sex

Summary

Summary: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Species interactions and the evolution of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 304:1018-20. 2004
  2. ncbi Of what use is sex to bacteria?
    Hema Prasad Narra
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Curr Biol 16:R705-10. 2006
  3. pmc Running with the Red Queen: host-parasite coevolution selects for biparental sex
    Levi T Morran
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Science 333:216-8. 2011
  4. ncbi Sex releases the speed limit on evolution
    Nick Colegrave
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nature 420:664-6. 2002
  5. ncbi The many costs of sex
    Jussi Lehtonen
    Evolution, Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Trends Ecol Evol 27:172-8. 2012
  6. ncbi Sexual behavior and sex-associated environmental cues activate the mesolimbic system in male rats
    Margaret E Balfour
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0521, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:718-30. 2004
  7. doi Why can't a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures
    David P Schmitt
    Department of Psychology, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 62625, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 94:168-82. 2008
  8. ncbi Sex increases the efficacy of natural selection in experimental yeast populations
    Matthew R Goddard
    NERC Centre for Population Biology and Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK
    Nature 434:636-40. 2005
  9. pmc The cost of sex: quantifying energetic investment in gamete production by males and females
    April Hayward
    Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e16557. 2011
  10. doi Why sex and recombination?
    N H Barton
    Institute of Science and Technology, A 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 74:187-95. 2009

Detail Information

Publications220 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Species interactions and the evolution of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 304:1018-20. 2004
    The Red Queen hypothesis posits that sex has evolved in response to the shifting adaptive landscape generated by the evolution of interacting species...
  2. ncbi Of what use is sex to bacteria?
    Hema Prasad Narra
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Curr Biol 16:R705-10. 2006
    ..Bacterial sex differs from that of eukaryotes in that it is unidirectional and does not involve gamete fusion or reproduction...
  3. pmc Running with the Red Queen: host-parasite coevolution selects for biparental sex
    Levi T Morran
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Science 333:216-8. 2011
    ..Thus, consistent with the Red Queen hypothesis, coevolving pathogens can select for biparental sex.
  4. ncbi Sex releases the speed limit on evolution
    Nick Colegrave
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nature 420:664-6. 2002
    Explaining the evolutionary maintenance of sex remains a key problem in evolutionary biology...
  5. ncbi The many costs of sex
    Jussi Lehtonen
    Evolution, Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Trends Ecol Evol 27:172-8. 2012
    Explaining the evolution of sex is challenging for biologists. A 'twofold cost' compared with asexual reproduction is often quoted...
  6. ncbi Sexual behavior and sex-associated environmental cues activate the mesolimbic system in male rats
    Margaret E Balfour
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0521, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:718-30. 2004
    ..Specifically, the effects of sexual experience and sex-related environmental cues on the activation of several components of the mesolimbic system were studied...
  7. doi Why can't a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures
    David P Schmitt
    Department of Psychology, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 62625, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 94:168-82. 2008
    Previous research suggested that sex differences in personality traits are larger in prosperous, healthy, and egalitarian cultures in which women have more opportunities equal with those of men...
  8. ncbi Sex increases the efficacy of natural selection in experimental yeast populations
    Matthew R Goddard
    NERC Centre for Population Biology and Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK
    Nature 434:636-40. 2005
    Why sex evolved and persists is a problem for evolutionary biology, because sex disrupts favourable gene combinations and requires an expenditure of time and energy...
  9. pmc The cost of sex: quantifying energetic investment in gamete production by males and females
    April Hayward
    Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e16557. 2011
    ..Together, these results suggest that understanding the heterogeneity in rates of gamete production among species requires joint consideration of the effects of gonad mass and metabolism...
  10. doi Why sex and recombination?
    N H Barton
    Institute of Science and Technology, A 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 74:187-95. 2009
    b>Sex and recombination have long been seen as adaptations that facilitate natural selection by generating favorable variations...
  11. doi Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments
    Lutz Becks
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B2, Canada
    Nature 468:89-92. 2010
    ..However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12)...
  12. doi Effect of rearing temperatures during embryonic development on the phenotypic sex in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    H AboZaid
    Department of Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Water Ecology, Gottingen, Germany
    Sex Dev 5:259-65. 2011
    In zebrafish, Danio rerio, a polygenic pattern of sex determination or a female heterogamety with possible influences of environmental factors is assumed...
  13. doi Male sex drive and the maintenance of sex: evidence from Drosophila
    Rama S Singh
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    J Hered 101:S100-6. 2010
    ..is very common among multicellular organisms-has been proposed as an important factor in the maintenance of sex, though in order for this hypothesis to hold, the strength of sexual selection must be stronger in males than in ..
  14. ncbi Deleterious mutations and the evolution of sex
    P D Keightley
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Science 290:331-3. 2000
    ..In species with short generation times, U is predicted to be far below 1, suggesting that sex is not maintained by its capacity to purge the genome of deleterious mutations.
  15. pmc Origin of the cell nucleus, mitosis and sex: roles of intracellular coevolution
    Thomas Cavalier-Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX13PS, UK
    Biol Direct 5:7. 2010
    ..Discussions on the origin of sex typically overlook its association with protozoan entry into dormant walled cysts and the likely simultaneous ..
  16. ncbi Effects of sex, gonadectomy, and oestrogen substitution on ischaemic preconditioning and ischaemia-reperfusion injury in mice
    X Song
    Crafoord Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockhom, Sweden
    Acta Physiol Scand 177:459-66. 2003
    ..Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) has been demonstrated to protect heart function and viability, but has been predominantly studied in male animals...
  17. ncbi An epidemiological model of host-parasite coevolution and sex
    C M Lively
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    J Evol Biol 23:1490-7. 2010
    ..The results suggest that epidemiological feedbacks, combined with frequency-dependent selection, could lead to the long-term persistence of sex under biologically reasonable conditions.
  18. doi Glucose consumption of single post-compaction human embryos is predictive of embryo sex and live birth outcome
    David K Gardner
    Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
    Hum Reprod 26:1981-6. 2011
    ..Spent media samples, including controls containing no embryo, were coded, frozen and subsequently analysed blind. Analysis of glucose was performed by microfluorimetry. The sex of children born was recorded.
  19. ncbi Identification of a speaker's sex: a study of vowels
    S P Whiteside
    Department of Human Communication Sciences, University of Sheffield
    Percept Mot Skills 86:579-84. 1998
    An experiment was carried out to test whether three phonetically naive listeners were able to identify a speaker's sex from brief natural vowel segments...
  20. ncbi Parasites and sexual reproduction in psychid moths
    Tomi Kumpulainen
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaskyla, FIN 40014 Finland
    Evolution 58:1511-20. 2004
    ..the life-history traits of these species in two locations where they coexist to test predictions of the cost-of-sex hypothesis...
  21. ncbi Sexual selection and the maintenance of sexual reproduction
    A F Agrawal
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405 3700, USA
    Nature 411:692-5. 2001
    ..The twofold cost of sex exists because of anisogamy or gamete dimorphism-egg-producing females make a larger contribution to the zygote ..
  22. pmc Predicting the evolution of sex on complex fitness landscapes
    Dusan Misevic
    Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    PLoS Comput Biol 5:e1000510. 2009
    Most population genetic theories on the evolution of sex or recombination are based on fairly restrictive assumptions about the nature of the underlying fitness landscapes...
  23. doi Genome structure and the benefit of sex
    Richard A Watson
    Natural Systems Group, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom
    Evolution 65:523-36. 2011
    ..We conclude that there are conditions in which sexuals can systematically evolve high-fitness genotypes that are essentially unevolvable for asexuals...
  24. doi Sex, trauma, stress hormones and depression
    E Young
    Molecular and Behavioral Neurosciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 15:23-8. 2010
    ..It may be the constantly changing steroid milieu that contributes to these phenomena and vulnerability to depression...
  25. doi Differences between selection on sex versus recombination in red queen models with diploid hosts
    Aneil F Agrawal
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Evolution 63:2131-41. 2009
    The Red Queen hypothesis argues that parasites generate selection for genetic mixing (sex and recombination) in their hosts. A number of recent papers have examined this hypothesis using models with haploid hosts...
  26. doi Experiments with digital organisms on the origin and maintenance of sex in changing environments
    Dusan Misevic
    Program in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, and Behavior, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    J Hered 101:S46-54. 2010
    Many theories have been proposed to explain the evolution of sex, but the question remains unsettled owing to a paucity of compelling empirical tests...
  27. ncbi On the origin of sex as vaccination
    Wolfgang Sterrer
    Bermuda Natural History Museum, The Bermuda Aquarium, P O Box FL 145, Flatts FLBX, Bermuda
    J Theor Biol 216:387-96. 2002
    In the theory of the origin of sex as vaccination, I propose that the eukaryote genome accreted from prokaryan symbiont genomes in numerous rounds of lateral gene transfer during which sex diverged from unilateral parasitic infection, as ..
  28. doi Sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia
    Jeffrey S Mogil
    Department of Psychology and Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Prog Brain Res 186:141-57. 2010
    ..Research in this field has now begun to concentrate on finding explanations for this sex difference...
  29. pmc The advantages of segregation and the evolution of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 164:1099-118. 2003
    ..This article is the first to investigate the possibility that sex might have evolved and been maintained to promote segregation, using a model that incorporates both a general ..
  30. doi Spatial heterogeneity and the evolution of sex in diploids
    Aneil F Agrawal
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am Nat 174:S54-70. 2009
    Much of the theoretical work on the evolution of sex has focused on the effects of recombination. In diploids, segregation also occurs during sexual reproduction...
  31. pmc Meta-analysis of sex-specific genome-wide association studies
    Reedik Magi
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Genet Epidemiol 34:846-53. 2010
    ..Such sex-differentiated effects are common in model organisms, and are becoming increasingly evident in human complex traits ..
  32. ncbi The ecology and genetics of fitness in Chlamydomonas. XIII. Fitness of long-term sexual and asexual populations in benign environments
    Sébastien Renaut
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3H JBI, Canada
    Evolution 60:2272-9. 2006
    ..Recombination between these genotypes reduces mean fitness and creates genetic variance for fitness. This may provide fuel for continued selection should the environment change...
  33. doi Identification, characterization and expression of sex-related genes in testes of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon
    Rungnapa Leelatanawit
    Program in Biotechnology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 152:66-76. 2009
    ..of genes involving gonadal development are an initial step towards understanding reproductive maturation and sex determination of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)...
  34. ncbi Sex ratios and the risks of haematological malignancies
    Ray A Cartwright
    Leukaemia Research Fund Centre for Clinical Epidemiology at the University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Br J Haematol 118:1071-7. 2002
    Although the sex of an individual confers one of the greatest of the known risks for contracting leukaemia and lymphomas, very little attention is paid to these risks...
  35. ncbi Test of synergistic interactions among deleterious mutations in bacteria
    S F Elena
    Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
    Nature 390:395-8. 1997
    ..The mutational deterministic hypothesis postulates that sex is an adaptation that allows deleterious mutations to be purged from the genome; it requires synergistic ..
  36. ncbi A phylogenomic inventory of meiotic genes; evidence for sex in Giardia and an early eukaryotic origin of meiosis
    Marilee A Ramesh
    Department of Biology, Roanoke College, Salem, VA 24153, USA
    Curr Biol 15:185-91. 2005
    ..evolutionary innovation in eukaryotic cells, and delineating its history is key to understanding the evolution of sex. Meiosis arose early in eukaryotic evolution, but when and how meiosis arose and whether all eukaryotes have ..
  37. ncbi Origin of sex revisited
    Mauro Santos
    Collegium Budapest, Institute for Advanced Study, Szentháromság u 2, Budapest, Hungary
    Orig Life Evol Biosph 33:405-32. 2003
    Why did sex ever arise in the first place? Why it does not disappear in view of the greater efficiency of asexuals? These are clearly two different questions, and we suggest here that the solution for the origin of sex does not ..
  38. ncbi Evolution of sex: why do organisms shuffle their genotypes?
    Aneil F Agrawal
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Harbord Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 3G5
    Curr Biol 16:R696-704. 2006
    Sexual processes alter associations among alleles. To understand the evolution of sex, we need to know both the short-term and long-term consequences of changing these genetic associations...
  39. ncbi Predicting compulsive Internet use: it's all about sex!
    Gert Jan Meerkerk
    IVO, Addiction Research Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Cyberpsychol Behav 9:95-103. 2006
    ..On a longitudinal basis, spending a lot of time on erotica predicted an increase in CIU 1 year later. The addictive potential of the different applications varies; erotica appears to have the highest potential...
  40. ncbi Sex in the wormcounting and compensating X-chromosome dose
    B J Meyer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3204, USA
    Trends Genet 16:247-53. 2000
    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans counts its X chromosomes to determine sex and to activate the process of dosage compensation, which ensures that males (XO) and hermaphrodites (XX) express equal levels of most X-chromosome products...
  41. ncbi Searching for the advantages of virus sex
    Paul E Turner
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
    Orig Life Evol Biosph 33:95-108. 2003
    b>Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex...
  42. ncbi Determination of sex and race from the subpubic angle in Ugandan subjects
    Patrick S Igbigbi
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Chichiri, Blantyre
    Am J Forensic Med Pathol 24:168-72. 2003
    The accurate determination of sex and race are important tools to forensic and physical anthropologists...
  43. ncbi Effect of fetal sex on airway lability in pregnant women with asthma
    Helen L Kwon
    Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 163:217-21. 2006
    The authors investigated the association between sex of the fetus and maternal airway lability among pregnant women with asthma...
  44. ncbi Current hypotheses for the evolution of sex and recombination
    Matthew Hartfield
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Integr Zool 7:192-209. 2012
    The evolution of sex is one of the most important and controversial problems in evolutionary biology. Although sex is almost universal in higher animals and plants, its inherent costs have made its maintenance difficult to explain...
  45. ncbi Sex hormones and hypertension
    Raghvendra K Dubey
    Center for Clinical Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 53:688-708. 2002
    ..However, whether sex hormones are responsible for the observed gender-associated differences in arterial blood pressure and whether ..
  46. ncbi Sex and flow: the consequences of fluid shear for sperm-egg interactions
    Jeffrey A Riffell
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    J Exp Biol 210:3644-60. 2007
    ..The shears maximizing fertilization success in the lab typically characterized natural flow microenvironments of spawning red abalone. Gamete behavior thus emerges as a critical determinant of sexual reproduction in the turbulent sea...
  47. ncbi Sex-linked anemia: a hypochromic anemia of mice
    R M Bannerman
    Science 151:581-2. 1966
    ..Though the anemia occurs on a normal diet, it responds rapidly to iron-dextran injection. It may represent an unusual primary disturbance of iron metabolism...
  48. pmc Relationships between tree size, crown shape, gender segregation and sex allocation in Pinus halepensis, a Mediterranean pine tree
    Gidi Ne'eman
    Department of Biology and Environment, University of Haifa Oranim, Tivon 36006, Israel
    Ann Bot 108:197-206. 2011
    b>Sex allocation has been studied mainly in small herbaceous plants but much less in monoecious wind-pollinated trees...
  49. pmc The evolution of sex is favoured during adaptation to new environments
    Lutz Becks
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001317. 2012
    Both theory and experiments have demonstrated that sex can facilitate adaptation, potentially yielding a group-level advantage to sex...
  50. ncbi Why sex and recombination?
    N H Barton
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Science 281:1986-90. 1998
    ..The effect of sex and recombination in breaking down negative correlations between favorable variants at different genetic loci, ..
  51. pmc Does stress induce (para)sex? Implications for Candida albicans evolution
    Judith Berman
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Trends Genet 28:197-203. 2012
    Theory predicts that stress is a key factor in explaining the evolutionary role of sex in facultatively sexual organisms, including microorganisms...
  52. doi Carotenoid supplementation and sex-specific trade-offs between colouration and condition in common tern chicks
    María M Benito
    Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat IRBio, Department Biologia Animal Vertebrats, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 645, Barcelona, 08028, Spain
    J Comp Physiol B 181:539-49. 2011
    ..Our aim was to examine sex-specific responses to the experimental increase of dietary carotenoids on plasma circulation, physiological and ..
  53. doi Sex-related adaptive responses to interaction of drought and salinity in Populus yunnanensis
    Lianghua Chen
    Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
    Plant Cell Environ 33:1767-78. 2010
    ..In addition, we found sex-specific responses in total chlorophyll content (TC), carotenoid concentration and carbon isotope composition under ..
  54. ncbi The hidden benefits of sex: evidence for MHC-associated mate choice in primate societies
    Joanna M Setchell
    Evolutionary Anthropology Research Group, Department of Anthropology, Durham University, Durham, UK
    Bioessays 32:940-8. 2010
    ..These findings underline the importance to females of selecting a sexual partner of high genetic quality, as well as the generality of the role of MHC genes in sexual selection...
  55. doi Are some chromosomes particularly good at sex? Insights from amniotes
    Denis O'Meally
    Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Chromosome Res 20:7-19. 2012
    Several recent studies have produced comparative maps of genes on amniote sex chromosomes, revealing homology of gene content and arrangement across lineages as divergent as mammals and lizards...
  56. pmc Serotonin transporter, sex, and hypoxia: microarray analysis in the pulmonary arteries of mice identifies genes with relevance to human PAH
    Kevin White
    Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Physiol Genomics 43:417-37. 2011
    ..To further investigate these sex differences, microarray analysis was performed in the pulmonary arteries of normoxic and chronically hypoxic female ..
  57. pmc Sex and hedgehog: roles of genes in the hedgehog signaling pathway in mammalian sexual differentiation
    Heather L Franco
    Reproductive Developmental Biology Group, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Chromosome Res 20:247-58. 2012
    ..Here, we review current findings on the roles of hedgehog signaling in the sexually dimorphic development of the reproductive organs with an emphasis on mammals and comparative evidence in other species...
  58. doi Genetic architecture and the evolution of sex
    Rolf Lohaus
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 5001, USA
    J Hered 101:S142-57. 2010
    Theoretical investigations of the advantages of sex have tended to treat the genetic architecture of organisms as static and have not considered that genetic architecture might coevolve with reproductive mode...
  59. doi Phenotypic plasticity of hermaphrodite sex allocation promotes the evolution of separate sexes: an experimental test of the sex-differential plasticity hypothesis using Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae)
    Marcel E Dorken
    Department of Plant Sciences, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom
    Evolution 62:971-8. 2008
    ..nuclear inheritance when unisexuals have more than twice the reproductive fitness of hermaphrodites through one sex function (e.g., when females have more than twice the seed fertility of hermaphrodites)...
  60. ncbi Perceptual integrality of sex and identity of faces: further evidence for the single-route hypothesis
    Tzvi Ganel
    Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 28:854-67. 2002
    According to current face-recognition models, sex (gender) and identity of faces are processed in independent routes...
  61. ncbi Sex differences in social behavior. Are the social role and evolutionary explanations compatible?
    J Archer
    Department of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, England
    Am Psychol 51:909-17. 1996
    The competing claims of two explanations of sex differences in social behavior, social role theory, and evolutionary psychology are examined...
  62. pmc Deleterious mutations and selection for sex in finite diploid populations
    Denis Roze
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7144, Adaptation et Diversité en Milieu Marin, Roscoff, France
    Genetics 184:1095-112. 2010
    In diploid populations, indirect benefits of sex may stem from segregation and recombination...
  63. pmc Women's attitudes to the sex of medical students in a gynaecology clinic: cross sectional survey
    Norma O'Flynn
    Department of General Practice and Primary Care, Guy s, King s, and St Thomas s School of Medicine, London SE11 6SP
    BMJ 325:683-4. 2002
  64. doi Sex and evolutionary stability
    Ken Binmore
    Philosophy Department, Bristol University, 8 Woodland Road, Bristol BS81TB, UK
    J Theor Biol 278:63-73. 2011
    ..An implication is that care is needed in adopting the convenience of an asexual model when examining the behavior of a sexual population in games with nontrivial components of rest points...
  65. doi Sex reduces genetic variation: a multidisciplinary review
    Root Gorelick
    Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 Canada
    Evolution 65:1088-98. 2011
    For over a century, the paradigm has been that sex invariably increases genetic variation, despite many renowned biologists asserting that sex decreases most genetic variation...
  66. doi Identification of the sex genes in an early diverged fungus
    Alexander Idnurm
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 451:193-6. 2008
    b>Sex determination in fungi is controlled by a small, specialized region of the genome in contrast to the large sex-specific chromosomes of animals and some plants...
  67. doi Complementation, genetic conflict, and the evolution of sex and recombination
    Marco Archetti
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 2902, USA
    J Hered 101:S21-33. 2010
    ..Thus recombination does not require any advantage at the individual or population level...
  68. ncbi Refined mapping of the Pierce's disease resistance locus, PdR1, and Sex on an extended genetic map of Vitis rupestris x V. arizonica
    S Riaz
    Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Theor Appl Genet 113:1317-29. 2006
    ..5 cM. Ninety-four of the 210 markers on the consensus map were new. The 'Sex' expression locus segregated as single major gene was mapped to linkage group 2 on the consensus and the male map...
  69. doi Why are there so many theories for sex, and what do we do with them?
    Stephanie Meirmans
    Centre for the Study of the Sciences and the Humanities, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    J Hered 101:S3-12. 2010
    It is widely known that there exists a multitude of possible explanations for the maintenance of sex; however, it is less clear how to handle such an explanatory pluralism...
  70. doi Expression of sex and reproduction-related genes in Marsupenaeus japonicus
    Tamera R Callaghan
    CSIRO Food Futures National Research Flagship, 5 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, Sydney, New South Wales 2113, Australia
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 12:664-77. 2010
    ..At PL110, seven of the ESTs were detected in females only, and seven ESTs were detected in males only. Sex-specific expression at this developmental stage indicates that these ESTs act as important gonadal development ..
  71. ncbi The ecology and genetics of fitness in Chlamydomonas. XII. Repeated sexual episodes increase rates of adaptation to novel environments
    Oliver Kaltz
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Evolution 56:1743-53. 2002
    ..Moreover, the effect of sex on adaptation increased with the number of successive sexual episodes...
  72. ncbi Gender, sex hormones and autonomic nervous control of the cardiovascular system
    Anthony M Dart
    Baker Medical Research Institute and Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road, Prahran, Victoria 3181, Australia
    Cardiovasc Res 53:678-87. 2002
  73. pmc Evolutionary vestigialization of sex in a clonal plant: selection versus neutral mutation in geographically peripheral populations
    Marcel E Dorken
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 271:2375-80. 2004
    ..These observations suggest that selection has facilitated the vestigialization of sex, and thus do not support the neutral mutation hypothesis...
  74. ncbi Why are sex and recombination so common?
    Lilach Hadany
    Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1133:26-43. 2008
    The abundance of sex and recombination is still one of the most puzzling questions in the theory of evolution: Most models find that recombination can evolve, but only under a limited range of parameters...
  75. ncbi The prevalence and evolution of sex in microorganisms
    Jianping Xu
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
    Genome 47:775-80. 2004
    The origin of sex and how sex is maintained are among the biggest puzzles in biology. Most investigations into this problem have focused on complex eukaryotes like animals and plants...
  76. ncbi Effects of infant sex on mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 according to timing of infection in Zimbabwe
    Ellen G Piwoz
    Academy for Educational Development, Washington DC, USA
    AIDS 20:1981-4. 2006
    We examined the relationship between sex and the risk of intrauterine, intrapartum and postnatal HIV transmission among 4495 infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Harare, Zimbabwe. Intrauterine transmission was 8...
  77. ncbi Why have sex? The population genetics of sex and recombination
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T1Z4
    Biochem Soc Trans 34:519-22. 2006
    ..with those of another individual? Mathematical models are especially important in developing predictions about when sex and recombination can evolve, because it is difficult to intuit the outcome of evolution with several interacting ..
  78. pmc A mixability theory for the role of sex in evolution
    Adi Livnat
    Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science, and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19803-8. 2008
    The question of what role sex plays in evolution is still open despite decades of research. It has often been assumed that sex should facilitate the increase in fitness...
  79. doi Gaze behavior in face comparison: the roles of sex, task, and symmetry
    Regine Armann
    Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tubingen, Germany
    Atten Percept Psychophys 71:1107-26. 2009
    ..and performance was examined in two tasks of parametrically varying difficulty, using two types of face stimuli (sex morphs and identity morphs)...
  80. ncbi Evolution. Why sex?
    Rasmus Nielsen
    Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Kbh Ø Denmark
    Science 311:960-1. 2006
  81. ncbi Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens
    Richard E Michod
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA
    Infect Genet Evol 8:267-85. 2008
    Explaining the adaptive value of sex is one of the great outstanding problems in biology. The challenge comes from the difficulty in identifying the benefits provided by sex, which must outweigh the substantial costs of sex...
  82. ncbi Sex in flies: what 'body--mind' dichotomy?
    Troy R Shirangi
    Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, and Biochemistry Department, 185 Meeting Street Box G L368, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Dev Biol 306:10-9. 2007
    ..fruitless (fruM) is a major component inducing male behaviors, but recent work indicates key roles for other sex-specific and sex-non-specific components...
  83. pmc The evolution of sex and recombination in response to abiotic or coevolutionary fluctuations in epistasis
    Sylvain Gandon
    Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, UMR CNRS IRD 2724, IRD, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Genetics 175:1835-53. 2007
    Evolutionary biologists have identified several factors that could explain the widespread phenomena of sex and recombination...
  84. ncbi Prevalence and incidence of pharyngeal gonorrhea in a longitudinal sample of men who have sex with men: the EXPLORE study
    Sheldon R Morris
    Department of Community and Family Medicine, University of California San Francisco, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1284-9. 2006
    The prevalence of gonorrhea of the pharynx among select samples of men who have sex with men (MSM) ranges from 9% to 15%...
  85. doi Sexual selection and maintenance of sex: evidence from comparisons of rates of genomic accumulation of mutations and divergence of sex-related genes in sexual and hermaphroditic species of Caenorhabditis
    Carlo G Artieri
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Mol Biol Evol 25:972-9. 2008
    ..Here, we examine the advantages of dioecy versus hermaphroditism by comparing the rate of evolution in sex-related genes and the rate of accumulation of deleterious mutations using a large number of orthologs (11,493) in ..
  86. ncbi Host-parasite coevolution and selection on sex through the effects of segregation
    Aneil F Agrawal
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Harbord Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G5, Canada
    Am Nat 168:617-29. 2006
    ..to keep apace of coevolving species has been invoked as a major explanation for the evolution and maintenance of sex (the Red Queen hypothesis)...
  87. pmc Sex, dose, and equality
    Brian Oliver
    Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 5:e340. 2007
  88. ncbi Sex specific effects of heat induced hormesis in Hsf-deficient Drosophila melanogaster
    J G Sørensen
    Aarhus Centre for Environmental Stress Research, Genetics and Ecology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, Building 1540, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    Exp Gerontol 42:1123-9. 2007
    ..However, the results also suggest that other processes are involved and that different mechanisms might have marked sex specific impact.
  89. ncbi Sex, race and social role--history and the social determinants of health
    Stephen J Kunitz
    Int J Epidemiol 36:3-10. 2007
  90. ncbi Evolution of neuronal patterning in free-living rhabditid nematodes I: Sex-specific serotonin-containing neurons
    Curtis M Loer
    Department of Biology, University of San Diego, California 92110, USA
    J Comp Neurol 502:736-67. 2007
    ..elegans; this paper focuses on sex-specific neurons such as the egg laying hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs), VCs, and male CAs, CPs, and ray ..
  91. ncbi The advantage of sex in evolving yeast populations
    C Zeyl
    Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
    Nature 388:465-8. 1997
    b>Sex is a general feature of the life cycle of eukaryotes. It is not universal, however, as many organisms seem to lack sex entirely...
  92. ncbi The ecological cost of sex
    C P Doncaster
    Division of Biodiversity and Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, UK
    Nature 404:281-5. 2000
    Why sex prevails in nature remains one of the great puzzles of evolution. Sexual reproduction has an immediate cost relative to asexual reproduction, as males only express their contribution to population growth through females...
  93. pmc Sex as a response to oxidative stress: a twofold increase in cellular reactive oxygen species activates sex genes
    Aurora M Nedelcu
    Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada
    Proc Biol Sci 271:1591-6. 2004
    ..we presented evidence that in a facultatively sexual lineage--the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri--sex is an additional response to increased levels of stress, and probably ROS and DNA damage. Here we show that, in V...
  94. ncbi Mutation and sex in a competitive world
    J R Peck
    Centre for the Study of Evolution, The University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
    Nature 406:399-404. 2000
    ..has substantial implications for a variety of important problems in population biology, including the evolution of sex, the rate of adaptation and the conservation of small populations...
  95. pmc Sex as a response to oxidative stress: the effect of antioxidants on sexual induction in a facultatively sexual lineage
    Aurora M Nedelcu
    Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 6E1, Canada
    Proc Biol Sci 270:S136-9. 2003
    The evolution of sex is one of the long-standing unsolved problems in biology...
  96. pmc Sex and the evolution of intrahost competition in RNA virus phi6
    P E Turner
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Genetics 150:523-32. 1998
    b>Sex allows beneficial mutations that occur in separate lineages to be fixed in the same genome...
  97. ncbi The effects of sex and mutation rate on adaptation in test tubes and to mouse hosts by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Brian Grimberg
    Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27109, USA
    Evolution 59:431-8. 2005
    Some hypotheses for the evolution of sex focus on adaptation to changing or heterogeneous environments, but these hypotheses have rarely been tested...
  98. ncbi Sex: is giardia doing it in the dark?
    C William Birky
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Biological Sciences West, Tuscon, Arizona 85721, USA
    Curr Biol 15:R56-8. 2005
    ..The protist Giardia has long been considered strictly asexual. Now genes specific for meiotic recombination have been found in the Giardia genome, but their consequences for genetics, epidemiology and evolution remain unknown...
  99. ncbi Cultural transmission in a demographic study of sex ratio at birth in China's future
    N Li
    Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Theor Popul Biol 58:161-72. 2000
    A decline in fertility causes an increase in the sex ratio at birth (SRB) in countries with strong son preference. What happens to the SRB if fertility is maintained at a low level depends on the evolution of son preference...
  100. ncbi Impact of sex and gender on irritable bowel syndrome
    Margaret Heitkemper
    Dept of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems, Box 357266, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Biol Res Nurs 5:56-65. 2003
    ..This review addresses the topic of possible sex (genetic, biological) and gender (experiential, perceptual) differences in individuals with and without IBS...
  101. ncbi Telomeres, sex, reactive oxygen species, and human cardiovascular aging
    Abraham Aviv
    Hypertension Research Center, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    J Mol Med (Berl) 80:689-95. 2002
    ..may be modified by reactive oxygen species, the biology of which is governed by processes that are influenced by sex. Indices of cardiovascular aging in humans are correlated with telomere length and this relationship is ..

Research Grants96

  1. Opioid-Induced Immune Alterations: Sex Differences
    DONALD LYSLE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..has produced a wealth of information on the immunomodulatory effects of opioids, but little is known about how the sex of the individual impacts opioid-induced immunomodulation...
  2. Sex/Gender Factors in Nicotine Addiction
    Nancy K Mello; Fiscal Year: 2010
    This is a revised application entitled "Sex/Gender Factors in Nicotine Addiction" submitted in response to PA-07-329...
  3. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Title: Ocular Impact of X Chromosome Karyotype and Sex Hormones in Turner Syndrome and Premature Ovarian Failure Number: 07-EI-0145 Summary: Women with premature ovarian ..
  4. Central Action of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Male and Female Rats
    Haifei Shi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus it is possible that sex difference exists in the leptin-POMC downstream BDNF system...
  5. Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation of Drug Reinforcement
    Diane Lebesgue; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..My experience in these two fields stimulated my interest in understanding the molecular basis of sex differences in and hormonal control of addictive disorders and psychiatric diseases...
  6. GENDER,NICOTINE AND STRESS-INDUCED ANALGESIA
    SUSAN GIRDLER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Involvement of the female sex hormones is indicated by animal studies that show estrogen increases sensitivity to pain, while progesterone and ..
  7. GENDER,NICOTINE AND STRESS-INDUCED ANALGESIA
    SUSAN GIRDLER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Involvement of the female sex hormones is indicated by animal studies that show estrogen increases sensitivity to pain, while progesterone and ..
  8. GENDER,NICOTINE AND STRESS-INDUCED ANALGESIA
    SUSAN GIRDLER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Involvement of the female sex hormones is indicated by animal studies that show estrogen increases sensitivity to pain, while progesterone and ..
  9. GENDER,NICOTINE AND STRESS-INDUCED ANALGESIA
    SUSAN GIRDLER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Involvement of the female sex hormones is indicated by animal studies that show estrogen increases sensitivity to pain, while progesterone and ..
  10. Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program
    Catherine Kim; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of aging and is defined by permanent changes in ovarian function, we still do not understand how postmenopausal sex hormones affect diabetes risk...
  11. Center for Neurovisceral Sciences & Women's Health
    Emeran Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..in the interactions between the nervous system and the viscera, with special emphasis on stress neurobiology, sex differences and chronic functional disorders...
  12. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The fundamental basis for such gender bias remains unclear. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to such sex difference...
  13. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Singh; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The fundamental basis for such gender bias remains unclear. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to such sex difference...
  14. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The fundamental basis for such gender bias remains unclear. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to such sex difference...
  15. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Singh; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The fundamental basis for such gender bias remains unclear. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to such sex difference...
  16. Mechanisms for Cardiovascular Effects of air pollutants: Effect of Age and Sex
    NAOMI FUKAGAWA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Advancing age is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, and sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD), autoimmune disease and airway hypersensitivity have been reported...
  17. Mechanisms for Cardiovascular Effects of air pollutants: Effect of Age and Sex
    BRITT HOLMEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Advancing age is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, and sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD), autoimmune disease and airway hypersensitivity have been reported...
  18. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in women: reproductive, hormonal and genetic factors
    Paige M Bracci; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..4:1). Although several studies have investigated the association between reproductive factors and exogenous sex-hormone exposures to explain this sex differential, results have been varied and no comprehensive assessment of ..
  19. Mechanisms of Sex Determination in Zebrafish
    JOHN HARVEY POSTLETHWAIT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In nonmammalian vertebrates, other genes in the network determine sex, and in some species, environmental factors such as temperature or social cues can bias sex development...
  20. Structural Behavioral HIV Prevention for Male Sex Workers in Peru
    Angela M Bayer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..training and carry out mentored research to implement and assess a pilot HIV/STI prevention intervention with male sex workers or fletes in Peru. 2. Career Goals and Objectives...
  21. The relative roled of sex and genes during development of systemic autoimmunity
    TRINE NORGAARD JORGENSEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..current understanding of the etiology of SLE implies important roles for genetics and environmental factors such as sex hormones...
  22. Single-Sex High Schools and STEM Careers: Males, Females and Low-SES Students
    Hyunjoon Park; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the proposed project, we will investigate whether one particular educational institution - single-sex high schools - help overcome gender and parental background equity issues in STEM learning by developing and ..
  23. Hormonal Regulation of Sex Differences in Stress Effects in Prefrontal Cortex
    Cara L Wellman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Sex is an important variable influencing many stress-related disorders...
  24. The relative roled of sex and genes during development of systemic autoimmunity
    Trine Jorgensen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..current understanding of the etiology of SLE implies important roles for genetics and environmental factors such as sex hormones...
  25. First and subsequent same-sex sexual satisfaction and behavior in young AAMSM
    RENATA A SANDERS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Prior work has demonstrated that same-sex relationship trajectories support the development of self-esteem in young gay and bisexual men, while opposite same-sex relationships may be associated with ..
  26. Developmental programming: influence of sex steroids and mechanisms
    Chandrasekhar Yallampalli; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The central hypothesis is that sex steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), via interaction with a variety of regulatory path- ways, ..
  27. Organochlorine and Gene Expression of Sex Steroids in a Multigenerational Cohort
    Janet Osuch; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have preliminary evidence that expression of a limited number of genes that control sex steroid metabolism are altered in F1 generation females, depending on estimated levels of in-utero exposure to ..
  28. Olfactory Circuits for Reproduction and Reward
    James Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    In humans exposure to body odorants can produce sex-specific neuroendocrine responses, permit the discrimination of scents based on differences in major histocompatibility alleles, and sex-dependently activate regions of the ..
  29. Olfactory Circuits for Reproduction and Reward
    James Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    In humans exposure to body odorants can produce sex-specific neuroendocrine responses, permit the discrimination of scents based on differences in major histocompatibility alleles, and sex-dependently activate regions of the ..
  30. Sex Differences in Stress Receptors Underlie Female Vulnerability to Stress
    Debra A Bangasser; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Although the etiology of this disparity remains unknown, it is thought to be due to sex differences in stress responses...
  31. Sex Hormones and Rat Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strength
    William A Romani; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Gender specific differences in the hormonal milieu and response to specific steroid sex hormones have been suggested as potential causes for the disparities in ACL strength and injury risk between males ..
  32. Sex Hormones and Rat Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strength
    William Romani; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Gender specific differences in the hormonal milieu and response to specific steroid sex hormones have been suggested as potential causes for the disparities in ACL strength and injury risk between males ..
  33. Sex/Gender Factors in Nicotine Addiction
    NANCY MELLO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    This is a revised application entitled "Sex/Gender Factors in Nicotine Addiction" submitted in response to PA-07-329...
  34. Sexual differentiation and development of reproductive neural circuits
    Sheila J Semaan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These sex differences range from the prevalence of certain health disorders of reproductive function to differences in normal ..
  35. Sex Differences in Protective Immunity Against Influenza A Viruses
    Sabra L Klein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Sex differences in the incidence and severity of influenza A virus infection have been documented in humans...
  36. Diffusion of HIV-1 among Drug Using Men in SE Asia
    Michael Clatts; Fiscal Year: 2009
    This application proposes a mixed method, ethno-epidemiological study of drug and sexual risk among young male sex workers Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. There are an estimated 8...
  37. Diffusion of HIV-1 among Drug Using Men in SE Asia
    Michael C Clatts; Fiscal Year: 2010
    This application proposes a mixed method, ethno-epidemiological study of drug and sexual risk among young male sex workers Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. There are an estimated 8...
  38. SEX HORMONE REGULATION OF THE MUCOSAL IMMUNE SYSTEM
    Charles Wira; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..proposed in this application are to understand at the cellular and molecular levels, the physiological actions of sex hormones on the mucosal immune system...
  39. SEX HORMONE REGULATION OF THE MUCOSAL IMMUNE SYSTEM
    Charles Wira; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..proposed in this application are to understand at the cellular and molecular levels, the physiological actions of sex hormones on the mucosal immune system...
  40. SEX HORMONE REGULATION OF THE MUCOSAL IMMUNE SYSTEM
    Charles Wira; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..proposed in this application are to understand at the cellular and molecular levels, the physiological actions of sex hormones on the mucosal immune system...
  41. SEX HORMONE REGULATION OF THE MUCOSAL IMMUNE SYSTEM
    Charles Wira; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..proposed in this application are to understand at the cellular and molecular levels, the physiological actions of sex hormones on the mucosal immune system...
  42. SEX HORMONE REGULATION OF THE MUCOSAL IMMUNE SYSTEM
    Charles Wira; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..proposed in this application are to understand at the cellular and molecular levels, the physiological actions of sex hormones on the mucosal immune system...
  43. CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION DURING MEIOSIS
    Mary Ann Handel; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..spermatocytes of the mouse, the autosomal chromosomes are engaged in recombination and transcription while the sex chromosomes form a transcriptionally and recombinationally inactive domain known as the sex body...
  44. SEX AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE EFFECTS ON PAIN AND ANALGESIA
    Roger Fillingim; Fiscal Year: 2001
    The influence of sex and gender on pain perception and pain modulatory systems is a research topic of substantial basic science and clinical import...
  45. SEX AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE EFFECTS ON PAIN AND ANALGESIA
    Roger Fillingim; Fiscal Year: 2001
    The influence of sex and gender on pain perception and pain modulatory systems is a research topic of substantial basic science and clinical import...
  46. SEX AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE EFFECTS ON PAIN AND ANALGESIA
    Roger Fillingim; Fiscal Year: 2000
    The influence of sex and gender on pain perception and pain modulatory systems is a research topic of substantial basic science and clinical import...
  47. SEX AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE EFFECTS ON PAIN AND ANALGESIA
    Roger Fillingim; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The influence of sex and gender on pain perception and pain modulatory systems is a research topic of substantial basic science and clinical import...
  48. SEX AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE EFFECTS ON PAIN AND ANALGESIA
    Roger Fillingim; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The influence of sex and gender on pain perception and pain modulatory systems is a research topic of substantial basic science and clinical import...
  49. Sex, sex steroids and dry eye syndromes
    David A Sullivan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The long range objectives of this grant application are to test our hypotheses that: (1) sex steroids are extremely important in the physiological regulation of the ocular surface and adnexa, as well as the ..
  50. Sex Hormones and Cardiac Arrhythmia in Transgenic LQT2 Rabbits
    Gideon Koren; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..prepubertal, ovariectomized LQT2 rabbits to explore new mechanistic paradigms that underlie the effects of sex hormones on cardiac arrhythmias using in vitro and in silico experimental approaches that will integrate novel ..
  51. Sex Hormones and Cardiac Arrhythmia in Transgenic LQT2 Rabbits
    Gideon Koren; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..prepubertal, ovariectomized LQT2 rabbits to explore new mechanistic paradigms that underlie the effects of sex hormones on cardiac arrhythmias using in vitro and in silico experimental approaches that will integrate novel ..
  52. Acceptability and feasbility of the HPV vaccine schedule in female sex workers
    BRANDON JOHN BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..acceptance and potential for the effective use of HPV vaccine in the standard and in a modified schedule in female sex workers of different ages...
  53. Sex-dependent expression and utilization of spinal mu- and kappa-opioid systems
    NAIJIANG LIU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Previous studies that defined sex dependency of opioid antinociception were not poised to reveal relevant mechanistic underpinnings and biological substrates...
  54. Acceptability and feasbility of the HPV vaccine schedule in female sex workers
    Brandon Brown; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..acceptance and potential for the effective use of HPV vaccine in the standard and in a modified schedule in female sex workers of different ages...
  55. Sex Steroid Hormones and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
    Chandrasekhar Yallampalli; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..in AM and IMD synthesis and vasodilatory responses to AM and IMD throughout gestation, and their regulation by sex steroid hormones...
  56. Sex Steroid Hormones and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
    Chandrasekhar Yallampalli; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..in AM and IMD synthesis and vasodilatory responses to AM and IMD throughout gestation, and their regulation by sex steroid hormones...
  57. Sex Steroid Hormones and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
    Chandrasekhar Yallampalli; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..in AM and IMD synthesis and vasodilatory responses to AM and IMD throughout gestation, and their regulation by sex steroid hormones...
  58. ENVIRONMENTAL SEX DETERMINATION AND DIFFERENTIATION
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Mammals, birds, and reptiles constitute the amniote vertebrates. In all mammals and birds, and in many reptiles, sex is determined at fertilization by genotype (genotypic sex determination or GSD)...
  59. Venue-based HIV and alcohol use risk reduction among female sex workers in China
    Xiaoming Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..literature indicates an important role of alcohol use in facilitating HIV/AIDS transmission risk in commercial sex venues where elevated alcohol use/abuse and sexual risk behaviors frequently co-occur...
  60. Venue-based HIV and alcohol use risk reduction among female sex workers in China
    Xiaoming Li; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..literature indicates an important role of alcohol use in facilitating HIV/AIDS transmission risk in commercial sex venues where elevated alcohol use/abuse and sexual risk behaviors frequently co-occur...
  61. FUNCTIONS OF ZINC FINGER GENES ON SEX CHROMOSOMES
    Yun Fai Chris Lau; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The zinc finger-Y (ZFY) gene has been identified from the sex determination region of the human Y chromosome, and postulated as the candidate gene for the testis determining factor (TDF)...
  62. The importance of Early Sexual Experiences Among Men Who Have Sex With Men
    Matthew Golden; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience rates of HIV and bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI) that are many times those experienced by heterosexuals in the U.S...
  63. Online Partnering of Heterosexuals and HIV Risk
    KAROLYNN contact SIEGEL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..significant concerns about the Internet's potential to facilitate sexual encounters that result in unsafe sex and place individuals at risk for STD/HIV...
  64. Contextual Influences on Sexual Risk among Latino MSM
    MARIA ZEA; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..develops and tests a theoretical model of socio-cultural, psychosocial, and contextual influences on unprotected sex in three groups of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S.--Dominicans, Colombians, and Brazilians...
  65. Contextual Influences on Sexual Risk among Latino MSM
    MARIA ZEA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..develops and tests a theoretical model of socio-cultural, psychosocial, and contextual influences on unprotected sex in three groups of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S.--Dominicans, Colombians, and Brazilians...
  66. Contextual Influences on Sexual Risk among Latino MSM
    MARIA ZEA; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..develops and tests a theoretical model of socio-cultural, psychosocial, and contextual influences on unprotected sex in three groups of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S.--Dominicans, Colombians, and Brazilians...
  67. Substance Use and HIV Risk among Thai Women
    Tooru Nemoto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..contexts of HIV risk behaviors and drug use among Thai female and male-to-female transgender (kathoey) sex workers in Bangkok...
  68. Contextual Influences on Sexual Risk among Latino MSM
    MARIA ZEA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..develops and tests a theoretical model of socio-cultural, psychosocial, and contextual influences on unprotected sex in three groups of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S.--Dominicans, Colombians, and Brazilians...
  69. Contextual Influences on Sexual Risk among Latino MSM
    MARIA ZEA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..develops and tests a theoretical model of socio-cultural, psychosocial, and contextual influences on unprotected sex in three groups of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S.--Dominicans, Colombians, and Brazilians...
  70. Substance Use and HIV Risk among Thai Women
    Tooru Nemoto; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..contexts of HIV risk behaviors and drug use among Thai female and male-to-female transgender (kathoey) sex workers in Bangkok...
  71. Prenatal Testosterone and Risk for Disordered Eating During Puberty
    KRISTEN CULBERT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..e., lower) risk for disordered eating (DE) and account for sex differences in prevalence, yet how or when these effects emerge remains unknown...
  72. Fourth Symposium Biology Vertebrate Sex Determination
    Blanche Capel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..provided by applicant): We request support for The Fourth International Symposium on the Biology of Vertebrate Sex Determination scheduled to take place in Kona, Hawaii, April 24-28, 2006...
  73. MOUSE X-CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION
    Christine Disteche; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract): The study is aimed at defining evolutionary pathways of the sex chromosomes in mouse and human and at understanding mechanisms of gene regulation specifically related to ..
  74. MOUSE X-CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION
    Christine Disteche; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract): The study is aimed at defining evolutionary pathways of the sex chromosomes in mouse and human and at understanding mechanisms of gene regulation specifically related to ..
  75. MOUSE X-CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION
    Christine Disteche; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract): The study is aimed at defining evolutionary pathways of the sex chromosomes in mouse and human and at understanding mechanisms of gene regulation specifically related to ..
  76. MOUSE X-CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION
    Christine Disteche; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract): The study is aimed at defining evolutionary pathways of the sex chromosomes in mouse and human and at understanding mechanisms of gene regulation specifically related to ..
  77. The Role of Sex in Self Antigen Generation in SLE
    David Stephen Pisetsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is a prototypic autoimmune disease that primarily affects young women and powerfully exemplifies the importance of sex as a determinant of immune-mediated disease...
  78. Psychological and Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Sexual Compulsivity and HIV Ris
    Michael H Miner; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..high levels of sexual behavior combined with a perceived lack of control, is strongly associated with unprotected sex and other HIV sexual risk behaviors...
  79. The Role of Sex in Self Antigen Generation in SLE
    David Pisetsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..is a prototypic autoimmune disease that primarily affects young women and powerfully exemplifies the importance of sex as a determinant of immune-mediated disease...
  80. Exploring HIV-Host Interactions in the Female Reproductive Tract
    Warner Greene; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..2) What HIV properties and host factors critically affect transmission rates? 3) How do endogenous or exogenous sex hormones impact transmission frequency and do these factors modulate innate and adaptive immune responses in the ..
  81. Sex, sex steroids and dry eye syndromes
    David Sullivan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The long range objectives of this grant application are to test our hypotheses that: (1) sex steroids are extremely important in the physiological regulation of the ocular surface and adnexa, as well as the ..
  82. Reducing Urban Women's HIV Risk: Soap Opera Videos on Video Capable Cell Phones
    Rachel Jones; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Video-Capable Cell Phones According to the CDC, the majority (80%) of women with HIV became infected by unprotected sex with an infected male partner. Black and Latina women accounted for 82% of AIDS diagnoses in women in 2005...
  83. Opioid-Induced Immune Alterations: Gender Differences
    DONALD LYSLE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..has produced a wealth of information on the immunomodulatory effects of opioids, but little is known about how the sex of the individual impacts opioid-induced immunomodulation...
  84. Prevenitng HIV/STIs in Central Indian High Risk Women: A Pilot Intervention
    Thomas Patterson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Interventions to reduce sexual risks among FSWs (female sex workers) are lacking in India, and they need to be brief to save costs and engage FSWs...
  85. Sex, sex steroids and dry eye syndromes
    David Sullivan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The long range objectives of this grant application are to test our hypotheses that: (1) sex steroids are extremely important in the physiological regulation of the ocular surface and adnexa, as well as the ..
  86. Sex Chromosome Effects in Lupus
    Rhonda Voskuhl; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Many murine models of lupus also demonstrate a greater incidence in females as compared to males. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to this female bias...
  87. Sex Steroids, and TMJ Pain
    Larry Bellinger; Fiscal Year: 2007
    DESCRIPTION: The long term goal of this study is to determine the impact of gender differences and sex hormones on gene(s) and molecular pathways leading to and effecting acute and persistent joint pain as observed in the ..
  88. Sex Steroids, and TMJ Pain
    Larry Bellinger; Fiscal Year: 2005
    DESCRIPTION: The long term goal of this study is to determine the impact of gender differences and sex hormones on gene(s) and molecular pathways leading to and effecting acute and persistent joint pain as observed in the ..
  89. Sex Steroids, and TMJ Pain
    Larry Bellinger; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION: The long term goal of this study is to determine the impact of gender differences and sex hormones on gene(s) and molecular pathways leading to and effecting acute and persistent joint pain as observed in the ..
  90. Sex Differences in Acute Pain and Analgesic Responses: Psychosocial and Genetic I
    Barbara Hastie; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Sex Differences in Acute Pain and Analgesic Responses: Psychosocial and Genetic Influences ABSTRACT: Pain is one of the most costly and pervasive public health problems, with women and minorities ..
  91. Sex Steroids, and TMJ Pain
    Larry Bellinger; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION: The long term goal of this study is to determine the impact of gender differences and sex hormones on gene(s) and molecular pathways leading to and effecting acute and persistent joint pain as observed in the ..
  92. Sex-Hormones and the TMPRSS2: ERG Fusion in Prostate Cancer Progression
    Lorelei Mucci; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We propose to assess the impact of sex-steroid hormones and prostate cancer (PCa) progression in the context of the recently identified TMPRSS2:ERG translocation, a novel gene fusion of the 5'-..
  93. Drug Abuse and Risky Sex in Borderline Personality
    Ulrike Feske; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Tests of the specific aims will demonstrate that: 1) Severity of BPD covaries with substance use and risky sex beyond the variance accounted for by co-occurring personality disorders and major depression; 2) ECF capacity ..