evolution

Summary

Summary: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi APE: Analyses of Phylogenetics and Evolution in R language
    Emmanuel Paradis
    Laboratoire de Paléontologie, Paléobiologie and Phylogénie, Institut des Sciences de l Evolution, Universite Montpellier II, F 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France
    Bioinformatics 20:289-90. 2004
  2. doi Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution
    Benjamin M Bolker
    Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 8525, USA
    Trends Ecol Evol 24:127-35. 2009
  3. pmc Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence
    Alexei J Drummond
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 4:e88. 2006
  4. pmc Five rules for the evolution of cooperation
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, and Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 314:1560-3. 2006
  5. ncbi Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology
    J P Huelsenbeck
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Science 294:2310-4. 2001
  6. doi Genomics and evolution of heritable bacterial symbionts
    Nancy A Moran
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 42:165-90. 2008
  7. ncbi Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution
    Denis Reale
    Canada Research Chair in Behavioural Ecology and Groupe de Recherche en Ecologie Comportementale et Animale, Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 82:291-318. 2007
  8. ncbi Widespread parallel evolution in sticklebacks by repeated fixation of Ectodysplasin alleles
    Pamela F Colosimo
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5329, USA
    Science 307:1928-33. 2005
  9. pmc The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functions
    Sabeeha S Merchant
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 318:245-50. 2007
  10. ncbi Spatial structure often inhibits the evolution of cooperation in the snowdrift game
    Christoph Hauert
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nature 428:643-6. 2004

Detail Information

Publications352 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi APE: Analyses of Phylogenetics and Evolution in R language
    Emmanuel Paradis
    Laboratoire de Paléontologie, Paléobiologie and Phylogénie, Institut des Sciences de l Evolution, Universite Montpellier II, F 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France
    Bioinformatics 20:289-90. 2004
    Analysis of Phylogenetics and Evolution (APE) is a package written in the R language for use in molecular evolution and phylogenetics...
  2. doi Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution
    Benjamin M Bolker
    Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 8525, USA
    Trends Ecol Evol 24:127-35. 2009
    ..of research on GLMMs in the last decade has generated considerable uncertainty for practitioners in ecology and evolution. Despite the availability of accurate techniques for estimating GLMM parameters in simple cases, complex GLMMs ..
  3. pmc Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence
    Alexei J Drummond
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 4:e88. 2006
    ..From these we conclude that our method is phylogenetically more accurate and precise than the traditional unrooted model while adding the ability to infer a timescale to evolution.
  4. pmc Five rules for the evolution of cooperation
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, and Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 314:1560-3. 2006
    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation...
  5. ncbi Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology
    J P Huelsenbeck
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Science 294:2310-4. 2001
    ....
  6. doi Genomics and evolution of heritable bacterial symbionts
    Nancy A Moran
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 42:165-90. 2008
    ..In addition, insect symbionts provide some of the extremes of cellular genomes, including the smallest and the fastest evolving, raising new questions about the limits of evolution of life.
  7. ncbi Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution
    Denis Reale
    Canada Research Chair in Behavioural Ecology and Groupe de Recherche en Ecologie Comportementale et Animale, Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 82:291-318. 2007
    ..genetics, pharmacology, and animal husbandry, but relatively few studies have examined the ecology and evolution of temperament traits...
  8. ncbi Widespread parallel evolution in sticklebacks by repeated fixation of Ectodysplasin alleles
    Pamela F Colosimo
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5329, USA
    Science 307:1928-33. 2005
    ..EDA) signaling pathway plays a key role in evolutionary change in natural populations and that parallel evolution of stickleback low-plated phenotypes at most freshwater locations around the world has occurred by repeated ..
  9. pmc The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functions
    Sabeeha S Merchant
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 318:245-50. 2007
    ....
  10. ncbi Spatial structure often inhibits the evolution of cooperation in the snowdrift game
    Christoph Hauert
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nature 428:643-6. 2004
    ..basis of spatial extensions of the Prisoner's Dilemma, it is widely accepted that spatial structure promotes the evolution of cooperation...
  11. ncbi Evolution experiments with microorganisms: the dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation
    Santiago F Elena
    Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 46022 Valencia, Spain
    Nat Rev Genet 4:457-69. 2003
    ..Now, a field of research has developed around the idea of using microorganisms to study evolution in action...
  12. ncbi Unifying the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogens
    Bryan T Grenfell
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK
    Science 303:327-32. 2004
    ..A central pillar of this model is the Evolutionary Infectivity Profile, which captures the relationship between immune selection and pathogen transmission...
  13. doi Maximum likelihood inference of geographic range evolution by dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesis
    Richard H Ree
    Department of Botany, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA
    Syst Biol 57:4-14. 2008
    In historical biogeography, model-based inference methods for reconstructing the evolution of geographic ranges on phylogenetic trees are poorly developed relative to the diversity of analogous methods available for inferring character ..
  14. doi Green evolution and dynamic adaptations revealed by genomes of the marine picoeukaryotes Micromonas
    Alexandra Z Worden
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA 95039 USA
    Science 324:268-72. 2009
    ..Analyses of the Micromonas genomes offer valuable insights into ecological differentiation and the dynamic nature of early plant evolution.
  15. ncbi Adaptive protein evolution at the Adh locus in Drosophila
    J H McDonald
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544
    Nature 351:652-4. 1991
    ..Here we propose a simple statistical test of the neutral protein evolution hypothesis based on a comparison of the number of amino-acid replacement substitutions to synonymous ..
  16. ncbi Hsp90 as a capacitor of phenotypic variation
    Christine Queitsch
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nature 417:618-24. 2002
    ..Manipulating Hsp90's buffering capacity offers a tool for harnessing cryptic genetic variation and for elucidating the interplay between genotypes, environments and stochastic events in the determination of phenotype...
  17. ncbi Founding events in species invasions: genetic variation, adaptive evolution, and the role of multiple introductions
    K M Dlugosch
    Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
    Mol Ecol 17:431-49. 2008
    ..for loss of diversity in quantitative traits? Do invaders that have experienced strong bottlenecks show adaptive evolution? How do multiple introductions influence adaptation on a landscape scale? We reviewed studies of 80 species of ..
  18. ncbi Cooperation and competition in the evolution of ATP-producing pathways
    T Pfeiffer
    Friedrich Miescher Institute, Post Office Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland, , D-13092 Berlin, Germany
    Science 292:504-7. 2001
    ..Furthermore, we argue that the high ATP yield of respiration may have facilitated the evolutionary transition from unicellular to undifferentiated multicellular organisms...
  19. ncbi Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: prevalence, mechanisms, and implications for the study of heredity and evolution
    Eva Jablonka
    The Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Q Rev Biol 84:131-76. 2009
    ..We conclude by exploring some of the consequences of epigenetic inheritance for the study of evolution, while also pointing to the importance of recognizing and understanding epigenetic inheritance for practical and ..
  20. ncbi Altruistic punishment in humans
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 415:137-40. 2002
    ..These results suggest that future study of the evolution of human cooperation should include a strong focus on explaining altruistic punishment.
  21. pmc Adaptive evolution of pelvic reduction in sticklebacks by recurrent deletion of a Pitx1 enhancer
    Yingguang Frank Chan
    Department of Developmental Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 327:302-5. 2010
    ....
  22. ncbi Perspective: Sign epistasis and genetic constraint on evolutionary trajectories
    Daniel M Weinreich
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Evolution 59:1165-74. 2005
    ..Although epistasis is widely observed in nature, our understanding of its consequences for evolution by natural selection remains incomplete...
  23. doi Experimental evolution of bet hedging
    Hubertus J E Beaumont
    New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study and Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, North Shore Mail Centre, North Shore City 0745, Auckland, New Zealand
    Nature 462:90-3. 2009
    ..Here we report the de novo evolution of bet hedging in experimental bacterial populations...
  24. pmc Gene regulatory networks in the evolution and development of the heart
    Eric N Olson
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Science 313:1922-7. 2006
    ..During evolution, this ancestral gene network was expanded through gene duplication and co-option of additional networks...
  25. pmc Ancient animal microRNAs and the evolution of tissue identity
    Foteini Christodoulou
    Developmental Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 463:1084-8. 2010
    The spectacular escalation in complexity in early bilaterian evolution correlates with a strong increase in the number of microRNAs...
  26. ncbi Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life
    Francesca D Ciccarelli
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69012 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 311:1283-7. 2006
    ..For example, we place the phylum Acidobacteria as a sister group of delta-Proteobacteria, support a Gram-positive origin of Bacteria, and suggest a thermophilic last universal common ancestor...
  27. pmc Evolution of the neocortex: a perspective from developmental biology
    Pasko Rakic
    Department of Neurobiology and Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:724-35. 2009
    The enlargement and species-specific elaboration of the cerebral neocortex during evolution holds the secret to the mental abilities of humans; however, the genetic origin and cellular mechanisms that generated the distinct evolutionary ..
  28. ncbi The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolution
    Eugene Rosenberg
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel 69978
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:355-62. 2007
    ..Generalization of the coral probiotic hypothesis has led us to propose the hologenome theory of evolution.
  29. pmc Evolution of the core and pan-genome of Streptococcus: positive selection, recombination, and genome composition
    Tristan Lefebure
    Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Genome Biol 8:R71. 2007
    ..This study employs comparative evolutionary analyses of 26 Streptococcus genomes to yield an improved understanding of the relative roles of recombination and positive selection in pathogen adaptation to their hosts...
  30. pmc Comprehensive functional analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin-antitoxin systems: implications for pathogenesis, stress responses, and evolution
    Holly R Ramage
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000767. 2009
    ..The expansion and maintenance of TA genes in the MTBC, coupled with the finding that a subset is transcriptionally activated by stress, suggests that TA systems are important for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis...
  31. ncbi Adaptive evolution and explosive speciation: the cichlid fish model
    Thomas D Kocher
    Hubbard Center for Genome Studies, University of New Hampshire, Suite 400, Environmental Technology Building, 35 Colovos Road, Durham, New Hampshire 03824, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 5:288-98. 2004
  32. ncbi Hsp90 potentiates the rapid evolution of new traits: drug resistance in diverse fungi
    Leah E Cowen
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 309:2185-9. 2005
    Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone for many signal transducers and may influence evolution by releasing previously silent genetic variation in response to environmental change...
  33. pmc A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks
    Hisashi Ohtsuki
    Department of Biology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
    Nature 441:502-5. 2006
    ..In this case, cooperation can evolve as a consequence of 'social viscosity' even in the absence of reputation effects or strategic complexity...
  34. ncbi The locus of evolution: evo devo and the genetics of adaptation
    Hopi E Hoekstra
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and The Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Evolution 61:995-1016. 2007
    ..In addition, some forms of protein evolution can avoid the negative consequences of pleiotropy, most notably via gene duplication...
  35. pmc DNA transposons and the evolution of eukaryotic genomes
    CEDRIC FESCHOTTE
    Department of Biology, University of Texas, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 41:331-68. 2007
    ..Finally, we highlight how the distinctive biological features of DNA transposons have contributed to shape genome architecture and led to the emergence of genetic innovations in different eukaryotic lineages...
  36. pmc Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli
    Zachary D Blount
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7899-906. 2008
    The role of historical contingency in evolution has been much debated, but rarely tested. Twelve initially identical populations of Escherichia coli were founded in 1988 to investigate this issue...
  37. ncbi Prisoner's dilemma in an RNA virus
    P E Turner
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park 20742, USA
    Nature 398:441-3. 1999
    The evolution of competitive interactions among viruses was studied in the RNA phage phi6 at high and low multiplicities of infection (that is, at high and low ratios of infecting phage to host cells)...
  38. ncbi Sea anemone genome reveals ancestral eumetazoan gene repertoire and genomic organization
    Nicholas H Putnam
    Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA
    Science 317:86-94. 2007
    ..Analysis of diverse pathways suggests that these gene "inventions" along the lineage leading to animals were likely already well integrated with preexisting eukaryotic genes in the eumetazoan progenitor...
  39. ncbi The nature of human altruism
    Ernst Fehr
    University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Blumlisalpstrasse 10, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 425:785-91. 2003
    ..Current gene-based evolutionary theories cannot explain important patterns of human altruism, pointing towards the importance of both theories of cultural evolution as well as gene-culture co-evolution.
  40. pmc Evolution at two levels: on genes and form
    Sean B Carroll
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e245. 2005
  41. ncbi Adaptive radiation in a heterogeneous environment
    P B Rainey
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, UK
    Nature 394:69-72. 1998
    Successive adaptive radiations have played a pivotal role in the evolution of biological diversity. The effects of adaptive radiation are often seen, but the underlying causes are difficult to disentangle and remain unclear...
  42. ncbi Genomic evolution of Hox gene clusters
    Derek Lemons
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 313:1918-22. 2006
    ..reduced, or expanded in many animals-findings that correlate with interesting morphological changes in evolution. Hox gene clusters also contain many noncoding RNAs, such as intergenic regulatory transcripts and ..
  43. ncbi Phenotypic plasticity in the interactions and evolution of species
    A A Agrawal
    Department of Botany, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada
    Science 294:321-6. 2001
    ..The evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity has led to the success of organisms in novel habitats, and potentially ..
  44. doi Virulence evolution and the trade-off hypothesis: history, current state of affairs and the future
    S Alizon
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Queen s University, Kingston, Canada
    J Evol Biol 22:245-59. 2009
    ..We discuss the history of the study of virulence evolution and the development of theories towards the trade-off hypothesis in order to illustrate the context of the ..
  45. ncbi GEIGER: investigating evolutionary radiations
    Luke J Harmon
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
    Bioinformatics 24:129-31. 2008
    ..GEIGER can carry out simulations, parameter estimation and statistical hypothesis testing. Additionally, GEIGER's simulation algorithms can be used to analyze the statistical power of comparative approaches...
  46. ncbi Living with the past: evolution, development, and patterns of disease
    Peter D Gluckman
    Liggins Institute, University of Auckland and National Research Centre for Growth and Development, 2 6 Park Avenue, Grafton, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
    Science 305:1733-6. 2004
    ..This "developmental origins of health and disease" concept may have important biological, medical, and socioeconomic implications...
  47. doi Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic responses
    P Gienapp
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, PO Box 65, FI 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    Mol Ecol 17:167-78. 2008
    ..Hence, clear-cut evidence indicating a significant role for evolutionary adaptation to ongoing climate warming is conspicuously scarce...
  48. ncbi A gene-coexpression network for global discovery of conserved genetic modules
    Joshua M Stuart
    Stanford Medical Informatics, 251 Campus Drive, Medical School Office Building X 215, Stanford, CA 94305 5329, USA
    Science 302:249-55. 2003
    ..We found 22,163 such coexpression relationships, each of which has been conserved across evolution. This conservation implies that the coexpression of these gene pairs confers a selective advantage and therefore ..
  49. pmc Detection of genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS) in genomes of positive-stranded RNA viruses: Implications for virus evolution and host persistence
    Peter Simmonds
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, EH9 1QH
    RNA 10:1337-51. 2004
    ..These findings potentially reconcile the rapid evolution of RNA viruses over short periods with the documented examples of extreme conservatism evident from their ..
  50. pmc Evolutionary dynamics of social dilemmas in structured heterogeneous populations
    F C Santos
    Institut de Recherches Interdisciplinaires et de Développements en Intelligence Artificielle, CP 194 6, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:3490-4. 2006
    ..We study the evolution of cooperation, modeled in terms of the most popular dilemmas of cooperation...
  51. doi Convergent sequence evolution between echolocating bats and dolphins
    Yang Liu
    School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    Curr Biol 20:R53-4. 2010
    Cases of convergent evolution - where different lineages have evolved similar traits independently - are common and have proven central to our understanding of selection...
  52. ncbi Scale-free networks provide a unifying framework for the emergence of cooperation
    F C Santos
    GADGET, Apartado 1329, 1009 001 Lisbon, Portugal
    Phys Rev Lett 95:098104. 2005
    We study the evolution of cooperation in the framework of evolutionary game theory, adopting the prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift game as metaphors of cooperation between unrelated individuals...
  53. ncbi The evolution of human skin coloration
    N G Jablonski
    Department of Anthropology, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118 4599, USA
    J Hum Evol 39:57-106. 2000
    ..The evolution of a naked, darkly pigmented integument occurred early in the evolution of the genus Homo...
  54. pmc Evolution of cooperation by multilevel selection
    Arne Traulsen
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Departments of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10952-5. 2006
    ..We derive a fundamental condition for the evolution of cooperation by group selection: if b/c > 1 + n/m, then group selection favors cooperation...
  55. pmc Modular networks and cumulative impact of lateral transfer in prokaryote genome evolution
    Tal Dagan
    Institut für Botanik III, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Universitatsstrasse 1, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10039-44. 2008
    ..of natural variation among prokaryotes, but the significance of its quantitative contribution to genome evolution is debated...
  56. doi The puzzle of plastid evolution
    John M Archibald
    The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Integrated Microbial Biodiversity, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5, Canada
    Curr Biol 19:R81-8. 2009
    ..of the origin and spread of plastids remains an important yet elusive goal in the field of eukaryotic evolution. Combined with the discovery of new photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic protist lineages, the results of ..
  57. pmc Sponge-associated microorganisms: evolution, ecology, and biotechnological potential
    Michael W Taylor
    Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Vienna, Althanstr 14, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71:295-347. 2007
    ..We review the status of this important field, outlining the various approaches (e.g., cultivation, cell separation, and metagenomics) which have been employed to access the chemical wealth of sponge-microbe associations...
  58. ncbi Phenotypic diversity, population growth, and information in fluctuating environments
    Edo Kussell
    Laboratory of Living Matter and Center for Studies in Physics and Biology, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 34, New York, NY 10021 6399, USA
    Science 309:2075-8. 2005
    ..The optimal switching rates then mimic the statistics of environmental changes. We derive a relation between the long-term growth rate of the organism and the information available about its fluctuating environment...
  59. pmc Global analysis of Cdk1 substrate phosphorylation sites provides insights into evolution
    Liam J Holt
    Departments of Physiology and Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Science 325:1682-6. 2009
    To explore the mechanisms and evolution of cell-cycle control, we analyzed the position and conservation of large numbers of phosphorylation sites for the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  60. ncbi Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring
    M A Nowak
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Nature 393:573-7. 1998
    Darwinian evolution has to provide an explanation for cooperative behaviour. Theories of cooperation are based on kin selection (dependent on genetic relatedness), group selection and reciprocal altruism...
  61. pmc Coevolution of diet and prey-specific venom activity supports the role of selection in snake venom evolution
    Axel Barlow
    School of Biological Sciences, Environment Centre Wales, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 276:2443-9. 2009
    The processes that drive the evolution of snake venom variability, particularly the role of diet, have been a topic of intense recent research interest...
  62. doi Expansion and evolution of cell death programmes
    Alexei Degterev
    Tufts University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, 136 Harrison Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9:378-90. 2008
    ..Here we examine how and why these different cell death programmes have evolved, with an eye towards new cytoprotective therapeutic opportunities...
  63. pmc Antagonistic coevolution accelerates molecular evolution
    Steve Paterson
    School of Biological Sciences, Biosciences Building, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK
    Nature 464:275-8. 2010
    ..hypothesis proposes that coevolution of interacting species (such as hosts and parasites) should drive molecular evolution through continual natural selection for adaptation and counter-adaptation...
  64. pmc Evolution in the fast lane: rapidly evolving sex-related genes in Drosophila
    Wilfried Haerty
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada
    Genetics 177:1321-35. 2007
    ..genes, male seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), and spermatogenesis genes show lineage-specific bursts of accelerated evolution and positive selection. SFP genes also show evidence of lineage-specific gene loss and/or gain...
  65. doi Explaining evolution of plant communication by airborne signals
    Martin Heil
    Departamento de Ingeniería Genética CINVESTAV, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico
    Trends Ecol Evol 25:137-44. 2010
    ..This information is crucial to understanding the ecology and evolution of plant communication via airborne cues.
  66. doi Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic evolution
    Patrick J Keeling
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z, Canada
    Nat Rev Genet 9:605-18. 2008
    ..Horizontal gene transfer (HGT; also known as lateral gene transfer) has had an important role in eukaryotic genome evolution, but its importance is often overshadowed by the greater prevalence and our more advanced understanding of gene ..
  67. doi Adaptive evolution in invasive species
    Peter J Prentis
    Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, South Australia 5005, Australia
    Trends Plant Sci 13:288-94. 2008
    ..Understanding the source of variation that contributes to adaptive evolution in invasive plants is important for predicting future invasion scenarios, identifying candidate genes involved ..
  68. ncbi Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication
    Jared Diamond
    Department of Physiology, University of California Medical School, Los Angeles, 90095 1751, USA
    Nature 418:700-7. 2002
    ....
  69. pmc Origins and evolution of eukaryotic RNA interference
    Svetlana A Shabalina
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Trends Ecol Evol 23:578-87. 2008
    ..of diverse eukaryotes available for comparison, the opportunity emerges for insights into the origin and evolution of RNA interference (RNAi). The miRNA repertoires of plants and animals appear to have evolved independently...
  70. pmc Copy number variation and evolution in humans and chimpanzees
    George H Perry
    School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA
    Genome Res 18:1698-710. 2008
    ..In particular, duplications and deletions of genes with inflammatory response and cell proliferation functions may have been fixed by positive selection and involved in the adaptive phenotypic differentiation of humans and chimpanzees...
  71. ncbi Public information: from nosy neighbors to cultural evolution
    Etienne Danchin
    U P M C CNRS UMR7625, Bât A 7e étage Case 237, 7 quai Saint Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Science 305:487-91. 2004
    ..The use of public information is taxonomically widespread and can enhance fitness. Public information can lead to cultural evolution, which we suggest may then affect biological evolution.
  72. pmc Worlds within worlds: evolution of the vertebrate gut microbiota
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:776-88. 2008
    ....
  73. pmc Origin and evolution of the mitochondrial proteome
    C G Kurland
    Department of Molecular Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, Uppsala SE 752 36, Lund University, Lund SE 223 62, Sweden
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64:786-820. 2000
    ..There are no indications of a specific alpha-proteobacterial origin to genes for glycolysis. In the absence of data to the contrary, it is assumed that the ancestral host cell was a heterotroph...
  74. ncbi Quantifying social group evolution
    Gergely Palla
    Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group of the HAS, Pázmány P stny 1A, H 1117 Budapest, Hungary
    Nature 446:664-7. 2007
    ..communication patterns of individuals, the associated social and communication network is subject to constant evolution. Our knowledge of the mechanisms governing the underlying community dynamics is limited, but is essential for a ..
  75. pmc Preservation of duplicate genes by complementary, degenerative mutations
    A Force
    Department of Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA
    Genetics 151:1531-45. 1999
    The origin of organismal complexity is generally thought to be tightly coupled to the evolution of new gene functions arising subsequent to gene duplication...
  76. ncbi Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century
    Loren Cordain
    Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:341-54. 2005
    ..The evolutionary collision of our ancient genome with the nutritional qualities of recently introduced foods may underlie many of the chronic diseases of Western civilization...
  77. ncbi Positive natural selection in the human lineage
    P C Sabeti
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Science 312:1614-20. 2006
    ....
  78. doi The evolution of the arcuate fasciculus revealed with comparative DTI
    James K Rilling
    Department of Anthropology, Emory University, 207 Anthropology Building, 1557 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Nat Neurosci 11:426-8. 2008
    ..This human specialization may be relevant to the evolution of language.
  79. ncbi Evolution in the social brain
    R I M Dunbar
    British Academy Centenary Research Project, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK
    Science 317:1344-7. 2007
    The evolution of unusually large brains in some groups of animals, notably primates, has long been a puzzle...
  80. ncbi A likelihood framework for inferring the evolution of geographic range on phylogenetic trees
    Richard H Ree
    Department of Botany, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA
    Evolution 59:2299-311. 2005
    ..Here we describe a likelihood framework for inferring the evolution of geographic range on phylogenies that models lineage dispersal and local extinction in a set of discrete areas ..
  81. pmc Is evolution Darwinian or/and Lamarckian?
    Eugene V Koonin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Biol Direct 4:42. 2009
    ..Lamarck believed that evolution is driven primarily by non-randomly acquired, beneficial phenotypic changes, in particular, those directly ..
  82. ncbi Optimality and evolutionary tuning of the expression level of a protein
    Erez Dekel
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Physics of Complex Systems, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Nature 436:588-92. 2005
    ..We then performed serial dilution evolution experiments at different lactose concentrations...
  83. ncbi Host-microbe interactions: shaping the evolution of the plant immune response
    Stephen T Chisholm
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, 111 Koshland Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell 124:803-14. 2006
    The evolution of the plant immune response has culminated in a highly effective defense system that is able to resist potential attack by microbial pathogens...
  84. ncbi Estimating synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates under realistic evolutionary models
    Z Yang
    Department of Biology, University College London, England
    Mol Biol Evol 17:32-43. 2000
    ..in those steps and propose a new approximate method that takes into account two major features of DNA sequence evolution: transition/transversion rate bias and base/codon frequency bias...
  85. pmc Pattern pluralism and the Tree of Life hypothesis
    W Ford Doolittle
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 1X5
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:2043-9. 2007
    ..organisms based on their similarities and differences [the Tree of Life (TOL)] was a fact of nature, for which evolution, and in particular a branching process of descent with modification, was the explanation...
  86. pmc Tracking the in vivo evolution of multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by whole-genome sequencing
    Michael M Mwangi
    Physics Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:9451-6. 2007
    ..Here, we apply the power of whole-genome sequencing to identify steps in the evolution of multidrug resistance in isogenic S...
  87. ncbi A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flight
    Alan H Turner
    Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 5192, USA
    Science 317:1378-81. 2007
    ..the clade including Avialae, Troodontidae, and Dromaeosauridae), phylogenetically earlier than where flight evolution is strongly inferred...
  88. ncbi The delayed rise of present-day mammals
    Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds
    Lehrstuhl für Tierzucht, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany
    Nature 446:507-12. 2007
    ....
  89. pmc Is genetic evolution predictable?
    David L Stern
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Science 323:746-51. 2009
    ..However, recent observations indicate that all genes are not equal in the eyes of evolution. Evolutionarily relevant mutations tend to accumulate in hotspot genes and at specific positions within genes...
  90. pmc Polygenic and directional regulatory evolution across pathways in Saccharomyces
    James H Bullard
    Division of Biostatistics, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5058-63. 2010
    ..Powerful molecular evolution approaches have been developed to test individual loci for signatures of selection...
  91. pmc Toward reconstructing the evolution of advanced moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia): an initial molecular study
    Jerome C Regier
    Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park, 20742, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 9:280. 2009
    ..7 kb total), and character subsets therein, to resolve relationships among 123 species representing 27 (of 33) superfamilies and 55 (of 100) families of Ditrysia under maximum likelihood analysis...
  92. ncbi A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition
    L Buck
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032
    Cell 65:175-87. 1991
    ..The members of this novel gene family are likely to encode a diverse family of odorant receptors...
  93. pmc Evolution of mammals and their gut microbes
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 320:1647-51. 2008
    ....
  94. ncbi Behavioral syndromes: an intergrative overiew
    Andrew Sih
    Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Q Rev Biol 79:241-77. 2004
    ..Here, we present an integrative overview on the potential importance of behavioral syndromes in evolution and ecology...
  95. pmc Sex and virulence in Escherichia coli: an evolutionary perspective
    Thierry Wirth
    Department of Molecular Biology, Schumannstrasse 21 22, Max Planck Institut für Infektionsbiologie, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 60:1136-51. 2006
    ..Rates of evolution have accelerated in pathogenic lineages, culminating in highly virulent organisms whose genomic contents are ..
  96. ncbi BIONJ: an improved version of the NJ algorithm based on a simple model of sequence data
    O Gascuel
    GERAD, Ecole des HEC, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Biol Evol 14:685-95. 1997
    ..In the latter case, for the model trees and the conditions of evolution tested, the topological error reduction is on the average around 20%...
  97. ncbi Genetic diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus--15 years on
    Peter Simmonds
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, UK
    J Gen Virol 85:3173-88. 2004
    ..These contrasting aspects of conservatism and adaptability provide a fascinating paradigm in which to explore the complex selection pressures that underlie the evolution of HCV and other persistent viruses.
  98. pmc Inference of bacterial microevolution using multilocus sequence data
    Xavier Didelot
    Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SY, United Kingdom
    Genetics 175:1251-66. 2007
    ..The software used in this article, ClonalFrame, is available from http://bacteria.stats.ox.ac.uk/...
  99. ncbi Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology
    M E Feder
    Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy and Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 61:243-82. 1999
    ....
  100. pmc Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Stochastic epigenetic variation as a driving force of development, evolutionary adaptation, and disease
    Andrew P Feinberg
    Center for Epigenetics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1757-64. 2010
    ..Here, we propose a new non-Lamarckian theory for a role of epigenetics in evolution. We suggest that genetic variants that do not change the mean phenotype could change the variability of ..
  101. ncbi Flavonoids: a colorful model for the regulation and evolution of biochemical pathways
    Ronald Koes
    Department of Genetics, Institute for Molecular Biological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Trends Plant Sci 10:236-42. 2005
    ..Moreover, because pigmentation is studied in a variety of species, it provides unique molecular insights into the evolution of biochemical pathways and regulatory networks.

Research Grants70

  1. Genetic variation and regulatory networks: Mechanisms and complexity
    DANA PE ER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These tools will be made publicly available, including a friendly graphical user interface and visualization. ..
  2. Personalized Clinical Diagnostics and Beyond: Integrated Ring Resonator Arrays
    Ryan Bailey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This technology promises to broadly impact the landscape of the biomedical sciences, both meeting the clinical diagnostic challenges of today and pioneering the paradigm-shifting discoveries of tomorrow. ..
  3. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    Junying Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..No Abstract provided ..
  4. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    ERICH JARVIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..vocal non-learners would have profound impact towards understanding molecular mechanisms of vocal learning and evolution of language...
  5. Sphingolipid Metabolism in Drosophila Development
    Julie D Saba; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of how SPL functions in the context of muscle tissue and how its function may have been modified throughout evolution. These studies should be readily achieved by our team, which has extensive experience in sphingolipid ..
  6. Systematics of medically important Dermacentor tick vectors
    Dmitry A Apanaskevich; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Investigation of the evolutionary history of these ticks will help us to understand the evolution of vector competence and provide a strong basis for establishing a meaningful classification system...
  7. The Kallikrein/Kinin-Mast Cell Interaction in Volume Overload
    CHIH CHANG KEVIN WEI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..adaptive responses of the circulating versus tissue specific kallikrein/kinin generating mechanism in the evolution of cardiovascular disease and the impact of targeted bradykinin therapy on such changes...
  8. Gene Therapy with Cardiotropic Vectors for the Treatment of Heart Failure
    Roger J Hajjar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of myocardial dysfunction, together with the evolution of increasingly efficient gene transfer technology, have placed some cardiovascular diseases within reach of ..
  9. Environmental Risk Factors for Copy Number Variation in Human Chromosomes
    THOMAS EDWARD WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..important component of genetic variation and play an integral role in phenotypic diversity, complex disease and evolution. Over 1300 CNVs with frequencies of >1% have been described in healthy individuals that exist as deletions or ..
  10. Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program
    Catherine Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..offers a compelling opportunity to examine the contribution of changes in endogenous sex hormones (ESH) to the evolution of glucose intolerance in postmenopausal women...
  11. Novel genomic effects of Y-linked polymorphisms
    Daniel L Hartl; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Selection acting through regulatory effects may drive the rapid evolution of noncoding sequences in the Y chromosome, which are evolutionarily much more dynamic than single-copy ..
  12. Mechanisms of Neutralizing Antibody Resistance in Chronic HCV and HIV Infection
    JUSTIN RICHARD BAILEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..He has spent the research years of his Infectious Diseases fellowship studying hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope evolution with his primary mentor, Dr. Stuart Ray...
  13. A Novel Thioredoxin Mimetic Prodrug for Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Prakash Jagtap; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our current understanding of RDS and its evolution into bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is consistent with a mechanism of injury produced by an excess of ..
  14. VISUAL SCIENCES TRAINING PROGRAM
    Eric Pearlman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, as vision research has expanded at CWRU, there has been a natural evolution of five research/training groups that have distinct identities but also considerable overlap among participants...
  15. BMP signaling in vertebrate development
    Ken W Y Cho; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The roles of BMPs have diverged in evolution and include the control of gametogenesis, early embryonic development, cell differentiation/apoptosis, and ..
  16. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF HEMOGLOBINS AND MYOGLOBINS
    John S Olson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..biophysical mechanisms for O2 stabilization, rapid ligand binding, and NO dioxygenation;(b) insight into the evolution of globin structures and functions, from Archaea to Bacteria to Eucarya;and (c) a framework for inhibiting the ..
  17. Insights from Comparative Genomics for the Treatment of Pneumococcal Infections
    Natalia Luisa Hiller; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Darren Martin at Cape Town University, an expert in the detection of recombination and it's role in evolution;2) Dr. David Sherman at the University of Michigan, a specialist in biochemical synthesis;3) Drs...
  18. CT Evaluation of the Myocardial Effects of Risk Factors
    Lilach O Lerman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the myocardial microcirculation would advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of cardiac injury during the evolution of MetS, in a manner potentially applicable to humans...
  19. Insights from Comparative Genomics for the Treatment of Pneumococcal Infections
    Natalia Luisa Hiller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Darren Martin at Cape Town University, an expert in the detection of recombination and it's role in evolution;2) Dr. David Sherman at the University of Michigan, a specialist in biochemical synthesis;3) Drs...
  20. Evolution of the Immune Response to Cytomegalovirus Transmitted via Breast Milk
    Lynn Puddington; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This exploratory study is designed to define the evolution of the immune response following murine CMV (MCMV) infection acquired by maternal transmission during ..
  21. Mechanisms of Splicing Regulation During Environmental Stress in Yeast
    Jaclyn C Greimann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It is possible that yeast retained only introns with an important function throughout evolution. Interestingly, the yeast intron-containing genes fall into only a few classes such as ribosomal protein genes, ..
  22. Genetics of Cryptococcus sexual reproduction
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, our studies on the roles of sex in pathogen evolution and emergence are of general importance...
  23. EPIDEMIOLOGY: OXIDATIVE STRESS AND EARLY ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    David R Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These indicators will provide new information that is critical for our understanding of the evolution of oxidative stress and its interaction with obesity, inflammation, sources of oxidants and dietary intakes in ..
  24. SCHISTOSOME EGG INDUCED TH2 RESPONSES
    Edward J Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 1 is to understand the role of the Tfh/B cell axis during infection. Here we will determine the evolution of the T cell and B cell responses over time during infection, incorporating a detailed study of Th2 cells, Tfh ..
  25. EPIDEMIOLOGY: OXIDATIVE STRESS AND EARLY ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    David Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These indicators will provide new information that is critical for our understanding of the evolution of oxidative stress and its interaction with obesity, inflammation, sources of oxidants and dietary intakes in ..
  26. Varicella zoster virus: molecular controls of cell fusion-dependent pathogenesis
    Ann Arvin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To quantify the effects o tyrosine phosphorylation, the spatiotemporal evolution of syncytia formation will be measured in real-time for VZV and the gBcyt mutants...
  27. Novel genetics, pathobiology &therapy of nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies
    Friedhelm Hildebrandt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PC are sensory organelles expressed by virtually all vertebrate cell types. PC are utilized across evolution, from single cellular organisms to humans, for cellular sensory tasks, including photo-, mechano-, thermo-, ..
  28. Carbohydrate-based Antiinfective Agents
    Chi Huey Wong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The promise of carbohydrate-based anti-infective is that they are less prone to the evolution of microbial resistance, because, carbohydrate ligands themselves are invariant, and carbohydrate recognition is ..
  29. Intestinal Inflammation Induced by Pathogens
    Beth A McCormick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, while the evolution of these responses most likely initially targeted pathogens such as S...
  30. ENZYMOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This will be accomplished by;(i) rational mutagenesis and directed evolution of FosA and FosX activities from a promiscuous progenitor encoded in the genome of Mesorhizobium loti and (ii) ..
  31. T-cell Therapy for B-lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
    Laurence J N Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In aggregate, the results of the studies will facilitate the evolution of targeting post-HSCT MRD with donor-derived CD19-specific T cells for enhanced disease-free survival of ..
  32. Fatty Acid Defects &Oxidative Stress Modulate Islet Function in Cystic Fibrosis
    Aliye Uc; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, the evolution to CFRD and its severity are different between the two models...
  33. Enterovirus RNA Translation and Replication
    David J Barton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..if substantiated by the proposed investigation, will have significant impact on our understanding of molecular evolution, drawing attention to the common features and mechanisms of a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and eukaryotic ..
  34. The Role of PKR in a Novel IL-3 Signal Transduction Pathway
    William Stratford May; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of both the molecular mechanism(s) by which PKR promotes the cellular stress response and PKR's role in MDS evolution to AML. Results will point the way to and provide a basis for discovering novel anti-leukemia therapies.
  35. Mitochondrial Protection Within Chronically Ischemic Myocardium
    Edward O McFalls; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..also examine the effects of glitazones, a therapy for diabetes, and its potential role in UCP-2 induction on the evolution of CHF...
  36. Genomics of RNA Editing: Identification and Regulation
    Jin Billy Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of uncovering the contributions of RNA editing to conserved functions as well as to human-specific neural evolution. We will also carry out large-scale computational analysis to search for RNA editing-related functional elements ..
  37. Research Career Development in Child Health
    Michael W Konstan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It includes didactic and research components to provide training in the pathogenesis and evolution of numerous childhood diseases, including lung disease associated with prematurity, cystic fibrosis, asthma, ..
  38. Treatment of stroke with a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor
    Li Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery elicits a progressive vascular dysfunction, which contributes to the evolution of brain injury...
  39. Pathogenesis of Oxidative Stress in Chagas Disease
    Nisha Jain Garg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PARP-1/Nrf1/2) molecules via abundant mitochondria in the cardiomyocytes is the key event resulting in chronic evolution of chagasic cardiomyopathy...
  40. Research Center for Pharmacology &Drug Toxicology
    L Jackson Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Center is comprised of five research projects and two cores. The proposed research in Project 1 is an evolution of our previous studies in the Center which elucidated that acetaminophen inhibits hemoprotein redox cycling ..
  41. Development of inhibitors of AMP Deaminase Isoform 2 as a Mechanism for Treating
    RICHARD JOSEPH JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In contrast, humans appear to be "locked in" to be fat accumulating due to two mechanisms: first, evolution has provided a human mutation in uricase that results in high uric acid, which we have found further up-..
  42. The role of satellite rasiRNA in the Segregation Distorter system of Drosophila
    AMANDA MARIE LARRACUENTE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. RNAi, rapid gene evolution)...
  43. INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM IN HAIR CELLS
    Robert Fettiplace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Comparison with the properties of the mammalian hair bundles will provide insight into the evolution of cochlear amplification;(5) to measure and alter the concentration of Ca2+ in hair bundles and relate it to ..
  44. Humanized Transgenic Mice Reproduce the Disease Evolution in Severe RA
    Grete Sonderstrup; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Humanized transgenic mice reproduce the disease evolution in severe RA Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease in humans genetically associated with specific HLA class II alleles...
  45. Endemic maintenance of relapsing fever genotypes.
    Michael Bela Teglas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The role of plasmid evolution and the degree to which these relapsing fever genotypes are maintained in distinctive host tropisms has not yet ..
  46. Mechanisms to restrain social cheating from quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aerugin
    AJAI DANDEKAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Peter Greenberg in the Department of Microbiology. I have the immediate goal of continuing my research into the evolution of quorum sensing that I initiated as a fellow...
  47. Genetic and Evolutionary Basis of Fungal Drug Resistance
    Zhenglong Gu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..trait genes that underlie the resistance of pathogenic yeast strains to anti-fungal agents and to determine the evolution of this resistance...
  48. GENETIC APPROACHES TO PROTEIN-NUCLEIC ACID INTERACTIONS
    Paul R Schimmel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The enzymes appeared early in evolution and are essential to all life forms...
  49. Defining evolutionary trajectories: Molecular adaptation to antibiotic resistance
    ADIL YOUSIF SHAMOO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..large populations of bacteria, carrying one of three antibiotic resistance genes, to continuous experimental evolution. By varying the conditions of selection during adaptation, antibiotic resistance mediated by changes to the ..
  50. HIV and CD16+ monocytes as cellular reservoir &HIV/pulmonary hypertension
    Sharilyn Almodovar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    The dynamics of viral replication and evolution in the lungs of patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) remain poorly understood...
  51. Evolutionary Analysis of the Histone Deacetylase Family: Biomedical Research
    JOSEPH LEWIS GRAVES; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The analysis of adaptive evolution in the HDAC family will require the acquisition and alignment of the sequences of HDAC's from all fully ..
  52. Role of FA proteins in hematopoiesis
    Qishen Pang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..clinical observations have established a correlation between abnormal accumulation of ROS and FA BMF/leukemic evolution, the molecular pathways in which FA proteins function to modulate physiologic oxidative stress have not been ..
  53. Structural Studies of RNA Maturation and Processing
    Christopher D Lima; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Fcp1 RNAP II CTD phosphatase is essential and conserved across evolution. Fcp1 can dephosphorylate the RNAP II CTD at S2 and S5 positions although it is unclear if both activities are ..
  54. Molecular pathogenesis and genetic diversification of childhood falciparum malari
    STEVE MYER TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because malaria control measures are at risk of failure due to parasite evolution and changes in immunity, sustaining the gains made in malaria control will require a new generation of ..
  55. The role of polyphosphate and acidocalcisomes in Trypanosoma brucei
    Roberto Docampo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..either appeared before the divergence of bacterial and eukaryotic lineages or independently by convergent evolution. Some of the potential functions of the acidocalcisome are the storage of cations and phosphorus, and its ..
  56. Biofilm matrix-degrading enzymes for the treatment and prevention of S. aureus-as
    Jeffrey B Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, the use of antibiotics to treat wound infections results in the rapid evolution of antibiotic-resistant strains, which further complicates treatment...
  57. TNF and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in ALD
    Craig J McClain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The long-termgoals of our laboratoryare to further define the mechanism(s) involved in the development/evolution of ALDand to develop specific therapies based on this knowledge. The specific objectives of this proposal are: 1...
  58. Advanced Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Disease
    Alexey Samsonov; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Finally, the third aim will measure the ability of qMT biomarkers to predict clinical disability and lesion evolution and enable early detection of pathology in a small population of MS patients and age-matched controls...
  59. Novel Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic HBV
    ROBERT GERALD WHALEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..variants containing xenogeneic sequences with novel T epitopes have been identified using a directed molecular evolution approach...
  60. RNA CONFORMATION AND CATALYSIS
    David P Bartel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The experiments of this proposal focus on the mechanism, biology, and evolution of RNA interference (RNAi), an example of a structure-dependent function in which double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) ..
  61. Training/Research Center-Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes
    Jaroslaw P Maciejewski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Immune pathophysiology and propensity for clonal evolution are the unifying factors in these diseases that can be otherwise very heterogenous...
  62. Discovery of Critical Host Genes Enabling Resistance to HIV-1 Infection as Therap
    Leyla S Diaz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These leading scFv candidates will be built out into full- length human IgG1 antibodies and using molecular evolution approach, the binding affinities of lead antibody candidates will be enhanced by several orders of magnitude...
  63. The role of the host Ca/Mn pump in emergence of novel viral RNA recombinants
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Emergence of new viruses is a continuing threat to our society. Evolution of plus- stranded RNA viruses is frequently driven by RNA recombination, a process that joins noncontiguous RNA segments ..
  64. TEST OF NEUTRAL MOLECULAR EVOLUTION
    Martin Kreitman; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: This is a revised proposal to determine what evolutionary forces affect protein evolution. Four experiments are proposed; all are based on the collection of DNA sequence data from the closely related species Drosophila ..
  65. Convergent Molecular Evolution of Moth and Spider Silks
    NADIA AYOUB; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the molecular basis for adaptation is to examine the genetic architecture underlying cases of convergent evolution, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes in distantly related organisms...
  66. Antibiotic Potentiators Targeting SOS Induction
    Timothy Opperman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Induction of the SOS response increases the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the horizontal transfer of virulence factors...
  67. Host and Pathogen Evolution in Lassa Fever
    Pardis Sabeti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by the applicant) Abstract: Disease-causing pathogens are among the most intriguing forces shaping human evolution, as they have a tremendous impact on our genome and themselves evolve over time...
  68. COMPUTER BASED SEQUENCE ANALYSIS AND RNA VIRUS EVOLUTION
    MARCELLA MCCLURE; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..goal of the proposed research is the analysis of biological sequence data to address the molecular mechanisms of evolution and the origin(s) of all viruses and related genetic elements...
  69. EVOLUTION OF THE RIBONUCLEASE SUPERFAMILY
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The evolution of molecular and biological behavior is set in a historical context by correlating it with the evolution of ..
  70. Evolution of vertebrate sensory genes
    Jianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..objective of my laboratory is to understand how genetic changes contribute to the survival, adaptation, and evolution of organisms. All organisms live in biotic and abiotic environments that change over time...