Genomes and Genes
translational peptide chain initiation
Summary: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
Publications212 found, 100 shown here
- eIF3: a versatile scaffold for translation initiation complexesAlan G Hinnebusch
Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Trends Biochem Sci 31:553-62. 2006..This location of eIF3 seems ideally suited for its other proposed regulatory functions, including reinitiating translation on polycistronic mRNAs and acting as a receptor for protein kinases that control protein synthesis...
- Translation initiation with 70S ribosomes: an alternative pathway for leaderless mRNAsIsabella Moll
Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Genetics, University Department at the Vienna Biocenter, Dr Bohrgasse 9 4, 1030 Vienna, Austria
Nucleic Acids Res 32:3354-63. 2004....
- Initiation of protein synthesis in bacteriaBrian Søgaard Laursen
Department of Molecular Biology, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69:101-23. 2005..The future challenge is to obtain atomic-resolution structures of complete initiation complexes in order to understand the mechanism of translation initiation in molecular detail...
- Unfolding of mRNA secondary structure by the bacterial translation initiation complexSean M Studer
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
Mol Cell 22:105-15. 2006..We show that unfolding of structured mRNAs requires a SD sequence, the start codon, fMet-tRNA(fMet), and the GTP bound form of initiation factor 2 bound to the 30S subunit...
- Interaction of the eIF4G initiation factor with the aphthovirus IRES is essential for internal translation initiation in vivoS López de Quinto
Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC UAM, Madrid, Spain
RNA 6:1380-92. 2000..The strong correlation found between eIF4G-RNA interaction and IRES activity in transfected cells suggests that eIF4G acts as a linker to recruit the translational machinery in IRES-dependent initiation...
- Structure of tandem RNA recognition motifs from polypyrimidine tract binding protein reveals novel features of the RRM foldM R Conte
Department of Biochemistry, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Exhibition Road, London, UK
EMBO J 19:3132-41. 2000..Mutational analyses show that both RRM-3 and RRM-4 contribute to RNA binding specificity and that, despite its unusual sequence, PTB binds RNA in a manner akin to that of other RRM proteins...
- A multifactor complex of eukaryotic initiation factors, eIF1, eIF2, eIF3, eIF5, and initiator tRNA(Met) is an important translation initiation intermediate in vivoK Asano
Laboratory of Eukaryotic Gene Regulation, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Genes Dev 14:2534-46. 2000..We propose that the multifactor complex is an important intermediate in translation initiation in vivo...
- 5'-untranslated regions with multiple upstream AUG codons can support low-level translation via leaky scanning and reinitiationXue Qing Wang
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Institute for Molecular Bioscience and The Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
Nucleic Acids Res 32:1382-91. 2004..This study shows that for mRNAs containing multiple uORFs/uAUGs, ribosome reinitiation and leaky scanning are efficient mechanisms for initiation at their main AUGs...
- Regulated translation initiation controls stress-induced gene expression in mammalian cellsH P Harding
Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine The Department of Medicine, Kaplan Cancer Center New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
Mol Cell 6:1099-108. 2000..Mammalian cells thus utilize an ancient pathway to regulate gene expression in response to diverse stress signals...
- Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly(A) binding protein from eIF4FM Piron
Laboratoire de Virologie et Immunologie Moleculaires INRA, CRJJ, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex, France
EMBO J 17:5811-21. 1998..These results also suggest that NSP3A, by taking the place of PABP on eIF4GI, is responsible for the shut-off of cellular protein synthesis...
- Selective stimulation of translation of leaderless mRNA by initiation factor 2: evolutionary implications for translationS Grill
Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Vienna Biocenter, University of Vienna, Dr Bohrgasse 9, 1030 Vienna, Austria
EMBO J 19:4101-10. 2000....
- A second look at cellular mRNA sequences said to function as internal ribosome entry sitesMarilyn Kozak
Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 33:6593-602. 2005..The practice of calling even very weak results 'positive' is one of the problems discussed herein. The extremely low efficiency of putative IRESs is inconsistent with their postulated biological roles.'..
- In vitro analysis of the interaction between the small RNA SR1 and its primary target ahrC mRNANadja Heidrich
AG Bakteriengenetik, Friedrich Schiller Universitat Jena, Philosophenweg 12, Jena D 07743, Germany
Nucleic Acids Res 35:4331-46. 2007..The intracellular concentrations of SR1 were calculated under different growth conditions...
- The pioneer translation initiation complex is functionally distinct from but structurally overlaps with the steady-state translation initiation complexShang Yi Chiu
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
Genes Dev 18:745-54. 2004..Polysome profiles indicate that CBP80-bound mRNAs are translated less efficiently than their eIF4E-bound counterparts...
- IRES interaction with translation initiation factors: functional characterization of novel RNA contacts with eIF3, eIF4B, and eIF4GIIS López de Quinto
Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
RNA 7:1213-26. 2001....
- Analysis of natural variants of the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site reveals that primary sequence plays a key role in cap-independent translationMaría Inés Barría
Laboratorio de Virologia Molecular, Centro de Investigaciones Medicas, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Nucleic Acids Res 37:957-71. 2009..These data strongly suggest that the primary sequence of subdomain IIId plays a key role in HCV IRES-mediated translation...
- Individual overexpression of five subunits of human translation initiation factor eIF3 promotes malignant transformation of immortal fibroblast cellsLili Zhang
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
J Biol Chem 282:5790-800. 2007..Cancer cells appear to require an aberrantly activated translational state to survive, suggesting that the initiation factors may be promising therapeutic targets for treating cancer...
- Pushing the limits of the scanning mechanism for initiation of translationMarilyn Kozak
Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Gene 299:1-34. 2002..The accumulated evidence reveals how the scanning mechanism dictates the pattern of transcription--forcing production of monocistronic mRNAs--and the pattern of translation of eukaryotic cellular and viral genes...
- Differential factor requirement to assemble translation initiation complexes at the alternative start codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNADmitri E Andreev
Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
RNA 13:1366-74. 2007..The kinetic toeprint assay also shows that cap-dependent assembly of the 48S complex in vitro occurs faster than the FMDV IRES-mediated complex assembly...
- Point mutations close to the AUG initiator codon affect the efficiency of translation of rat preproinsulin in vivoM Kozak
Nature 308:241-6. 1984..Maximum synthesis of preproinsulin occurred when a purine, preferably adenosine, was located three nucleotides upstream from the initiator codon. Adenosine is found most frequently in that position in natural mRNAs...
- On the functions of the h subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 in late stages of translation initiationByung Hoon Kim
Department of Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 0840, USA
Genome Biol 8:R60. 2007..How individual subunits of eIF3 contribute to the translation of specific mRNAs remains poorly understood, however. This is true in particular for those subunits that are not conserved in budding yeast, such as eIF3h...
- The roles of initiation factor 2 and guanosine triphosphate in initiation of protein synthesisAyman Antoun
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, BMC, Uppsala University, Box 596, S 75 124 Uppsala, Sweden
EMBO J 22:5593-601. 2003..Our data, indicating that eIF5B and IF2 have similar functions, are used to rationalize the phenotypes of GTPase-deficient mutants of eIF5B and IF2...
- Translation of the first upstream ORF in the hepatitis B virus pregenomic RNA modulates translation at the core and polymerase initiation codonsAugustine Chen
Biochemistry Department, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand
Nucleic Acids Res 33:1169-81. 2005..Our results indicate that the C0 ORF is a determinant in balancing the synthesis of the core and polymerase proteins...
- Interaction of mitochondrial initiation factor 2 with mitochondrial fMet-tRNAAngela C Spencer
Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3290, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 32:5464-70. 2004..Finally, the region of IF-2(mt) responsible for the interaction with fMet-tRNA was mapped to the C2 sub-domain of domain VI of this factor...
- A sequence required for -1 ribosomal frameshifting located four kilobases downstream of the frameshift siteC P Paul
Plant Pathology Department, Iowa State University, Ames 50011, USA
J Mol Biol 310:987-99. 2001..Most importantly, the remarkably long-distance interaction reported here suggests the presence of a novel structure that can facilitate ribosomal frameshifting...
- Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 induce cell cycle progression through the synthesis of c-Myc protein by internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in human factor-dependenNorihiko Kobayashi
Department of Hematology, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, 1 21 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8655, Japan
Blood 102:3186-95. 2003..Results indicate that hematopoietic growth factors induce cell cycle progression via IRES-mediated translation of c-myc though the PI3K pathway in human factor-dependent leukemic cells...
- Evidence for in vivo ribosome recycling, the fourth step in protein biosynthesisL Janosi
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
EMBO J 17:1141-51. 1998..RRF inactivation was bacteriostatic in the growing phase and bactericidal during the transition between the stationary and growing phase, confirming the essential nature of the fourth step of protein synthesis in vivo...
- Site-directed mutagenesis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial translation initiation codonL S Folley
Section of Genetics and Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 2703
Genetics 129:659-68. 1991..We conclude that, while AUG is an important component of the COX3 translation initiation site, the site probably is also specified by other sequence or structural features...
- The hepatitis C virus 3'-untranslated region or a poly(A) tract promote efficient translation subsequent to the initiation phaseShelton S Bradrick
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 34:1293-303. 2006..Analysis of post-initiation events revealed that the 3' poly(A) tract and HCV 3'-UTR improve translation efficiency by enabling termination and possibly ribosome recycling for successive rounds of translation...
- Re-programming of translation following cell stress allows IRES-mediated translation to predominateKeith A Spriggs
School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Biol Cell 100:27-38. 2008..Importantly, the genes identified in each of these studies do not show a significant amount of overlap, suggesting that 10-15% of all mRNAs have the capability for their initiation to occur via alternative mechanism(s)...
- A non-AUG translational initiation in c-myc exon 1 generates an N-terminally distinct protein whose synthesis is disrupted in Burkitt's lymphomasS R Hann
Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104
Cell 52:185-95. 1988..In Burkitt's lymphomas, the removal or specific mutation of exon 1 in c-myc translocations correlates with suppression of synthesis of the larger protein, and thus may contribute to the oncogenic activation of c-myc...
- Translational efficiency of a non-AUG initiation codon is significantly affected by its sequence context in yeastShun Jia Chen
Department of Life Science, National Central University, Jung li, Taiwan 32001
J Biol Chem 283:3173-80. 2008..these results suggest that sequence context is more important for translation initiation in yeast than previously appreciated...
- Diversity of preferred nucleotide sequences around the translation initiation codon in eukaryote genomesSo Nakagawa
Department of Systems Biology, School of Biomedical Science, Department of Bioinformatics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima, Tokyo, Japan
Nucleic Acids Res 36:861-71. 2008....
- Structure and function of HCV IRES domainsPeter J Lukavsky
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, MRC, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
Virus Res 139:166-71. 2009....
- Assessing IRES activity in the HIF-1alpha and other cellular 5' UTRsAndrew G Bert
Division of Human Immunology, Hanson Institute, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science IMVS, Adelaide, SA, Australia
RNA 12:1074-83. 2006..The translation of transfected monocistronic RNAs containing these cellular UTRs was greatly enhanced by the presence of a 5' cap, raising questions as to the strength or mechanism of IRES-mediated translation in these assays...
- Divergent tRNA-like element supports initiation, elongation, and termination of protein biosynthesisEric Jan
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15410-5. 2003..Thus, this P-site-occupying IRES directs the assembly of 80S ribosomes, sets the translational reading frame, and mimics the functions of both Met-tRNAi and peptidyl tRNA to support elongation and termination...
- STAB-SD: a Shine-Dalgarno sequence in the 5' untranslated region is a determinant of mRNA stabilityH Agaisse
Unité de Biochimie Microbienne, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique URA 1300, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
Mol Microbiol 20:633-43. 1996..thuringiensis and may therefore be a widespread determinant of mRNA stability...
- Efficient translation initiation directed by the 900-nucleotide-long and GC-rich 5' untranslated region of the human retrotransposon LINE-1 mRNA is strictly cap dependent rather than internal ribosome entry site mediatedSergey E Dmitriev
A N Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Bldg A, Moscow 119992, Russia
Mol Cell Biol 27:4685-97. 2007..Our data also demonstrate that the ORF2 translation initiation is not directed by internal initiation, either. It is very inefficient and presumably based on a reinitiation event...
- Divergent picornavirus IRES elementsGraham J Belsham
National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lindholm, DK 4771 Kalvehave, Denmark
Virus Res 139:183-92. 2009..The selection of the initiation codon by these distinct IRES elements is also discussed...
- Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein enhances the internal ribosomal entry site-dependent translation of p27Kip1 mRNA and modulates transition from G1 to S phaseSungchan Cho
PBC, Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja Dong, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790 784, South Korea
Mol Cell Biol 25:1283-97. 2005..Together, these data suggest that PTB modulates cell cycle and differentiation, at least in part, by enhancing the IRES activity of p27(Kip1) mRNA...
- Involvement of the aphthovirus RNA region located between the two functional AUGs in start codon selectionS López de Quinto
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Spain
Virology 255:324-36. 1999..Thus our results indicate that the region located in the aphthovirus RNA between functional AUGs is involved in start codon recognition, strongly favoring selection of the second start AUG as the main initiator codon...
- Ribosomal initiation complexes probed by toeprinting and effect of trans-acting translational regulators in bacteriaPierre Fechter
Universite de Strasbourg, F 67084, Strasbourg, France
Methods Mol Biol 540:247-63. 2009..Protocols to prepare the ribosome and the subunits are also given for Thermus thermophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli...
- Contribution of 16S rRNA nucleotides forming the 30S subunit A and P sites to translation in Escherichia coliNimo M Abdi
Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA
RNA 11:1624-32. 2005..In addition, we show that G1338A suppresses phenotypes conferred by m(2)G966A and several multiple P-site substitutions, suggesting that adenine at position 1338 can stabilize tRNA interaction in the P site...
- Altered interactions between stem-loop IV within the 5' noncoding region of coxsackievirus RNA and poly(rC) binding protein 2: effects on IRES-mediated translation and viral infectivityPolen Sean
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Virology 389:45-58. 2009....
- Conserved bipartite motifs in yeast eIF5 and eIF2Bepsilon, GTPase-activating and GDP-GTP exchange factors in translation initiation, mediate binding to their common substrate eIF2K Asano
Laboratory of Eukaryotic Gene Regulation, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
EMBO J 18:1673-88. 1999..Thus, the bipartite motif in eIF5 appears to be multifunctional, stimulating its recruitment to the 40S pre-initiation complex through interaction with eIF3 in addition to binding of its substrate eIF2...
- Suppression of ribosomal reinitiation at upstream open reading frames in amino acid-starved cells forms the basis for GCN4 translational controlJ P Abastado
Section on Molecular Genetics of Lower Eukaryotes, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
Mol Cell Biol 11:486-96. 1991..Under nonstarvation conditions, ribosomes would recover more rapidly from uORF1 translation, causing them all to reinitiate at uORF4 rather than at GCN4...
- IGF2BP1 enhances HCV IRES-mediated translation initiation via the 3'UTRSusan Weinlich
Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, 06120 Halle Saale, Germany
RNA 15:1528-42. 2009..Our data suggest that IGF2BP1, by binding to the HCV 5'UTR and/or HCV 3'UTR, recruits eIF3 and enhances HCV IRES-mediated translation...
- UNR translation can be driven by an IRES element that is negatively regulated by polypyrimidine tract binding proteinSigrid Cornelis
Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB Ghent University, Unit of Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation B 9052 Gent Zwijnaarde, Belgium
Nucleic Acids Res 33:3095-108. 2005..In conclusion, our results demonstrate that translation of the ITAF Unr can itself be regulated by an IRES that is downregulated by PTB...
- A quantitative kinetic scheme for 70 S translation initiation complex formationChristina Grigoriadou
Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Mol Biol 373:562-72. 2007..GDPCP does not affect stable 70 S formation, but perturbs fMet-tRNA(fMet) positioning in the P-site. In contrast, thiostrepton severely retards stable 70 S formation, but allows normal binding of fMet-tRNA(fMet)(prf20) to the P-site...
- Alternative translation start sites and hidden coding potential of eukaryotic mRNAsAlex V Kochetov
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russia
Bioessays 30:683-91. 2008..The functional role of alternative translation and its contribution to eukaryotic proteome complexity are discussed...
- Multiple upstream AUG codons mediate translational control of GCN4P P Mueller
Cell 45:201-7. 1986..The interaction between the upstream AUG codons is modulated by the trans-acting factors GCN2 and GCD1 in response to amino acid availability...
- Ribosomal scanning on the highly structured insulin-like growth factor II-leader 1Alike W van der Velden
Department of Developmental Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 34:286-97. 2002..As scanning seems unlikely, and internal entry and shunting were shown not to occur, we discuss a modified scanning mechanism for architecturally complex 5'UTRs...
- Lentiviral RNAs can use different mechanisms for translation initiationEmiliano P Ricci
Unité de Virologie Humaine, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, IFR 128, Lyon, F 69364, France
Biochem Soc Trans 36:690-3. 2008..Our results show that HIV-1 is able to drive the synthesis of the Gag polyprotein both by a classical cap-dependent mechanism and an IRES, whereas HIV-2 and SIV appear to use exclusively an IRES mechanism...
- Kinetic checkpoint at a late step in translation initiationPohl Milon
Department of Biology MCA, Laboratory of Genetics, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
Mol Cell 30:712-20. 2008....
- Anticodon sequence mutants of Escherichia coli initiator tRNA: effects of overproduction of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase, and initiation factor 2 on activity in initiationChristine Mayer
Department of Biology, 68 671 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Biochemistry 42:4787-99. 2003..Other results suggest that the C1xA72 base pair mismatch, unique to eubacterial and organellar initiator tRNAs, may also be important for the binding of fAA-tRNA to IF2...
- Novel Upf2p orthologues suggest a functional link between translation initiation and nonsense surveillance complexesJ T Mendell
Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Mol Cell Biol 20:8944-57. 2000..Based on these findings, a novel model in which Upf2p and rent2 effects decreased translation and accelerated decay of nonsense transcripts through competitive interactions with eIF4G-binding partners is proposed...
- The poly(A) binding protein is required for poly(A) shortening and 60S ribosomal subunit-dependent translation initiationA B Sachs
Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University Medical Center, California 94305
Cell 58:857-67. 1989..These data suggest that the 60S subunit mediates the PAB requirement of translation initiation, thereby ensuring that only intact poly(A)+ mRNA will be translated efficiently in vivo...
- Ribosomal protein S15 from Escherichia coli modulates its own translation by trapping the ribosome on the mRNA initiation loading siteC Philippe
Unité Propre de Recherche 9002 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Strasbourg, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:4394-8. 1993..Our results indicate that S15 prevents the formation of a functional ternary 30S-mRNA-tRNA(fMet) complex, the ribosome being trapped in a preternary 30S-mRNA-tRNA(fMet) complex...
- The ribosome filter hypothesisVincent P Mauro
Department of Neurobiology, The Scripps Research Institute and The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:12031-6. 2002..We propose that ribosomal filters may be important in cell differentiation and describe experimental tests for the filter hypothesis...
- Downstream secondary structure facilitates recognition of initiator codons by eukaryotic ribosomesM Kozak
Department of Biochemistry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway 08854
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:8301-5. 1990..This may be relevant to recent reports of adventitious upstream initiation events at non-AUG codons in some vertebrate mRNAs that have structure-prone, G + C-rich leader sequences...
- Identification of an essential region for internal initiation of translation in the aphthovirus internal ribosome entry site and implications for viral evolutionE Martinez-Salas
Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
J Virol 70:992-8. 1996..The results indicate a critical participation of the base of domain 3 in the activity of the aphthovirus IRES, with a strong effect of secondary or higher-order structures and minor effects of primary structure...
- Mutations in translation initiation factors lead to increased rates of deadenylation and decapping of mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeD C Schwartz
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
Mol Cell Biol 19:5247-56. 1999..This view also implies that some cis-acting sequences that modulate mRNA decay rate do so by affecting the translation status of the transcript...
- Ribosomal position and contacts of mRNA in eukaryotic translation initiation complexesAndrey V Pisarev
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
EMBO J 27:1609-21. 2008....
- Reduced but accurate translation from a mutant AUA initiation codon in the mitochondrial COX2 mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeJ J Mulero
Section of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 2703
Mol Gen Genet 242:383-90. 1994....
- Recent mechanistic insights into eukaryotic ribosomesMarina V Rodnina
Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Physical Biochemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
Curr Opin Cell Biol 21:435-43. 2009..Here, we summarize recent progress in deciphering molecular mechanisms of eukaryotic translation. Comparisons with prokaryotic translation are included, emphasizing emerging patterns of common design...
- mTOR and S6K1 mediate assembly of the translation preinitiation complex through dynamic protein interchange and ordered phosphorylation eventsMarina K Holz
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Cell 123:569-80. 2005..Thus, the eIF3 preinitiation complex acts as a scaffold to coordinate a dynamic sequence of events in response to stimuli that promote efficient protein synthesis...
- Crystal structure of an RNA tertiary domain essential to HCV IRES-mediated translation initiationJeffrey S Kieft
1 Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8114 USA 2 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8114 USA
Nat Struct Biol 9:370-4. 2002..This distorted stack probably serves as an important recognition surface for the translational machinery...
- Evidence of reciprocal tertiary interactions between conserved motifs involved in organizing RNA structure essential for internal initiation of translationOlga Fernandez-Miragall
Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC UAM, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
RNA 12:223-34. 2006..Thus, we propose that the central domain of the FMDV IRES contains a structural conformation essential for IRES activity stabilized by a tertiary contact involving residues in the GNRA tetraloop and motif A conserved sequences...
- The importance of inter- and intramolecular base pairing for translation reinitiation on a eukaryotic bicistronic mRNAChristine Luttermann
Institut fur Immunologie, Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Tubingen, Germany
Genes Dev 23:331-44. 2009..Analysis of the essential elements of the TURBS led to a better understanding of the requirements for translation termination/reinitiation in eukaryotes...
- Structured mRNAs regulate translation initiation by binding to the platform of the ribosomeStefano Marzi
IGBMC Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Structural Biology and Genomics, Illkirch, F 67404 France
Cell 130:1019-31. 2007..Different types of mRNA structures may be accommodated during translation preinitiation and regulate gene expression by transiently stalling the ribosome...
- Specific functional interactions of nucleotides at key -3 and +4 positions flanking the initiation codon with components of the mammalian 48S translation initiation complexAndrey V Pisarev
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA
Genes Dev 20:624-36. 2006....
- An eIF5/eIF2 complex antagonizes guanine nucleotide exchange by eIF2B during translation initiationChingakham Ranjit Singh
Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology Program, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 66506, USA
EMBO J 25:4537-46. 2006..We propose that the eIF2/eIF5 complex represents a cytoplasmic reservoir for eIF2 that antagonizes eIF2B-promoted guanine nucleotide exchange, enabling coordinated regulation of translation initiation...
- eIF2 independently binds two distinct eIF2B subcomplexes that catalyze and regulate guanine-nucleotide exchangeG D Pavitt
Laboratory of Eukaryotic Gene Regulation, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Genes Dev 12:514-26. 1998....
- AUG codons at the beginning of protein coding sequences are frequent in eukaryotic mRNAs with a suboptimal start codon contextAlex V Kochetov
Institute of Cytology and Genetics Lavrentieva 10, Novosibirsk 630090 Russia
Bioinformatics 21:837-40. 2005..It is likely that at least some mRNAs with suboptimal start codon context contain the other signals providing additional information for efficient AUG recognition...
- The joining of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes requires eIF5BT V Pestova
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, 11203, USA
Nature 403:332-5. 2000..It is a homologue of the prokaryotic initiation factor IF2 (re and, like it, mediates joining of subunits and has a ribosome-dependent GTPase activity that is essential for its function...
- The Elav-like protein HuR exerts translational control of viral internal ribosome entry sitesAndrea Rivas-Aravena
Instituto Milenio de Inmunología e Inmunoterapia, Jeune Equipe Associée à l IRD, Centro de Investigaciones Medicas, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Virology 392:178-85. 2009..Thus, our observations yield novel insights into the role of HuR in the post-transcriptional regulation of HCV and HIV-1 gene expression...
- The mechanism of micro-RNA-mediated translation repression is determined by the promoter of the target geneYi Wen Kong
School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:8866-71. 2008..Overall, these data establish a link between the nuclear history of an mRNA and the mechanism of miRNA-mediated translational regulation in the cytoplasm...
- Inhibition of translational initiation by Let-7 MicroRNA in human cellsRamesh S Pillai
Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
Science 309:1573-6. 2005..Repressed mRNAs, Ago proteins, and miRNAs were all found to accumulate in processing bodies. We propose that localization of mRNAs to these structures is a consequence of translational repression...
- Dendritic BC1 RNA: functional role in regulation of translation initiationHuidong Wang
Department of Physiology, State University of New York, Health Science Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA
J Neurosci 22:10232-41. 2002..The results suggest a functional role of BC1 RNA as a mediator of translational control in local protein synthesis in nerve cells...
- Modulation of tRNA(iMet), eIF-2, and eIF-2B expression shows that GCN4 translation is inversely coupled to the level of eIF-2.GTP.Met-tRNA(iMet) ternary complexesT E Dever
Section on Molecular Genetics of Lower Eukaryotes, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 2785, USA
Mol Cell Biol 15:6351-63. 1995..Met-tRNA(iMet) ternary complexes is the cardinal parameter determining the site of reinitiation on GCN4 mRNA and support the idea that reinitiation at GCN4 is inversely related to the concentration of ternary complexes in the cell...
- The molecular mechanics of eukaryotic translationLee D Kapp
Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 2185, USA
Annu Rev Biochem 73:657-704. 2004..We discuss the mechanisms conserved across the three kingdoms of life as well as the important divergences that have taken place in the pathway...
- Dynamics and processivity of 40S ribosome scanning on mRNA in yeastKarine Berthelot
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester, UK
Mol Microbiol 51:987-1001. 2004..We have developed a biased bidirectional walking model of ribosomal scanning that provides a framework for understanding the above observations as well as other known quantitative and qualitative features of this process...
- The h subunit of eIF3 promotes reinitiation competence during translation of mRNAs harboring upstream open reading framesBijoyita Roy
Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA
RNA 16:748-61. 2010..Together, these results attribute a specific molecular function in translation initiation to an individual eIF3 subunit in a multicellular eukaryote...
- A simplified reconstitution of mRNA-directed peptide synthesis: activity of the epsilon enhancer and an unnatural amino acidA C Forster
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Anal Biochem 297:60-70. 2001..The recombinant clones can be exploited to prepare initiation factors and initiation complexes for structural studies, to study initiation and elongation in ribosomal peptide synthesis, and to screen for eubacterial-specific drugs...
- Mutation at position 791 in Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA affects processes involved in the initiation of protein synthesisW E Tapprich
Section of Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence RI 02912
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:4927-31. 1989....
- The fidelity of translation initiation: reciprocal activities of eIF1, IF3 and YciHIvan B Lomakin
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
EMBO J 25:196-210. 2006....
- Structure of the 30S translation initiation complexAngelita Simonetti
Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Structural Biology and Genomics, Illkirch F 67404, France
Nature 455:416-20. 2008....
- Transient idling of posttermination ribosomes ready to reinitiate protein synthesisAndrey L Karamyshev
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4 6 1 Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo 108 8639, Japan
Biochimie 86:933-8. 2004....
- Regulation of translation initiation by RNA binding proteinsPaul Babitzke
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Annu Rev Microbiol 63:27-44. 2009..Examples also exist in which the bound protein traps the ribosome in a complex that is incapable of initiating translation...
- Initiation factor-independent translation mediated by the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry siteAlissa M Lancaster
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305, USA
RNA 12:894-902. 2006..This mechanism is reminiscent of that employed by the divergent IRES elements in the Dicistroviridae, exemplified by the cricket paralysis virus, which mediates initiation of protein synthesis without initiator tRNA...
- Picornavirus IRESes and the poly(A) tail jointly promote cap-independent translation in a mammalian cell-free systemG Bergamini
Gene Expression Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
RNA 6:1781-90. 2000..The cell-free system described here should prove useful in studying these questions as well as providing a general biochemical tool to examine the translation initiation pathway in a more physiological setting...
- Translation reinitiation and leaky scanning in plant virusesLyubov A Ryabova
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes, UPR CNRS 2357, Strasbourg, France
Virus Res 119:52-62. 2006..While internal initiation is treated in another section of this issue, we concentrate on leaky scanning, shunt and reinitiation, with emphasis on plant pararetroviruses...
- Identification and characterization of a novel cell cycle-regulated internal ribosome entry siteS Cornelis
Department of Molecular Biology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology and University of Gent, Belgium
Mol Cell 5:597-605. 2000..The IRES element is localized to the mRNA coding region, and its activity is cell cycle regulated, which permits translation of p58(PITSLRE) in G2/M...
- Ultrabithorax and Antennapedia 5' untranslated regions promote developmentally regulated internal translation initiationX Ye
Department of Molecular Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA
Mol Cell Biol 17:1714-21. 1997..Although the developmental patterns of expression directed by the Antp and Ubx IRESs overlap, they exhibit several differences indicating that these IRESs are not functionally equivalent...
- Function of eukaryotic initiation factor 5 in the formation of an 80 S ribosomal polypeptide chain initiation complexA Chakrabarti
Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461
J Biol Chem 266:14039-45. 1991..40 S.AUG.Met-tRNAf.eIF-2.GTP) eIF-5----(40 S.AUG.Met-tRNAf) + (eIF-2.GDP) + Pi (1) (40 S.AUG.Met-tRNAf) + 60 S----(80 S.AUG.Met-tRNAf) (2) 80 S initiation complex...
- Role of methionine and formylation of initiator tRNA in initiation of protein synthesis in Escherichia coliU Varshney
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139
J Bacteriol 174:7819-26. 1992..Consequently, a subset of mutant tRNAs which are defective in formylation and therefore inactive in initiation when they are aminoacylated with glutamine become partially active when MetRS is overproduced...
- Mapping of functional domains in eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) with picornaviral proteases. Implications for cap-dependent and cap-independent translational initiationB J Lamphear
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport 71130 3932, USA
J Biol Chem 270:21975-83. 1995..Only the latter would appear to be necessary for internal initiation of picornaviral RNAs...
- Evidence for a role of initiation factor 3 in recycling of ribosomal complexes stalled on mRNAs in Escherichia coliN S Singh
Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
Nucleic Acids Res 33:5591-601. 2005..coli EFG in vivo and in vitro. These lines of evidence clearly demonstrate the physiological importance of IF3 in the overall mechanism of ribosome recycling in E.coli...
- Ribosomal protein S5 interacts with the internal ribosomal entry site of hepatitis C virusS Fukushi
Research and Development Center, BioMedical Laboratories, 1361 1 Matoba, Kawagoe, Saitama 350 1101, Japan
J Biol Chem 276:20824-6. 2001..Thus, our results support rpS5 as the critical element in positioning the HCV RNA on the 40 S ribosomal subunit during translation initiation...
- Dissecting eukaryotic translation and its control by ribosome density mappingYoav Arava
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford, CA 94305 5428, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 33:2421-32. 2005..These results provide new insights into eukaryotic translation in vivo...
- Redundancy of non-AUG initiators. A clever mechanism to enhance the efficiency of translation in yeastKuang Jung Chang
Department of Life Science, National Central University, Jung li, 32001 Taiwan
J Biol Chem 281:7775-83. 2006..Cumulatively, the results suggest that this feature of redundancy of non-AUG initiators in a single mRNA per se may represent a novel paradigm for improving the efficiency of a poor or otherwise nonproductive initiation event...
- TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL MEDIATED BY MRNA STRUCTUREMarilyn Kozak; Fiscal Year: 2002..The reason why 40S ribosome/factor complexes protect "extra" sequences, which are accessible to RNase in 80S initiation complexes, will be studied. ..
- Small Molecule Effectors of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Site SelectionJon Lorsch; Fiscal Year: 2008..A deeper understanding of this complex cellular machine could lead to new approaches to treat the myriad diseases that affect the ribosome's function. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- MYOCARDIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AFTER ALCOHOL INTOXICATIONCharles H Lang; Fiscal Year: 2010..Overall, the research design will establish the mechanism by which myocardial protein synthesis is reduced in response to alcohol abuse. ..
- Myocardial Protein Synthesis After Thermal InjuryCharles Lang; Fiscal Year: 2005..Overall, the research will elucidate the mechanisms by which myocardial protein synthesis is reduced after thermal injury, leading to the better understanding and treatment of the resulting cardiomyopathy. - ..
- Antiretroviral-Induced Defects in Muscle Protein SynthesisCharles H Lang; Fiscal Year: 2010..Such data is needed to both realize the full potential and avoid possible pitfalls of this drug in the long-term treatment of HIV-infected individuals. ..
- Alcohol-Induced Regulation of Hepatic Protein SynthesisTHOMAS VARY; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Hantavirus RNA EncapsidationAntonito Panganiban; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- Thickening of basement membrane in diabetic retinopathySayon Roy; Fiscal Year: 2007..Findings from this project will establish or exclude a pathogenetic link between a discrete biosynthetic abnormality and the development of structural and functional lesions of diabetic retinopathy. ..
- Role of p170 in lung tumorigenesisJian Ting Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007..This work will certainly add to our understanding of the functional mechanism of translation initiation of protein synthesis. ..
- HNF-4 and coactivators in apoAl gene regulationSohail Malik; Fiscal Year: 2008..They will also potentially reveal targets for future therapeutic developments in the metabolic and cardiovascular areas. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Development of tools for structural genomics of viral RNAJEFFREY KIEFT; Fiscal Year: 2008..By solving the structures of these RNAs, we will inform and enable new strategies for developing therapeutics aimed at curing viral disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Molecular Biology of Erythrocyte AnkyrinPatrick G Gallagher; Fiscal Year: 2010..These studies may provide important information to be used for diagnosis and treatment of patients with this disorder. ..
- Functions of Double-stranded RNA Binding ProteinsMichael Mathews; Fiscal Year: 2008..3. Protein complexes formed by NF90 isoforms and the changes brought about by viral infection, interferon treatment, and cell cycle block. 4. The functions of NF90 isoforms during infection with adenovirus and HIV. ..
- Structure and Function of the Hepatitis C Virus GenomePETER contact SARNOW; Fiscal Year: 2010..To do this, novel biochemical, structural and genetic approaches will be employed to study protein-HCV RNA interactions. ..
- MECHANISM OF TRP GENE REGULATION BY TRAP-RNA RECOGNITIONPaul Babitzke; Fiscal Year: 2009..Genetic and biochemical experiments will be carried out to understand how the relative placement of the triplet repeats influences TRAP-mediated translation control of these three genes. ..
- Roles for RCK/DDX6 in hepatitis C virus pathogenesis and hepatocellular carcinomaPeter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- REGULATION OF PROTEIN TURNOVER IN SEPSISScot R Kimball; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Regulation of translation initiation in eukaryotesVincent P Mauro; Fiscal Year: 2010..g. for the production of therapeutic proteins, and new avenues for analyzing the potential contributions of mis-regulation to disease. ..
- Translational Control of Retroviral Unspliced mRNAKATHLEEN A BORIS LAWRIE; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- Cell Type-Specific Viral Translation in the CNSMatthias Gromeier; Fiscal Year: 2006..This principle has shown great promise in pre-clinical studies in experimental animals and in primary explant cultures of human CNS tumors. ..
- Translational control by microRNAsPeter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2006..The health-relatedness of this project lies in the potential roles of this novel mechanism of gene regulation in cell growth or development. ..
- REGULATION OF HIV1 GENE EXPRESSION BY TAT AND TARMichael Mathews; Fiscal Year: 2001..In addition, we propose to identify and study factor(s) responsible for potentiating Tat's ability to stimulate HIV-1 directed transcription in a cell-free system. ..
- MOLECULAR BASES OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE IN CANCERSJian Ting Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2001..Additionally, this study will increase our understanding of how specific protein topological structures are related to transport functions in general. ..
- Integrated LC/MS/MS SystemMichael Mathews; Fiscal Year: 2002..The addition of the integrated ThermoFinnigan LCQ DECA-10000/LC Packings Ultimate LC/MC/MS system will complement our existing MALDI-TOF instrument, permitting the facility to cover most of our mass spectrometry needs. ..
- BASEMENT MEMBRANE THICKENING IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHYSayon Roy; Fiscal Year: 2002..A successful study would provide the critical information that inhibition of excess synthesis of basement membranes prevents background diabetic retinopathy. ..
- HIV-1 RNA ENCAPSIDATION, DIMER FORMATION, AND STRUCTUREAntonito Panganiban; Fiscal Year: 2002..We hope to develop a comprehensive picture that helps us understand in and exact way how correct encapsidation and dimer formation lead to correct reverse transcription. ..
- STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF PICORNAVIRUS RNA GENOMESPeter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2002..Cells that have functionally inactivated allelic loci and that are resistant to infection by either picornavirus or rhinovirus will be selected and the disrupted genes will be identified and characterized in detail. ..
- Translational regulation in Alzheimer's DiseaseLeslie Krushel; Fiscal Year: 2002..The results will provide novel insights into the etiology of AD and present new avenues to explore for therapeutic intervention of individuals with AD or other vascular dementias. ..
- IN VITRO EVOLUTION OF NEW MOLECULAR FUNCTIONSJack Szostak; Fiscal Year: 2003..The re-use of previously selected functions to evolve new functions will also be studied. The idea that proteins are better than RNA at evolving new functions from existing functions will also be tested. ..
- INITIATION OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS TRANSLATIONCHRISTOPHER HELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2001..abstract_text> ..
- Mechanism of ribosomal subunit joining in eukaryotesTatyana Pestova; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- TRANSLATIONAL INITIATION IN EUKARYOTIC MRNA MOLECULESPeter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2005..It is predicted that this unusual translation initiation pathway may operate when cells encounter a variety of stress situations, such as viral infection, heat shock, nutritional deprivation and hypoxia. ..
- Role of Vpu in HIV1 Particle ExitAntonito Panganiban; Fiscal Year: 2004..Additional genetic experiments will be carried out to determine the nature of second site revertants that arise following the propagation of primary Vpu mutants. ..
- Internal Initiation in the Translation of Cellular mRNAsVincent Mauro; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- Genetically stable Picornavirus HIV Immunization vectorMatthias Gromeier; Fiscal Year: 2004..We will pursue to identify favorable structural characteristics leading to insert retention and efficient expression in our vectors to prepare them for HIV immunization studies in non-human primates. ..
- Automated Macromolecular Crystallization SystemJEFFREY KIEFT; Fiscal Year: 2007..Cost savings. Cost of crystallization trials will decrease due to the use of smaller amounts of reagents, including solutions and protein/RNA samples. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Targeting the oligomerization of human ABCG2Jian Ting Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2009..This work may also lead us to the discovery of a new class of therapeutic agents that can help overcome drug-resistant cancers. ..
- MECHANISM OF DRUG BINDING TO P-GLYCOPROTEINJian Ting Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2001..This work may lead us to the discovery of a new family of chaperone proteins associated with ribosomes that are important in determining the folding of membrane proteins co-translationally. ..
- DRUG DISCOVERY BY MIRROR IMAGE LIGAND DISPLAYANTHONY FORSTER; Fiscal Year: 2003..3. To apply this strategy for drug discovery to other potential therapeutic targets, including the gp41 subunit of the HIV envelope glycoprotein and the breast-cancer specific, cell- surface glycoprotein MUC1. ..
- Translational control of LTPEMMANUEL LANDAU; Fiscal Year: 2007..The results of this proposal will shed light on the mechanisms that participate in drug addiction, as well as learning and memory, by providing new information on the role of translation control in neuronal plasticity. ..
- CHIMERISM IN CORD BLOOD TRANSPLANTATION IN MICERona Weinberg; Fiscal Year: 2004..These "pre-translational" studies form the basis for developing effective human CB transplantation and autologous CB gene therapy protocols. ..
- Functions of Spt4-Spt5 in Gene ExpressionGrant Hartzog; Fiscal Year: 2008..Studies here include biochemical and genetic analyses of splicing in spt mutants and tests of the influence of Spt4-Spt5 on the assembly of RNA export proteins onto mRNA. ..