viral genes


Summary: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Bayes empirical bayes inference of amino acid sites under positive selection
    Ziheng Yang
    Department of Biology, University College London, London, UK
    Mol Biol Evol 22:1107-18. 2005
  2. pmc Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls
    Ron A M Fouchier
    Dept of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, P O Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 79:2814-22. 2005
  3. pmc Avian-to-human transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics
    Y Kawaoka
    Department of Virology Molecular Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38101 0318
    J Virol 63:4603-8. 1989
  4. ncbi The 1.2-megabase genome sequence of Mimivirus
    Didier Raoult
    Unite des Rickettsies, Faculte de Medecine, CNRS UMR6020, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
    Science 306:1344-50. 2004
  5. pmc Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells
    Xuezhong Cai
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5570-5. 2005
  6. ncbi Initial genetic characterization of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus
    J K Taubenberger
    Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Cellular Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC 20306 6000, USA
    Science 275:1793-6. 1997
  7. ncbi The complete DNA sequence of vaccinia virus
    S J Goebel
    Virogenetics Corporation, Troy, New York 12180 8349
    Virology 179:247-66, 517-63. 1990
  8. ncbi Genome sequence of a polydnavirus: insights into symbiotic virus evolution
    Eric Espagne
    Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l Insecte, CNRS UMR 6035, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France
    Science 306:286-9. 2004
  9. ncbi Mapping the antigenic and genetic evolution of influenza virus
    Derek J Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Science 305:371-6. 2004
  10. ncbi Complete genome sequence and lytic phase transcription profile of a Coccolithovirus
    William H Wilson
    Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK
    Science 309:1090-2. 2005

Detail Information

Publications281 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Bayes empirical bayes inference of amino acid sites under positive selection
    Ziheng Yang
    Department of Biology, University College London, London, UK
    Mol Biol Evol 22:1107-18. 2005
    ..The results suggest that in small data sets the new BEB method does not generate false positives as did the old NEB approach, while in large data sets it retains the good power of the NEB approach for inferring positively selected sites...
  2. pmc Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls
    Ron A M Fouchier
    Dept of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, P O Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 79:2814-22. 2005
    ..We propose that sequence analyses of HA and NA genes of influenza A viruses be used for the rapid identification of existing and novel HA and NA subtypes...
  3. pmc Avian-to-human transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics
    Y Kawaoka
    Department of Virology Molecular Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38101 0318
    J Virol 63:4603-8. 1989
    ..Comparative analysis of deduced amino acid sequences disclosed highly conserved regions in PB1 proteins, which may be key structures required for PB1 activities...
  4. ncbi The 1.2-megabase genome sequence of Mimivirus
    Didier Raoult
    Unite des Rickettsies, Faculte de Medecine, CNRS UMR6020, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
    Science 306:1344-50. 2004
    ..This new sequence data might help shed a new light on the origin of DNA viruses and their role in the early evolution of eukaryotes...
  5. pmc Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells
    Xuezhong Cai
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5570-5. 2005
    ..We hypothesize that these viral miRNAs play a critical role in the establishment and/or maintenance of KSHV latent infection in vivo and, hence, in KSHV-induced oncogenesis...
  6. ncbi Initial genetic characterization of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus
    J K Taubenberger
    Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Cellular Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC 20306 6000, USA
    Science 275:1793-6. 1997
    ..The sequences are consistent with a novel H1N1 influenza A virus that belongs to the subgroup of strains that infect humans and swine, not the avian subgroup...
  7. ncbi The complete DNA sequence of vaccinia virus
    S J Goebel
    Virogenetics Corporation, Troy, New York 12180 8349
    Virology 179:247-66, 517-63. 1990
    ..Whereas several similarities to proteins of known function were discerned, the function of the majority of proteins encoded by these open reading frames is as yet undetermined...
  8. ncbi Genome sequence of a polydnavirus: insights into symbiotic virus evolution
    Eric Espagne
    Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l Insecte, CNRS UMR 6035, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France
    Science 306:286-9. 2004
  9. ncbi Mapping the antigenic and genetic evolution of influenza virus
    Derek J Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Science 305:371-6. 2004
    ..Further, this approach offers a route to predicting the relative success of emerging strains, which could be achieved by quantifying the combined effects of population level immune escape and viral fitness on strain evolution...
  10. ncbi Complete genome sequence and lytic phase transcription profile of a Coccolithovirus
    William H Wilson
    Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK
    Science 309:1090-2. 2005
    ..Microarray transcriptomic analysis reveals that 65% of the predicted virus-encoded genes are expressed during lytic infection of E. huxleyi...
  11. pmc Exploring the mycobacteriophage metaproteome: phage genomics as an educational platform
    Graham F Hatfull
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    PLoS Genet 2:e92. 2006
  12. pmc Highly conserved regions of influenza a virus polymerase gene segments are critical for efficient viral RNA packaging
    Glenn A Marsh
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 82:2295-304. 2008
    ..This work provides further evidence for a selective packaging mechanism for influenza A viruses, demonstrating that these highly conserved regions are important for efficient packaging...
  13. ncbi Genetic analysis of human H2N2 and early H3N2 influenza viruses, 1957-1972: evidence for genetic divergence and multiple reassortment events
    Stephen E Lindstrom
    Influenza Branch, MS G16, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Virology 328:101-19. 2004
    ..These results suggest that H2N2 viruses continued to circulate after 1968 and that establishment of H3N2 viruses in humans was associated with multiple reassortment events that contributed to their genetic diversity...
  14. ncbi Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia
    K S Li
    Joint Influenza Research Centre SUMC and HKU, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515031, China
    Nature 430:209-13. 2004
    ..These developments pose a threat to public and veterinary health in the region and potentially the world, and suggest that long-term control measures are required...
  15. ncbi New avian influenza A virus subtype combination H5N7 identified in Danish mallard ducks
    K Bragstad
    Department of Virology, Statens Serum Institut, 5 Artillerivej, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
    Virus Res 109:181-90. 2005
    ..To our knowledge this is the first report of an H5N7 influenza A virus...
  16. ncbi Phage phiC31 integrase-mediated genomic integration of the common cytokine receptor gamma chain in human T-cell lines
    Yoshinori Ishikawa
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 1 Seiryo machi, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8575, Japan
    J Gene Med 8:646-53. 2006
    ..Here, to explore an alternative gene transfer methodology that may offer less risk of insertional mutagenesis, we employed the phiC31 integrase-based integration system using human T-cell lines, including the gammac-deficient ED40515(-)...
  17. pmc Development of reverse genetics systems for bluetongue virus: recovery of infectious virus from synthetic RNA transcripts
    Mark Boyce
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 82:8339-48. 2008
    ..The ability to generate specific mutants provides a new tool to investigate the BTV replication cycle as well as permitting the generation of designer vaccine strains, which are greatly needed in many countries...
  18. pmc Emergence of fatal PRRSV variants: unparalleled outbreaks of atypical PRRS in China and molecular dissection of the unique hallmark
    Kegong Tian
    China Animal Disease Control Center, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 2:e526. 2007
  19. pmc Metagenomics: read length matters
    K Eric Wommack
    Delaware Biotechnology Institute, University of Delaware, 15 Innovation Way, Newark, Delaware 19711, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:1453-63. 2008
    ..Thus, more-distant homologs of microbial and viral genes are not detected by short-read sequences...
  20. pmc Using single-particle tracking to study nuclear trafficking of viral genes
    Hazen P Babcock
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Biophys J 87:2749-58. 2004
    ..We expect this single-particle tracking approach to find broad application in investigations of genetic trafficking...
  21. ncbi Reverse transcriptase-mediated tropism switching in Bordetella bacteriophage
    Minghsun Liu
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 295:2091-4. 2002
    ..This cassette-based mechanism is capable of providing a vast repertoire of potential ligand-receptor interactions...
  22. pmc Influenza type A virus escape mutants emerge in vivo in the presence of antibodies to the ectodomain of matrix protein 2
    Darya Zharikova
    The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 4268, USA
    J Virol 79:6644-54. 2005
    ..The implications of these findings for the use of M2e as a broadly protective vaccine are discussed...
  23. ncbi Induction and suppression of RNA silencing by an animal virus
    Hongwei Li
    Department of Plant Pathology and Center for Plant Cell Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Science 296:1319-21. 2002
    ..These findings establish RNA silencing as an adaptive antiviral defense in animal cells. B2 also inhibits RNA silencing in transgenic plants, providing evidence for a conserved RNA silencing pathway in the plant and animal kingdoms...
  24. ncbi Two residues in the hemagglutinin of A/Fujian/411/02-like influenza viruses are responsible for antigenic drift from A/Panama/2007/99
    Hong Jin
    MedImmune Vaccines, Inc, 297 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
    Virology 336:113-9. 2005
  25. pmc Human gene targeting by viral vectors
    D W Russell
    Markey Molecular Medicine Center, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle 98195 7720, USA
    Nat Genet 18:325-30. 1998
    ..These results suggest that AAV vectors could be used to introduce specific genetic changes into the genomic DNA of a wide variety of mammalian cells, including therapeutic gene targeting applications...
  26. ncbi Extensive sequence divergence and phylogenetic relationships between the fusogenic and nonfusogenic orthoreoviruses: a species proposal
    R Duncan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4H7, Canada
    Virology 260:316-28. 1999
    ..The first clade of fusogenic reoviruses contains the avian reovirus- and Nelson Bay virus-type species, with the second clade being occupied by the single baboon reovirus isolate that represents a fourth orthoreovirus species...
  27. pmc Phylogenetic diversity of sequences of cyanophage photosynthetic gene psbA in marine and freshwaters
    C Chenard
    Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 1461 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z4, Canada
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:5317-24. 2008
    ..Moreover, as psbA sequences are not confined to a single family of phages, they provide an additional genetic marker that can be used to explore the diversity and evolutionary history of cyanophages in aquatic environments...
  28. pmc Molecular indetermination in the transition to error catastrophe: systematic elimination of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus through mutagenesis does not correlate linearly with large increases in mutant spectrum complexity
    A Grande-Pérez
    Molecular Medicine and Gene Therapy Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:12938-43. 2002
  29. pmc Transcriptional regulation of the interleukin-6 gene of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus)
    Hongyu Deng
    Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA AIDS Institute, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, 90095, USA
    J Virol 76:8252-64. 2002
    ..We propose that the existence of two vIL-6 promoters offers opportunities for differential regulation of vIL-6 gene expression in different tissue types and may account for the variable vIL-6 levels observed in KS, PEL, and MCD...
  30. ncbi Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield proteins during host infection
    Debbie Lindell
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 438:86-9. 2005
    ..We thus propose that the phage genes are functional in photosynthesis and that they may be increasing phage fitness by supplementing the host production of these proteins...
  31. pmc A human cytomegalovirus-encoded microRNA regulates expression of multiple viral genes involved in replication
    Finn Grey
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e163. 2007
    ..This study demonstrates the ability of a viral miRNA to regulate multiple viral genes.
  32. ncbi Viral IL-6-induced cell proliferation and immune evasion of interferon activity
    Malini Chatterjee
    Department of Pathology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 298:1432-5. 2002
    ..Viral IL-6 bypasses the gp80 regulatory checkpoint by binding directly to the gp130 transducer molecule, resulting in tumor cell autocrine dependence on the viral cytokine for proliferation and survival...
  33. ncbi Detection of norovirus and sapovirus infection among children with gastroenteritis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    G S Hansman
    Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Arch Virol 149:1673-88. 2004
    ..Further epidemiological studies may be necessary to determine whether the GII/4 strains continue to dominant in this region...
  34. ncbi Influenza B virus evolution: co-circulating lineages and comparison of evolutionary pattern with those of influenza A and C viruses
    M Yamashita
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, City University of New York, New York 10029
    Virology 163:112-22. 1988
    ..We propose an evolutionary model for influenza B viruses that is intermediate between the pattern for human influenza A viruses and that for influenza C viruses...
  35. ncbi Revision of taxonomic criteria for species demarcation in the family Geminiviridae, and an updated list of begomovirus species
    C M Fauquet
    Arch Virol 148:405-21. 2003
  36. pmc Global changes in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated virus gene expression patterns following expression of a tetracycline-inducible Rta transactivator
    Hiroyuki Nakamura
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Division of Tumor Virology, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA
    J Virol 77:4205-20. 2003
    ..Thus, our streamlined gene expression system provides a novel means not only to study the effects of viral gene products on overall KSHV gene expression and replication, but also to understand the natural viral reactivation process...
  37. ncbi Evolutionary analysis of genetic variation observed in citrus tristeza virus (CTV) after host passage
    V Sentandreu
    Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Arch Virol 151:875-94. 2006
    ..We found no evidence of recombination playing a significant role during p18 and p20 evolution in these isolates. These results suggest that hosts can be an important evolutionary factor for CTV isolates...
  38. ncbi Persistent expression of a newly characterized Hyposoter didymator polydnavirus gene in long-term infected lepidopteran cell lines
    A N Volkoff
    Laboratoire de Recherches de Pathologie Comparée, INRA CNRS, 30380 Saint Christol les Ales, France
    J Gen Virol 82:963-9. 2001
    ..The function of the K-gene product and its association with stably transformed insect cell lines remains to be investigated...
  39. pmc The expression and function of Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent genes
    L S Young
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham Medical School, UK
    Mol Pathol 53:238-47. 2000
    ..Understanding the function of these EBV latent proteins will not only provide insight into the mechanisms governing fundamental cell processes but will also identify targets for novel treatment...
  40. ncbi Genes and regulatory sites of the "host-takeover module" in the terminal redundancy of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1
    C R Stewart
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251 1892, USA
    Virology 246:329-40. 1998
    ..Transcription-termination and RNase III cleavage sites were found at appropriate locations...
  41. ncbi Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations
    H S Nielsen
    Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research, Lindholm, DK-4771 Kalvehave, Denmark
    J Gen Virol 82:1263-72. 2001
    ..Furthermore, it was found that the selective pressure did not change during the time period studied. The implications of these findings for PRRS vaccine attenuation and reversion are discussed...
  42. ncbi A prospective, community-based study on virologic assessment among elderly people with and without symptoms of acute respiratory infection
    Judith M Graat
    Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 4, P O Box 8129, 6703 HD, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Epidemiol 56:1218-23. 2003
    ..Community-based elderly studies concerning microbiology of acute respiratory infections are scarce. Data on subclinical infections are even totally absent, although asymptomatic persons might act as a source of respiratory infections...
  43. ncbi Reduced positive selection in vector-borne RNA viruses
    Christopher H Woelk
    Mol Biol Evol 19:2333-6. 2002
  44. ncbi Complete sequence and analysis of the ovine herpesvirus 2 genome
    Jane Hart
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Gen Virol 88:28-39. 2007
    ..The sequence of OvHV-2 is a critical first step in the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of MCF...
  45. ncbi Genotype mixtures of hepatitis B virus in patients treated with interferon
    Charles Hannoun
    Department of Clinical Virology, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    J Infect Dis 186:752-9. 2002
    ..This should be considered when tracing the source of HBV infection...
  46. pmc Virus succession observed during an Emiliania huxleyi bloom
    Declan C Schroeder
    Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2484-90. 2003
    ..huxleyi bloom in a mesocosm experiment off western Norway. We reveal that, despite the presence of several virus genotypes at the start of an E. huxleyi bloom, only a few virus genotypes eventually go on to kill the bloom...
  47. ncbi Suppressor of RNA silencing encoded by the monopartite tomato leaf curl Java begomovirus
    T Kon
    Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    Arch Virol 152:1273-82. 2007
    ..The results of the sub-cellular localization of ToLCJAV-betaC1 in the epidermal cells of N. benthamiana and onion tissues showed that this protein is accumulated towards the periphery of the cell...
  48. ncbi Emergence of a resistance-breaking isolate of Rice yellow mottle virus during serial inoculations is due to a single substitution in the genome-linked viral protein VPg
    Eugenie Hebrard
    UR 141, Institut de recherche pour le developpement IRD, Montpellier, France
    J Gen Virol 87:1369-73. 2006
    ..sativa 'Gigante'. This is the first evidence that VPg is a virulence factor in plants with recessive resistance against viruses outside the family Potyviridae...
  49. ncbi Filamentous phages linked to virulence of Vibrio cholerae
    Brigid M Davis
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Curr Opin Microbiol 6:35-42. 2003
    ..The genetic island that encodes TCP has also been described as a filamentous phage; however, these sequences are unlike the genome of any previously characterized filamentous phage...
  50. ncbi Large-scale sequence analysis of avian influenza isolates
    John C Obenauer
    Hartwell Center for Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Science 311:1576-80. 2006
    ..We combine this new information with public AIV data to identify new gene alleles, persistent genotypes, compensatory mutations, and a potential virulence determinant...
  51. pmc KSHV vFLIP is essential for the survival of infected lymphoma cells
    Ilaria Guasparri
    Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 199:993-1003. 2004
    ..vFLIP is the first virally encoded gene shown to be essential for the survival of naturally infected tumor cells...
  52. pmc FluGenome: a web tool for genotyping influenza A virus
    Guoqing Lu
    Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:W275-9. 2007
    ..These features make FluGenome unique in its ability to automatically detect genotype differences attributable to reassortment events in influenza A virus evolution...
  53. pmc Expression of Mycobacteriophage Ms6 lysis genes is driven by two sigma(70)-like promoters and is dependent on a transcription termination signal present in the leader RNA
    Miguel Garcia
    Laboratorio de Microbiologia Molecular, Centro de Patogenese Molecular, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
    J Bacteriol 184:3034-43. 2002
    ..Moreover, an antitermination mechanism might be involved in their transcription regulation...
  54. pmc Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of microvirid coliphage genomes
    D R Rokyta
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 3051, USA
    J Bacteriol 188:1134-42. 2006
    ..Our data indicate that horizontal transfer does contribute to the evolution of the microvirids but is both quantitatively and qualitatively different from what has been observed for the dsDNA phages...
  55. ncbi Identification of the canarypox virus thymidine kinase gene and insertion of foreign genes
    H Amano
    Virology II, VIrology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Gakuen 4 7 1, Musashimurayama, Tokyo, 208, Japan
    Virology 256:280-90. 1999
    ..The recombinant viruses obtained were unstable, although the foreign genes were expressed efficiently in the mammalian cells infected with the viruses...
  56. pmc Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection of gamma interferon-deficient mice on a BALB/c background results in acute lethal pneumonia that is dependent on specific viral genes
    Katherine S Lee
    Department of Microbiology, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA
    J Virol 83:11397-401. 2009
    ..Notably, this acute, lethal pneumonia was dependent not only on the viral dose, but also on specific viral genes including the viral cyclin gene, previously identified to be important in promoting optimal chronic infection ..
  57. pmc trans-Complementation of flavivirus RNA polymerase gene NS5 by using Kunjin virus replicon-expressing BHK cells
    A A Khromykh
    Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Royal Children s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia
    J Virol 72:7270-9. 1998
  58. pmc DNA sequences of the tail fiber genes of bacteriophage P2: evidence for horizontal transfer of tail fiber genes among unrelated bacteriophages
    E Haggard-Ljungquist
    Department of Microbial Genetics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Bacteriol 174:1462-77. 1992
  59. ncbi Genetic diversity among sapoviruses
    T Farkas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Arch Virol 149:1309-23. 2004
  60. pmc Infection of human cancer cells with myxoma virus requires Akt activation via interaction with a viral ankyrin-repeat host range factor
    Gen Wang
    BioTherapeutics Research Group, Robarts Research Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6G 2V4
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:4640-5. 2006
    ..We conclude that the Akt pathway is a key restriction determinant for permissiveness of human cancer cells by MV...
  61. ncbi Regulation, replication, and integration functions of the Vibrio cholerae CTXphi are encoded by region RS2
    M K Waldor
    Tupper Research Institute, New England Medical Center 041, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Mol Microbiol 24:917-26. 1997
  62. ncbi A duplex RT-PCR assay for detection of genome segment 7 (VP7 gene) from 24 BTV serotypes
    S Anthony
    Arbovirology Department, Institute for Animal Health, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
    J Virol Methods 141:188-97. 2007
    ..No cross-reactions were detected with members of closely related Orbivirus species (African horsesickness virus (AHSV), Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), Equine encephalosis virus (EEV) and Palyam virus (PALV))...
  63. ncbi Multiple evolutionary mechanisms drive papillomavirus diversification
    Marc Gottschling
    Skin Cancer Center Charite, University Hospital of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Mol Biol Evol 24:1242-58. 2007
    ..The molecular data globally supports a complex evolutionary scenario for PVes, which is driven by multiple mechanisms but not exclusively by coevolution with corresponding hosts...
  64. ncbi Coronavirus genome structure and replication
    D A Brian
    Departments of Microbiology and Pathobiology, University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN 37996 0845, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 287:1-30. 2005
  65. pmc Essential role of the NV protein of Novirhabdovirus for pathogenicity in rainbow trout
    Maria Isabel Thoulouze
    Unite de Virologie et Immunologie Moleculaires, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex, France
    J Virol 78:4098-107. 2004
    ..Furthermore, we show that juvenile trout immunized with NV-knockout IHNV were protected against challenge with wt IHNV. That opens a new perspective for the development of IHNV attenuated live vaccines...
  66. pmc The NV gene of snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is not required for pathogenesis, and a heterologous glycoprotein can be incorporated into the SHRV envelope
    Marta Alonso
    Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P O Box 1346, Kaneohe, HI 96744, USA
    J Virol 78:5875-82. 2004
    ..Finally, we demonstrated that the SHRV glycoprotein can be replaced by the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or by a hybrid protein composed of SHRV and IHNV sequences...
  67. pmc Genetic identification of adenovirus type 5 genes that influence viral spread
    T Subramanian
    Institute for Molecular Virology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 3681 Park Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:2000-12. 2006
    ..Virol. 70:2296-2306, 1996) on infected cell monolayers. We have used a genetic strategy to identify different viral genes that influence adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) spread in an epithelial cancer cell line...
  68. pmc Stochastic processes are key determinants of short-term evolution in influenza a virus
    Martha I Nelson
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 2:e125. 2006
    ..Thus, predicting future patterns of influenza virus evolution for vaccine strain selection is inherently complex and requires intensive surveillance, whole-genome sequencing, and phenotypic analysis...
  69. pmc The leader of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic RNA harbors an internal ribosome entry segment that is active during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle
    Ann Brasey
    Biochemistry Department, McGill University, H3G 1Y6 Montreal, Canada
    J Virol 77:3939-49. 2003
    ..These data strongly suggest that, as for HIV-1 transcription, IRES-mediated translation initiation could play an important role in virus replication during virus-induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest...
  70. pmc The vaccinia virus K1L gene product inhibits host NF-kappaB activation by preventing IkappaBalpha degradation
    Joanna L Shisler
    Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    J Virol 78:3553-60. 2004
    ..Thus, one apparent molecular function of K1L is to prevent IkappaBalpha degradation. This impediment to NF-kappaB-induced host proinflammatory gene expression, in turn, might enhance virus survival...
  71. ncbi Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus: regulation and function of the BZLF1 gene
    S H Speck
    Dept of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Trends Microbiol 5:399-405. 1997
    ..Understanding this switch may facilitate development of strategies to interfere with EBV infection...
  72. pmc The virion glycoproteins of Ebola viruses are encoded in two reading frames and are expressed through transcriptional editing
    A Sanchez
    Division of Viral and Ricketsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:3602-7. 1996
    ..This genetic stability may indicate that EBO viruses have coevolved with their natural reservoirs and do not change appreciably in the wild...
  73. pmc Identification of a new inhibitor of essential division gene ftsZ as the kil gene of defective prophage Rac
    A Conter
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie et de Genetique Moleculaire du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse, France
    J Bacteriol 178:5100-4. 1996
    ..These features distinguish kil-encoded protein from the inhibitory product of gene dicB, which occupies a similar genetic location in Kim (Qin), another defective prophage of Escherichia coli...
  74. pmc Differential susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to infection by the American and Southeast Asian genotypes of dengue type 2 virus
    P M Armstrong
    Department of Virology and Immunology, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX 78245 0549, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1:159-68. 2001
    ..Such an understanding of functional differences between viral strains and genotypes may ultimately improve surveillance and intervention strategies...
  75. ncbi Mode of transgene expression after fusion to early or late viral genes of a conditionally replicating adenovirus via an optimized internal ribosome entry site in vitro and in vivo
    Angel A Rivera
    Division of Human Gene Therapy, Department of Medicine, and the Gene Therapy Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Virology 320:121-34. 2004
    ..Disruption of the expression of neighboring viral genes by insertion of the transgene was minimal for AdDeltaE2BIL and AdDeltafiberIL, but substantial for AdDeltaE1AIL...
  76. pmc Concurrent expression of latent and a limited number of lytic genes with immune modulation and antiapoptotic function by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus early during infection of primary endothelial and fibroblast cells and subsequent decline of l
    Harinivas H Krishnan
    Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
    J Virol 78:3601-20. 2004
    ..These are unique observations among in vitro herpesvirus infections and may have important implications in KSHV biology and pathogenesis...
  77. pmc DNA binding by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic switch protein is necessary for transcriptional activation of two viral delayed early promoters
    D M Lukac
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94143-0414, USA
    J Virol 75:6786-99. 2001
    ..Expression of truncated versions of the ORF50 protein reveals that DNA binding is mediated by the amino-terminal 272 amino acids of the polypeptide...
  78. pmc Comparative genomic analysis of 18 Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophages
    Tony Kwan
    McIntyre Medical Sciences Building, Room 810, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1Y6
    J Bacteriol 188:1184-7. 2006
    ..Comparative sequence analysis and ORF map organization revealed that most of the phages analyzed displayed little relationship to each other...
  79. pmc Genome-wide analysis of chromosomal features repressing human immunodeficiency virus transcription
    M K Lewinski
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 79:6610-9. 2005
    ..These data provide a genome-wide picture of chromosomal features that repress transcription and suggest models for transcriptional latency in cells from HIV-infected patients...
  80. pmc Identification and functional characterization of AMVp33, a novel homolog of the baculovirus caspase inhibitor p35 found in Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus
    John C Means
    Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Program, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 232 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Virology 358:436-47. 2007
    ..Thus, AMVp33 encodes a caspase inhibitor similar to baculovirus P35 with a preference for effector caspases. This is the first report of a p35 homolog from any viral or cellular genome outside of the baculovirus family...
  81. pmc Differential roles of AC2 and AC4 of cassava geminiviruses in mediating synergism and suppression of posttranscriptional gene silencing
    Ramachandran Vanitharani
    International Laboratory for Tropical Agricultural Biotechnology, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St Louis, Missouri 63132, USA
    J Virol 78:9487-98. 2004
    ..The specific and different roles played by these AC2 and AC4 proteins of cassava geminiviruses in regulating anti-PTGS activity and their relation to synergism are discussed...
  82. ncbi Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlife
    Eric M Leroy
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UR034, Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, BP 769 Franceville, Gabon
    Science 303:387-90. 2004
    ..Surveillance of animal mortality may help to predict and prevent human Ebola outbreaks...
  83. ncbi Two Hyposoter didmator ichnovirus genes expressed in the lepidopteran host encode secreted or membrane-associated serine and threonine rich proteins in segments that may be nested
    L Galibert
    I N R A, Laboratoire de Pathologie Comparée, UMR 5087 I N R A C N R S Université Montpellier II, 30380 St Christol les Alès, France
    J Insect Physiol 49:441-51. 2003
    ..Each of these repeats contains 58% of serine and threonine residues and therefore several potential sites for glycosylation. This mucin-like protein, predicted as highly glycosylated, could be involved in host immune suppression...
  84. pmc Sequence of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus nonstructural gene (NS) segment and characterization of recombinant viruses bearing the 1918 NS genes
    C F Basler
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:2746-51. 2001
    ..This attenuation in mice may be related to the human origin of the 1918 NS1 gene. These results suggest that interaction of the NS1 protein with host-cell factors plays a significant role in viral pathogenesis...
  85. pmc Comparative study of regulation of RTA-responsive genes in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8
    Moon Jung Song
    Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA AIDS Institute, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Virol 77:9451-62. 2003
    ..Based on these results, we conclude that direct binding of RTA to these target sequences contributes to their gene expression to various extents during the lytic life cycle of KSHV...
  86. ncbi Papillomaviruses: different genes have different histories
    Santiago Garcia-Vallve
    Evolutionary Genomics Group, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, Rovira i Virgili University URV, C Marcel li Domingo, s n Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
    Trends Microbiol 13:514-21. 2005
    ..Here, we propose an evolutionary framework aiming to integrate genome evolution, PV biology and epidemiology of PV infections...
  87. pmc The genes encoding the gCIII complex of human cytomegalovirus exist in highly diverse combinations in clinical isolates
    Lucy Rasmussen
    Center for AIDS Research, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Virol 76:10841-8. 2002
    ..The potential for the gCIII complex to exist in diverse genetic combinations in clinical isolates points to a new aspect that must be considered in studies of the significance of CMV strain variability...
  88. ncbi Evolutionary relationship between Old World West Nile virus strains. Evidence for viral gene flow between Africa, the Middle East, and Europe
    R N Charrel
    Unite des Virus Emergents, Faculté de Médecine de Marseille and Institut de Médecine Tropicale du Service de Santé des Armées, IFR48 IRD UR034, Marseille, France
    Virology 315:381-8. 2003
    ..For rapid completion of that purpose, colinearized E-NS3-NS5 gene sequences were shown to constitute a valuable surrogate for complete sequences...
  89. ncbi Resistance of vaccinia virus to rifampicin conferred by a single nucleotide substitution near the predicted NH2 terminus of a gene encoding an Mr 62,000 polypeptide
    C J Baldick
    Virology 156:138-45. 1987
    ..These data suggest a model in which head-to-tail interaction between Mr 61,840 polypeptides occurs and in which rifampicin blocks virus assembly by preventing this association...
  90. ncbi Molecular analysis of the ORFs 3 to 7 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Québec reference strain
    H Mardassi
    Centre de Recherche en Virologie, Institut Armand Frappier, Universite du Quebec, Laval, Canada
    Arch Virol 140:1405-18. 1995
    ..S. and European)...
  91. ncbi Accessory genes of the paramyxoviridae, a large family of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, as a focus of active investigation by reverse genetics
    Y Nagai
    Toyama Institute of Health, 17 1 Nakataikouyama, Kosugi Machi, 939 0363, Toyama, Japan
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 283:197-248. 2004
    ..Studies on the phenotypes of the resulting gene knockout viruses have revealed that the individual accessory genes greatly contribute specifically and additively to the overall viral fitness both in vitro and in vivo...
  92. pmc Defective RNA replication and late gene expression in temperature-sensitive influenza viruses expressing deleted forms of the NS1 protein
    Ana M Falcón
    Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Virol 78:3880-8. 2004
    ..Probably as a consequence, the nucleocytoplasmic export of virus NP was strongly inhibited at the restrictive temperature. These results indicate that the NS1 protein is essential for nuclear and cytoplasmic steps during the virus cycle...
  93. ncbi Genome-wide expression dynamics of a marine virus and host reveal features of co-evolution
    Debbie Lindell
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 449:83-6. 2007
    ..Thus activation of host genes during infection may be directing the co-evolution of gene content in both host and phage genomes...
  94. pmc A viral gene that activates lytic cycle expression of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
    R Sun
    Departments of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Genetics, Pediatrics, and Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:10866-71. 1998
    ..Expression of viral cytokines under control of the KSHV/Rta gene is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated diseases...
  95. ncbi Conditional expression of vaccinia virus genes in mammalian cell lines expressing the tetracycline repressor
    Marika Hedengren-Olcott
    Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, 220 Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    J Virol Methods 120:9-12. 2004
  96. pmc A self-excisable infectious bacterial artificial chromosome clone of varicella-zoster virus allows analysis of the essential tegument protein encoded by ORF9
    B Karsten Tischer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Virol 81:13200-8. 2007
    ..The essential nature of ORF9 for VZV replication was ultimately confirmed by restoration of the growth of the ORF9-deficient mutant virus using trans-complementation via baculovirus-mediated gene transfer...
  97. pmc Identification of cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro is greatly enhanced by the use of recombinant virus lacking the US2 to US11 region or modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing individual viral genes
    Naeem Khan
    CR UK Institute for Cancer Studies, Vincent Dr, Edgbaston, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TA, United Kingdom
    J Virol 79:2869-79. 2005
  98. pmc Three-dimensional localization of pORF65 in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus capsid
    Pierrette Lo
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Virol 77:4291-7. 2003
    ..The location of SCP at the outermost regions of the capsid suggests a possible role in mediating capsid interactions with the tegument and cytoskeletal proteins during infection...
  99. pmc Development of real-time NASBA assays with molecular beacon detection to quantify mRNA coding for HHV-8 lytic and latent genes
    Abeltje M Polstra
    Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    BMC Infect Dis 2:18. 2002
    ..To examine the expression of HHV-8 in PBMC, four HHV-8 mRNA specific NASBA assays were developed..
  100. ncbi Epstein-Barr virus: exploiting the immune system
    D A Thorley-Lawson
    Department of Pathology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 1:75-82. 2001
  101. ncbi Regulation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 gene expression by Sp1 and Sp3 interaction with TRE-1 repeat III
    Jing Yao
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
    DNA Cell Biol 25:262-76. 2006
    ..These results suggest that both Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factor binding to TRE-1 repeat III participate in regulation of HTLV-1 viral gene expression...

Research Grants71

    Enrique A Mesri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The identification of human and viral genes that are the cause of KS carcinogenesis is important because it could lead to the identification of new ..
  2. Regulation of KSHV Latency
    Paul M Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Latent infection is characterized by the transcription of several viral genes associated with viral genome stability and host-cell survival...
  3. Lung and bone marrow crosstalk during a respiratory infection
    CAROLINA B LOPEZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the cells in the BM display an "interferon signature" which involves the expression of a number of anti-viral genes. These adaptations of BM cells occur in the absence of virus infection in the BM or detectable virus in the ..
  4. Pathogenesis of Subtype IE Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus
    ALISON PAIGE ADAMS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using a VEEV isolate from a recent outbreak in Mexico, the purpose of the proposed study is identify viral genes that are responsible for efficient replication and neurovirulence in horses, which is critically important for ..
  5. Coronavirus modulation of cellular microRNAs in the liver: role in hepatitis
    Sonia Navas-Martin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..miRNAs have been found in some viruses and miRNAs from the host cell may play a role in regulating viral genes and even determine viral tropism...
  6. Regulation and Function of the HCMV pp71 Tegument Protein
    Julie Kerry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This protein localizes to the nucleus immediately upon infection and enhances the activation of viral genes necessary to successfully establish an active infection...
  7. Chicago Community-Acquired Pneumonia Consortium
    Richard G Wunderink; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..techniques, such as urinary antigen testing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of bacterial and viral genes, have not only made documentation of etiology more accurate but will allow diagnosis of a greater proportion of ..
  8. Development of a novel vaccine against congenital cytomegalovirus infection
    Christopher S Morello; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The novel aspects of our proposed vaccine are both the choice of the highly conserved essential viral genes for generating T lymphocyte responses in the priming step as well as the use of a whole, killed virus in the ..
  9. The Evolutionary and Biological Bases of Host Switching in Viruses
    Colin R Parrish; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of EIV in horses altered the likelihood of successful cross-species transmission to dogs, and define the viral genes that influence host tropism for dogs, particularly the evolutionary connections between the host sialic acid ..
  10. LANA and Cellular Gene Expression
    ROLF F RENNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..contribution to the epigenetic state of the viral genome and transcriptional regulation of both host and viral genes during the establishment of latency...
  11. Picornavirus-host Cell Interactions and Disease
    Raymond Roos; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have now prepared a transgenic mouse (called DAL/Cre) that inducibly expresses DA L (and no other viral genes) in myelin-synthesizing cells...
  12. Pathogenesis of murine coronavirus induced hepatitis
    Susan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..differs during A59 versus JHM infection and that the development of hepatitis requires the function of multiple viral genes, including ns2, and the ability to antagonize type I IFN signaling in macrophages...
  13. Mechanisms of blood-brain barrier disruption by an encephalitic virus
    Katherine R Spindler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Little is known about the mechanisms by which viral infections disrupt the BBB, including the specific viral genes involved and how viruses manipulate host functions that contribute to this important protective barrier...
  14. Mechanisms of Gene Regulation by EBV EBNA-1 Protein
    Jeffery T Sample; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..gene expression during establishment of persistent infection that ultimately restricts expression to viral genes critical for maintenance of persistence, while precluding those with acute transforming properties and/or which ..
  15. Microenvironmental changes on NK cell responses to primary HSV-1
    Andrew J Tarr; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Lastly, viral glycoproteins (gB, gH and gG) and viral genes indicative of the stage of replication (i.e...
  16. Yeast Based Assays for Chemical Screens Against SARS-CoV Targets
    DANIEL A contact ENGEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a rational, high throughput yeast-based screen that identifies small molecule inhibitors that target novel viral genes. The impact is high because our studies will develop a new high throughput paradigm to identify novel ..
  17. Dissecting the Role of HIV-1 Tat &Chemokine Axis in Subtype-Specificity of HAD
    Vinayaka R Prasad; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The current application provides evidence that such differences can be reproduced in small, laboratory animals and seeks to delineate the viral genes responsible for HAD.
  18. Role of HCV Sequence Variation in Pathology
    John E Tavis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, variant viral genes from slow and rapid progressors in which genetic variation correlates with disease progression will be cloned ..
    Susan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The outcome of MHV infection is determined by a combination of viral genes and host cell response...
  20. Viral Immunomodulation and Rational CMV Vaccine Design
    Mark R Schleiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An approach to generate an immunogenic, yet safe live vaccine is the deletion of viral genes that subvert host defense mechanisms to infection...
  21. Chromatin and Coactivators in HSV-1 gene regulation
    STEVEN TRIEZENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2009 HSV-1 gene regulation, including the recruitment and activity of chromatin-modifying coactivator proteins on viral genes during infection...
  22. EBNA1 Functions Required in Burkitt's Lymphomas and Other Immortalized B-Cells
    AMBER TERESA WASHINGTON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Very few viral genes are expressed in these malignancies and diseases, and infectious virus is almost never released...
  23. Chicago Community-Acquired Pneumonia Consortium II
    Richard G Wunderink; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..techniques, such as urinary antigen testing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of bacterial and viral genes, have not only made documentation of etiology more accurate than culture-based methods but define etiology in a ..
  24. Virus-Cell Interaction Affecting HSV Gene Expression
    Neal A DeLuca; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The ~80 viral genes are expressed in an ordered cascade of three general classes;immediate early (IE), early (E) and late (L) genes...
  25. Genetic determinants of HSV-1 virulence in neurons
    Moriah L Szpara; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However the ability to map these phenotypic differences to specific viral genes has been limited by the lack of comparative genomic information about this virus - only one wild type HSV-1 ..
  26. Generation of hESC reporter lines using improved gene targeting technology
    TOBIAS DIETMAR RAABE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will also allow repair of human genetic defects in hESC without introducing potentially harmful genes, such as viral genes. Specific Aim 1: Develop methods required for gene targeting in hESCs...
    GARY ALAN BREWER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These processes include cellular proliferation, inflammatory responses, transcription of cellular and viral genes, and maintenance of both telomeres and epigenetic integrity of the cell...
  28. Fecal Phage: Exposing Unknown in the Dark Matter of the Human Gut
    Forest Rohwer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Viral genes evolve rapidly, making homology- based searches for sequence function difficult...
  29. Effect of Iron Chelators on HIV-1 transcription
    ZUFAN KEREGO DEBEBE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Transcription of HIV-1 viral genes is uniquely dependent on both viral proteins and host cell factors...
    Herbert W Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition we have set up molecular methods that will allow us to map viral genes responsible for important biological phenotypes...
  31. K-Rta as a Novel SUMO and Epigenetic Regulator
    Yoshihiro Izumiya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This virus exhibits a latent phase in infected cells in which only a few viral genes are expressed...
  32. HSV-1 LAT miRNAs: Neurovirulence, reactivation, mechanism
    Steven L Wechsler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recently, 8 "LAT" microRNAs (miRNAs) were reported. Most overlap important viral genes known to affect neurovirulence and/or reactivation...
  33. Influenza Therapeutics Using siRNA Nanoparticle Technology
    David M Evans; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..SiRNAs utilize an endogenous mechanism in mammalian cells to induce sequence and target-specific silencing of viral genes and prevent viral replication with a reduction in viral load that can have therapeutic benefits...
  34. HCV genetic variation and hepatocellular carcinoma
    John E Tavis; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Viral genes that may induce direct oncogenic stimuli include core, NS3, and NS5A, and inflammation could be modulated by ..
  35. Modifications of host RNA polymerase during bacteriophage development
    KONSTANTIN V SEVERINOV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..enzyme of bacterial host -- RNA polymerase (RNAP) -- stops expressing host genes and starts expressing viral genes;this change is often caused by the binding of phage proteins to host RNAP...
  36. The role of CD8+ T cells in response to EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis
    Oludare A Odumade; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The link between cancer and Epstein Barr viral genes has been well studied but yet little is known about what factors predispose to the development of IM...
  37. The Pathogenesis of Steatosis in Hepatitis C Genotype 3 Infection
    Ravi Jhaveri; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In order to test the hypotheses listed above, I will use a combination of RT-PCR amplification of viral genes, in vitro expression, light and fluoresecent microscopy, recomibinant adenovirus infections in mice and flow ..
  38. Do the B2 and Alu ncRNAs Repress Host Cell mRNA Transcription During HSV-1 Infect
    James Goodrich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between HSV-1 infection, SINE ncRNA transcription and function, host cell transcription, and transcription of viral genes, which will be the focus of a future R01 grant application...
    Bernard Roizman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..interval are to (i) define role of ICPO in blocking the attempt by the host cell to silence the expression of viral genes, (ii)define the role of anti silencing activity of ICPO in establishment of latency, reactivation, and ..
  40. Overcoming therapeutic resistance of gliomas
    Khalid A Shah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Mutations of specific viral genes of oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV)-1 have been shown to confer selectivity to cancer cells, which has enabled translational studies in humans...
  41. Phosphorylation of CDK9 by CDK2 in HIV-1 replication
    Denitra Breuer; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Transcription of HIV-1 viral genes is uniquely dependent on the interaction of the viral HIV-1 Tat protein with host cell factors...
  42. Co-infection of mice with MHV68 and rodent Plasmodium species
    Samuel H Speck; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1. Identify viral genes contributing to disease severity;Aim 2.2...
  43. Targeted delivery of anti HIV sRNAs/shRNAs to T cells
    Premlata Shankar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have shown that siRNAs targeting cellular and viral genes involved in HIV life cycle can dramatically suppress virus replication in human cell lines and primary cells...
  44. KSHV RTA: more than viral replication
    Jae U Jung; Fiscal Year: 2013 restricted viral gene expression, reactivation induces the lytic replication program and the expression of viral genes in a defined sequential and temporal order...
    STEPHEN PAINE GOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To determine the role of these proteins in virus replication, mutations in the viral genes will be identified that specifically abrogate the interaction with the host protein...
  46. Rescuing the anti-HIV activity of APOBEC3G with small-molecule chaperons
    Sergey N Savinov; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..viral infections, human cells have developed a sophisticated defense mechanism involving modifications of viral genes, lethal to virus replication...
  47. Biosynthesis of Adenovirus Early RNA's
    Arnold J Berk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the mechanism of e1a repression of host cell genes involved in anti-viral responses, and e1a activation of viral genes and host cell genes involved in cellular proliferation...
    David A Leib; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The following hypotheses will be tested: [unreadable] The balance of IFN-driven innate immunity, and viral genes that dampen the IFN response determines the outcome of HSV corneal infection...
  49. A Genetic Analysis of Pneumotropism and Pneumovirulence in an MHV-1 Model of Sars
    Julian L Leibowitz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The goal of this proposal is to delineate the viral genes that lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) utilizing a novel rodent model of SARS. SARS infected over 8,000 persons globally with over 700 deaths...
    Stephen A Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The current leading model for how ICP27 turns on viral genes is that it functions as a mRNA export factor that transports intronless viral transcripts to the cytoplasm...
    NANCY JOAN RAAB-TRAUB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have previously identified the viral genes that are expressed in NPC and assessed the molecular properties of these proteins on cellular signaling and ..
  52. HIV-1 Drug Resistance in Different Subtypes
    ..barrier to successful long term treatment is the emergence of drug resistance, caused by mutations selected in viral genes, which are both a cause and a consequence of ART failure...
  53. Characterization of the Molecular Mechanism of MVA-induced NF-kappaB Activation
    Stefani Martin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Deletion mutant virus(es) lacking the gene(s) of interest will be constructed to confirm the identity of the viral genes involved in activating NF-?B during MVA infection...
  54. Oral Biomarkers for HPV-related Head and Neck Cancer
    SARA ISABEL PAI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since viral integration can lead to cellular transformation, the detection of integrated, or methylated, viral genes in ORS can be a useful biomarker to diagnose early stage cancers and/or to identify HPV-exposed individuals at ..
  55. KSHV Epigenetic Regulation
    Jae U Jung; Fiscal Year: 2013 restricted viral gene expression, reactivation induces the lytic replication program and the expression of viral genes in a defined sequential and temporal order...
  56. KSHV Genome Replication during Primary Infection
    Subhash C Verma; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The preliminary data of SMARD and next generation sequencing strongly suggests that viral genes are synthesized during primary infection which accumulate at viral origins most likely with the help of PAN RNA ..
  57. Role of B Cells in Murine Gammaherpesvirus-68 Latency
    Samuel H Speck; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b. Characterize viral gene expression in MHV68 infected FLC-derived B cell lines;1.c. Determine what viral genes are essential for FLC-derived B cell immortalization;and 1.d...
  58. Enhanced baculovirus vectors with higher titers and increased genome stability
    Angelika Fath-Goodin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DIP), which are linked to a sharp decrease in target gene expression due to deletion of the target gene and/or viral genes needed for its expression. One factor that promotes DIP formation is transposition into fp25k...
  59. Epstein-Barr Virus: A persistent vaccine vector
    FREDERICK C WANG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The LCV naturally infecting rhesus macaques (rhLCV) has been fully sequenced and has an identical repertoire of viral genes as EBV...
  60. Viral determinants of Cytomegalovirus related hearing loss
    Shannon A Ross; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Initially, the biological behavior of viruses isolated from infants with and without hearing loss and specific viral genes responsible for this behavior will be characterized...
  61. Improving Vaccine Safety and Efficacy to Control Primary HSV-1 Infections
    LYNDA A contact MORRISON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The viral genes we have chosen to inactivate normally allow HSV-1 to replicate and/or evade the immune response of the host;..
  62. Transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in mammals
    Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..receptor binding is not sufficient for respiratory droplet transmission among ferrets, and that other viral genes also contribute to transmissibility...
  63. Transduction of the Mouse Auditory System with AAV
    DIANA LURIE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Unfortunately, viral vectors (with the exception of AAV) introduce viral genes into the transduced cells, targeting them for destruction by the immune system and limiting the duration of ..
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We have also shown that HLP has a distinct pattern of viral expression with concurrent expression of viral genes expressed in permissive...
    Robert Ricciardi; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Infection of HIV is dependent upon the transactivator tat protein which increases expression of viral genes transcribed from the long terminal repeat (LTR) by interacting with cis-responsive sequences (TAR) present in ..
    DAVID SMOTKIN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..will be studied in fresh tumor and wart tissues, in tumor cell lines, and in vector systems designed to express viral genes after transfection into cultured cells. It is proposed that: 1...
    Stephen Higgs; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This knowledge may facilitate antiviral strategy development. Central Hypothesis: viral genes determine the interactions of CHIKV and midgut cell surface proteins that promote transmission of the epidemic ..
  68. Hemophilia A: Intrathymic Delivery for Tolerance and Longterm Expression of FVIII
    William Raschke; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Additional benefits are the viral particle's low toxicity, low immunogenicity and the lack of any viral genes after integration into the host genome...
  69. Genetic Reconstitution for Phenylketonuria
    Savio Woo; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..high level transgene expression in the liver, recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors deleted of all viral genes will be used for in vivo delivery of the murine PAH ene to the livers of the PAH-deficient Pah anu2 mice, an ..
    Earl Sawai; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) provides incisive opportunities to analyze the in vivo function of viral genes for induction of simian AIDS (SAIDS)...
    Stephen Rice; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) results in dramatic alterations to the host cell nucleus, so that viral genes are expressed at high levels while cellular genes are nearly completely suppressed...