR and IMRT PH (PP) irradiation of skull base chordomas to determine the most optimal technique...
  95. ncbi How costly is particle therapy? Cost analysis of external beam radiotherapy with carbon-ions, protons and photons
    Andrea Peeters
    Maastricht Radiation Oncology MAASTRO Clinic, 6229 ET Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Radiother Oncol 95:45-53. 2010
    ..Particle therapy has potentially a better therapeutic ratio than photon therapy. However, investment costs are much higher. This study provides an estimation and comparison of the costs of these therapies...
  96. pmc Precise nanometer localization analysis for individual fluorescent probes
    Russell E Thompson
    Cornell University, School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Biophys J 82:2775-83. 2002
    ..The precision of localization scales as the inverse square root of the number of photons in the spot for the shot noise limited case and as the inverse of the number of photons for the background noise ..
  97. pmc Hydrostatic pressure sensing with high birefringence photonic crystal fibers
    Fernando C Favero
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453 900 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Sensors (Basel) 10:9698-711. 2010
    ..From the analysis of experimental results, it is concluded that, in principle, an operating limit of 92 MPa in pressure could be achieved with 0.0003% of full scale resolution...
  98. ncbi Dosimetric validation of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm: fundamental characterization in water
    Antonella Fogliata
    Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona, Switzerland
    Phys Med Biol 56:1879-904. 2011
    ..The basic validation of the Acuros XB algorithm was therefore considered satisfactory for both conventional photon beams as well as for FFF beams of new generation linacs such as the Varian TrueBeam...
  99. pmc Feasibility of a multigroup deterministic solution method for three-dimensional radiotherapy dose calculations
    Oleg N Vassiliev
    Department of Radiation Physics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 72:220-7. 2008
    ..To investigate the potential of a novel deterministic solver, Attila, for external photon beam radiotherapy dose calculations...
  100. ncbi Validation of a new grid-based Boltzmann equation solver for dose calculation in radiotherapy with photon beams
    Oleg N Vassiliev
    Department of Radiation Physics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Phys Med Biol 55:581-98. 2010
    ..Additionally, since Acuros calculation times are only weakly dependent on the number of beams, Acuros may ideally be suited to arc therapies, where current clinical algorithms may incur long calculation times...
  101. ncbi A 3D pencil-beam-based superposition algorithm for photon dose calculation in heterogeneous media
    L Tillikainen
    Varian Medical Systems Finland Oy, Paciuksenkatu 21, FIN 00270 Helsinki, Finland
    Phys Med Biol 53:3821-39. 2008
    ..The presented method was found to be accurate in a wide range of conditions making it suitable for clinical planning purposes...

Research Grants68

  1. Functional brain imaging by laser-induced PAT
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Any light, including both singly and multiply scattered photons, contributes to the imaging signal; as a result, the imaging depth in fPAT is better than in OCT...
  2. Personalized Clinical Diagnostics and Beyond: Integrated Ring Resonator Arrays
    Ryan Bailey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This technology promises to broadly impact the landscape of the biomedical sciences, both meeting the clinical diagnostic challenges of today and pioneering the paradigm-shifting discoveries of tomorrow. ..
  3. Using PET isotopes to identify drug targets and to diagnose infectious diseases
    Peter J Tonge; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This method relies on the incorporation of short-lived radioisotopes that decay to emit body-penetrating photons, and thus the reagents that are developed should also be useful for directly detecting pathogens in infected ..
  4. Transcranial, Light-Emiting Diode (LED) Therapy to Improve Cognition in GWVI
    Margaret A Naeser; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with increased production of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) in hypoxic/compromised cells treated with red/NIR photons. Mitochondrial dysfunction is reported in GWI Veterans;associated with neurotoxicant exposures during deployment [..
  5. Optical probes for controlling cellular function
    GRAHAM ELLIS-DAVIES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..v.-absorbing chromophores. Uncaging using such lasers is produced by the simultaneous absorption of two red photons of equivalent energy to one blue photon...
  6. Cluster Imaging of Emerging Biomarker Networks in Wound Healing
    Matthias Nahrendorf; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The technology is based on reconstruction of optical photons in transillumination geometry and fusion of 3D fluorescence data-sets with anatomic CT...
  7. Improved scintillators for time-of-flight positron emission tomography
    STEPHEN E DERENZO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Compared with LSO, improving the luminosity from 30,000 photons/MeV to 60,000 photons/MeV and reducing the decay time from 40 ns to 20 ns will improve the timing resolution by a ..
  8. High Resolution Multiplexed Fluorescence Tomography
    MARK JONATHAN NIEDRE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..high- speed time-gated photon counting detection of the earliest-transmitted and therefore least scattered photons through animals, thereby allowing imaging resolution approaching 250 5m without loss of sensitivity or accuracy, ..
  9. In vivo tomographic imaging of fluorescence protein
    Wenxiang Cong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, the fluorescence proteins emit photons in the visible light spectrum, where the biological tissue absorbs photons much more strongly than in the near-..
  10. An Upright Multiphoton Microscope for an Established Core Imaging Facility
    Thomas A Blanpied; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..tissues;compact light path for preserving laser power and beam quality on the illumination side and conserving photons on the emission side;spectral detection for removal of autofluorescence;high ease of use due to familiarity with ..
  11. PROTON RADIATION THERAPY RESEARCH
    Thomas F DeLaney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>photons in lung cancer;and (3) to use these advantages in the proton therapy of a number of tumor sites for which protons ..
  12. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF SHORT WAVELENGTH VISUAL PIGMENTS
    Barry E Knox; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Light responses initiate with the absorption of photons by the visual pigments (cone opsins)...
  13. Clonable Nanoparticles
    CHRISTOPHER JEFFRIES ACKERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In all microscopes, whether illuminated by photons or electrons, biological tissues are essentially transparent...
  14. Dual kV/MV Imaging for Metal Artifact Reduction
    JOSH MORRIS STAR-LACK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Megavoltage CT is largely free of such metal artifacts due to the relatively low absorption of high energy photons by metal, but at the expense of poor soft tissue delineation essential to accurate treatment planning...
  15. A Large-area Pixel Array Detector System for Macromolecular Crystallography
    William I Weis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..technology, the Pixel Array Detector (PAD), is based on a solid-state array of silicon sensors that sense x-ray photons and directly output an electrical signal, rather than requiring an intermediate conversion of x-rays to visible ..
  16. Multi-modal high-resolution technology for tissue diagnostics
    Laura Marcu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose to combine into one unique system three techniques: (i) two-photons time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (2p-TRFS) which provides a direct evaluation of cells and tissues ..
  17. Lanthanide Containing ZnS Nanoparticles
    David H Waldeck; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..made them incompatible with biological imaging applications because of the strong interference between UV/blue photons and biological systems...
  18. Probing optical property changes in photonic materials for faster timing in PET
    Craig S Levin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A PET scan collects millions of "events" comprising pairs of oppositely-directed 511 kilo-electron- volt (keV) photons that are emitted from the patient after injection of a radioactive contrast agent...
  19. Energy-Independent Single Photon Molecular Imaging Technology
    Youngho Seo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are: Hypothesis 1: The CZT's excellent energy resolution and stopping power can distinguish background photons (photons scattered from human body and collimator septa) from quality photons regardless of emission energy...
  20. A Prototype Wireless Digital MR Spectrometer on a Single Integrated Circuit
    Roland Bammer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Another future application would be MR-PET where a small footprint IC spectrometer would eliminate a lot of the current x-ray dense RF electronics, which interacts with 511keV photons and thus perturbs the PET imaging process.
  21. Structure and Biomechanics of the Human Optic Nerve Head
    Donald J Brown; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These technologies take advantage of known non-linear optical affects that occur when high intensity photons generated by ultrafast lasers interact with tissue...
  22. Deactivation mechanisms of rod phototransduction
    Marie E Burns; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary The absorption of photons in rods and cones of the retina activates a cascade of biochemical reactions (phototransduction cascade) that generates the electrical response to light...
  23. Quantification of breast density using dual energy mammography
    Sabee Molloi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A mammographically dense breast refers to a breast which attenuates a greater proportion of x-ray photons due to its significant volume fraction of fibroglandular tissue relative to adipose tissue...
  24. Photon interaction depth encoded time-of-flight PET
    Craig S Levin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ToF PET uses the arrival time difference of detected coincidence photons to better estimate the position of the positron annihilation along the response line between any two detector ..
  25. Quantitative SPECT for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy
    Eric C Frey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..could have a number of important applications, but is complicated by the continuous energy spectrum of primary photons and the resulting high levels of photon scatter...
  26. Quantitative Evaluation of Cerenkov Luminescence for Imaging and Therapy
    Simon R Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cerenkov radiation is a phenomenon in which optical photons are emitted when a charged particle moves faster than the speed of light in a dielectric medium such as tissue...
  27. Microsurgical In-Situ Image Guidance with Optical Coherence Tomography
    George D Stetten; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since photons from a virtual image behave exactly as if they emanated from a real image, the in situ image under a surgical ..
  28. Next-generation Fluorescent Probes for Biological Research
    Scott C Blanchard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..has been shown to be significantly hampered by undesirable photophysical properties that limit both the flux of photons generated as well as the total time interval over which photon emission events can be observed...
  29. CVS SYMPOSIUM: PHOTONS AND NEURONS
    David R Williams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in dialogue is the central motivation for the 27th Symposium of the Center for Visual Science (CVS), entitled "Photons and Neurons", scheduled for June 4th- 6th, 2010 at the University of Rochester...
  30. Single Molecule Real Time Electronic Sequencing
    Madoo Varma; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..operating at synthesis rates as high as 1 msec for DNA polymerase, however complex optics required to collect photons efficiently make scaling of the platforms to high densities difficult...
  31. Novel Fluorophores for Molecular and Cellular Imaging
    Yihua Bruce Yu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..source with a repetition rate of 1-5 MHz, in contrast it will require significantly longer time to collect enough photons in case of the lanthanides where the repetition rates are only in kHz...
  32. Biophysical mechanisms of photon detection
    FREDERICK M RIEKE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The ability of rod-mediated vision to detect absorption of a handful of photons has led to a set of pre-cise questions about how single photon absorptions are transduced and processed in the retina...
  33. The mechanism of signal transduction in photoreceptors
    Hartmut Luecke; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..receptors for light (photoreceptors) are the basis of all forms of vision where the energy from absorbed single photons is used to bring about a conformational change in the chromophore, usually the isomerization of a double bond ..
  34. Properties and Mechanisms of Melanopsin Photoreception
    Michael Tri Hoang Do; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..More specifically, the circadian clock sums photons over broad intervals of time and space, diminishing the impact of local fluctuations in light intensity to obtin ..
  35. Radiation response modulation of tumors using biocongjugated gold nanoparticles
    Sunil Krishnan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..accumulation of gold nanoparticles in tumors due to the remarkable increase in the fluence of photoelectrons when photons interact with high atomic number elements such as gold...
  36. Monitoring Neural Activity in Freely Behaving Zebrafish Larvae with Bioluminescen
    Florian Engert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..dark environment, we propose an extension of this method for fast temporal gating that is able to count single photons during normal lighting conditions...
  37. Preclinical Translation of New Scintillation Light Detection Concepts for PET
    Craig S Levin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this detector module's edge-on, layered arrangement, incoming photons traverse a minimum of ~2 cm thick crystal with a crystal packing fraction of 70% in order to promote high 511 keV ..
  38. CRCNS: Biophysical properties of parallel neural circuits serving night vision
    Joshua H Singer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The basic circuitry is well-described: photons absorbed by rod photoreceptors generate neural signals that are distributed to multiple types of retinal ganglion ..
  39. Zeiss 780 NLO High Sensitivity Multiphoton Microscopy System
    Ammasi Periasamy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..detector provides better opportunity to excite the sample with less excitation intensity and detecting the weaker photons in tissue and intravital imaging...
  40. Superior Near-IR Dyes for Bioimaging
    ARUNKUMAR EASWARAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..NIR) radiation (650-900 nm) a spectral window where hemoglobin and water absorb minimally and therefore allow photons to penetrate several centimeters through tissue...
  41. Tumor Detection and Quantitation with Emission Tomography
    Thomas K Lewellen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This Monte Carlo-based software package tracks photons through complex heterogeneous objects (patients) and models the effects of collimation and detection...
  42. MR-assisted PET data optimization for neuroimaging studies
    Ciprian Catana; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..example, attenuation and scatter correction have to be performed to account for the interactions of the gamma-ray photons in the subject before reaching the detectors;motion correction has to be applied to avoid the degradation of the ..
  43. Acquisition of a supercontinuum laser STED microscope
    Diego Restrepo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. a single fluorescing 1 nm molecule, cannot be imaged to a spot much smaller than roughly 300 nm wide, because photons spread out as they pass by an edge...
  44. A cost-effective high-performance ceramic garnet scintillator for PET
    Simon R Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3 cm at 511 keV), high light yield (~66,000 photons/MeV deposited) and a fast decay time (~40 ns), and unlike most other very bright scintillators, it is not ..
  45. Bright and Stable Near-IR dyes for Bioimaging
    ARUNKUMAR EASWARAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..NIR) radiation (700-900 nm) a spectral window where hemoglobin and water absorb minimally and therefore allow photons to penetrate several centimeters through tissue...
  46. Mechanistic analysis of dynamic scaffolding in a cellular signaling network
    Rama Ranganathan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..For example, sensory neurons of the eye can generate reliable electrical responses to the absorption of single photons under dark adapted conditions, but can also adjust the gain to continue operating in bright daylight conditions ..
  47. Layered Thin Film Radiation Shields
    Ashok Khandkar; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..along with the benefits these technologies bring, there is a great concern regarding radiation exposure from photons to both clinicians and patients alike, with clinicians exposed to chronic and cumulative exposure...
  48. Optical Barriers to Improve Performance of a Continuous Detector for Clinical PET
    Joel S Karp; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The signal-to-noise of the measurement of scintillation photons by the photo-detectors, coupled to one surface of the scintillator, is dependent on the light response function (..
  49. AM-241 APPLICATORS FOR INTRACAVITARY IRRADIATION
    Ravinder Nath; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Sealed sources of Am-241 emit primarily 60 keV photons; produce relative dose distributions in water comparable to those from Cs- 137 or Ra-226 sources; and can produce dose rates up to 100 cG/hr at 1 cm in water...
  50. X-ray Luminescence Optical Tomography for Small Animal Imaging
    Changqing Li; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Optical photons emitted by the excited GOS are detected with a sensitive electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD)...
  51. Flat-panel X-ray Imaging Detector with Avalanche Gain
    Wei Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..employs three major components: a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator to convert x-rays to optical photons;an avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor, HARP (High-gain Avalanche Rushing amorphous Photoconductor)..
  52. ENHANCEMENT OF IUDR SENSITIZATION BY LOW ENERGY PHOTONS
    Ravinder Nath; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Previous studies indicate that radiosensitization by IUdR can be enhanced substantially through the use of photons of energy just greater than 33.2 keV, the K-absorption edge of iodine...
  53. Msec Polymerase Chain Reaction with fMolar Detection Sensitivity using SPR
    DONALD ROPER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..SPR is collective oscillation of delocalized noble metal electrons polarized by incident resonant photons. It yields absorption cross-sections >106-fold higher than fluorescent dyes, allowing label-free detection of ..
  54. Supraresolution 2-photon microscopy in brain tissue
    Bernardo L Sabatini; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, due to the near infrared (NIR) photons necessary for deep tissue penetration and excitation in 2PLSM, the resolution of this approach is poor compared ..
  55. High Performance Transparent Optical Ceramic Scintillators through Nanotechnology
    Charles Brecher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It has high stopping power for 511 keV gamma rays, high light yield of over 30,000 photons/MeV, and rapid decay of 40 ns. It achieves high coincidence timing resolution and energy resolution...
  56. SEARCH FOR ULTRA FAST, HEAVY ATOM SCINTILLATORS
    STEPHEN DERENZO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The primary objective is to develop new inorganic scintillators for detecting 511 keV photons with exceptional detection efficiency (similar to BGO), response time (1 ns), and energy resolution (3% fwhm)...
  57. SAMARIUM-145 SOURCES FOR BRACHYTHERAPY
    KRISHNAN SUTHANTHIRAN; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Encapsulated radioactive sources emitting ionizing radiation in the form of high energy photons are widely used for treatment of cancer, known as brachytherapy...
  58. Integrated, multiplexed high-frequency electronic analysis of DNA in nanopores
    KENNETH L SHEPARD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For single-molecule optical techniques, however, the signal from a single fluorophore is typically <2500 photons/sec (equivalent to electrical current levels on the order of 50 fA)...
  59. Modeling the photon propagation for optical molecular imaging
    Wenxiang Cong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Optical molecular imaging captures diffusive photons through the biological tissue...
  60. BIORAD 2-PHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY SYSTEM
    Arnold Kriegstein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..long- wavelength excitation light that penetrates deep into brain tissue and, through a quantum interaction of photons, only produces fluorophore excitation at the focal point...
  61. Beta Imager 2000Z Digital Imaging System
    Jason Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..At each decay event, the electron avalanche produces gaseous scintillation; for argon, approximately 35 photons are produced per keV of beta particle energy with the output centered at 280 nm...
  62. A Beta-Sensitive Probe System for Use in Endoscopy
    RAYMOND RAYLMAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..detection unit will consist of two stacked surface barrier detectors; the first device detects beta particles and photons, while the rear detector only detects photons (due to the shielding effects of the front detector)...
  63. BRACHYTHERAPY DOSIMETRY USING PLASTIC SCINTILLATOR
    Jeffrey Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Solid organic scintillators convert energy absorbed from ionizing radiation fields into blue fluorescent photons, creating a measurable optical signal related to absorbed dose in the surrounding medium...
  64. ULTRAFAST MULTIPHOTON LASER ACTIVATION SYSTEM
    WATT WEBB; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..100 femtosecond) pulses generated by mode-locked lasers allow simultaneous absorption of two or more photons from bright pulsed illumination for molecular excitation as in the multiphoton laser scanning fluorescence ..
  65. SIMULTANEOUS DUAL ISOTOPE SPECT W/ CROSS TALK CORRECTION
    Eric Frey; Fiscal Year: 2001
    One unique feature of SPECT is the ability to use two pharmaceuticals labeled with different isotopes emiting photons with different energies to make simultaneous measurements of different physiological processes...
  66. A Dual Energy X-Ray Detector for Digital Mammography
    TUMAY TUMER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In our approach, we propose to implement a novel technology where the incoming x-ray photons are energy-separated...
  67. High-resolution ultrasound-encoded optical tomography
    Lihong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Both of the technologies depend primarily on singly backscattered photons for spatial resolution...
  68. BREAST IMAGING USING PICOSECOND PULSES OF LIGHT
    Jeremy Hebden; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The imaging method involves recording and discriminating between the times-of-flight of all transmitted photons, and using a fraction of the light with the shortest travel times to construct an image through the breast...