sex

Summary

Summary: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Species interactions and the evolution of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 304:1018-20. 2004
  2. ncbi The ecology and genetics of fitness in Chlamydomonas. XIII. Fitness of long-term sexual and asexual populations in benign environments
    Sébastien Renaut
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3H JBI, Canada
    Evolution 60:2272-9. 2006
  3. pmc Running with the Red Queen: host-parasite coevolution selects for biparental sex
    Levi T Morran
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Science 333:216-8. 2011
  4. ncbi The many costs of sex
    Jussi Lehtonen
    Evolution, Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Trends Ecol Evol 27:172-8. 2012
  5. ncbi Sex releases the speed limit on evolution
    Nick Colegrave
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nature 420:664-6. 2002
  6. ncbi Do bacteria have sex?
    R J Redfield
    Rosemary J Redfield is at the Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Nat Rev Genet 2:634-9. 2001
  7. ncbi Glucose consumption of single post-compaction human embryos is predictive of embryo sex and live birth outcome
    David K Gardner
    Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
    Hum Reprod 26:1981-6. 2011
  8. pmc The evolution of sex is favoured during adaptation to new environments
    Lutz Becks
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001317. 2012
  9. ncbi Impact and determinants of sex preference in Nepal
    Tiziana Leone
    Department of Social Statistics, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
    Int Fam Plan Perspect 29:69-75. 2003
  10. ncbi Sex hormones and hypertension
    Raghvendra K Dubey
    Center for Clinical Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 53:688-708. 2002

Detail Information

Publications232 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Species interactions and the evolution of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 304:1018-20. 2004
    The Red Queen hypothesis posits that sex has evolved in response to the shifting adaptive landscape generated by the evolution of interacting species...
  2. ncbi The ecology and genetics of fitness in Chlamydomonas. XIII. Fitness of long-term sexual and asexual populations in benign environments
    Sébastien Renaut
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3H JBI, Canada
    Evolution 60:2272-9. 2006
    ..Recombination between these genotypes reduces mean fitness and creates genetic variance for fitness. This may provide fuel for continued selection should the environment change...
  3. pmc Running with the Red Queen: host-parasite coevolution selects for biparental sex
    Levi T Morran
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Science 333:216-8. 2011
    ..Thus, consistent with the Red Queen hypothesis, coevolving pathogens can select for biparental sex.
  4. ncbi The many costs of sex
    Jussi Lehtonen
    Evolution, Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Trends Ecol Evol 27:172-8. 2012
    Explaining the evolution of sex is challenging for biologists. A 'twofold cost' compared with asexual reproduction is often quoted...
  5. ncbi Sex releases the speed limit on evolution
    Nick Colegrave
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nature 420:664-6. 2002
    Explaining the evolutionary maintenance of sex remains a key problem in evolutionary biology...
  6. ncbi Do bacteria have sex?
    R J Redfield
    Rosemary J Redfield is at the Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Nat Rev Genet 2:634-9. 2001
    ..However, this assumption has been perpetuated by generations of biology, microbiology and genetics textbooks without ever being critically examined...
  7. ncbi Glucose consumption of single post-compaction human embryos is predictive of embryo sex and live birth outcome
    David K Gardner
    Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
    Hum Reprod 26:1981-6. 2011
    ..Spent media samples, including controls containing no embryo, were coded, frozen and subsequently analysed blind. Analysis of glucose was performed by microfluorimetry. The sex of children born was recorded.
  8. pmc The evolution of sex is favoured during adaptation to new environments
    Lutz Becks
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001317. 2012
    Both theory and experiments have demonstrated that sex can facilitate adaptation, potentially yielding a group-level advantage to sex...
  9. ncbi Impact and determinants of sex preference in Nepal
    Tiziana Leone
    Department of Social Statistics, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
    Int Fam Plan Perspect 29:69-75. 2003
    Gender discrimination and son preference are key demographic features of South Asia and are well documented for India. However, gender bias and sex preference in Nepal have received little attention.
  10. ncbi Sex hormones and hypertension
    Raghvendra K Dubey
    Center for Clinical Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 53:688-708. 2002
    ..However, whether sex hormones are responsible for the observed gender-associated differences in arterial blood pressure and whether ..
  11. ncbi The hidden benefits of sex: evidence for MHC-associated mate choice in primate societies
    Joanna M Setchell
    Evolutionary Anthropology Research Group, Department of Anthropology, Durham University, Durham, UK
    Bioessays 32:940-8. 2010
    ..These findings underline the importance to females of selecting a sexual partner of high genetic quality, as well as the generality of the role of MHC genes in sexual selection...
  12. ncbi Sex, trauma, stress hormones and depression
    E Young
    Molecular and Behavioral Neurosciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 15:23-8. 2010
    ..It may be the constantly changing steroid milieu that contributes to these phenomena and vulnerability to depression...
  13. ncbi Are some chromosomes particularly good at sex? Insights from amniotes
    Denis O'Meally
    Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Chromosome Res 20:7-19. 2012
    Several recent studies have produced comparative maps of genes on amniote sex chromosomes, revealing homology of gene content and arrangement across lineages as divergent as mammals and lizards...
  14. ncbi Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments
    Lutz Becks
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B2, Canada
    Nature 468:89-92. 2010
    ..However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12)...
  15. ncbi Gender, sex hormones and autonomic nervous control of the cardiovascular system
    Anthony M Dart
    Baker Medical Research Institute and Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road, Prahran, Victoria 3181, Australia
    Cardiovasc Res 53:678-87. 2002
  16. ncbi Sexual selection and the maintenance of sexual reproduction
    A F Agrawal
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405 3700, USA
    Nature 411:692-5. 2001
    ..The twofold cost of sex exists because of anisogamy or gamete dimorphism-egg-producing females make a larger contribution to the zygote ..
  17. ncbi A phylogenomic inventory of meiotic genes; evidence for sex in Giardia and an early eukaryotic origin of meiosis
    Marilee A Ramesh
    Department of Biology, Roanoke College, Salem, VA 24153, USA
    Curr Biol 15:185-91. 2005
    ..evolutionary innovation in eukaryotic cells, and delineating its history is key to understanding the evolution of sex. Meiosis arose early in eukaryotic evolution, but when and how meiosis arose and whether all eukaryotes have ..
  18. pmc Meta-analysis of sex-specific genome-wide association studies
    Reedik Magi
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Genet Epidemiol 34:846-53. 2010
    ..Such sex-differentiated effects are common in model organisms, and are becoming increasingly evident in human complex traits ..
  19. ncbi Why sex and recombination?
    N H Barton
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Science 281:1986-90. 1998
    ..The effect of sex and recombination in breaking down negative correlations between favorable variants at different genetic loci, ..
  20. ncbi Evolution of sex: why do organisms shuffle their genotypes?
    Aneil F Agrawal
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Harbord Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 3G5
    Curr Biol 16:R696-704. 2006
    Sexual processes alter associations among alleles. To understand the evolution of sex, we need to know both the short-term and long-term consequences of changing these genetic associations...
  21. ncbi Effect of parity and fetal sex on placental and luteal hormones during early first trimester
    Ilkka Y Järvelä
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
    Prenat Diagn 32:160-7. 2012
    ..Earlier studies have shown that maternal hormone secretion during late first or second trimester may be affected by gravidity. We examined the luteoplacental hormone secretion during 5-11 weeks of gestation in relation to gravidity...
  22. ncbi Sex and flow: the consequences of fluid shear for sperm-egg interactions
    Jeffrey A Riffell
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    J Exp Biol 210:3644-60. 2007
    ..The shears maximizing fertilization success in the lab typically characterized natural flow microenvironments of spawning red abalone. Gamete behavior thus emerges as a critical determinant of sexual reproduction in the turbulent sea...
  23. ncbi Current hypotheses for the evolution of sex and recombination
    Matthew Hartfield
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Integr Zool 7:192-209. 2012
    The evolution of sex is one of the most important and controversial problems in evolutionary biology. Although sex is almost universal in higher animals and plants, its inherent costs have made its maintenance difficult to explain...
  24. ncbi Parasites and sexual reproduction in psychid moths
    Tomi Kumpulainen
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaskyla, FIN 40014 Finland
    Evolution 58:1511-20. 2004
    ..the life-history traits of these species in two locations where they coexist to test predictions of the cost-of-sex hypothesis...
  25. pmc Predicting the evolution of sex on complex fitness landscapes
    Dusan Misevic
    Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    PLoS Comput Biol 5:e1000510. 2009
    Most population genetic theories on the evolution of sex or recombination are based on fairly restrictive assumptions about the nature of the underlying fitness landscapes...
  26. ncbi Differences between selection on sex versus recombination in red queen models with diploid hosts
    Aneil F Agrawal
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Evolution 63:2131-41. 2009
    The Red Queen hypothesis argues that parasites generate selection for genetic mixing (sex and recombination) in their hosts. A number of recent papers have examined this hypothesis using models with haploid hosts...
  27. ncbi Experiments with digital organisms on the origin and maintenance of sex in changing environments
    Dusan Misevic
    Program in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, and Behavior, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    J Hered 101:S46-54. 2010
    Many theories have been proposed to explain the evolution of sex, but the question remains unsettled owing to a paucity of compelling empirical tests...
  28. ncbi On the origin of sex as vaccination
    Wolfgang Sterrer
    Bermuda Natural History Museum, The Bermuda Aquarium, P O Box FL 145, Flatts FLBX, Bermuda
    J Theor Biol 216:387-96. 2002
    In the theory of the origin of sex as vaccination, I propose that the eukaryote genome accreted from prokaryan symbiont genomes in numerous rounds of lateral gene transfer during which sex diverged from unilateral parasitic infection, as ..
  29. pmc The advantages of segregation and the evolution of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 164:1099-118. 2003
    ..This article is the first to investigate the possibility that sex might have evolved and been maintained to promote segregation, using a model that incorporates both a general ..
  30. ncbi Identification, characterization and expression of sex-related genes in testes of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon
    Rungnapa Leelatanawit
    Program in Biotechnology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 152:66-76. 2009
    ..of genes involving gonadal development are an initial step towards understanding reproductive maturation and sex determination of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)...
  31. ncbi Sex ratios and the risks of haematological malignancies
    Ray A Cartwright
    Leukaemia Research Fund Centre for Clinical Epidemiology at the University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Br J Haematol 118:1071-7. 2002
    Although the sex of an individual confers one of the greatest of the known risks for contracting leukaemia and lymphomas, very little attention is paid to these risks...
  32. ncbi Test of synergistic interactions among deleterious mutations in bacteria
    S F Elena
    Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
    Nature 390:395-8. 1997
    ..The mutational deterministic hypothesis postulates that sex is an adaptation that allows deleterious mutations to be purged from the genome; it requires synergistic ..
  33. ncbi Sexual behavior and sex-associated environmental cues activate the mesolimbic system in male rats
    Margaret E Balfour
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0521, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:718-30. 2004
    ..Specifically, the effects of sexual experience and sex-related environmental cues on the activation of several components of the mesolimbic system were studied...
  34. ncbi Why are there so many theories for sex, and what do we do with them?
    Stephanie Meirmans
    Centre for the Study of the Sciences and the Humanities, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    J Hered 101:S3-12. 2010
    It is widely known that there exists a multitude of possible explanations for the maintenance of sex; however, it is less clear how to handle such an explanatory pluralism...
  35. ncbi Refined mapping of the Pierce's disease resistance locus, PdR1, and Sex on an extended genetic map of Vitis rupestris x V. arizonica
    S Riaz
    Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Theor Appl Genet 113:1317-29. 2006
    ..5 cM. Ninety-four of the 210 markers on the consensus map were new. The 'Sex' expression locus segregated as single major gene was mapped to linkage group 2 on the consensus and the male map...
  36. ncbi Sex increases the efficacy of natural selection in experimental yeast populations
    Matthew R Goddard
    NERC Centre for Population Biology and Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK
    Nature 434:636-40. 2005
    Why sex evolved and persists is a problem for evolutionary biology, because sex disrupts favourable gene combinations and requires an expenditure of time and energy...
  37. pmc Sex and hedgehog: roles of genes in the hedgehog signaling pathway in mammalian sexual differentiation
    Heather L Franco
    Reproductive Developmental Biology Group, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Chromosome Res 20:247-58. 2012
    ..Here, we review current findings on the roles of hedgehog signaling in the sexually dimorphic development of the reproductive organs with an emphasis on mammals and comparative evidence in other species...
  38. ncbi Deleterious mutations and the evolution of sex
    P D Keightley
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Science 290:331-3. 2000
    ..In species with short generation times, U is predicted to be far below 1, suggesting that sex is not maintained by its capacity to purge the genome of deleterious mutations.
  39. pmc The cost of sex: quantifying energetic investment in gamete production by males and females
    April Hayward
    Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e16557. 2011
    ..Together, these results suggest that understanding the heterogeneity in rates of gamete production among species requires joint consideration of the effects of gonad mass and metabolism...
  40. ncbi Why can't a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures
    David P Schmitt
    Department of Psychology, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 62625, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 94:168-82. 2008
    Previous research suggested that sex differences in personality traits are larger in prosperous, healthy, and egalitarian cultures in which women have more opportunities equal with those of men...
  41. ncbi Origin of sex revisited
    Mauro Santos
    Collegium Budapest, Institute for Advanced Study, Szentháromság u 2, Budapest, Hungary
    Orig Life Evol Biosph 33:405-32. 2003
    Why did sex ever arise in the first place? Why it does not disappear in view of the greater efficiency of asexuals? These are clearly two different questions, and we suggest here that the solution for the origin of sex does not ..
  42. ncbi Sex in the wormcounting and compensating X-chromosome dose
    B J Meyer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3204, USA
    Trends Genet 16:247-53. 2000
    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans counts its X chromosomes to determine sex and to activate the process of dosage compensation, which ensures that males (XO) and hermaphrodites (XX) express equal levels of most X-chromosome products...
  43. ncbi Predicting compulsive Internet use: it's all about sex!
    Gert Jan Meerkerk
    IVO, Addiction Research Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Cyberpsychol Behav 9:95-103. 2006
    ..On a longitudinal basis, spending a lot of time on erotica predicted an increase in CIU 1 year later. The addictive potential of the different applications varies; erotica appears to have the highest potential...
  44. pmc Genetic sex separation of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, by exposing eggs to dieldrin
    Hanano Yamada
    Insect Pest Control Laboratory, Joint FAO IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria
    Malar J 11:208. 2012
    ..develop SIT for mosquitoes, female elimination prior to release is essential as they are the disease-transmitting sex. A genetic sexing strain (GSS) of Anopheles arabiensis was created based on resistance to dieldrin, and methods of ..
  45. pmc Origin of the cell nucleus, mitosis and sex: roles of intracellular coevolution
    Thomas Cavalier-Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX13PS, UK
    Biol Direct 5:7. 2010
    ..Discussions on the origin of sex typically overlook its association with protozoan entry into dormant walled cysts and the likely simultaneous ..
  46. ncbi Male sex drive and the maintenance of sex: evidence from Drosophila
    Rama S Singh
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    J Hered 101:S100-6. 2010
    ..is very common among multicellular organisms-has been proposed as an important factor in the maintenance of sex, though in order for this hypothesis to hold, the strength of sexual selection must be stronger in males than in ..
  47. ncbi The influence of sex versus sex-related traits on long-term memory for gist and detail from an emotional story
    Larry Cahill
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
    Conscious Cogn 13:391-400. 2004
    Recent findings demonstrate sex-related differences in the neurobiological mechanisms by which emotional arousal influences memory, and raise questions about the extent to which memory for emotional events may differ between males and ..
  48. ncbi The costs and benefits of occasional sex: theoretical predictions and a case study
    Thomas G D'Souza
    Animal Evolutionary Ecology, Institute for Evolution and Ecology, University Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
    J Hered 101:S34-41. 2010
    ..However, empirical examples identifying and evaluating the costs and benefits of rare sex are scarce...
  49. pmc Small but mighty: the evolutionary dynamics of W and Y sex chromosomes
    Judith E Mank
    Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Chromosome Res 20:21-33. 2012
    Although sex chromosomes have been the focus of a great deal of scientific scrutiny, most interest has centred on understanding the evolution and relative importance of X and Z chromosomes...
  50. pmc Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms
    Shinya Sato
    Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e26923. 2011
    ....
  51. ncbi Genome structure and the benefit of sex
    Richard A Watson
    Natural Systems Group, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom
    Evolution 65:523-36. 2011
    ..We conclude that there are conditions in which sexuals can systematically evolve high-fitness genotypes that are essentially unevolvable for asexuals...
  52. ncbi The future of sex
    R John Aitken
    Hunter Medical Research Institute, the Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia
    Nature 415:963. 2002
  53. pmc Disentangling the benefits of sex
    Denis Roze
    CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Roscoff, France
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001321. 2012
    ..Most of the current hypotheses rely on the fact that sex increases genetic variation, thereby enhancing the efficiency of natural selection; an important body of ..
  54. ncbi 'Sex and crime' in evolution - why sexuality was so successful
    Ingo Schubert
    Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research IPK, Gatersleban, Germany
    Genes Genet Syst 86:1-6. 2011
    ....
  55. ncbi Identification of a speaker's sex: a study of vowels
    S P Whiteside
    Department of Human Communication Sciences, University of Sheffield
    Percept Mot Skills 86:579-84. 1998
    An experiment was carried out to test whether three phonetically naive listeners were able to identify a speaker's sex from brief natural vowel segments...
  56. pmc Sweets, sex, or self-esteem? Comparing the value of self-esteem boosts with other pleasant rewards
    Brad J Bushman
    School of Communication, The Ohio State University, 3127 Derby Hall, 154 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 1339, USA
    J Pers 79:993-1012. 2011
    ..how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-..
  57. ncbi Independent degeneration of W and Y sex chromosomes in frog Rana rugosa
    Ikuo Miura
    Institute for Amphibian Biology, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1 3 1, Higashihiroshima, Japan
    Chromosome Res 20:47-55. 2012
    The frog Rana rugosa uniquely possesses two different sex-determining systems of XX/XY and ZZ/ZW, separately in the geographic populations...
  58. ncbi An epidemiological model of host-parasite coevolution and sex
    C M Lively
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    J Evol Biol 23:1490-7. 2010
    ..The results suggest that epidemiological feedbacks, combined with frequency-dependent selection, could lead to the long-term persistence of sex under biologically reasonable conditions.
  59. ncbi Carotenoid supplementation and sex-specific trade-offs between colouration and condition in common tern chicks
    María M Benito
    Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat IRBio, Department Biologia Animal Vertebrats, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 645, Barcelona, 08028, Spain
    J Comp Physiol B 181:539-49. 2011
    ..Our aim was to examine sex-specific responses to the experimental increase of dietary carotenoids on plasma circulation, physiological and ..
  60. ncbi Sex-linked anemia: a hypochromic anemia of mice
    R M Bannerman
    Science 151:581-2. 1966
    ..Though the anemia occurs on a normal diet, it responds rapidly to iron-dextran injection. It may represent an unusual primary disturbance of iron metabolism...
  61. pmc Does stress induce (para)sex? Implications for Candida albicans evolution
    Judith Berman
    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Trends Genet 28:197-203. 2012
    Theory predicts that stress is a key factor in explaining the evolutionary role of sex in facultatively sexual organisms, including microorganisms...
  62. pmc Relationships between tree size, crown shape, gender segregation and sex allocation in Pinus halepensis, a Mediterranean pine tree
    Gidi Ne'eman
    Department of Biology and Environment, University of Haifa Oranim, Tivon 36006, Israel
    Ann Bot 108:197-206. 2011
    b>Sex allocation has been studied mainly in small herbaceous plants but much less in monoecious wind-pollinated trees...
  63. ncbi Effect of fetal sex on airway lability in pregnant women with asthma
    Helen L Kwon
    Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 163:217-21. 2006
    The authors investigated the association between sex of the fetus and maternal airway lability among pregnant women with asthma...
  64. ncbi Searching for the advantages of virus sex
    Paul E Turner
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
    Orig Life Evol Biosph 33:95-108. 2003
    b>Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex...
  65. ncbi Sex-related adaptive responses to interaction of drought and salinity in Populus yunnanensis
    Lianghua Chen
    Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
    Plant Cell Environ 33:1767-78. 2010
    ..In addition, we found sex-specific responses in total chlorophyll content (TC), carotenoid concentration and carbon isotope composition under ..
  66. ncbi Determination of sex and race from the subpubic angle in Ugandan subjects
    Patrick S Igbigbi
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Chichiri, Blantyre
    Am J Forensic Med Pathol 24:168-72. 2003
    The accurate determination of sex and race are important tools to forensic and physical anthropologists...
  67. ncbi Genetic architecture and the evolution of sex
    Rolf Lohaus
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 5001, USA
    J Hered 101:S142-57. 2010
    Theoretical investigations of the advantages of sex have tended to treat the genetic architecture of organisms as static and have not considered that genetic architecture might coevolve with reproductive mode...
  68. ncbi Sex differences in social behavior. Are the social role and evolutionary explanations compatible?
    J Archer
    Department of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, England
    Am Psychol 51:909-17. 1996
    The competing claims of two explanations of sex differences in social behavior, social role theory, and evolutionary psychology are examined...
  69. pmc Serotonin transporter, sex, and hypoxia: microarray analysis in the pulmonary arteries of mice identifies genes with relevance to human PAH
    Kevin White
    Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Physiol Genomics 43:417-37. 2011
    ..To further investigate these sex differences, microarray analysis was performed in the pulmonary arteries of normoxic and chronically hypoxic female ..
  70. pmc Women's attitudes to the sex of medical students in a gynaecology clinic: cross sectional survey
    Norma O'Flynn
    Department of General Practice and Primary Care, Guy s, King s, and St Thomas s School of Medicine, London SE11 6SP
    BMJ 325:683-4. 2002
  71. ncbi Perceptual integrality of sex and identity of faces: further evidence for the single-route hypothesis
    Tzvi Ganel
    Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 28:854-67. 2002
    According to current face-recognition models, sex (gender) and identity of faces are processed in independent routes...
  72. ncbi Phenotypic plasticity of hermaphrodite sex allocation promotes the evolution of separate sexes: an experimental test of the sex-differential plasticity hypothesis using Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae)
    Marcel E Dorken
    Department of Plant Sciences, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom
    Evolution 62:971-8. 2008
    ..nuclear inheritance when unisexuals have more than twice the reproductive fitness of hermaphrodites through one sex function (e.g., when females have more than twice the seed fertility of hermaphrodites)...
  73. pmc Deleterious mutations and selection for sex in finite diploid populations
    Denis Roze
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7144, Adaptation et Diversité en Milieu Marin, Roscoff, France
    Genetics 184:1095-112. 2010
    In diploid populations, indirect benefits of sex may stem from segregation and recombination...
  74. ncbi Sex and evolutionary stability
    Ken Binmore
    Philosophy Department, Bristol University, 8 Woodland Road, Bristol BS81TB, UK
    J Theor Biol 278:63-73. 2011
    ..An implication is that care is needed in adopting the convenience of an asexual model when examining the behavior of a sexual population in games with nontrivial components of rest points...
  75. ncbi Sex reduces genetic variation: a multidisciplinary review
    Root Gorelick
    Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 Canada
    Evolution 65:1088-98. 2011
    For over a century, the paradigm has been that sex invariably increases genetic variation, despite many renowned biologists asserting that sex decreases most genetic variation...
  76. ncbi Identification of the sex genes in an early diverged fungus
    Alexander Idnurm
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 451:193-6. 2008
    b>Sex determination in fungi is controlled by a small, specialized region of the genome in contrast to the large sex-specific chromosomes of animals and some plants...
  77. ncbi Effects of sex, gonadectomy, and oestrogen substitution on ischaemic preconditioning and ischaemia-reperfusion injury in mice
    X Song
    Crafoord Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockhom, Sweden
    Acta Physiol Scand 177:459-66. 2003
    ..Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) has been demonstrated to protect heart function and viability, but has been predominantly studied in male animals...
  78. ncbi Sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia
    Jeffrey S Mogil
    Department of Psychology and Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Prog Brain Res 186:141-57. 2010
    ..Research in this field has now begun to concentrate on finding explanations for this sex difference...
  79. ncbi The ecology and genetics of fitness in Chlamydomonas. XII. Repeated sexual episodes increase rates of adaptation to novel environments
    Oliver Kaltz
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Evolution 56:1743-53. 2002
    ..Moreover, the effect of sex on adaptation increased with the number of successive sexual episodes...
  80. ncbi Complementation, genetic conflict, and the evolution of sex and recombination
    Marco Archetti
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 2902, USA
    J Hered 101:S21-33. 2010
    ..Thus recombination does not require any advantage at the individual or population level...
  81. ncbi Spatial heterogeneity and the evolution of sex in diploids
    Aneil F Agrawal
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am Nat 174:S54-70. 2009
    Much of the theoretical work on the evolution of sex has focused on the effects of recombination. In diploids, segregation also occurs during sexual reproduction...
  82. ncbi The evolution of sex: empirical insights into the roles of epistasis and drift
    J Arjan G M de Visser
    Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Genet 8:139-49. 2007
    Despite many years of theoretical and experimental work, the explanation for why sex is so common as a reproductive strategy continues to resist understanding...
  83. pmc Sex and deleterious mutations
    Isabel Gordo
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, P 2781 901 Oeiras, Portugal
    Genetics 179:621-6. 2008
    ..While a pluralistic view of the evolution of sex and recombination has been suggested by some, here we take a simpler view and try to quantify the conditions under ..
  84. ncbi Effect of rearing temperatures during embryonic development on the phenotypic sex in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    H AboZaid
    Department of Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Water Ecology, Gottingen, Germany
    Sex Dev 5:259-65. 2011
    In zebrafish, Danio rerio, a polygenic pattern of sex determination or a female heterogamety with possible influences of environmental factors is assumed...
  85. ncbi Expression of sex and reproduction-related genes in Marsupenaeus japonicus
    Tamera R Callaghan
    CSIRO Food Futures National Research Flagship, 5 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, Sydney, New South Wales 2113, Australia
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 12:664-77. 2010
    ..At PL110, seven of the ESTs were detected in females only, and seven ESTs were detected in males only. Sex-specific expression at this developmental stage indicates that these ESTs act as important gonadal development ..
  86. ncbi Why sex and recombination?
    N H Barton
    Institute of Science and Technology, A 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 74:187-95. 2009
    b>Sex and recombination have long been seen as adaptations that facilitate natural selection by generating favorable variations...
  87. ncbi Why are sex and recombination so common?
    Lilach Hadany
    Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1133:26-43. 2008
    The abundance of sex and recombination is still one of the most puzzling questions in the theory of evolution: Most models find that recombination can evolve, but only under a limited range of parameters...
  88. pmc Evolutionary vestigialization of sex in a clonal plant: selection versus neutral mutation in geographically peripheral populations
    Marcel E Dorken
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 271:2375-80. 2004
    ..These observations suggest that selection has facilitated the vestigialization of sex, and thus do not support the neutral mutation hypothesis...
  89. ncbi The prevalence and evolution of sex in microorganisms
    Jianping Xu
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
    Genome 47:775-80. 2004
    The origin of sex and how sex is maintained are among the biggest puzzles in biology. Most investigations into this problem have focused on complex eukaryotes like animals and plants...
  90. ncbi Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens
    Richard E Michod
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA
    Infect Genet Evol 8:267-85. 2008
    Explaining the adaptive value of sex is one of the great outstanding problems in biology. The challenge comes from the difficulty in identifying the benefits provided by sex, which must outweigh the substantial costs of sex...
  91. ncbi Sex differences in the influence of mothers on the sociosexual preferences of their offspring
    K M Kendrick
    Department of Neurobiology, Babraham, Cambridge CB2 4AT, United Kingdom
    Horm Behav 40:322-38. 2001
    ..There are no sex differences in effects on these behaviors, and other species-specific behavior patterns such as aggression, ..
  92. pmc A mixability theory for the role of sex in evolution
    Adi Livnat
    Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science, and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19803-8. 2008
    The question of what role sex plays in evolution is still open despite decades of research. It has often been assumed that sex should facilitate the increase in fitness...
  93. ncbi Sex specific effects of heat induced hormesis in Hsf-deficient Drosophila melanogaster
    J G Sørensen
    Aarhus Centre for Environmental Stress Research, Genetics and Ecology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, Building 1540, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    Exp Gerontol 42:1123-9. 2007
    ..However, the results also suggest that other processes are involved and that different mechanisms might have marked sex specific impact.
  94. ncbi Why have sex? The population genetics of sex and recombination
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T1Z4
    Biochem Soc Trans 34:519-22. 2006
    ..with those of another individual? Mathematical models are especially important in developing predictions about when sex and recombination can evolve, because it is difficult to intuit the outcome of evolution with several interacting ..
  95. ncbi Gaze behavior in face comparison: the roles of sex, task, and symmetry
    Regine Armann
    Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tubingen, Germany
    Atten Percept Psychophys 71:1107-26. 2009
    ..and performance was examined in two tasks of parametrically varying difficulty, using two types of face stimuli (sex morphs and identity morphs)...
  96. ncbi Evolution. Why sex?
    Rasmus Nielsen
    Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Kbh Ø Denmark
    Science 311:960-1. 2006
  97. ncbi Effects of infant sex on mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 according to timing of infection in Zimbabwe
    Ellen G Piwoz
    Academy for Educational Development, Washington DC, USA
    AIDS 20:1981-4. 2006
    We examined the relationship between sex and the risk of intrauterine, intrapartum and postnatal HIV transmission among 4495 infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Harare, Zimbabwe. Intrauterine transmission was 8...
  98. ncbi Prevalence and incidence of pharyngeal gonorrhea in a longitudinal sample of men who have sex with men: the EXPLORE study
    Sheldon R Morris
    Department of Community and Family Medicine, University of California San Francisco, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1284-9. 2006
    The prevalence of gonorrhea of the pharynx among select samples of men who have sex with men (MSM) ranges from 9% to 15%...
  99. ncbi Host-parasite coevolution and selection on sex through the effects of segregation
    Aneil F Agrawal
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Harbord Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G5, Canada
    Am Nat 168:617-29. 2006
    ..to keep apace of coevolving species has been invoked as a major explanation for the evolution and maintenance of sex (the Red Queen hypothesis)...
  100. ncbi Sexual selection and maintenance of sex: evidence from comparisons of rates of genomic accumulation of mutations and divergence of sex-related genes in sexual and hermaphroditic species of Caenorhabditis
    Carlo G Artieri
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Mol Biol Evol 25:972-9. 2008
    ..Here, we examine the advantages of dioecy versus hermaphroditism by comparing the rate of evolution in sex-related genes and the rate of accumulation of deleterious mutations using a large number of orthologs (11,493) in ..
  101. ncbi Sex, race and social role--history and the social determinants of health
    Stephen J Kunitz
    Int J Epidemiol 36:3-10. 2007

Research Grants73

  1. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Title: Ocular Impact of X Chromosome Karyotype and Sex Hormones in Turner Syndrome and Premature Ovarian Failure Number: 07-EI-0145 Summary: Women with premature ovarian ..
  2. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Title: Ocular Impact of X Chromosome Karyotype and Sex Hormones in Turner Syndrome and Premature Ovarian Failure Number: 07-EI-0145 Summary: Women with premature ovarian ..
  3. Xenoestrogen regulation of Leydig cells
    BENSON TOKUNBO AKINGBEMI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Leydig cells are the predominant source of the male sex steroid hormone testosterone...
  4. Role of the Y-Located TSPY Gene in Human Oncogenesis
    Yun Fai Chris Lau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hence, the X-gene is a tumor suppressor gene. We show that these two sex chromosome genes can affect testosterone (male-hormone) associated physiology, again in opposing directions...
  5. Hypothalamic Orexin Role in Menopause-Associated Hot Flashes and Mood/Sleep Disru
    PHILIP LEE JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Currently I have had extensive training in: 1) neuroendocrinology of female sex hormones and behavior during my Masters with Thesis;2) neuroendocrinology and functional neuroanatomy of stress ..
  6. Novel Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Ethanol-Induced Cardiac Injury in Aged Females
    DONNA HOPE KORZICK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): ABSTRACT Sex differences in the cardiovascular response to alcoholism exist such that women are apparently more sensitive to the toxic effects of alcohol vs men, although the mechanisms which ..
  7. Effects of Testosterone and Genetic Factors on Psychological and Motor Function i
    NICOLE RENEE TARTAGLIA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..focused on understanding the role of hormonal and genetic factors on neurodevelopment and behavior in children with sex chromosomal disorders and other neurogenetic syndromes, and in conducting clinical trials to develop evidence-based ..
  8. 5-HT transporter function: Interaction of hormones and antidepressants
    Alan Frazer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..using neurochemical or behavioral measures to see if further evidence can be obtained that treatment with female sex hormones either influences SERT function and/or interferes with the ability of SSRIs to inhibit the SERT...
  9. IMMUNOGENETICS OF COLLAGEN INDUCED ARTHRITIS IN MICE
    Chella David; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Female sex hormone, estrogen, is involved in pathogenesis by enhancing production of peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) enzyme ..
  10. Physiology of Hypothalamic Neurosteroidal Progesterone
    Paul E Micevych; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One neurosteroid is progesterone, a classic sex hormone involved in the regulation of reproduction...
  11. Epigenetics of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior
    BRIDGET NUGENT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and neurological disorders underscores a need to identify the fundamental mechanisms mediating the organization of sex differences in the brain...
  12. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HUMAN GENETICS PUBLIC HEALTH GENETICS FELLOWSHIP
    Joann A Boughman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Rights Assurance (45 CFR 80) [unreadable] Assurance Conceming the Handicapped (45 CFR 84) Q Assurance Conceming Sex Discrimination (45 CFR 86) [unreadable] Assurance Conceming Age Discrimination (45 CFR 90 &45 CFR 91). 5...
  13. Molecular Regulation of Progesterone Synthesis
    John S Davis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..involves components of second messenger pathways and proto-oncogene products that are central to the regulation of sex steroid secretion...
  14. Maternal obesity depresses essential fatty acid transport in the placenta
    PERRIE F O'TIERNEY-GINN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Complementary studies in women will determine the degree to which maternal BMI and fetal sex alter placental lipid uptake...
  15. Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation of Drug Reinforcement
    Diane Lebesgue; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..My experience in these two fields stimulated my interest in understanding the molecular basis of sex differences in and hormonal control of addictive disorders and psychiatric diseases...
  16. Central Action of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Male and Female Rats
    Haifei Shi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus it is possible that sex difference exists in the leptin-POMC downstream BDNF system...
  17. Mechanisms of Sex Determination in Zebrafish
    JOHN HARVEY POSTLETHWAIT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In nonmammalian vertebrates, other genes in the network determine sex, and in some species, environmental factors such as temperature or social cues can bias sex development...
  18. Gonadal Steroid Receptors and the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
    Robert J Handa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..applicant): The long-term goals of this project are to determine the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the sex differences in the function of the adult hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
  19. Weight Loss &Exercise Effects on Telomere Length in Postmenopausal Women
    ANNE M MCTIERNAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..associations between telomere length and other analytes already measured in the trial: DNA damage repair (COMET), sex hormones, insulin &glucose, inflammation (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin-6), insulin like ..
  20. Maternal obesity depresses essential fatty acid transport in the placenta
    PERRIE F O'TIERNEY-GINN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Complementary studies in women will determine the degree to which maternal BMI and fetal sex alter placental lipid uptake...
  21. Understanding Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin in Women that Serve in OEF/OIF
    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that lead to anxiety and chronic abdominal pain in female veterans?" AIM 1a will test the hypothesis that there are sex-related differences in anxiety and abdominal pain reporting in adult rats in response to unpredictable ELS...
  22. Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program
    Catherine Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of aging and is defined by permanent changes in ovarian function, we still do not understand how postmenopausal sex hormones affect diabetes risk...
  23. FOLLOW UP OF THE ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, BETA-CAROTENE CANCER PREVENTION (ATBC) STUDY
    Jarmo Virtamo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..status;carotenoids and other antioxidants;one-carbon metabolism;energy balance, insulin, and growth factors;sex steroids;and genetic variants impacting these exposures...
  24. X chromosome, injury and infection
    Zoltan Spolarics; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It is generally believed that the female advantage is associated with the effects of sex hormones...
  25. Runx Proteins and Sex Steroid Signaling in Bone
    Baruch Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Technical Abstract Sex Steroids and Runx Signaling in Bone The following contains proprietary/privileged information that Dr...
  26. Effects of In Utero and Transgenerational Exposure of Avy Mice to Bisphenol A
    CHERYL SUSAN ROSENFELD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Femoral blood will be drawn weekly to measure the serum concentrations of metabolic and sex-regulating hormones, free fatty acids, and glucose, and their weight and overall appearance tracked...
  27. Molecular Epidemiology of DNA Repair in Head and Neck Cancer
    Qingyi Wei; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and risk of SCCHN in 600 prospectively identified cases and 600 hospital-based controls frequency matched by age, sex, ethnicity/race and residence...
  28. Epistasis in Steroidogenic Genes in the Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease
    CRAIG STEPHEN ATWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Evidence supporting sex steroids as being essential for normal cognitive health includes: 1) 12 studies demonstrating improvements in cognitive performance of cognitively healthy postmenopausal women ..
  29. Role of Sex Chromosome Complement in the CNS during Autoimmune Disease
    Sienmi Du; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, we wonder if there could be opposing sex-related factors in females that impart more robust immune responses but more resilience regarding the CNS response ..
  30. Effectiveness and Safety of Antithrombotic Strategies after Joint Replacement
    Elaine Hylek; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..determine incidence of VTE, major hemorrhage, and mortality within 90 days of hip or knee arthroplasty by age and sex, 2) to develop risk-prediction models for VTE, hemorrhage, and mortality following arthroplasty, 3) to compare the ..
  31. Modulation of immune senescence by androgen treatment in aged male macaques
    Henryk F Urbanski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since sex steroid levels modulate immune function, it is likely that the age-related decline in androgen levels will also ..
  32. Immune Development: Role of Milk Cell Transfer and Recipient Gender
    Ameae M Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..other words, there was a long-lived effect of cell transfer on the DTH response that was different depending on the sex of the recipient...
  33. Androgen Receptor Pathway and Risk of Hepatic Fibrosis in Hepatitis C
    DONNA LORRAINE WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One potential explanatory factor may be genetic variation in the male sex hormone or androgen receptor (AR) gene...
  34. Mechanisms Regulating Reduced c-Kit-Dependent EAE Susceptibility in Male SJL Mice
    MELISSA ANN BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There are at least two explanations for these observations: i) Male mast cells, under the influence of sex hormones such as testosterone, show distinct responses in the context of disease compared to female mast cells;and/..
  35. Olfactory Circuits for Reproduction and Reward
    James A Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    In humans exposure to body odorants can produce sex-specific neuroendocrine responses, permit the discrimination of scents based on differences in major histocompatibility alleles, and sex-dependently activate regions of the ..
  36. Sex-Hormones and the TMPRSS2: ERG Fusion in Prostate Cancer Progression
    Lorelei Mucci; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We propose to assess the impact of sex-steroid hormones and prostate cancer (PCa) progression in the context of the recently identified TMPRSS2:ERG translocation, a novel gene fusion of the 5'-..
  37. Effects of brain-selective estradiol on gene expression and female sex behavior
    Kim Wallen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If successful these studies will revolutionize the treatment of clinical problems resulting from hypoestrogenic conditions. ..
  38. Genetics of Cryptococcus sexual reproduction
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, because the vast majority of clinical and environmental isolates are a mating type, it had been unclear if sex occurs in nature and how aerosolized spores thought to be infectious propagules arise...
  39. Adult and Transgenerational Toxicity Due to Developmental TCDD Exposure
    Tracie R Baker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..F0 adult toxicity includes an apparent male feminization in which fish with female secondary sex characteristics have testes...
  40. A Prospective Study of Adiposity and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease
    CHRISTINA LYNN WASSEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..fat) are most relevant to the link between adipocyokines/inflammation and CVD, and how such effects vary across sex and ethnic specific subgroups...
  41. Statins &Lymphoid Malignancy Risk in a Large Multi-Site Population-Based Cohort
    Marianne Ulcickas Yood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Five controls will be matched to each case on, age, sex, health system, and duration of membership...
  42. IMMUNOGENETICS OF COLLAGEN INDUCED ARTHRITIS IN MICE
    Veena Taneja; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Female sex hormone, estrogen, is involved in pathogenesis by enhancing production of peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) enzyme ..
  43. EEG Synchrony, perinatal risk and outcome: analysis of CHIME data
    PHILIP GEORGE GRIEVE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Certain risk factors for poor outcomes are not altered by neonatal care such as socioeconomic status, sex, birth weight and gestational age at birth...
  44. Sex Steroids and Runx Signaling in Bone
    Baruch Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Sex steroid hormones and their receptors (SHRs) also play critical roles in bone health and disease, and are targets ..
  45. Early social stress, novelty seeking, and impulsive behavior
    David M Lyons; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..can be costly, however, as it increases the prevalence of reckless driving, pathological gambling, unprotected sex, under-age drinking, and other forms of alcohol and drug abuse...
  46. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The fundamental basis for such gender bias remains unclear. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to such sex difference...
  47. Progression of Autoimmunity During Puberty in SLE
    KATHLEEN M O'NEIL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..To understand the causes of sex differences in autoimmunity in general, and SLE in specific, we will measure immunologic factors important in lupus ..
  48. Simultaneous Insulin and Leptin Signaling in POMC Neurons Promotes Fertility and
    LATRICE DOREEN FAULKNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific AIM 3) Determine whether IR/LepRPOMC mice exhibit impaired sex steroid negative feedback...
  49. Green Tea and Reduction of Breast Cancer Risk
    MINDY SUSAN KURZER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..density;plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 3, estrone, estradiol, androstenedione and sex hormone binding globulin...
  50. Endocrine Targets for Prevention of Lung Cancer
    Robert M Bigsby; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Epidemiological data indicate that there are sex differences in non-small cell lung cancer and that ovarian hormones play a role by promoting tumor growth, ..
  51. Impact of smoking on immune response and arthritis in humanized mice
    Veena Taneja; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The model described here develops arthritis with similarities to human disease in sex-bias, autoantibody profile and pathology...
  52. Biomarker Reference Laboratory, EDRN
    William E Grizzle; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A key resource is expertise in analysis of the effects of patient characteristics (age, sex, race nutritional status, etc.) on disease progression...
  53. Growth hormone and adult physiology
    Rhonda D Kineman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..system that are most profoundly affected by selective reduction in circulating GH and IGF-I, in the context of sex, diet and nutrient availability...
  54. Impact of AMP-activated kinase on sex differences in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    John P Konhilas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..impact brought about by changes in the molecular and biochemical biology of the heart in response to disease and sex. Dr...
  55. Modulation of Colonic Epithelial Permeability by Sex Hormones
    Muriel Larauche; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The reason for this prevalence is not yet established. Evidence supports the presence of sex-dependent immune activation in the colon that plays role in alterations of visceral sensitivity and epithelial ..
  56. Mechanisms for Cardiovascular Effects of air pollutants: Effect of Age and Sex
    BRITT HOLMEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Advancing age is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, and sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD), autoimmune disease and airway hypersensitivity have been reported...
  57. Endothelin-1 and androgen in prostate cancer bone metastasis and bone health
    Gregory A Clines; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In older mice, osteoblast ETAR inactivation exhibited gender and sex steroid-specific differences...
  58. Epidemiological Research on Autism in Jamaica
    Mohammad H Rahbar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The agreement between CARS and ADI-R will be determined. We will also conduct a pilot age and sex matched case-control study to investigate whether environmental exposures to mercury, lead, arsenic and cadmium ..
  59. Epigenetic Regulation Of Sex-dependent Liver Cancer
    Arlin B Rogers; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Liver cancer also disproportionately affects male rodents, providing a valuable model to study mechanisms of sex-dependent hepatocarcinogenesis...
  60. The Role of Sex in Self Antigen Generation in SLE
    David Stephen Pisetsky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is a prototypic autoimmune disease that primarily affects young women and powerfully exemplifies the importance of sex as a determinant of immune-mediated disease...
  61. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in women: reproductive, hormonal and genetic factors
    Paige M Bracci; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..4:1). Although several studies have investigated the association between reproductive factors and exogenous sex-hormone exposures to explain this sex differential, results have been varied and no comprehensive assessment of ..
  62. Genes and Hormonal Fetal Antecedents to Sex Differencs in the Brain in Depression
    Jill M Goldstein; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We hypothesize that sex differences in MOD are initiated during fetal development, during hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) circuitry ..
  63. The relative roled of sex and genes during development of systemic autoimmunity
    TRINE NORGAARD JORGENSEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..current understanding of the etiology of SLE implies important roles for genetics and environmental factors such as sex hormones...
  64. Sex Hormones and Rat Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strength
    William A Romani; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Gender specific differences in the hormonal milieu and response to specific steroid sex hormones have been suggested as potential causes for the disparities in ACL strength and injury risk between males ..
  65. Acceptability and feasbility of the HPV vaccine schedule in female sex workers
    BRANDON JOHN BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..acceptance and potential for the effective use of HPV vaccine in the standard and in a modified schedule in female sex workers of different ages...
  66. ENVIRONMENTAL SEX DETERMINATION AND DIFFERENTIATION
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Mammals, birds, and reptiles constitute the amniote vertebrates. In all mammals and birds, and in many reptiles, sex is determined at fertilization by genotype (genotypic sex determination or GSD)...
  67. The importance of Early Sexual Experiences Among Men Who Have Sex With Men
    Matthew Golden; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience rates of HIV and bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI) that are many times those experienced by heterosexuals in the U.S...
  68. Contextual Influences on Sexual Risk among Latino MSM
    MARIA ZEA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..develops and tests a theoretical model of socio-cultural, psychosocial, and contextual influences on unprotected sex in three groups of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S.--Dominicans, Colombians, and Brazilians...
  69. Substance Use and HIV Risk among Thai Women
    Tooru Nemoto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..contexts of HIV risk behaviors and drug use among Thai female and male-to-female transgender (kathoey) sex workers in Bangkok...
  70. Prenatal Testosterone and Risk for Disordered Eating During Puberty
    KRISTEN CULBERT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..e., lower) risk for disordered eating (DE) and account for sex differences in prevalence, yet how or when these effects emerge remains unknown...
  71. Fourth Symposium Biology Vertebrate Sex Determination
    Blanche Capel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..provided by applicant): We request support for The Fourth International Symposium on the Biology of Vertebrate Sex Determination scheduled to take place in Kona, Hawaii, April 24-28, 2006...
  72. Opioid-Induced Immune Alterations: Gender Differences
    DONALD LYSLE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..has produced a wealth of information on the immunomodulatory effects of opioids, but little is known about how the sex of the individual impacts opioid-induced immunomodulation...
  73. Sex Steroids, and TMJ Pain
    Larry Bellinger; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION: The long term goal of this study is to determine the impact of gender differences and sex hormones on gene(s) and molecular pathways leading to and effecting acute and persistent joint pain as observed in the ..