Genomes and Genes
Summary: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Publications352 found, 100 shown here
- APE: Analyses of Phylogenetics and Evolution in R languageEmmanuel Paradis
Laboratoire de Paléontologie, Paléobiologie and Phylogénie, Institut des Sciences de l Evolution, Universite Montpellier II, F 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France
Bioinformatics 20:289-90. 2004Analysis of Phylogenetics and Evolution (APE) is a package written in the R language for use in molecular evolution and phylogenetics...
- Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolutionBenjamin M Bolker
Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 8525, USA
Trends Ecol Evol 24:127-35. 2009..of research on GLMMs in the last decade has generated considerable uncertainty for practitioners in ecology and evolution. Despite the availability of accurate techniques for estimating GLMM parameters in simple cases, complex GLMMs ..
- Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidenceAlexei J Drummond
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
PLoS Biol 4:e88. 2006..From these we conclude that our method is phylogenetically more accurate and precise than the traditional unrooted model while adding the ability to infer a timescale to evolution.
- Five rules for the evolution of cooperationMartin A Nowak
Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, and Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Science 314:1560-3. 2006Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation...
- Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biologyJ P Huelsenbeck
Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
Science 294:2310-4. 2001....
- Genomics and evolution of heritable bacterial symbiontsNancy A Moran
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
Annu Rev Genet 42:165-90. 2008..In addition, insect symbionts provide some of the extremes of cellular genomes, including the smallest and the fastest evolving, raising new questions about the limits of evolution of life.
- Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolutionDenis Reale
Canada Research Chair in Behavioural Ecology and Groupe de Recherche en Ecologie Comportementale et Animale, Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 82:291-318. 2007..genetics, pharmacology, and animal husbandry, but relatively few studies have examined the ecology and evolution of temperament traits...
- Widespread parallel evolution in sticklebacks by repeated fixation of Ectodysplasin allelesPamela F Colosimo
Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5329, USA
Science 307:1928-33. 2005..EDA) signaling pathway plays a key role in evolutionary change in natural populations and that parallel evolution of stickleback low-plated phenotypes at most freshwater locations around the world has occurred by repeated ..
- The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functionsSabeeha S Merchant
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Science 318:245-50. 2007....
- Spatial structure often inhibits the evolution of cooperation in the snowdrift gameChristoph Hauert
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
Nature 428:643-6. 2004..basis of spatial extensions of the Prisoner's Dilemma, it is widely accepted that spatial structure promotes the evolution of cooperation...
- Evolution experiments with microorganisms: the dynamics and genetic bases of adaptationSantiago F Elena
Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Nat Rev Genet 4:457-69. 2003..Now, a field of research has developed around the idea of using microorganisms to study evolution in action...
- Unifying the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogensBryan T Grenfell
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK
Science 303:327-32. 2004..A central pillar of this model is the Evolutionary Infectivity Profile, which captures the relationship between immune selection and pathogen transmission...
- Maximum likelihood inference of geographic range evolution by dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesisRichard H Ree
Department of Botany, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA
Syst Biol 57:4-14. 2008In historical biogeography, model-based inference methods for reconstructing the evolution of geographic ranges on phylogenetic trees are poorly developed relative to the diversity of analogous methods available for inferring character ..
- Green evolution and dynamic adaptations revealed by genomes of the marine picoeukaryotes MicromonasAlexandra Z Worden
Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA 95039 USA
Science 324:268-72. 2009..Analyses of the Micromonas genomes offer valuable insights into ecological differentiation and the dynamic nature of early plant evolution.
- Adaptive protein evolution at the Adh locus in DrosophilaJ H McDonald
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
Nature 351:652-4. 1991..Here we propose a simple statistical test of the neutral protein evolution hypothesis based on a comparison of the number of amino-acid replacement substitutions to synonymous ..
- Hsp90 as a capacitor of phenotypic variationChristine Queitsch
Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
Nature 417:618-24. 2002..Manipulating Hsp90's buffering capacity offers a tool for harnessing cryptic genetic variation and for elucidating the interplay between genotypes, environments and stochastic events in the determination of phenotype...
- Founding events in species invasions: genetic variation, adaptive evolution, and the role of multiple introductionsK M Dlugosch
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
Mol Ecol 17:431-49. 2008..for loss of diversity in quantitative traits? Do invaders that have experienced strong bottlenecks show adaptive evolution? How do multiple introductions influence adaptation on a landscape scale? We reviewed studies of 80 species of ..
- Cooperation and competition in the evolution of ATP-producing pathwaysT Pfeiffer
Friedrich Miescher Institute, Post Office Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland, , D-13092 Berlin, Germany
Science 292:504-7. 2001..Furthermore, we argue that the high ATP yield of respiration may have facilitated the evolutionary transition from unicellular to undifferentiated multicellular organisms...
- Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: prevalence, mechanisms, and implications for the study of heredity and evolutionEva Jablonka
The Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Q Rev Biol 84:131-76. 2009..We conclude by exploring some of the consequences of epigenetic inheritance for the study of evolution, while also pointing to the importance of recognizing and understanding epigenetic inheritance for practical and ..
- Altruistic punishment in humansErnst Fehr
University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
Nature 415:137-40. 2002..These results suggest that future study of the evolution of human cooperation should include a strong focus on explaining altruistic punishment.
- Adaptive evolution of pelvic reduction in sticklebacks by recurrent deletion of a Pitx1 enhancerYingguang Frank Chan
Department of Developmental Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Science 327:302-5. 2010....
- Perspective: Sign epistasis and genetic constraint on evolutionary trajectoriesDaniel M Weinreich
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
Evolution 59:1165-74. 2005..Although epistasis is widely observed in nature, our understanding of its consequences for evolution by natural selection remains incomplete...
- Experimental evolution of bet hedgingHubertus J E Beaumont
New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study and Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, North Shore Mail Centre, North Shore City 0745, Auckland, New Zealand
Nature 462:90-3. 2009..Here we report the de novo evolution of bet hedging in experimental bacterial populations...
- Gene regulatory networks in the evolution and development of the heartEric N Olson
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
Science 313:1922-7. 2006..During evolution, this ancestral gene network was expanded through gene duplication and co-option of additional networks...
- Ancient animal microRNAs and the evolution of tissue identityFoteini Christodoulou
Developmental Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Nature 463:1084-8. 2010The spectacular escalation in complexity in early bilaterian evolution correlates with a strong increase in the number of microRNAs...
- Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of lifeFrancesca D Ciccarelli
European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69012 Heidelberg, Germany
Science 311:1283-7. 2006..For example, we place the phylum Acidobacteria as a sister group of delta-Proteobacteria, support a Gram-positive origin of Bacteria, and suggest a thermophilic last universal common ancestor...
- Evolution of the neocortex: a perspective from developmental biologyPasko Rakic
Department of Neurobiology and Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
Nat Rev Neurosci 10:724-35. 2009The enlargement and species-specific elaboration of the cerebral neocortex during evolution holds the secret to the mental abilities of humans; however, the genetic origin and cellular mechanisms that generated the distinct evolutionary ..
- The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolutionEugene Rosenberg
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel 69978
Nat Rev Microbiol 5:355-62. 2007..Generalization of the coral probiotic hypothesis has led us to propose the hologenome theory of evolution.
- Evolution of the core and pan-genome of Streptococcus: positive selection, recombination, and genome compositionTristan Lefebure
Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Genome Biol 8:R71. 2007..This study employs comparative evolutionary analyses of 26 Streptococcus genomes to yield an improved understanding of the relative roles of recombination and positive selection in pathogen adaptation to their hosts...
- Comprehensive functional analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin-antitoxin systems: implications for pathogenesis, stress responses, and evolutionHolly R Ramage
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
PLoS Genet 5:e1000767. 2009..The expansion and maintenance of TA genes in the MTBC, coupled with the finding that a subset is transcriptionally activated by stress, suggests that TA systems are important for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis...
- Adaptive evolution and explosive speciation: the cichlid fish modelThomas D Kocher
Hubbard Center for Genome Studies, University of New Hampshire, Suite 400, Environmental Technology Building, 35 Colovos Road, Durham, New Hampshire 03824, USA
Nat Rev Genet 5:288-98. 2004
- Hsp90 potentiates the rapid evolution of new traits: drug resistance in diverse fungiLeah E Cowen
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
Science 309:2185-9. 2005Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone for many signal transducers and may influence evolution by releasing previously silent genetic variation in response to environmental change...
- A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networksHisashi Ohtsuki
Department of Biology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
Nature 441:502-5. 2006..In this case, cooperation can evolve as a consequence of 'social viscosity' even in the absence of reputation effects or strategic complexity...
- The locus of evolution: evo devo and the genetics of adaptationHopi E Hoekstra
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and The Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
Evolution 61:995-1016. 2007..In addition, some forms of protein evolution can avoid the negative consequences of pleiotropy, most notably via gene duplication...
- DNA transposons and the evolution of eukaryotic genomesCEDRIC FESCHOTTE
Department of Biology, University of Texas, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
Annu Rev Genet 41:331-68. 2007..Finally, we highlight how the distinctive biological features of DNA transposons have contributed to shape genome architecture and led to the emergence of genetic innovations in different eukaryotic lineages...
- Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coliZachary D Blount
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7899-906. 2008The role of historical contingency in evolution has been much debated, but rarely tested. Twelve initially identical populations of Escherichia coli were founded in 1988 to investigate this issue...
- Prisoner's dilemma in an RNA virusP E Turner
Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park 20742, USA
Nature 398:441-3. 1999The evolution of competitive interactions among viruses was studied in the RNA phage phi6 at high and low multiplicities of infection (that is, at high and low ratios of infecting phage to host cells)...
- Sea anemone genome reveals ancestral eumetazoan gene repertoire and genomic organizationNicholas H Putnam
Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA
Science 317:86-94. 2007..Analysis of diverse pathways suggests that these gene "inventions" along the lineage leading to animals were likely already well integrated with preexisting eukaryotic genes in the eumetazoan progenitor...
- The nature of human altruismErnst Fehr
University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
Nature 425:785-91. 2003..Current gene-based evolutionary theories cannot explain important patterns of human altruism, pointing towards the importance of both theories of cultural evolution as well as gene-culture co-evolution.
- Evolution at two levels: on genes and formSean B Carroll
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
PLoS Biol 3:e245. 2005
- Adaptive radiation in a heterogeneous environmentP B Rainey
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, UK
Nature 394:69-72. 1998Successive adaptive radiations have played a pivotal role in the evolution of biological diversity. The effects of adaptive radiation are often seen, but the underlying causes are difficult to disentangle and remain unclear...
- Genomic evolution of Hox gene clustersDerek Lemons
Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Science 313:1918-22. 2006..reduced, or expanded in many animals-findings that correlate with interesting morphological changes in evolution. Hox gene clusters also contain many noncoding RNAs, such as intergenic regulatory transcripts and ..
- Phenotypic plasticity in the interactions and evolution of speciesA A Agrawal
Department of Botany, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada
Science 294:321-6. 2001..The evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity has led to the success of organisms in novel habitats, and potentially ..
- Virulence evolution and the trade-off hypothesis: history, current state of affairs and the futureS Alizon
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Queen s University, Kingston, Canada
J Evol Biol 22:245-59. 2009..We discuss the history of the study of virulence evolution and the development of theories towards the trade-off hypothesis in order to illustrate the context of the ..
- GEIGER: investigating evolutionary radiationsLuke J Harmon
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
Bioinformatics 24:129-31. 2008..GEIGER can carry out simulations, parameter estimation and statistical hypothesis testing. Additionally, GEIGER's simulation algorithms can be used to analyze the statistical power of comparative approaches...
- Living with the past: evolution, development, and patterns of diseasePeter D Gluckman
Liggins Institute, University of Auckland and National Research Centre for Growth and Development, 2 6 Park Avenue, Grafton, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
Science 305:1733-6. 2004..This "developmental origins of health and disease" concept may have important biological, medical, and socioeconomic implications...
- Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic responsesP Gienapp
Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, PO Box 65, FI 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Mol Ecol 17:167-78. 2008..Hence, clear-cut evidence indicating a significant role for evolutionary adaptation to ongoing climate warming is conspicuously scarce...
- A gene-coexpression network for global discovery of conserved genetic modulesJoshua M Stuart
Stanford Medical Informatics, 251 Campus Drive, Medical School Office Building X 215, Stanford, CA 94305 5329, USA
Science 302:249-55. 2003..We found 22,163 such coexpression relationships, each of which has been conserved across evolution. This conservation implies that the coexpression of these gene pairs confers a selective advantage and therefore ..
- Detection of genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS) in genomes of positive-stranded RNA viruses: Implications for virus evolution and host persistencePeter Simmonds
Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, EH9 1QH
RNA 10:1337-51. 2004..These findings potentially reconcile the rapid evolution of RNA viruses over short periods with the documented examples of extreme conservatism evident from their ..
- Evolutionary dynamics of social dilemmas in structured heterogeneous populationsF C Santos
Institut de Recherches Interdisciplinaires et de Développements en Intelligence Artificielle, CP 194 6, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:3490-4. 2006..We study the evolution of cooperation, modeled in terms of the most popular dilemmas of cooperation...
- Convergent sequence evolution between echolocating bats and dolphinsYang Liu
School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
Curr Biol 20:R53-4. 2010Cases of convergent evolution - where different lineages have evolved similar traits independently - are common and have proven central to our understanding of selection...
- Scale-free networks provide a unifying framework for the emergence of cooperationF C Santos
GADGET, Apartado 1329, 1009 001 Lisbon, Portugal
Phys Rev Lett 95:098104. 2005We study the evolution of cooperation in the framework of evolutionary game theory, adopting the prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift game as metaphors of cooperation between unrelated individuals...
- The evolution of human skin colorationN G Jablonski
Department of Anthropology, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118 4599, USA
J Hum Evol 39:57-106. 2000..The evolution of a naked, darkly pigmented integument occurred early in the evolution of the genus Homo...
- Evolution of cooperation by multilevel selectionArne Traulsen
Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Departments of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10952-5. 2006..We derive a fundamental condition for the evolution of cooperation by group selection: if b/c > 1 + n/m, then group selection favors cooperation...
- Modular networks and cumulative impact of lateral transfer in prokaryote genome evolutionTal Dagan
Institut für Botanik III, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Universitatsstrasse 1, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10039-44. 2008..of natural variation among prokaryotes, but the significance of its quantitative contribution to genome evolution is debated...
- The puzzle of plastid evolutionJohn M Archibald
The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Integrated Microbial Biodiversity, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5, Canada
Curr Biol 19:R81-8. 2009..of the origin and spread of plastids remains an important yet elusive goal in the field of eukaryotic evolution. Combined with the discovery of new photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic protist lineages, the results of ..
- Sponge-associated microorganisms: evolution, ecology, and biotechnological potentialMichael W Taylor
Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Vienna, Althanstr 14, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71:295-347. 2007..We review the status of this important field, outlining the various approaches (e.g., cultivation, cell separation, and metagenomics) which have been employed to access the chemical wealth of sponge-microbe associations...
- Phenotypic diversity, population growth, and information in fluctuating environmentsEdo Kussell
Laboratory of Living Matter and Center for Studies in Physics and Biology, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 34, New York, NY 10021 6399, USA
Science 309:2075-8. 2005..The optimal switching rates then mimic the statistics of environmental changes. We derive a relation between the long-term growth rate of the organism and the information available about its fluctuating environment...
- Global analysis of Cdk1 substrate phosphorylation sites provides insights into evolutionLiam J Holt
Departments of Physiology and Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
Science 325:1682-6. 2009To explore the mechanisms and evolution of cell-cycle control, we analyzed the position and conservation of large numbers of phosphorylation sites for the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
- Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoringM A Nowak
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
Nature 393:573-7. 1998Darwinian evolution has to provide an explanation for cooperative behaviour. Theories of cooperation are based on kin selection (dependent on genetic relatedness), group selection and reciprocal altruism...
- Coevolution of diet and prey-specific venom activity supports the role of selection in snake venom evolutionAxel Barlow
School of Biological Sciences, Environment Centre Wales, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK
Proc Biol Sci 276:2443-9. 2009The processes that drive the evolution of snake venom variability, particularly the role of diet, have been a topic of intense recent research interest...
- Expansion and evolution of cell death programmesAlexei Degterev
Tufts University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, 136 Harrison Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9:378-90. 2008..Here we examine how and why these different cell death programmes have evolved, with an eye towards new cytoprotective therapeutic opportunities...
- Antagonistic coevolution accelerates molecular evolutionSteve Paterson
School of Biological Sciences, Biosciences Building, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK
Nature 464:275-8. 2010..hypothesis proposes that coevolution of interacting species (such as hosts and parasites) should drive molecular evolution through continual natural selection for adaptation and counter-adaptation...
- Evolution in the fast lane: rapidly evolving sex-related genes in DrosophilaWilfried Haerty
Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada
Genetics 177:1321-35. 2007..genes, male seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), and spermatogenesis genes show lineage-specific bursts of accelerated evolution and positive selection. SFP genes also show evidence of lineage-specific gene loss and/or gain...
- Explaining evolution of plant communication by airborne signalsMartin Heil
Departamento de Ingeniería Genética CINVESTAV, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico
Trends Ecol Evol 25:137-44. 2010..This information is crucial to understanding the ecology and evolution of plant communication via airborne cues.
- Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic evolutionPatrick J Keeling
Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z, Canada
Nat Rev Genet 9:605-18. 2008..Horizontal gene transfer (HGT; also known as lateral gene transfer) has had an important role in eukaryotic genome evolution, but its importance is often overshadowed by the greater prevalence and our more advanced understanding of gene ..
- Adaptive evolution in invasive speciesPeter J Prentis
Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, South Australia 5005, Australia
Trends Plant Sci 13:288-94. 2008..Understanding the source of variation that contributes to adaptive evolution in invasive plants is important for predicting future invasion scenarios, identifying candidate genes involved ..
- Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domesticationJared Diamond
Department of Physiology, University of California Medical School, Los Angeles, 90095 1751, USA
Nature 418:700-7. 2002....
- Origins and evolution of eukaryotic RNA interferenceSvetlana A Shabalina
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Trends Ecol Evol 23:578-87. 2008..of diverse eukaryotes available for comparison, the opportunity emerges for insights into the origin and evolution of RNA interference (RNAi). The miRNA repertoires of plants and animals appear to have evolved independently...
- Copy number variation and evolution in humans and chimpanzeesGeorge H Perry
School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA
Genome Res 18:1698-710. 2008..In particular, duplications and deletions of genes with inflammatory response and cell proliferation functions may have been fixed by positive selection and involved in the adaptive phenotypic differentiation of humans and chimpanzees...
- Public information: from nosy neighbors to cultural evolutionEtienne Danchin
U P M C CNRS UMR7625, Bât A 7e étage Case 237, 7 quai Saint Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
Science 305:487-91. 2004..The use of public information is taxonomically widespread and can enhance fitness. Public information can lead to cultural evolution, which we suggest may then affect biological evolution.
- Worlds within worlds: evolution of the vertebrate gut microbiotaRuth E Ley
Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
Nat Rev Microbiol 6:776-88. 2008....
- Origin and evolution of the mitochondrial proteomeC G Kurland
Department of Molecular Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Uppsala SE 752 36, Lund University, Lund SE 223 62, Sweden
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64:786-820. 2000..There are no indications of a specific alpha-proteobacterial origin to genes for glycolysis. In the absence of data to the contrary, it is assumed that the ancestral host cell was a heterotroph...
- Quantifying social group evolutionGergely Palla
Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group of the HAS, Pázmány P stny 1A, H 1117 Budapest, Hungary
Nature 446:664-7. 2007..communication patterns of individuals, the associated social and communication network is subject to constant evolution. Our knowledge of the mechanisms governing the underlying community dynamics is limited, but is essential for a ..
- Preservation of duplicate genes by complementary, degenerative mutationsA Force
Department of Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA
Genetics 151:1531-45. 1999The origin of organismal complexity is generally thought to be tightly coupled to the evolution of new gene functions arising subsequent to gene duplication...
- Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st centuryLoren Cordain
Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 81:341-54. 2005..The evolutionary collision of our ancient genome with the nutritional qualities of recently introduced foods may underlie many of the chronic diseases of Western civilization...
- Positive natural selection in the human lineageP C Sabeti
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA
Science 312:1614-20. 2006....
- The evolution of the arcuate fasciculus revealed with comparative DTIJames K Rilling
Department of Anthropology, Emory University, 207 Anthropology Building, 1557 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
Nat Neurosci 11:426-8. 2008..This human specialization may be relevant to the evolution of language.
- Evolution in the social brainR I M Dunbar
British Academy Centenary Research Project, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK
Science 317:1344-7. 2007The evolution of unusually large brains in some groups of animals, notably primates, has long been a puzzle...
- A likelihood framework for inferring the evolution of geographic range on phylogenetic treesRichard H Ree
Department of Botany, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA
Evolution 59:2299-311. 2005..Here we describe a likelihood framework for inferring the evolution of geographic range on phylogenies that models lineage dispersal and local extinction in a set of discrete areas ..
- Is evolution Darwinian or/and Lamarckian?Eugene V Koonin
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
Biol Direct 4:42. 2009..Lamarck believed that evolution is driven primarily by non-randomly acquired, beneficial phenotypic changes, in particular, those directly ..
- Optimality and evolutionary tuning of the expression level of a proteinErez Dekel
Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Physics of Complex Systems, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Nature 436:588-92. 2005..We then performed serial dilution evolution experiments at different lactose concentrations...
- Host-microbe interactions: shaping the evolution of the plant immune responseStephen T Chisholm
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, 111 Koshland Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Cell 124:803-14. 2006The evolution of the plant immune response has culminated in a highly effective defense system that is able to resist potential attack by microbial pathogens...
- Estimating synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates under realistic evolutionary modelsZ Yang
Department of Biology, University College London, England
Mol Biol Evol 17:32-43. 2000..in those steps and propose a new approximate method that takes into account two major features of DNA sequence evolution: transition/transversion rate bias and base/codon frequency bias...
- Pattern pluralism and the Tree of Life hypothesisW Ford Doolittle
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 1X5
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:2043-9. 2007..organisms based on their similarities and differences [the Tree of Life (TOL)] was a fact of nature, for which evolution, and in particular a branching process of descent with modification, was the explanation...
- Tracking the in vivo evolution of multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by whole-genome sequencingMichael M Mwangi
Physics Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:9451-6. 2007..Here, we apply the power of whole-genome sequencing to identify steps in the evolution of multidrug resistance in isogenic S...
- A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flightAlan H Turner
Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 5192, USA
Science 317:1378-81. 2007..the clade including Avialae, Troodontidae, and Dromaeosauridae), phylogenetically earlier than where flight evolution is strongly inferred...
- The delayed rise of present-day mammalsOlaf R P Bininda-Emonds
Lehrstuhl für Tierzucht, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany
Nature 446:507-12. 2007....
- Is genetic evolution predictable?David L Stern
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Science 323:746-51. 2009..However, recent observations indicate that all genes are not equal in the eyes of evolution. Evolutionarily relevant mutations tend to accumulate in hotspot genes and at specific positions within genes...
- Polygenic and directional regulatory evolution across pathways in SaccharomycesJames H Bullard
Division of Biostatistics, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5058-63. 2010..Powerful molecular evolution approaches have been developed to test individual loci for signatures of selection...
- Toward reconstructing the evolution of advanced moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia): an initial molecular studyJerome C Regier
Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park, 20742, USA
BMC Evol Biol 9:280. 2009..7 kb total), and character subsets therein, to resolve relationships among 123 species representing 27 (of 33) superfamilies and 55 (of 100) families of Ditrysia under maximum likelihood analysis...
- A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognitionL Buck
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032
Cell 65:175-87. 1991..The members of this novel gene family are likely to encode a diverse family of odorant receptors...
- Evolution of mammals and their gut microbesRuth E Ley
Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
Science 320:1647-51. 2008....
- Behavioral syndromes: an intergrative overiewAndrew Sih
Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
Q Rev Biol 79:241-77. 2004..Here, we present an integrative overview on the potential importance of behavioral syndromes in evolution and ecology...
- Sex and virulence in Escherichia coli: an evolutionary perspectiveThierry Wirth
Department of Molecular Biology, Schumannstrasse 21 22, Max Planck Institut für Infektionsbiologie, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Mol Microbiol 60:1136-51. 2006..Rates of evolution have accelerated in pathogenic lineages, culminating in highly virulent organisms whose genomic contents are ..
- BIONJ: an improved version of the NJ algorithm based on a simple model of sequence dataO Gascuel
GERAD, Ecole des HEC, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Mol Biol Evol 14:685-95. 1997..In the latter case, for the model trees and the conditions of evolution tested, the topological error reduction is on the average around 20%...
- Genetic diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus--15 years onPeter Simmonds
Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, UK
J Gen Virol 85:3173-88. 2004..These contrasting aspects of conservatism and adaptability provide a fascinating paradigm in which to explore the complex selection pressures that underlie the evolution of HCV and other persistent viruses.
- Inference of bacterial microevolution using multilocus sequence dataXavier Didelot
Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SY, United Kingdom
Genetics 175:1251-66. 2007..The software used in this article, ClonalFrame, is available from http://bacteria.stats.ox.ac.uk/...
- Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiologyM E Feder
Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy and Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
Annu Rev Physiol 61:243-82. 1999....
- Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Stochastic epigenetic variation as a driving force of development, evolutionary adaptation, and diseaseAndrew P Feinberg
Center for Epigenetics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1757-64. 2010..Here, we propose a new non-Lamarckian theory for a role of epigenetics in evolution. We suggest that genetic variants that do not change the mean phenotype could change the variability of ..
- Flavonoids: a colorful model for the regulation and evolution of biochemical pathwaysRonald Koes
Department of Genetics, Institute for Molecular Biological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Trends Plant Sci 10:236-42. 2005..Moreover, because pigmentation is studied in a variety of species, it provides unique molecular insights into the evolution of biochemical pathways and regulatory networks.
- Genetic variation and regulatory networks: Mechanisms and complexityDANA PE ER; Fiscal Year: 2009..These tools will be made publicly available, including a friendly graphical user interface and visualization. ..
- Personalized Clinical Diagnostics and Beyond: Integrated Ring Resonator ArraysRyan Bailey; Fiscal Year: 2009..This technology promises to broadly impact the landscape of the biomedical sciences, both meeting the clinical diagnostic challenges of today and pioneering the paradigm-shifting discoveries of tomorrow. ..
- NIH Director's Pioneer AwardJunying Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2009..No Abstract provided ..
- NIH Director's Pioneer AwardERICH JARVIS; Fiscal Year: 2009..vocal non-learners would have profound impact towards understanding molecular mechanisms of vocal learning and evolution of language...
- Sphingolipid Metabolism in Drosophila DevelopmentJulie D Saba; Fiscal Year: 2013..of how SPL functions in the context of muscle tissue and how its function may have been modified throughout evolution. These studies should be readily achieved by our team, which has extensive experience in sphingolipid ..
- Systematics of medically important Dermacentor tick vectorsDmitry A Apanaskevich; Fiscal Year: 2011..Investigation of the evolutionary history of these ticks will help us to understand the evolution of vector competence and provide a strong basis for establishing a meaningful classification system...
- The Kallikrein/Kinin-Mast Cell Interaction in Volume OverloadCHIH CHANG KEVIN WEI; Fiscal Year: 2013..adaptive responses of the circulating versus tissue specific kallikrein/kinin generating mechanism in the evolution of cardiovascular disease and the impact of targeted bradykinin therapy on such changes...
- Gene Therapy with Cardiotropic Vectors for the Treatment of Heart FailureRoger J Hajjar; Fiscal Year: 2013..Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of myocardial dysfunction, together with the evolution of increasingly efficient gene transfer technology, have placed some cardiovascular diseases within reach of ..
- Environmental Risk Factors for Copy Number Variation in Human ChromosomesTHOMAS EDWARD WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2010..important component of genetic variation and play an integral role in phenotypic diversity, complex disease and evolution. Over 1300 CNVs with frequencies of >1% have been described in healthy individuals that exist as deletions or ..
- Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention ProgramCatherine Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012..offers a compelling opportunity to examine the contribution of changes in endogenous sex hormones (ESH) to the evolution of glucose intolerance in postmenopausal women...
- Novel genomic effects of Y-linked polymorphismsDaniel L Hartl; Fiscal Year: 2012..Selection acting through regulatory effects may drive the rapid evolution of noncoding sequences in the Y chromosome, which are evolutionarily much more dynamic than single-copy ..
- Mechanisms of Neutralizing Antibody Resistance in Chronic HCV and HIV InfectionJUSTIN RICHARD BAILEY; Fiscal Year: 2013..He has spent the research years of his Infectious Diseases fellowship studying hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope evolution with his primary mentor, Dr. Stuart Ray...
- A Novel Thioredoxin Mimetic Prodrug for Prevention of Bronchopulmonary DysplasiaPrakash Jagtap; Fiscal Year: 2013..Our current understanding of RDS and its evolution into bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is consistent with a mechanism of injury produced by an excess of ..
- VISUAL SCIENCES TRAINING PROGRAMEric Pearlman; Fiscal Year: 2013..In addition, as vision research has expanded at CWRU, there has been a natural evolution of five research/training groups that have distinct identities but also considerable overlap among participants...
- BMP signaling in vertebrate developmentKen W Y Cho; Fiscal Year: 2013..The roles of BMPs have diverged in evolution and include the control of gametogenesis, early embryonic development, cell differentiation/apoptosis, and ..
- FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF HEMOGLOBINS AND MYOGLOBINSJohn S Olson; Fiscal Year: 2010..biophysical mechanisms for O2 stabilization, rapid ligand binding, and NO dioxygenation;(b) insight into the evolution of globin structures and functions, from Archaea to Bacteria to Eucarya;and (c) a framework for inhibiting the ..
- Insights from Comparative Genomics for the Treatment of Pneumococcal InfectionsNatalia Luisa Hiller; Fiscal Year: 2011..Darren Martin at Cape Town University, an expert in the detection of recombination and it's role in evolution;2) Dr. David Sherman at the University of Michigan, a specialist in biochemical synthesis;3) Drs...
- CT Evaluation of the Myocardial Effects of Risk FactorsLilach O Lerman; Fiscal Year: 2013..the myocardial microcirculation would advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of cardiac injury during the evolution of MetS, in a manner potentially applicable to humans...
- Insights from Comparative Genomics for the Treatment of Pneumococcal InfectionsNatalia Luisa Hiller; Fiscal Year: 2013..Darren Martin at Cape Town University, an expert in the detection of recombination and it's role in evolution;2) Dr. David Sherman at the University of Michigan, a specialist in biochemical synthesis;3) Drs...
- Evolution of the Immune Response to Cytomegalovirus Transmitted via Breast MilkLynn Puddington; Fiscal Year: 2010..This exploratory study is designed to define the evolution of the immune response following murine CMV (MCMV) infection acquired by maternal transmission during ..
- Mechanisms of Splicing Regulation During Environmental Stress in YeastJaclyn C Greimann; Fiscal Year: 2012..It is possible that yeast retained only introns with an important function throughout evolution. Interestingly, the yeast intron-containing genes fall into only a few classes such as ribosomal protein genes, ..
- Genetics of Cryptococcus sexual reproductionJoseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2013..Thus, our studies on the roles of sex in pathogen evolution and emergence are of general importance...
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: OXIDATIVE STRESS AND EARLY ATHEROSCLEROSISDavid R Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2013..These indicators will provide new information that is critical for our understanding of the evolution of oxidative stress and its interaction with obesity, inflammation, sources of oxidants and dietary intakes in ..
- SCHISTOSOME EGG INDUCED TH2 RESPONSESEdward J Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2013..Specific Aim 1 is to understand the role of the Tfh/B cell axis during infection. Here we will determine the evolution of the T cell and B cell responses over time during infection, incorporating a detailed study of Th2 cells, Tfh ..
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: OXIDATIVE STRESS AND EARLY ATHEROSCLEROSISDavid Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2009..These indicators will provide new information that is critical for our understanding of the evolution of oxidative stress and its interaction with obesity, inflammation, sources of oxidants and dietary intakes in ..
- Varicella zoster virus: molecular controls of cell fusion-dependent pathogenesisAnn Arvin; Fiscal Year: 2013..To quantify the effects o tyrosine phosphorylation, the spatiotemporal evolution of syncytia formation will be measured in real-time for VZV and the gBcyt mutants...
- Novel genetics, pathobiology &therapy of nephronophthisis-related ciliopathiesFriedhelm Hildebrandt; Fiscal Year: 2013..PC are sensory organelles expressed by virtually all vertebrate cell types. PC are utilized across evolution, from single cellular organisms to humans, for cellular sensory tasks, including photo-, mechano-, thermo-, ..
- Carbohydrate-based Antiinfective AgentsChi Huey Wong; Fiscal Year: 2013..The promise of carbohydrate-based anti-infective is that they are less prone to the evolution of microbial resistance, because, carbohydrate ligands themselves are invariant, and carbohydrate recognition is ..
- Intestinal Inflammation Induced by PathogensBeth A McCormick; Fiscal Year: 2013..Thus, while the evolution of these responses most likely initially targeted pathogens such as S...
- ENZYMOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCERichard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2009..This will be accomplished by;(i) rational mutagenesis and directed evolution of FosA and FosX activities from a promiscuous progenitor encoded in the genome of Mesorhizobium loti and (ii) ..
- T-cell Therapy for B-lineage Acute Lymphoblastic LeukemiaLaurence J N Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2013..In aggregate, the results of the studies will facilitate the evolution of targeting post-HSCT MRD with donor-derived CD19-specific T cells for enhanced disease-free survival of ..
- Fatty Acid Defects &Oxidative Stress Modulate Islet Function in Cystic FibrosisAliye Uc; Fiscal Year: 2013..However, the evolution to CFRD and its severity are different between the two models...
- Enterovirus RNA Translation and ReplicationDavid J Barton; Fiscal Year: 2013..if substantiated by the proposed investigation, will have significant impact on our understanding of molecular evolution, drawing attention to the common features and mechanisms of a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and eukaryotic ..
- The Role of PKR in a Novel IL-3 Signal Transduction PathwayWilliam Stratford May; Fiscal Year: 2012..of both the molecular mechanism(s) by which PKR promotes the cellular stress response and PKR's role in MDS evolution to AML. Results will point the way to and provide a basis for discovering novel anti-leukemia therapies.
- Mitochondrial Protection Within Chronically Ischemic MyocardiumEdward O McFalls; Fiscal Year: 2010..also examine the effects of glitazones, a therapy for diabetes, and its potential role in UCP-2 induction on the evolution of CHF...
- Genomics of RNA Editing: Identification and RegulationJin Billy Li; Fiscal Year: 2013..of uncovering the contributions of RNA editing to conserved functions as well as to human-specific neural evolution. We will also carry out large-scale computational analysis to search for RNA editing-related functional elements ..
- Research Career Development in Child HealthMichael W Konstan; Fiscal Year: 2012..It includes didactic and research components to provide training in the pathogenesis and evolution of numerous childhood diseases, including lung disease associated with prematurity, cystic fibrosis, asthma, ..
- Treatment of stroke with a clinically approved proteasome inhibitorLi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2012Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery elicits a progressive vascular dysfunction, which contributes to the evolution of brain injury...
- Pathogenesis of Oxidative Stress in Chagas DiseaseNisha Jain Garg; Fiscal Year: 2013..PARP-1/Nrf1/2) molecules via abundant mitochondria in the cardiomyocytes is the key event resulting in chronic evolution of chagasic cardiomyopathy...
- Research Center for Pharmacology &Drug ToxicologyL Jackson Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2013..The Center is comprised of five research projects and two cores. The proposed research in Project 1 is an evolution of our previous studies in the Center which elucidated that acetaminophen inhibits hemoprotein redox cycling ..
- Development of inhibitors of AMP Deaminase Isoform 2 as a Mechanism for TreatingRICHARD JOSEPH JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2010..In contrast, humans appear to be "locked in" to be fat accumulating due to two mechanisms: first, evolution has provided a human mutation in uricase that results in high uric acid, which we have found further up-..
- The role of satellite rasiRNA in the Segregation Distorter system of DrosophilaAMANDA MARIE LARRACUENTE; Fiscal Year: 2013..g. RNAi, rapid gene evolution)...
- INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM IN HAIR CELLSRobert Fettiplace; Fiscal Year: 2013..Comparison with the properties of the mammalian hair bundles will provide insight into the evolution of cochlear amplification;(5) to measure and alter the concentration of Ca2+ in hair bundles and relate it to ..
- Humanized Transgenic Mice Reproduce the Disease Evolution in Severe RAGrete Sonderstrup; Fiscal Year: 2010DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Humanized transgenic mice reproduce the disease evolution in severe RA Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease in humans genetically associated with specific HLA class II alleles...
- Endemic maintenance of relapsing fever genotypes.Michael Bela Teglas; Fiscal Year: 2013..The role of plasmid evolution and the degree to which these relapsing fever genotypes are maintained in distinctive host tropisms has not yet ..
- Mechanisms to restrain social cheating from quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginAJAI DANDEKAR; Fiscal Year: 2013..Peter Greenberg in the Department of Microbiology. I have the immediate goal of continuing my research into the evolution of quorum sensing that I initiated as a fellow...
- Genetic and Evolutionary Basis of Fungal Drug ResistanceZhenglong Gu; Fiscal Year: 2013..trait genes that underlie the resistance of pathogenic yeast strains to anti-fungal agents and to determine the evolution of this resistance...
- GENETIC APPROACHES TO PROTEIN-NUCLEIC ACID INTERACTIONSPaul R Schimmel; Fiscal Year: 2012..The enzymes appeared early in evolution and are essential to all life forms...
- Defining evolutionary trajectories: Molecular adaptation to antibiotic resistanceADIL YOUSIF SHAMOO; Fiscal Year: 2012..large populations of bacteria, carrying one of three antibiotic resistance genes, to continuous experimental evolution. By varying the conditions of selection during adaptation, antibiotic resistance mediated by changes to the ..
- HIV and CD16+ monocytes as cellular reservoir &HIV/pulmonary hypertensionSharilyn Almodovar; Fiscal Year: 2013The dynamics of viral replication and evolution in the lungs of patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) remain poorly understood...
- Evolutionary Analysis of the Histone Deacetylase Family: Biomedical ResearchJOSEPH LEWIS GRAVES; Fiscal Year: 2011..The analysis of adaptive evolution in the HDAC family will require the acquisition and alignment of the sequences of HDAC's from all fully ..
- Role of FA proteins in hematopoiesisQishen Pang; Fiscal Year: 2013..clinical observations have established a correlation between abnormal accumulation of ROS and FA BMF/leukemic evolution, the molecular pathways in which FA proteins function to modulate physiologic oxidative stress have not been ..
- Structural Studies of RNA Maturation and ProcessingChristopher D Lima; Fiscal Year: 2013..The Fcp1 RNAP II CTD phosphatase is essential and conserved across evolution. Fcp1 can dephosphorylate the RNAP II CTD at S2 and S5 positions although it is unclear if both activities are ..
- Molecular pathogenesis and genetic diversification of childhood falciparum malariSTEVE MYER TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2013..Because malaria control measures are at risk of failure due to parasite evolution and changes in immunity, sustaining the gains made in malaria control will require a new generation of ..
- The role of polyphosphate and acidocalcisomes in Trypanosoma bruceiRoberto Docampo; Fiscal Year: 2013..either appeared before the divergence of bacterial and eukaryotic lineages or independently by convergent evolution. Some of the potential functions of the acidocalcisome are the storage of cations and phosphorus, and its ..
- Biofilm matrix-degrading enzymes for the treatment and prevention of S. aureus-asJeffrey B Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013..In addition, the use of antibiotics to treat wound infections results in the rapid evolution of antibiotic-resistant strains, which further complicates treatment...
- TNF and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in ALDCraig J McClain; Fiscal Year: 2010..The long-termgoals of our laboratoryare to further define the mechanism(s) involved in the development/evolution of ALDand to develop specific therapies based on this knowledge. The specific objectives of this proposal are: 1...
- Advanced Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis DiseaseAlexey Samsonov; Fiscal Year: 2012..Finally, the third aim will measure the ability of qMT biomarkers to predict clinical disability and lesion evolution and enable early detection of pathology in a small population of MS patients and age-matched controls...
- Novel Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic HBVROBERT GERALD WHALEN; Fiscal Year: 2013..variants containing xenogeneic sequences with novel T epitopes have been identified using a directed molecular evolution approach...
- RNA CONFORMATION AND CATALYSISDavid P Bartel; Fiscal Year: 2013..The experiments of this proposal focus on the mechanism, biology, and evolution of RNA interference (RNAi), an example of a structure-dependent function in which double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) ..
- Training/Research Center-Bone Marrow Failure SyndromesJaroslaw P Maciejewski; Fiscal Year: 2013..Immune pathophysiology and propensity for clonal evolution are the unifying factors in these diseases that can be otherwise very heterogenous...
- Discovery of Critical Host Genes Enabling Resistance to HIV-1 Infection as TherapLeyla S Diaz; Fiscal Year: 2012..These leading scFv candidates will be built out into full- length human IgG1 antibodies and using molecular evolution approach, the binding affinities of lead antibody candidates will be enhanced by several orders of magnitude...
- The role of the host Ca/Mn pump in emergence of novel viral RNA recombinantsPeter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Emergence of new viruses is a continuing threat to our society. Evolution of plus- stranded RNA viruses is frequently driven by RNA recombination, a process that joins noncontiguous RNA segments ..
- TEST OF NEUTRAL MOLECULAR EVOLUTIONMartin Kreitman; Fiscal Year: 1999DESCRIPTION: This is a revised proposal to determine what evolutionary forces affect protein evolution. Four experiments are proposed; all are based on the collection of DNA sequence data from the closely related species Drosophila ..
- Convergent Molecular Evolution of Moth and Spider SilksNADIA AYOUB; Fiscal Year: 2009..the molecular basis for adaptation is to examine the genetic architecture underlying cases of convergent evolution, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes in distantly related organisms...
- Antibiotic Potentiators Targeting SOS InductionTimothy Opperman; Fiscal Year: 2009..Induction of the SOS response increases the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the horizontal transfer of virulence factors...
- Host and Pathogen Evolution in Lassa FeverPardis Sabeti; Fiscal Year: 2010..by the applicant) Abstract: Disease-causing pathogens are among the most intriguing forces shaping human evolution, as they have a tremendous impact on our genome and themselves evolve over time...
- COMPUTER BASED SEQUENCE ANALYSIS AND RNA VIRUS EVOLUTIONMARCELLA MCCLURE; Fiscal Year: 1999..goal of the proposed research is the analysis of biological sequence data to address the molecular mechanisms of evolution and the origin(s) of all viruses and related genetic elements...
- EVOLUTION OF THE RIBONUCLEASE SUPERFAMILYSteven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2001..The evolution of molecular and biological behavior is set in a historical context by correlating it with the evolution of ..
- Evolution of vertebrate sensory genesJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010..objective of my laboratory is to understand how genetic changes contribute to the survival, adaptation, and evolution of organisms. All organisms live in biotic and abiotic environments that change over time...