sex chromosomes

Summary

Summary: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. doi The evolution of restricted recombination in sex chromosomes
    Roberta Bergero
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Trends Ecol Evol 24:94-102. 2009
  2. pmc Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genes
    Maria D Vibranovski
    Department of Ecology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000731. 2009
  3. doi The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken
    Craig A Smith
    Murdoch Children s Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia
    Nature 461:267-71. 2009
  4. pmc Evolutionary erosion of yeast sex chromosomes by mating-type switching accidents
    Jonathan L Gordon
    Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:20024-9. 2011
  5. pmc Sex bias and dosage compensation in the zebra finch versus chicken genomes: general and specialized patterns among birds
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Genome Res 20:512-8. 2010
  6. doi The role of repetitive DNA in structure and evolution of sex chromosomes in plants
    E Kejnovsky
    Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics ASCR, Brno, Czech Republic
    Heredity (Edinb) 102:533-41. 2009
  7. pmc MDC1 directs chromosome-wide silencing of the sex chromosomes in male germ cells
    Yosuke Ichijima
    Division of Reproductive Sciences, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Genes Dev 25:959-71. 2011
  8. pmc Chromosomal gene movements reflect the recent origin and biology of therian sex chromosomes
    Lukasz Potrzebowski
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2 INSERM U625, IFR 140, Universite Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France
    PLoS Biol 6:e80. 2008
  9. pmc General lack of global dosage compensation in ZZ/ZW systems? Broadening the perspective with RNA-seq
    Jochen Bw Wolf
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, August Thienemannstr, 2, 24306 Plön, Germany
    BMC Genomics 12:91. 2011
  10. pmc Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes
    Frederic Veyrunes
    Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra 2601, Australia
    Genome Res 18:965-73. 2008

Research Grants

  1. MEIOTIC CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION IN C ELEGANS
    Anne Villeneuve; Fiscal Year: 2000
  2. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. MOUSE X-CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION
    Christine Disteche; Fiscal Year: 2003
  5. Sex Chromosome Effects in Lupus
    Rhonda Voskuhl; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. Role of sex chromosomes in gender differences in EAE
    Rhonda Voskuhl; Fiscal Year: 2004
  7. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors and Human Sperm Chromosomal Abnormalities
    Melissa Perry; Fiscal Year: 2010
  8. Genetic conflict shapes centromeres and heterochromatin
    Harmit S Malik; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. Germline Silencing of Unpaired Chromatin
    Eleanor M Maine; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. Evolution of Sexually Dimorphic Germ Cells in Volvox carteri
    James G Umen; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications305 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi The evolution of restricted recombination in sex chromosomes
    Roberta Bergero
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Trends Ecol Evol 24:94-102. 2009
    ..often has a genetic basis, and in a wide diversity of taxa a pair of cytologically distinguishable 'sex chromosomes' are found such that the chromosome complements of males and females differ (males are often XY and females ..
  2. pmc Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genes
    Maria D Vibranovski
    Department of Ecology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000731. 2009
    ..These results suggest MSCI as a general mechanism affecting the evolution of some testis-expressed genes...
  3. doi The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken
    Craig A Smith
    Murdoch Children s Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia
    Nature 461:267-71. 2009
    Sex in birds is chromosomally based, as in mammals, but the sex chromosomes are different and the mechanism of avian sex determination has been a long-standing mystery...
  4. pmc Evolutionary erosion of yeast sex chromosomes by mating-type switching accidents
    Jonathan L Gordon
    Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:20024-9. 2011
    ..We suggest that, despite its mutational cost, switching confers an evolutionary benefit by providing a way for an isolated germinating spore to reform spores if the environment is too poor...
  5. pmc Sex bias and dosage compensation in the zebra finch versus chicken genomes: general and specialized patterns among birds
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Genome Res 20:512-8. 2010
    ..These patterns suggest that different avian taxa may have evolved specific compensatory mechanisms...
  6. doi The role of repetitive DNA in structure and evolution of sex chromosomes in plants
    E Kejnovsky
    Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics ASCR, Brno, Czech Republic
    Heredity (Edinb) 102:533-41. 2009
    ..b>Sex chromosomes, especially non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome, are subject to different evolutionary forces ..
  7. pmc MDC1 directs chromosome-wide silencing of the sex chromosomes in male germ cells
    Yosuke Ichijima
    Division of Reproductive Sciences, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Genes Dev 25:959-71. 2011
    Chromosome-wide inactivation is an epigenetic signature of sex chromosomes. The mechanism by which the chromosome-wide domain is recognized and gene silencing is induced remains unclear...
  8. pmc Chromosomal gene movements reflect the recent origin and biology of therian sex chromosomes
    Lukasz Potrzebowski
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2 INSERM U625, IFR 140, Universite Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France
    PLoS Biol 6:e80. 2008
    Mammalian sex chromosomes stem from ancestral autosomes and have substantially differentiated. It was shown that X-linked genes have generated duplicate intronless gene copies (retrogenes) on autosomes due to this differentiation...
  9. pmc General lack of global dosage compensation in ZZ/ZW systems? Broadening the perspective with RNA-seq
    Jochen Bw Wolf
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, August Thienemannstr, 2, 24306 Plön, Germany
    BMC Genomics 12:91. 2011
    Species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes face the challenge of large-scale imbalance in gene dose...
  10. pmc Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes
    Frederic Veyrunes
    Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra 2601, Australia
    Genome Res 18:965-73. 2008
    ..There is no equivalent in other amniotes, although some taxa (notably birds and snakes) have differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZW female: ZZ male system with no homology with mammal sex chromosomes, in which dosage of a Z-..
  11. pmc The origin and evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation
    A M Livernois
    Evolution Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
    Heredity (Edinb) 108:50-8. 2012
    ..Homology shared by Xs and Ys (and Zs and Ws) within species demonstrates that differentiated sex chromosomes were once homologous, and that the sex-specific non-recombining Y (or W) was progressively degraded...
  12. doi Are all sex chromosomes created equal?
    Doris Bachtrog
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Trends Genet 27:350-7. 2011
    ..We suggest directions for research that will greatly increase our general understanding of the forces driving sex-chromosome evolution in diverse organisms...
  13. pmc Rapid de novo evolution of X chromosome dosage compensation in Silene latifolia, a plant with young sex chromosomes
    Aline Muyle
    Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Évolutive UMR 5558, CNRS Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001308. 2012
    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ∼10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S...
  14. ncbi Isolation and physical mapping of sex-linked AFLP markers in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
    M Tariq Ezaz
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 6:435-45. 2004
    ..This confirmed previous evidence, based on meiotic chromosome pairing and fluorescence in situ hybridization probes obtained through chromosome microdissection, that chromosome pair 1 is the sex chromosomes.
  15. pmc Extensive meiotic asynapsis in mice antagonises meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and consequently disrupts meiotic sex chromosome inactivation
    Shantha K Mahadevaiah
    Division of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, England, UK
    J Cell Biol 182:263-76. 2008
    ..Apoptosis does not occur in mice with a single additional asynapsed chromosome with unrepaired meiotic DSBs and no disturbance of MSCI...
  16. pmc Progress and prospects toward our understanding of the evolution of dosage compensation
    Beatriz Vicoso
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Chromosome Res 17:585-602. 2009
    In many eukaryotic organisms, gender is determined by a pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Degeneration of the non-recombining Y chromosome is a general facet of sex chromosome evolution...
  17. doi All dosage compensation is local: gene-by-gene regulation of sex-biased expression on the chicken Z chromosome
    J E Mank
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 102:312-20. 2009
    ....
  18. doi The different levels of genetic diversity in sex chromosomes and autosomes
    Hans Ellegren
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Trends Genet 25:278-84. 2009
    b>Sex chromosomes and autosomes differ in their effective population size, mutation and demography, all of which affect the relative level of genetic diversity within the genome...
  19. pmc Convergent evolution of chicken Z and human X chromosomes by expansion and gene acquisition
    Daniel W Bellott
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 466:612-6. 2010
    ..By contrast, the sex chromosomes found in both sexes--the Z and X chromosomes--are assumed to have diverged little from their autosomal ..
  20. pmc A W-linked DM-domain gene, DM-W, participates in primary ovary development in Xenopus laevis
    Shin Yoshimoto
    Department of Bioscience, School of Science, Kitasato University, 1 15 1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 8555, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2469-74. 2008
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that DM-W is a likely sex (ovary)-determining gene in X. laevis...
  21. doi Opposite roles of DMRT1 and its W-linked paralogue, DM-W, in sexual dimorphism of Xenopus laevis: implications of a ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining system
    Shin Yoshimoto
    Department of Bioscience, School of Science, Kitasato University, 1 15 1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 8555, Japan
    Development 137:2519-26. 2010
    ..e. as a ;neofunctionalization' gene for the ZZ/ZW-type system. Finally, we discuss a conserved role of DMRT1 in testis formation during vertebrate evolution...
  22. doi Unravelling the evolutionary origins of X chromosome inactivation in mammals: insights from marsupials and monotremes
    Janine E Deakin
    Comparative Genomics Group, School of Biology, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Chromosome Res 17:671-85. 2009
    ..Availability of sequence data, and new techniques for studying expression and chromatin modification, now make rapid advance possible...
  23. doi Preservation of the Y transcriptome in a 10-million-year-old plant sex chromosome system
    Roberta Bergero
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 21:1470-4. 2011
    ..systems allow study of the time course of degeneration, because they evolved from a state wholly without sex chromosomes (rather than after a large genome region fused to a preexisting sex chromosome), and, in several taxa, ..
  24. doi Sex-chromosome evolution: recent progress and the influence of male and female heterogamety
    Hans Ellegren
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvgen 18D, SE752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Nat Rev Genet 12:157-66. 2011
    It is now clear that sex chromosomes differ from autosomes in many aspects of genome biology, such as organization, gene content and gene expression. Moreover, sex linkage has numerous evolutionary genetic implications...
  25. ncbi Plant sex determination and sex chromosomes
    Deborah Charlesworth
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratory King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 88:94-101. 2002
    ..Theories for Y chromosome degeneration are reviewed in the light of recent results from genes on plant sex chromosomes.
  26. doi Sex chromosomes and the evolution of sexual dimorphism: lessons from the genome
    Judith E Mank
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Am Nat 173:141-50. 2009
    ..Additionally, theory has long suggested that the evolution of sexual dimorphism is facilitated by sex chromosomes, as these are the only portions of the genome that differ between males and females...
  27. pmc The (r)evolution of SINE versus LINE distributions in primate genomes: sex chromosomes are important
    Erika M Kvikstad
    Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Genome Res 20:600-13. 2010
    ..substantial variation both within individual chromosomes and among chromosome types (autosomes and the two sex chromosomes)...
  28. ncbi The evolution of sex-biased genes and sex-biased gene expression
    Hans Ellegren
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Nat Rev Genet 8:689-98. 2007
    ..Sex-biased gene expression has implications beyond just evolutionary biology, including for medical genetics...
  29. pmc Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken
    Sam Schoenmakers
    Department of Reproduction and Development, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000466. 2009
    ..It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis...
  30. pmc A role for a neo-sex chromosome in stickleback speciation
    Jun Kitano
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    Nature 461:1079-83. 2009
    ..Our data indicate that sex-chromosome turnover might have a greater role in speciation than was previously appreciated...
  31. ncbi Steps in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes
    D Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 95:118-28. 2005
    We review some recently published results on sex chromosomes in a diversity of species...
  32. doi Plant Y chromosome degeneration is retarded by haploid purifying selection
    Margarita V Chibalina
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK
    Curr Biol 21:1475-9. 2011
    b>Sex chromosomes evolved many times independently in many different organisms [1]...
  33. doi Female-biased expression on the X chromosome as a key step in sex chromosome evolution in threespine sticklebacks
    Erica H Leder
    Division of Genetics and Physiology, Department of Biology Vesilinnantie 5, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    Mol Biol Evol 27:1495-503. 2010
    ..with the exception of genes on the Y (or W) chromosome or sex-determining alleles (in organisms without sex chromosomes), it is likely that many downstream processes resulting in sexual dimorphism are produced by changes in ..
  34. doi Genetics of sex determination in tilapiine species
    A Cnaani
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA
    Sex Dev 2:43-54. 2008
    ..This variation in sex determination mechanisms among closely related species makes tilapias an excellent model system for studying the evolution of sex chromosomes in vertebrates.
  35. pmc Contrasting patterns of polymorphism and divergence on the Z chromosome and autosomes in two Ficedula flycatcher species
    Thomas Borge
    Department of Biology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, University of Oslo, N 0316 Oslo Norway
    Genetics 171:1861-73. 2005
    ..Alternatively, reduced variation on the Z chromosome could result from substantially higher levels of introgression at autosomal than at Z-linked loci or from a complex demographic history, such as a population bottleneck...
  36. pmc The silkworm Z chromosome is enriched in testis-specific genes
    K P Arunkumar
    Centre of Excellence for Genetics and Genomics of Silkmoths, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Centre for DNA Fingerprintingand Diagnostics, Tuljaguda, Nampally, Hyderabad, India
    Genetics 182:493-501. 2009
    The role of sex chromosomes in sex determination has been well studied in diverse groups of organisms. However, the role of the genes on the sex chromosomes in conferring sexual dimorphism is still being experimentally evaluated...
  37. ncbi The role of chromosomal rearrangements in the evolution of Silene latifolia sex chromosomes
    Roman Hobza
    Institute of Integrative Biology, Plant Ecological Genetics, ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Mol Genet Genomics 278:633-8. 2007
    ..In comparison to mammalian sex chromosomes that evolved 300 mya, sex chromosomes of S. latifolia appeared approximately 20 mya...
  38. doi Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Lepidoptera
    W Traut
    Universitat Lubeck, Zentrum fur Medizinische Strukturbiologie, Institut fur Biologie, Lubeck, Germany
    Sex Dev 1:332-46. 2007
    ..Special strains have been devised for mass rearing of male-only broods in the silkworm for higher silk production and in pest species for the release of sterile males in pest management programs...
  39. pmc The chicken (Gallus gallus) Z chromosome contains at least three nonlinear evolutionary strata
    Kiwoong Nam
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Genetics 180:1131-6. 2008
    Birds have female heterogamety with Z and W sex chromosomes. These evolved from different autosomal precursor chromosomes than the mammalian X and Y...
  40. pmc Multiple sex-associated regions and a putative sex chromosome in zebrafish revealed by RAD mapping and population genomics
    Jennifer L Anderson
    Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e40701. 2012
    ..In zebrafish (Danio rerio), neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified...
  41. pmc A new plant sex-linked gene with high sequence diversity and possible introgression of the X copy
    V B Kaiser
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 106:339-47. 2011
    ..The copies on both sex chromosomes seem to be functional, and each maps close to the respective X- and Y-linked copy of another sex-linked gene ..
  42. ncbi Chromosomal sex-determining regions in animals, plants and fungi
    James A Fraser
    Departments of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Medicine, and Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 15:645-51. 2005
    The independent evolution of sex chromosomes in many eukaryotic species raises questions about the evolutionary forces that drive their formation...
  43. pmc The W, X, Y and Z of sex-chromosome dosage compensation
    Judith E Mank
    University of Oxford, Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Trends Genet 25:226-33. 2009
    In species with highly differentiated sex chromosomes, imbalances in gene dosage between the sexes can affect overall organismal fitness...
  44. doi Identification of the sex chromosomes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and their comparison with the corresponding chromosomes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    J Li
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B C, Canada
    Cytogenet Genome Res 133:25-33. 2011
    ..We set out to identify the sex chromosomes in brown trout...
  45. doi The contrasting role of heterochromatin in the differentiation of sex chromosomes: an overview from Neotropical fishes
    M B Cioffi
    Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil
    J Fish Biol 80:2125-39. 2012
    During the evolutionary process of the sex chromosomes, a general principle that arises is that cessation or a partial restriction of recombination between the sex chromosome pair is necessary...
  46. pmc Linkage analysis reveals the independent origin of Poeciliid sex chromosomes and a case of atypical sex inheritance in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)
    Namita Tripathi
    Max Plank Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Genetics 182:365-74. 2009
    ..Different pairs of autosomes have evolved as sex chromosomes among species in the same genus without evidence for a master sex-determining locus being identical...
  47. ncbi Polymorphism of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on the putative sex chromosomes of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) is not sex related
    K M Reed
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee 53201, USA
    Chromosome Res 5:221-7. 1997
    Polymorphism of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on the putative sex chromosomes of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) was examined using conventional cytogenetic and molecular techniques...
  48. pmc The sex-biased brain: sexual dimorphism in gene expression in two species of songbirds
    Sara Naurin
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    BMC Genomics 12:37. 2011
    ..Studies of gene expression in related species can shed light on the flexibility, or degree of conservation, of the gene expression profiles underlying sexual dimorphism...
  49. doi A ZZ/ZW-type sex determination in Xenopus laevis
    Shin Yoshimoto
    Department of Biosciences, Kitasato University, Minamiku, Sagamihara, Japan
    FEBS J 278:1020-6. 2011
    ..laevis. Finally, we discuss sex-determining systems and germ-cell development during vertebrate evolution, especially in view of a conserved role of DMRT1 in gonadal masculinization...
  50. pmc The Y-encoded gene zfy2 acts to remove cells with unpaired chromosomes at the first meiotic metaphase in male mice
    Nadège Vernet
    Division of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Curr Biol 21:787-93. 2011
    ..These findings provide further insight into the basis for the much lower transmission of chromosomal errors originating at the first meiotic division in men than in women [7]...
  51. ncbi An accumulation of tandem DNA repeats on the Y chromosome in Silene latifolia during early stages of sex chromosome evolution
    Roman Hobza
    Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Kralovopolska Street 135, Brno 612 65, Czech Republic
    Chromosoma 115:376-82. 2006
    b>Sex chromosomes in mammals are about 300 million years old and typically have a highly degenerated Y chromosome...
  52. doi Ellobius lutescens: sex determination and sex chromosome
    W Just
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Sex Dev 1:211-21. 2007
    ..A singular X raises questions about the need for X chromosome inactivation in female cells. We present preliminary data that support a hypothesis that the E. lutescens Xist gene may be degenerated and thus non-functional...
  53. doi The genomic legacy from the extinct Lepus timidus to the three hare species of Iberia: contrast between mtDNA, sex chromosomes and autosomes
    J Melo-Ferreira
    CIBIO, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, 4485 661 Vairão, Portugal
    Mol Ecol 18:2643-58. 2009
    ..Based on lineage-diagnostic SNPs, we detected no trace of L. timidus sex chromosomes in Iberia. From the frequencies of inferred haplotypes, autosomal introgression into L...
  54. doi Evolution of sex chromosomes in insects
    Vera B Kaiser
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 44:91-112. 2010
    b>Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes...
  55. pmc Evidence for different origin of sex chromosomes in snakes, birds, and mammals and step-wise differentiation of snake sex chromosomes
    Kazumi Matsubara
    Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics, Department of Genome Dynamics, Hokkaido University, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0810, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18190-5. 2006
    All snake species exhibit genetic sex determination with the ZZ/ZW type of sex chromosomes. To investigate the origin and evolution of snake sex chromosomes, we constructed, by FISH, a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat ..
  56. pmc Getting a full dose? Reconsidering sex chromosome dosage compensation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    James R Walters
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Genome Biol Evol 3:491-504. 2011
    ..gene dose or copy number--is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa),..
  57. ncbi Sexual selection and sex linkage
    Mark Kirkpatrick
    Section of Integrative Biology, 1 University Station C 0930, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Evolution 58:683-91. 2004
    ..g., X-linked preferences and autosomal displays), the good-genes mechanism is particularly powerful. These theoretical results suggest empirical tests based on the comparative method...
  58. pmc Turnover of sex chromosomes in the stickleback fishes (gasterosteidae)
    Joseph A Ross
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000391. 2009
    ..Several mechanisms have been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex-determination gene, the appearance of a new sex-determination ..
  59. pmc The genetic architecture of skeletal convergence and sex determination in ninespine sticklebacks
    Michael D Shapiro
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Curr Biol 19:1140-5. 2009
    ..Comparative genetics in sticklebacks provides an exciting opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling similar phenotypic changes in different animal groups...
  60. pmc Chromosome-wide gene-specific targeting of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex
    Gregor D Gilfillan
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, Molekularbiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, 80336 Munchen, Germany
    Genes Dev 20:858-70. 2006
    ..Within the targeted genes, the DCC exhibits a strong preference for exons and coding sequences. Our results demonstrate gene-specific binding of the DCC, and identify several sequence elements that may partly direct its targeting...
  61. pmc Are homologies in vertebrate sex determination due to shared ancestry or to limited options?
    Jennifer A Marshall Graves
    Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Genome Biol 11:205. 2010
    The same candidate genes and the same autosomes are repeatedly used as sex chromosomes in vertebrates...
  62. pmc Meiotic pairing and segregation of achiasmate sex chromosomes in eutherian mammals: the role of SYCP3 protein
    Roberto de la Fuente
    Unidad de Biologia Celular, Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS Genet 3:e198. 2007
    In most eutherian mammals, sex chromosomes synapse and recombine during male meiosis in a small region called pseudoautosomal region...
  63. pmc Sex chromosomes and speciation in Drosophila
    Daven C Presgraves
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Trends Genet 24:336-43. 2008
    Two empirical rules suggest that sex chromosomes play a special role in speciation. The first is Haldane's rule - the preferential sterility and inviability of species hybrids of the heterogametic (XY) sex...
  64. ncbi Fgf9 induces proliferation and nuclear localization of FGFR2 in Sertoli precursors during male sex determination
    Jennifer Schmahl
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Development 131:3627-36. 2004
    ..The nuclear localization of FGFR2 coincides with the initiation of Sry expression and the nuclear localization of SOX9 during the early differentiation of Sertoli cells and the determination of male fate...
  65. pmc DNA methylation and heterochromatinization in the male-specific region of the primitive Y chromosome of papaya
    Wenli Zhang
    Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Genome Res 18:1938-43. 2008
    b>Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Recombination suppression in the sex-determining region and accumulation of deleterious mutations lead to degeneration of the Y chromosomes in many species with heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes...
  66. ncbi Sex chromosome-linked species recognition and evolution of reproductive isolation in flycatchers
    Stein A Saether
    Department of Animal Population Biology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Post Office Box 40, 6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands
    Science 318:95-7. 2007
    ..Limited recombination on the Z chromosome maintains associations of Z-linked genes despite hybridization, suggesting that the sex chromosomes may be a hotspot for adaptive speciation.
  67. ncbi Sex chromosome evolution in non-mammalian vertebrates
    Manfred Schartl
    Physiologische Chemie I, Biozentrum der Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 14:634-41. 2004
    ..This variety is the consequence of the extremely dynamic process of the evolution of sex determination mechanisms and sex chromosomes, which is prone to create differences rather than uniformity.
  68. pmc The mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma represents a model for early evolution of sex chromosomes
    Audrius Menkis
    Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000030. 2008
    ..This study highlights the shared features between the sex chromosomes found in the animal and plant kingdoms and the fungal mating-type chromosome, despite fungi having no ..
  69. ncbi Reassignment of chicken W chromosome sequences to the Z chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
    R Stiglec
    Comparative Genomics Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
    Cytogenet Genome Res 116:132-4. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate that the 17 genes on these BACs are Z-specific, and points to the inadequacy of assigning regions of the genome based exclusively on repetitive sequences...
  70. doi An integrated cytogenetic and physical map reveals unevenly distributed recombination spots along the papaya sex chromosomes
    Ching Man Wai
    Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
    Chromosome Res 20:753-67. 2012
    ..This cytogenetic map provides essential information for evolutionary study of sex chromosomes in Caricaceae and will facilitate the analysis of papaya sex chromosomes.
  71. doi Effect of location, organization, and repeat-copy number in satellite-DNA evolution
    R Navajas-Pérez
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071, Spain
    Mol Genet Genomics 282:395-406. 2009
    ....
  72. doi Different origins of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in closely related medaka fishes, Oryzias javanicus and O. hubbsi
    Yusuke Takehana
    Laboratory of Bioresources, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan
    Chromosome Res 16:801-11. 2008
    ..Furthermore, sex chromosomes were not homologous in these species...
  73. doi Sex reversal: a fountain of youth for sex chromosomes?
    Nicolas Perrin
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Evolution 63:3043-9. 2009
    ..In lower vertebrates, however, most species display homomorphic sex chromosomes. To address this, paradox I propose a role for sex reversal, which occasionally occurs in ectotherms due to ..
  74. ncbi Chromosomal divergence and maintenance of sympatric Characidium fish species (Crenuchidae, Characidiinae)
    Liano Centofante
    Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil
    Hereditas 138:213-8. 2003
    ..Species of Characidium with a sex chromosome system form a monophyletic group. Variations in this system are interpreted as resulting from geographic isolation among allopatric species...
  75. doi Diversification of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Characidium fish (Crenuchidae, Characiformes)
    Marcelo Ricardo Vicari
    Depto de Biologia Estrutural Molecular e Genética, Laboratorio de Citogenetica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Av Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, 84025 900, Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil
    Genetica 134:311-7. 2008
    ..The common origin of the sex chromosome system of ZZ/ZW type in the karyotypes of other representatives of the genus analyzed so far might be hypothesized based on biogeography and partial phylogeny of the group...
  76. doi Effective population size and the Faster-X effect: empirical results and their interpretation
    Judith E Mank
    Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Evolution 64:663-74. 2010
    ..Our results suggest that differences in effective population size and mechanisms of dosage compensation may influence the perceived extent of Faster-X evolution, and help to explain several clade-specific patterns that we observe...
  77. doi Avian sex chromosomes: dosage compensation matters
    Heather A McQueen
    Institute of Cell Biology University of Edinburgh, West Mains Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Chromosome Res 17:687-97. 2009
    ..The implications of this new picture of avian dosage compensation for avian sex determination are discussed, along with a possible mechanism of avian dosage compensation...
  78. doi Evolutionary steps of sex chromosomes are reflected in retrogenes
    Aoife McLysaght
    Smurfit Institute of Genetics, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
    Trends Genet 24:478-81. 2008
    It has been shown that selective pressure to compensate for the silencing of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis resulted in many X-linked genes being duplicated as functional retrogenes on autosomes...
  79. pmc Multiple and independent cessation of recombination between avian sex chromosomes
    H Ellegren
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Genetics 158:325-31. 2001
    Birds are characterized by female heterogamety; females carry the Z and W sex chromosomes, while males have two copies of the Z chromosome...
  80. ncbi Parallel divergence and degradation of the avian W sex chromosome
    Judith E Mank
    Uppsala University, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36, Uppsala, Sweden
    Trends Ecol Evol 22:389-91. 2007
    b>Sex chromosomes are ubiquitous in birds but our understanding of how they originated and evolved has remained incomplete. Recent work by Tsuda et al...
  81. ncbi The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes
    Tariq Ezaz
    Comparative Genomics Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra
    Chromosome Res 13:763-76. 2005
    ..P. vitticeps is reported to have GSD, but no detectable sex chromosomes. Here we used molecular cytogenetic and differential banding techniques to reveal sex chromosomes in this ..
  82. doi Dosage analysis of Z chromosome genes using microarray in silkworm, Bombyx mori
    Xingfu Zha
    Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, China
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 39:315-21. 2009
    ..These results provide useful clues to further understanding roles of dosage of Z chromosome and some Z-linked sexual differences in silkworms...
  83. doi Recombination rate between sex chromosomes depends on phenotypic sex in the common frog
    Chikako Matsuba
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, PO Box 65, FI 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Evolution 64:3634-7. 2010
    We show that the recombination rate between the sex chromosomes is controlled by phenotypic, rather than genotypic, sex in sex-reversed common frogs...
  84. doi Non-homologous sex chromosomes of birds and snakes share repetitive sequences
    Denis O'Meally
    Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 0200, Australia
    Chromosome Res 18:787-800. 2010
    Snake sex chromosomes provided Susumo Ohno with the material on which he based his theory of how sex chromosomes differentiate from autosomal pairs...
  85. ncbi Sex differences in mouse cortical thickness are independent of the complement of sex chromosomes
    J A Markham
    Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA
    Neuroscience 116:71-5. 2003
    ..is the result of gonadal hormones, or alternatively is induced by a direct effect of genes encoded on the sex chromosomes. The traditional view of mammalian neural sexual differentiation is that androgens or their metabolites act ..
  86. doi An unusual ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Characidium fishes (Crenuchidae, Characiformes) with the presence of rDNA sites
    R B Noleto
    Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Genetica, Centro Politecnico, Caixa Postal 19071, CEP 81531 990, Curitiba, PR, Brazil
    J Fish Biol 75:448-53. 2009
    ..This work presents data of Characidium lanei from the South Atlantic basin (Brazil), including an unknown type of ZW sex chromosome system for the groups including the presence of rDNA sites on sex chromosomes.
  87. ncbi Sex chromosome specialization and degeneration in mammals
    Jennifer A Marshall Graves
    Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
    Cell 124:901-14. 2006
    b>Sex chromosomes--particularly the human Y--have been a source of fascination for decades because of their unique transmission patterns and their peculiar cytology...
  88. ncbi Comparison of the chicken and zebra finch Z chromosomes shows evolutionary rearrangements
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Physiological Science, UCLA, 621 Charles E Young Drive South, Room 4117, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Chromosome Res 14:805-15. 2006
    ..These repetitive sequences likely evolved in the finch lineage after it diverged from the Galliform lineage...
  89. pmc Genetic mapping in a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis): conserved synteny but gene order rearrangements on the avian Z chromosome
    Niclas Backstrom
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Genetics 174:377-86. 2006
    ..Interestingly, the rate of recombination on the Z chromosome of collared flycatchers was only approximately 50% that of chicken, challenging the widely held view that birds generally have high recombination rates...
  90. pmc Genomic linkage map of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni
    Charles D Criscione
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Genome Biol 10:R71. 2009
    ..mansoni's molecular, quantitative, and population genetics. Our goal was to construct a genetic linkage map for S. mansoni, and thus provide a new resource that will help stimulate research on this neglected pathogen...
  91. ncbi Molecular cloning of zebra finch W chromosome repetitive sequences: evolution of the avian W chromosome
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Chromosoma 117:111-21. 2008
    ..The apparent lineage-specificity of W chromosome repeat sequences in passerines and galliform birds suggest that the W chromosome had not differentiated well from the Z at the time of divergence of these lineages...
  92. ncbi Different origins of bird and reptile sex chromosomes inferred from comparative mapping of chicken Z-linked genes
    A Kawai
    Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics, Division of Biosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Cytogenet Genome Res 117:92-102. 2007
    Recent progress of chicken genome projects has revealed that bird ZW and mammalian XY sex chromosomes were derived from different autosomal pairs of the common ancestor; however, the evolutionary relationship between bird and reptilian ..
  93. doi Diversity in the origins of sex chromosomes in anurans inferred from comparative mapping of sexual differentiation genes for three species of the Raninae and Xenopodinae
    Yoshinobu Uno
    Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics, Biosystems Science Course, Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060 0810, Japan
    Chromosome Res 16:999-1011. 2008
    ..of sex determination in amphibians has been suggested to be female heterogamety; however, the origins of the sex chromosomes and the sex-determining genes are still unknown...
  94. doi Sexual dimorphism in mammalian autosomal gene regulation is determined not only by Sry but by sex chromosome complement as well
    Patrick J Wijchers
    Gene Control Mechanisms and Disease Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Dev Cell 19:477-84. 2010
    ..The identification of this additional layer in the establishment of sexual dimorphisms has implications for understanding sexual dimorphisms in physiology and disease...
  95. doi Molecular marker suggests rapid changes of sex-determining mechanisms in Australian dragon lizards
    Tariq Ezaz
    Comparative Genomics Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
    Chromosome Res 17:91-8. 2009
    ..These taxa thus present an excellent opportunity for studying the evolution of sex chromosomes, and evolutionary transitions between TSD and GSD...
  96. ncbi Characterization of the OFD1/Ofd1 genes on the human and mouse sex chromosomes and exclusion of Ofd1 for the Xpl mouse mutant
    Maria I Ferrante
    Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, 80131 Naples, Italy
    Genomics 81:560-9. 2003
    ..These degenerate OFD1-Y genes probably derived from the ancestral Y homologue of the X-linked gene. The high level of sequence identity among the different units suggests that duplication events have recently occurred during evolution...
  97. doi Why does dosage compensation differ between XY and ZW taxa?
    Sara Naurin
    Department of Animal Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE 22362 Lund, Sweden
    Trends Genet 26:15-20. 2010
    ..These patterns and processes contrast with those acting on genes on the X chromosome in XY species, and might help explain the discrepancies in the degree of sex-biased gene expression and dosage compensation in XY and ZW systems...
  98. pmc The evolution of sex dimorphism in recombination
    Thomas Lenormand
    CEFE Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 34293 Montpellier, France
    Genetics 163:811-22. 2003
    Sex dimorphism in recombination is widespread on both sex chromosomes and autosomes. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain these dimorphisms...
  99. ncbi Gene-centromere mapping of medaka sex chromosomes using triploid hybrids between Oryzias latipes and O. luzonensis
    T Sato
    Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Japan
    Genetica 111:71-5. 2001
    Four sex-linked genetic markers (SL1, SL2, B2.38 and stsOPQ05-1) on the sex chromosomes of the medaka, O. latipes, were mapped in relation to the centromere by means of triploid hybrids between O. latipes and O. luzonensis...
  100. doi Co-evolution of genomic structure and selective forces underlying sexual development and reproduction
    N Valenzuela
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    Cytogenet Genome Res 127:232-41. 2009
    ..One example is the presence of sex chromosomes and the development of the sexual phenotype...
  101. pmc Early events in the evolution of the Silene latifolia Y chromosome: male specialization and recombination arrest
    Jitka Zluvova
    Department of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 612 65 Brno, Czech Republic
    Genetics 177:375-86. 2007
    Understanding the origin and evolution of sex chromosomes requires studying recently evolved X-Y chromosome systems such as those in some flowering plants...

Research Grants75

  1. MEIOTIC CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION IN C ELEGANS
    Anne Villeneuve; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..for hermaphrodites that produced an abnormally high frequency of males as a result of non-disjunction of the sex chromosomes, and are denoted him mutations...
  2. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The fundamental basis for such gender bias remains unclear. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to such sex difference...
  3. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The fundamental basis for such gender bias remains unclear. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to such sex difference...
  4. MOUSE X-CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION
    Christine Disteche; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract): The study is aimed at defining evolutionary pathways of the sex chromosomes in mouse and human and at understanding mechanisms of gene regulation specifically related to evolutionary ..
  5. Sex Chromosome Effects in Lupus
    Rhonda Voskuhl; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to this female bias...
  6. Role of sex chromosomes in gender differences in EAE
    Rhonda Voskuhl; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..an influence of sex hormones on autoimmune disease susceptibility does not preclude an additional role for sex chromosomes in the gender differences that have been observed...
  7. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors and Human Sperm Chromosomal Abnormalities
    Melissa Perry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Most new gene mutations seen in offspring and most abnormalities in the numbers of the sex chromosomes arise from the father's sperm...
  8. Genetic conflict shapes centromeres and heterochromatin
    Harmit S Malik; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These essential functions range from segregating chromosomes to ensuring transcriptional parity at sex chromosomes via dosage compensation and defending the germline against transposons...
  9. Germline Silencing of Unpaired Chromatin
    Eleanor M Maine; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..While the natural targets of meiotic silencing are the male sex chromosomes, the process will be activated to repress any unpaired chromosomes or chromosomal regions that arise due to ..
  10. Evolution of Sexually Dimorphic Germ Cells in Volvox carteri
    James G Umen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..dissect the molecular genetic changes that underlie the evolution of sexual dimorphism and to understand how sex chromosomes evolve to influence developmental programming. RELEVANCE...
  11. Chromatin Structure during Spermatogenesis
    Mary Ann Handel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Accurate meiotic segregation of physically and genetically intact sex chromosomes is essential for male reproduction and species survival; chromosome segregation is set up in meiotic prophase...
  12. Evolution of Sexually Dimorphic Germ Cells in Volvox carteri
    James Umen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..dissect the molecular genetic changes that underlie the evolution of sexual dimorphism and to understand how sex chromosomes evolve to influence developmental programming. RELEVANCE...
  13. Evolution of Sexually Dimorphic Germ Cells in Volvox carteri
    James Umen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..dissect the molecular genetic changes that underlie the evolution of sexual dimorphism and to understand how sex chromosomes evolve to influence developmental programming. RELEVANCE...
  14. Sex chromosome effects on neural and behavioral differentiation
    EMILIE RISSMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Another potential source of differences between males and females are the genes that reside on the sex chromosomes. A transgenic mouse model in which gonadal and chromosomal sex are uncoupled is being employed to test this ..
  15. Molecular Evolution of Drosophila Y Chromosome
    ANDREW G contact CLARK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The Y chromosome of Drosophila provides an ideal system for testing many concepts related to the evolution of sex chromosomes. The proposed study entails primary discovery of most of the Y- linked genes across a group of 12 species and ..
  16. Mammalian Genomes - Stasis and Change
    HOLLY WICHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to estimate the rate of mutation at methylated CpG sites on the autosomes and sex chromosomes; ii...
  17. Mammalian Genomes - Stasis and Change
    HOLLY WICHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..to estimate the rate of mutation at methylated CpG sites on the autosomes and sex chromosomes; ii...
  18. Genomic Imbalances in Autism
    Susan Christian; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..or autism spectrum-disorders have been reported in 56 different regions involving all 22 autosomes plus both sex chromosomes. The completion of the mapping of the human genome has enabled the development of new whole genome BAG ..
  19. Evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in Reptilia
    DANIEL JANES; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..creation of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries will allow us to sequence and compare portions of sex chromosomes among reptiles and birds...
  20. Sex chromosomes and relocation of genes by duplication
    ESTHER BETRAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Heteromorphic sex chromosomes determine males and females in many species and their study is of general interest...
  21. Sex chromosomes and relocation of genes by duplication
    ESTHER BETRAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Heteromorphic sex chromosomes determine males and females in many species and their study is of general interest...
  22. Sex chromosome effects on neural and behavioral differentiation
    EMILIE RISSMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Another potential source of differences between males and females are the genes that reside on the sex chromosomes. A transgenic mouse model in which gonadal and chromosomal sex are uncoupled is being employed to test this ..