sex chromosomes

Summary

Summary: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Tissue-specific expression and regulation of sexually dimorphic genes in mice
    Xia Yang
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Genome Res 16:995-1004. 2006
  2. ncbi Steps in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes
    D Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 95:118-28. 2005
  3. ncbi The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken
    Craig A Smith
    Murdoch Children s Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia
    Nature 461:267-71. 2009
  4. pmc Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genes
    Maria D Vibranovski
    Department of Ecology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000731. 2009
  5. pmc Progressive recombination suppression and differentiation in recently evolved neo-sex chromosomes
    Heini M Natri
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Mol Biol Evol 30:1131-44. 2013
  6. pmc The genome of a songbird
    Wesley C Warren
    The Genome Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 464:757-62. 2010
  7. pmc A W-linked DM-domain gene, DM-W, participates in primary ovary development in Xenopus laevis
    Shin Yoshimoto
    Department of Bioscience, School of Science, Kitasato University, 1 15 1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 8555, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2469-74. 2008
  8. pmc Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation
    Colin D Meiklejohn
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001126. 2011
  9. pmc Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex chromosome evolution
    Beatriz Vicoso
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:6453-8. 2013
  10. ncbi Sex determination: insights from the chicken
    Craig A Smith
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, Royal Childrens Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Bioessays 26:120-32. 2004

Detail Information

Publications330 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Tissue-specific expression and regulation of sexually dimorphic genes in mice
    Xia Yang
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Genome Res 16:995-1004. 2006
    ..They also showed evidence of chromosomal enrichment, not only on the sex chromosomes, but also on several autosomes...
  2. ncbi Steps in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes
    D Charlesworth
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 95:118-28. 2005
    We review some recently published results on sex chromosomes in a diversity of species...
  3. ncbi The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken
    Craig A Smith
    Murdoch Children s Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia
    Nature 461:267-71. 2009
    Sex in birds is chromosomally based, as in mammals, but the sex chromosomes are different and the mechanism of avian sex determination has been a long-standing mystery...
  4. pmc Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genes
    Maria D Vibranovski
    Department of Ecology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000731. 2009
    ..These results suggest MSCI as a general mechanism affecting the evolution of some testis-expressed genes...
  5. pmc Progressive recombination suppression and differentiation in recently evolved neo-sex chromosomes
    Heini M Natri
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Mol Biol Evol 30:1131-44. 2013
    Recombination suppression leads to the structural and functional differentiation of sex chromosomes and is thus a crucial step in the process of sex chromosome evolution...
  6. pmc The genome of a songbird
    Wesley C Warren
    The Genome Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 464:757-62. 2010
    ..These results indicate an active involvement of the genome in neural processes underlying vocal communication and identify potential genetic substrates for the evolution and regulation of this behaviour...
  7. pmc A W-linked DM-domain gene, DM-W, participates in primary ovary development in Xenopus laevis
    Shin Yoshimoto
    Department of Bioscience, School of Science, Kitasato University, 1 15 1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 8555, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2469-74. 2008
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that DM-W is a likely sex (ovary)-determining gene in X. laevis...
  8. pmc Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation
    Colin D Meiklejohn
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001126. 2011
    The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g...
  9. pmc Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex chromosome evolution
    Beatriz Vicoso
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:6453-8. 2013
    b>Sex chromosomes originate from autosomes...
  10. ncbi Sex determination: insights from the chicken
    Craig A Smith
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, Royal Childrens Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Bioessays 26:120-32. 2004
    ..The Z-linked gene, DMRT1, supports the Z-dosage model of avian sex determination. Two novel W-linked genes, ASW and FET1, represent candidate female determinants...
  11. pmc Evolutionary erosion of yeast sex chromosomes by mating-type switching accidents
    Jonathan L Gordon
    Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:20024-9. 2011
    ..We suggest that, despite its mutational cost, switching confers an evolutionary benefit by providing a way for an isolated germinating spore to reform spores if the environment is too poor...
  12. pmc Linkage analysis reveals the independent origin of Poeciliid sex chromosomes and a case of atypical sex inheritance in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)
    Namita Tripathi
    Max Plank Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Genetics 182:365-74. 2009
    ..Different pairs of autosomes have evolved as sex chromosomes among species in the same genus without evidence for a master sex-determining locus being identical...
  13. pmc Chromosomal gene movements reflect the recent origin and biology of therian sex chromosomes
    Lukasz Potrzebowski
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2 INSERM U625, IFR 140, Universite Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France
    PLoS Biol 6:e80. 2008
    Mammalian sex chromosomes stem from ancestral autosomes and have substantially differentiated. It was shown that X-linked genes have generated duplicate intronless gene copies (retrogenes) on autosomes due to this differentiation...
  14. ncbi Sex chromosomes and the evolution of sexual dimorphism: lessons from the genome
    Judith E Mank
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Am Nat 173:141-50. 2009
    ..Additionally, theory has long suggested that the evolution of sexual dimorphism is facilitated by sex chromosomes, as these are the only portions of the genome that differ between males and females...
  15. ncbi Some inconvenient truths about sex chromosome dosage compensation and the potential role of sexual conflict
    Judith E Mank
    Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Evolution 65:2133-44. 2011
    ..We show there exists a tremendous diversity in the mechanisms that regulate gene dosage and argue that sexual conflict may be an overlooked agent responsible for some of the variation seen in sex chromosome gene dose regulation...
  16. ncbi Effective population size and the Faster-X effect: empirical results and their interpretation
    Judith E Mank
    Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Evolution 64:663-74. 2010
    ..Our results suggest that differences in effective population size and mechanisms of dosage compensation may influence the perceived extent of Faster-X evolution, and help to explain several clade-specific patterns that we observe...
  17. pmc Mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of mammalian and avian dosage compensation
    Philippe Julien
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001328. 2012
    ..autosomal genes interacting with X-linked genes have become downregulated in placentals upon the emergence of sex chromosomes. Thus, different driving forces may underlie the evolution of XCI and the highly efficient equilibration of X ..
  18. ncbi The evolution of restricted recombination in sex chromosomes
    Roberta Bergero
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Trends Ecol Evol 24:94-102. 2009
    ..often has a genetic basis, and in a wide diversity of taxa a pair of cytologically distinguishable 'sex chromosomes' are found such that the chromosome complements of males and females differ (males are often XY and females ..
  19. ncbi Are all sex chromosomes created equal?
    Doris Bachtrog
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Trends Genet 27:350-7. 2011
    ..We suggest directions for research that will greatly increase our general understanding of the forces driving sex-chromosome evolution in diverse organisms...
  20. pmc Incomplete sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, based on de novo transcriptome assembly
    Peter W Harrison
    Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, United Kingdom
    Genome Biol Evol 4:1118-26. 2012
    Males and females experience differences in gene dose for loci in the nonrecombining region of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. If not compensated, this leads to expression imbalances, with the homogametic sex on average exhibiting greater ..
  21. ncbi Female-biased expression on the X chromosome as a key step in sex chromosome evolution in threespine sticklebacks
    Erica H Leder
    Division of Genetics and Physiology, Department of Biology Vesilinnantie 5, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    Mol Biol Evol 27:1495-503. 2010
    ..with the exception of genes on the Y (or W) chromosome or sex-determining alleles (in organisms without sex chromosomes), it is likely that many downstream processes resulting in sexual dimorphism are produced by changes in ..
  22. pmc Sex bias and dosage compensation in the zebra finch versus chicken genomes: general and specialized patterns among birds
    Yuichiro Itoh
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Genome Res 20:512-8. 2010
    ..These patterns suggest that different avian taxa may have evolved specific compensatory mechanisms...
  23. ncbi Isolation and physical mapping of sex-linked AFLP markers in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
    M Tariq Ezaz
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
    Mar Biotechnol (NY) 6:435-45. 2004
    ..This confirmed previous evidence, based on meiotic chromosome pairing and fluorescence in situ hybridization probes obtained through chromosome microdissection, that chromosome pair 1 is the sex chromosomes.
  24. pmc The origin and evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation
    A M Livernois
    Evolution Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
    Heredity (Edinb) 108:50-8. 2012
    ..Homology shared by Xs and Ys (and Zs and Ws) within species demonstrates that differentiated sex chromosomes were once homologous, and that the sex-specific non-recombining Y (or W) was progressively degraded...
  25. pmc Sex chromosomes and speciation in Drosophila
    Daven C Presgraves
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Trends Genet 24:336-43. 2008
    Two empirical rules suggest that sex chromosomes play a special role in speciation. The first is Haldane's rule - the preferential sterility and inviability of species hybrids of the heterogametic (XY) sex...
  26. ncbi About PAR: the distinct evolutionary dynamics of the pseudoautosomal region
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, 6270 University Boulevard, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Trends Genet 27:358-67. 2011
    b>Sex chromosomes differ from other chromosomes in the striking divergence they often show in size, structure, and gene content...
  27. ncbi The evolution of sex-biased genes and sex-biased gene expression
    Hans Ellegren
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Nat Rev Genet 8:689-98. 2007
    ..Sex-biased gene expression has implications beyond just evolutionary biology, including for medical genetics...
  28. pmc Progress and prospects toward our understanding of the evolution of dosage compensation
    Beatriz Vicoso
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Chromosome Res 17:585-602. 2009
    In many eukaryotic organisms, gender is determined by a pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Degeneration of the non-recombining Y chromosome is a general facet of sex chromosome evolution...
  29. pmc A role for a neo-sex chromosome in stickleback speciation
    Jun Kitano
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    Nature 461:1079-83. 2009
    ..Our data indicate that sex-chromosome turnover might have a greater role in speciation than was previously appreciated...
  30. ncbi The role of repetitive DNA in structure and evolution of sex chromosomes in plants
    E Kejnovsky
    Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics ASCR, Brno, Czech Republic
    Heredity (Edinb) 102:533-41. 2009
    ..b>Sex chromosomes, especially non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome, are subject to different evolutionary forces ..
  31. pmc Turnover of sex chromosomes in the stickleback fishes (gasterosteidae)
    Joseph A Ross
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000391. 2009
    ..Several mechanisms have been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex-determination gene, the appearance of a new sex-determination ..
  32. ncbi Sex-determining mechanisms in insects
    Lucas Sanchez
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas C S I C, Madrid, Spain
    Int J Dev Biol 52:837-56. 2008
    ..Representative examples of sex determination mechanisms that differ in their primary signal are also described. Finally, some evolutionary aspects of these mechanisms are discussed...
  33. pmc General lack of global dosage compensation in ZZ/ZW systems? Broadening the perspective with RNA-seq
    Jochen Bw Wolf
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, August Thienemannstr, 2, 24306 Plön, Germany
    BMC Genomics 12:91. 2011
    Species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes face the challenge of large-scale imbalance in gene dose...
  34. ncbi Genetics of sex determination in tilapiine species
    A Cnaani
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA
    Sex Dev 2:43-54. 2008
    ..This variation in sex determination mechanisms among closely related species makes tilapias an excellent model system for studying the evolution of sex chromosomes in vertebrates.
  35. ncbi All dosage compensation is local: gene-by-gene regulation of sex-biased expression on the chicken Z chromosome
    J E Mank
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 102:312-20. 2009
    ....
  36. pmc Evidence for different origin of sex chromosomes in snakes, birds, and mammals and step-wise differentiation of snake sex chromosomes
    Kazumi Matsubara
    Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics, Department of Genome Dynamics, Hokkaido University, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0810, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18190-5. 2006
    All snake species exhibit genetic sex determination with the ZZ/ZW type of sex chromosomes. To investigate the origin and evolution of snake sex chromosomes, we constructed, by FISH, a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat ..
  37. ncbi Sex chromosome evolution in non-mammalian vertebrates
    Manfred Schartl
    Physiologische Chemie I, Biozentrum der Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 14:634-41. 2004
    ..This variety is the consequence of the extremely dynamic process of the evolution of sex determination mechanisms and sex chromosomes, which is prone to create differences rather than uniformity.
  38. pmc Conservation and de novo acquisition of dosage compensation on newly evolved sex chromosomes in Drosophila
    Artyom A Alekseyenko
    Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 27:853-8. 2013
    ..We found evidence for the creation of new CESs, with the analogous sequence and spacing as in D. melanogaster, providing strong support for the spreading model in the establishment of dosage compensation...
  39. pmc Trade-off between selection for dosage compensation and masculinization on the avian Z chromosome
    Alison E Wright
    Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Genetics 192:1433-45. 2012
    ..At the same time, due to their unequal pattern of inheritance in males and females, the sex chromosomes are subject to unbalanced sex-specific selection, which contributes to a nonrandom distribution of sex-biased ..
  40. ncbi Sex chromosome-linked species recognition and evolution of reproductive isolation in flycatchers
    Stein A Saether
    Department of Animal Population Biology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Post Office Box 40, 6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands
    Science 318:95-7. 2007
    ..Limited recombination on the Z chromosome maintains associations of Z-linked genes despite hybridization, suggesting that the sex chromosomes may be a hotspot for adaptive speciation.
  41. pmc Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes
    Frederic Veyrunes
    Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra 2601, Australia
    Genome Res 18:965-73. 2008
    ..There is no equivalent in other amniotes, although some taxa (notably birds and snakes) have differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZW female: ZZ male system with no homology with mammal sex chromosomes, in which dosage of a Z-..
  42. pmc RNF8 regulates active epigenetic modifications and escape gene activation from inactive sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids
    Ho Su Sin
    Division of Reproductive Sciences, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Genes Dev 26:2737-48. 2012
    b>Sex chromosomes are uniquely subject to chromosome-wide silencing during male meiosis, and silencing persists into post-meiotic spermatids...
  43. ncbi The contrasting role of heterochromatin in the differentiation of sex chromosomes: an overview from Neotropical fishes
    M B Cioffi
    Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil
    J Fish Biol 80:2125-39. 2012
    During the evolutionary process of the sex chromosomes, a general principle that arises is that cessation or a partial restriction of recombination between the sex chromosome pair is necessary...
  44. pmc Rapid de novo evolution of X chromosome dosage compensation in Silene latifolia, a plant with young sex chromosomes
    Aline Muyle
    Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Évolutive UMR 5558, CNRS Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001308. 2012
    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ∼10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S...
  45. ncbi Unravelling the evolutionary origins of X chromosome inactivation in mammals: insights from marsupials and monotremes
    Janine E Deakin
    Comparative Genomics Group, School of Biology, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Chromosome Res 17:671-85. 2009
    ..Availability of sequence data, and new techniques for studying expression and chromatin modification, now make rapid advance possible...
  46. ncbi Opposite roles of DMRT1 and its W-linked paralogue, DM-W, in sexual dimorphism of Xenopus laevis: implications of a ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining system
    Shin Yoshimoto
    Department of Bioscience, School of Science, Kitasato University, 1 15 1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 8555, Japan
    Development 137:2519-26. 2010
    ..e. as a ;neofunctionalization' gene for the ZZ/ZW-type system. Finally, we discuss a conserved role of DMRT1 in testis formation during vertebrate evolution...
  47. ncbi Preservation of the Y transcriptome in a 10-million-year-old plant sex chromosome system
    Roberta Bergero
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Ashworth Laboratories, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Curr Biol 21:1470-4. 2011
    ..systems allow study of the time course of degeneration, because they evolved from a state wholly without sex chromosomes (rather than after a large genome region fused to a preexisting sex chromosome), and, in several taxa, ..
  48. pmc The (r)evolution of SINE versus LINE distributions in primate genomes: sex chromosomes are important
    Erika M Kvikstad
    Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Genome Res 20:600-13. 2010
    ..substantial variation both within individual chromosomes and among chromosome types (autosomes and the two sex chromosomes)...
  49. pmc Lack of global dosage compensation in Schistosoma mansoni, a female-heterogametic parasite
    Beatriz Vicoso
    Department of Integrative Biology and Center for Theoretical and Evolutionary Genomics, UC Berkeley, USA
    Genome Biol Evol 3:230-5. 2011
    Many species have morphologically and genetically differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the XY pair of mammals...
  50. pmc Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken
    Sam Schoenmakers
    Department of Reproduction and Development, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000466. 2009
    ..It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis...
  51. ncbi The different levels of genetic diversity in sex chromosomes and autosomes
    Hans Ellegren
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Trends Genet 25:278-84. 2009
    b>Sex chromosomes and autosomes differ in their effective population size, mutation and demography, all of which affect the relative level of genetic diversity within the genome...
  52. pmc Sex-dimorphic gene expression and ineffective dosage compensation of Z-linked genes in gastrulating chicken embryos
    Shaobing O Zhang
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 E, 50th Street, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    BMC Genomics 11:13. 2010
    ..Sex determination is still poorly understood in birds and few key determinants have so far been identified. In contrast to most other species, dosage compensation of bird sex chromosomal genes appears rather ineffective...
  53. ncbi Sex-chromosome evolution: recent progress and the influence of male and female heterogamety
    Hans Ellegren
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvgen 18D, SE752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Nat Rev Genet 12:157-66. 2011
    It is now clear that sex chromosomes differ from autosomes in many aspects of genome biology, such as organization, gene content and gene expression. Moreover, sex linkage has numerous evolutionary genetic implications...
  54. pmc MDC1 directs chromosome-wide silencing of the sex chromosomes in male germ cells
    Yosuke Ichijima
    Division of Reproductive Sciences, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Genes Dev 25:959-71. 2011
    Chromosome-wide inactivation is an epigenetic signature of sex chromosomes. The mechanism by which the chromosome-wide domain is recognized and gene silencing is induced remains unclear...
  55. pmc Extensive meiotic asynapsis in mice antagonises meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and consequently disrupts meiotic sex chromosome inactivation
    Shantha K Mahadevaiah
    Division of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, England, UK
    J Cell Biol 182:263-76. 2008
    ..Apoptosis does not occur in mice with a single additional asynapsed chromosome with unrepaired meiotic DSBs and no disturbance of MSCI...
  56. ncbi An accumulation of tandem DNA repeats on the Y chromosome in Silene latifolia during early stages of sex chromosome evolution
    Roman Hobza
    Laboratory of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Kralovopolska Street 135, Brno 612 65, Czech Republic
    Chromosoma 115:376-82. 2006
    b>Sex chromosomes in mammals are about 300 million years old and typically have a highly degenerated Y chromosome...
  57. pmc Genetic mapping in a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis): conserved synteny but gene order rearrangements on the avian Z chromosome
    Niclas Backstrom
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Genetics 174:377-86. 2006
    ..Interestingly, the rate of recombination on the Z chromosome of collared flycatchers was only approximately 50% that of chicken, challenging the widely held view that birds generally have high recombination rates...
  58. pmc The silkworm Z chromosome is enriched in testis-specific genes
    K P Arunkumar
    Centre of Excellence for Genetics and Genomics of Silkmoths, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Centre for DNA Fingerprintingand Diagnostics, Tuljaguda, Nampally, Hyderabad, India
    Genetics 182:493-501. 2009
    The role of sex chromosomes in sex determination has been well studied in diverse groups of organisms. However, the role of the genes on the sex chromosomes in conferring sexual dimorphism is still being experimentally evaluated...
  59. ncbi Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Lepidoptera
    W Traut
    Universitat Lubeck, Zentrum fur Medizinische Strukturbiologie, Institut fur Biologie, Lubeck, Germany
    Sex Dev 1:332-46. 2007
    ..Special strains have been devised for mass rearing of male-only broods in the silkworm for higher silk production and in pest species for the release of sterile males in pest management programs...
  60. pmc Contrasting patterns of polymorphism and divergence on the Z chromosome and autosomes in two Ficedula flycatcher species
    Thomas Borge
    Department of Biology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, University of Oslo, N 0316 Oslo Norway
    Genetics 171:1861-73. 2005
    ..Alternatively, reduced variation on the Z chromosome could result from substantially higher levels of introgression at autosomal than at Z-linked loci or from a complex demographic history, such as a population bottleneck...
  61. pmc The chicken (Gallus gallus) Z chromosome contains at least three nonlinear evolutionary strata
    Kiwoong Nam
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Genetics 180:1131-6. 2008
    Birds have female heterogamety with Z and W sex chromosomes. These evolved from different autosomal precursor chromosomes than the mammalian X and Y...
  62. ncbi Plant Y chromosome degeneration is retarded by haploid purifying selection
    Margarita V Chibalina
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK
    Curr Biol 21:1475-9. 2011
    b>Sex chromosomes evolved many times independently in many different organisms [1]...
  63. ncbi The role of chromosomal rearrangements in the evolution of Silene latifolia sex chromosomes
    Roman Hobza
    Institute of Integrative Biology, Plant Ecological Genetics, ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Mol Genet Genomics 278:633-8. 2007
    ..In comparison to mammalian sex chromosomes that evolved 300 mya, sex chromosomes of S. latifolia appeared approximately 20 mya...
  64. ncbi Are some chromosomes particularly good at sex? Insights from amniotes
    Denis O'Meally
    Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Chromosome Res 20:7-19. 2012
    Several recent studies have produced comparative maps of genes on amniote sex chromosomes, revealing homology of gene content and arrangement across lineages as divergent as mammals and lizards...
  65. ncbi An integrated cytogenetic and physical map reveals unevenly distributed recombination spots along the papaya sex chromosomes
    Ching Man Wai
    Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
    Chromosome Res 20:753-67. 2012
    ..This cytogenetic map provides essential information for evolutionary study of sex chromosomes in Caricaceae and will facilitate the analysis of papaya sex chromosomes.
  66. pmc Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism
    A E Van't Hof
    Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 110:283-95. 2013
    ..found a W homolog of a Z-linked gene (laminin A), possibly resulting from ectopic recombination between the sex chromosomes. The B...
  67. pmc Convergent evolution of chicken Z and human X chromosomes by expansion and gene acquisition
    Daniel W Bellott
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 466:612-6. 2010
    ..By contrast, the sex chromosomes found in both sexes--the Z and X chromosomes--are assumed to have diverged little from their autosomal ..
  68. ncbi Sex chromosomes and associated rDNA form a heterochromatic network in the polytene nuclei of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    Elena Drosopoulou
    Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Genetica 140:169-80. 2012
    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, has a diploid set of 2n = 12 chromosomes including a pair of sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, but polytene nuclei show only five polytene chromosomes, obviously formed by five ..
  69. pmc W chromosome expression responds to female-specific selection
    Hooman K Moghadam
    Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:8207-11. 2012
    ..Taken together, these data provide evidence for the importance of the sex-limited chromosome in a female heterogametic species and show that sex-specific selection can act to preserve sex-limited chromosomes from degrading forces...
  70. ncbi Plant sex determination and sex chromosomes
    Deborah Charlesworth
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratory King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 88:94-101. 2002
    ..Theories for Y chromosome degeneration are reviewed in the light of recent results from genes on plant sex chromosomes.
  71. pmc Microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes at different stages of heteromorphism and heterochromatinization in two lizard species (Squamata: Eublepharidae: Coleonyx elegans and lacertidae: Eremias velox)
    Martina Pokorná
    Department of Ecology, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 7, 128 44 Praha 2, Czech Republic
    BMC Genet 12:90. 2011
    The accumulation of repetitive sequences such as microsatellites during the differentiation of sex chromosomes has not been studied in most squamate reptiles (lizards, amphisbaenians and snakes), a group which has a large diversity of ..
  72. pmc Neo-sex chromosomes and adaptive potential in tortricid pests
    Petr Nguyen
    Laboratory of Molecular Cytogenetics, Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:6931-6. 2013
    ..This effect may be further enhanced by involvement of sex chromosomes playing a disproportionate role in reproductive isolation...
  73. pmc Lack of dosage compensation accompanies the arrested stage of sex chromosome evolution in ostriches
    Sofia Adolfsson
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Biol Evol 30:806-10. 2013
    ..Our results indicate that dosage compensation is a prerequisite for, not only a consequence of, sex chromosome evolution...
  74. ncbi Explosive chromosome evolution and speciation in the gerbil genus Taterillus (Rodentia, Gerbillinae): a case of two new cryptic species
    G Dobigny
    Laboratoire Mammifères et Oiseaux, Museum national d histoire naturelle, Paris, France
    Cytogenet Genome Res 96:117-24. 2002
    ..Possible factors responsible for the rapid karyotypic evolution and speciation in this West African gerbil complex are discussed...
  75. ncbi The effects of selection and genetic drift on the genomic distribution of sexually antagonistic alleles
    Charles Mullon
    CoMPLEX, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Evolution 66:3743-53. 2012
    ..remains, however, considerable debate over the distribution of SA genetic variation across autosomes and sex chromosomes, with contradictory evidence coming from data and theory...
  76. ncbi The molecular basis of chromosome orthologies and sex chromosomal differentiation in palaeognathous birds
    Chizuko Nishida-Umehara
    Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics, Division of Genome Dynamics, Creative Research Initiative Sousei, Hokkaido University, North 10 West 8, Kita ku, Sapporo, 060 0810, Japan
    Chromosome Res 15:721-34. 2007
    ..Struthioniformes and Tinamiformes) have morphologically conserved karyotypes and less differentiated ZW sex chromosomes. To delineate interspecific chromosome orthologies in palaeognathous birds we conducted comparative ..
  77. ncbi Homologous sex chromosomes in three deeply divergent anuran species
    Alan Brelsford
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Evolution 67:2434-40. 2013
    ..are surprisingly labile in cold-blooded vertebrates, with frequent transitions between different pairs of sex chromosomes. It was recently suggested that, in context of this high turnover, some chromosome pairs might be more likely ..
  78. pmc Multiple sex-associated regions and a putative sex chromosome in zebrafish revealed by RAD mapping and population genomics
    Jennifer L Anderson
    Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e40701. 2012
    ..In zebrafish (Danio rerio), neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified...
  79. ncbi Identification of the sex chromosomes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and their comparison with the corresponding chromosomes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    J Li
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B C, Canada
    Cytogenet Genome Res 133:25-33. 2011
    ..We set out to identify the sex chromosomes in brown trout...
  80. ncbi Chromosomal sex-determining regions in animals, plants and fungi
    James A Fraser
    Departments of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Medicine, and Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 15:645-51. 2005
    The independent evolution of sex chromosomes in many eukaryotic species raises questions about the evolutionary forces that drive their formation...
  81. pmc The W, X, Y and Z of sex-chromosome dosage compensation
    Judith E Mank
    University of Oxford, Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Trends Genet 25:226-33. 2009
    In species with highly differentiated sex chromosomes, imbalances in gene dosage between the sexes can affect overall organismal fitness...
  82. pmc A new plant sex-linked gene with high sequence diversity and possible introgression of the X copy
    V B Kaiser
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 106:339-47. 2011
    ..The copies on both sex chromosomes seem to be functional, and each maps close to the respective X- and Y-linked copy of another sex-linked gene ..
  83. ncbi Polymorphism of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on the putative sex chromosomes of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) is not sex related
    K M Reed
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee 53201, USA
    Chromosome Res 5:221-7. 1997
    Polymorphism of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on the putative sex chromosomes of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) was examined using conventional cytogenetic and molecular techniques...
  84. pmc The sex-biased brain: sexual dimorphism in gene expression in two species of songbirds
    Sara Naurin
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    BMC Genomics 12:37. 2011
    ..Studies of gene expression in related species can shed light on the flexibility, or degree of conservation, of the gene expression profiles underlying sexual dimorphism...
  85. ncbi Ellobius lutescens: sex determination and sex chromosome
    W Just
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Sex Dev 1:211-21. 2007
    ..A singular X raises questions about the need for X chromosome inactivation in female cells. We present preliminary data that support a hypothesis that the E. lutescens Xist gene may be degenerated and thus non-functional...
  86. pmc The Y-encoded gene zfy2 acts to remove cells with unpaired chromosomes at the first meiotic metaphase in male mice
    Nadège Vernet
    Division of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Curr Biol 21:787-93. 2011
    ..These findings provide further insight into the basis for the much lower transmission of chromosomal errors originating at the first meiotic division in men than in women [7]...
  87. ncbi A ZZ/ZW-type sex determination in Xenopus laevis
    Shin Yoshimoto
    Department of Biosciences, Kitasato University, Minamiku, Sagamihara, Japan
    FEBS J 278:1020-6. 2011
    ..laevis. Finally, we discuss sex-determining systems and germ-cell development during vertebrate evolution, especially in view of a conserved role of DMRT1 in gonadal masculinization...
  88. ncbi The genomic legacy from the extinct Lepus timidus to the three hare species of Iberia: contrast between mtDNA, sex chromosomes and autosomes
    J Melo-Ferreira
    CIBIO, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, 4485 661 Vairão, Portugal
    Mol Ecol 18:2643-58. 2009
    ..Based on lineage-diagnostic SNPs, we detected no trace of L. timidus sex chromosomes in Iberia. From the frequencies of inferred haplotypes, autosomal introgression into L...
  89. pmc Evolution of sex chromosomes in insects
    Vera B Kaiser
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 44:91-112. 2010
    b>Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes...
  90. pmc Getting a full dose? Reconsidering sex chromosome dosage compensation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    James R Walters
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Genome Biol Evol 3:491-504. 2011
    ..gene dose or copy number--is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa),..
  91. ncbi Sexual selection and sex linkage
    Mark Kirkpatrick
    Section of Integrative Biology, 1 University Station C 0930, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Evolution 58:683-91. 2004
    ..g., X-linked preferences and autosomal displays), the good-genes mechanism is particularly powerful. These theoretical results suggest empirical tests based on the comparative method...
  92. pmc The genetic architecture of skeletal convergence and sex determination in ninespine sticklebacks
    Michael D Shapiro
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Curr Biol 19:1140-5. 2009
    ..Comparative genetics in sticklebacks provides an exciting opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling similar phenotypic changes in different animal groups...
  93. pmc Chromosome-wide gene-specific targeting of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex
    Gregor D Gilfillan
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, Molekularbiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, 80336 Munchen, Germany
    Genes Dev 20:858-70. 2006
    ..Within the targeted genes, the DCC exhibits a strong preference for exons and coding sequences. Our results demonstrate gene-specific binding of the DCC, and identify several sequence elements that may partly direct its targeting...
  94. pmc Are homologies in vertebrate sex determination due to shared ancestry or to limited options?
    Jennifer A Marshall Graves
    Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
    Genome Biol 11:205. 2010
    The same candidate genes and the same autosomes are repeatedly used as sex chromosomes in vertebrates...
  95. pmc Meiotic pairing and segregation of achiasmate sex chromosomes in eutherian mammals: the role of SYCP3 protein
    Roberto de la Fuente
    Unidad de Biologia Celular, Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS Genet 3:e198. 2007
    In most eutherian mammals, sex chromosomes synapse and recombine during male meiosis in a small region called pseudoautosomal region...
  96. pmc DNA methylation and heterochromatinization in the male-specific region of the primitive Y chromosome of papaya
    Wenli Zhang
    Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Genome Res 18:1938-43. 2008
    b>Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Recombination suppression in the sex-determining region and accumulation of deleterious mutations lead to degeneration of the Y chromosomes in many species with heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes...
  97. ncbi Fgf9 induces proliferation and nuclear localization of FGFR2 in Sertoli precursors during male sex determination
    Jennifer Schmahl
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Development 131:3627-36. 2004
    ..The nuclear localization of FGFR2 coincides with the initiation of Sry expression and the nuclear localization of SOX9 during the early differentiation of Sertoli cells and the determination of male fate...
  98. pmc The mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma represents a model for early evolution of sex chromosomes
    Audrius Menkis
    Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000030. 2008
    ..This study highlights the shared features between the sex chromosomes found in the animal and plant kingdoms and the fungal mating-type chromosome, despite fungi having no ..
  99. ncbi Effect of location, organization, and repeat-copy number in satellite-DNA evolution
    R Navajas-Pérez
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071, Spain
    Mol Genet Genomics 282:395-406. 2009
    ....
  100. ncbi Reassignment of chicken W chromosome sequences to the Z chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
    R Stiglec
    Comparative Genomics Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
    Cytogenet Genome Res 116:132-4. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate that the 17 genes on these BACs are Z-specific, and points to the inadequacy of assigning regions of the genome based exclusively on repetitive sequences...
  101. ncbi Different origins of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in closely related medaka fishes, Oryzias javanicus and O. hubbsi
    Yusuke Takehana
    Laboratory of Bioresources, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan
    Chromosome Res 16:801-11. 2008
    ..Furthermore, sex chromosomes were not homologous in these species...

Research Grants62

  1. Role of Sex Chromosome Complement in the CNS during Autoimmune Disease
    Sienmi Du; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..All sex differences ultimately arise from sex chromosomes, either directly from sex-linked transcriptional products or secondarily from sex hormones produced after the ..
  2. Gender Bias in Lupus: Contribution of Sex Chromosomes
    Ram Raj Singh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The fundamental basis for such gender bias remains unclear. Sex hormones, sex chromosomes or both may contribute to such sex difference...
  3. Sex and Stress Mechanisms of Vulnerability to Addiction
    Rajita Sinha; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..sex are independent to test the hypothesis that components of addiction are differentially mediated by sex chromosomes and gonadal hormones...
  4. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors and Human Sperm Chromosomal Abnormalities
    Melissa Perry; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Most new gene mutations seen in offspring and most abnormalities in the numbers of the sex chromosomes arise from the father's sperm...
  5. Epigenetic control of sex chromosome behavior in meiosis.
    JoAnne Engebrecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In males, sex chromosomes are largely hemizygous (i.e...
  6. Genetic conflict shapes centromeres and heterochromatin
    Harmit S Malik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These essential functions range from segregating chromosomes to ensuring transcriptional parity at sex chromosomes via dosage compensation and defending the germline against transposons...
  7. Sexual conflict and relocation of genes by duplication
    ESTHER BETRAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., for parental alleles) and in autosomes and that it will continue after heteromorphic sex chromosomes and MSCI have evolved...
  8. Germline Silencing of Unpaired Chromatin
    Eleanor M Maine; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While the natural targets of meiotic silencing are the male sex chromosomes, the process will be activated to repress any unpaired chromosomes or chromosomal regions that arise due to ..
  9. Evolution of Sexually Dimorphic Germ Cells in Volvox carteri
    James Umen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The long-term goal of our work is to understand the role of sex chromosomes in the evolution of complex developmental traits...
  10. Biochemistry of lysine crotonylation pathway
    Yingming Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In male germinal cells immediately following meiosis, histone Kcr, but not histone Kac, is enriched on sex chromosomes and specifically marks testis-specific genes...
  11. Sex differences in obesity and metabolic disease
    Karen Reue; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the novel mouse model, the "four core genotypes" (FCG), which includes mice with testes that have XX or XY sex chromosomes, and mice with ovaries that also have either XX or XY sex chromosomes...
  12. Dmrt1 in gonadal sex maintenance
    Robin E Lindeman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In mammals, the complement of sex chromosomes (XX or XY) in the bipotential fetal gonadal determines sex and dictates whether male or female- fate ..
  13. DOSAGE COMPENSATION IN DROSOPHILA
    James A Birchler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a similar type of up-regulation of the autosomes in Drosophila has been muted during the evolution of the sex chromosomes by the sequestration of a histone acetylase to the X via the action of the male specific lethal (MSL) complex,..
  14. X-linked Genes, Histone Modifications, and Behavior
    Jun Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In mice, aggression is influenced by both steroid hormones and sex chromosomes. We propose to test the possible connection between aggression and an X-linked gene whose mutations in human ..
  15. Sex Differences in Early Brain Development;Brain Development in Turner Syndrome
    REBECCA KNICKMEYER SANTELLI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Turner syndrome, a well-defined genetic disorder resulting from the partial or complete loss of one of the sex chromosomes. To address aim 1, high resolution MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), will be used to ..
  16. Molecular Evolution of Drosophila Y Chromosome
    Andrew G Clark; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The Y chromosome of Drosophila provides an ideal system for testing many concepts related to the evolution of sex chromosomes. The proposed study entails primary discovery of most of the Y- linked genes across a group of 12 species and ..
  17. GENETIC REGULATION IN DROSOPHILA: DOSAGE COMPENSATION
    John Lucchesi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We are studying a specific modification that affects the expression of genes on one of the sex chromosomes of the fruitfly Drosophila in order to uncover some general principles underlying epigenetic regulation;..
  18. Brain Development &Sex Chromosomes: Imaging of Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes
    Allan L Reiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that underlying mechanisms for these sex dimorphisms arise from: (1) differential expression of genes on the sex chromosomes and, (2) extensive influence of sex hormones on the brain during critical windows of development...
  19. Sex Chromosomes in Fetal Programming and Susceptibility to EAE
    Cory Teuscher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  20. t(8;21) and SON in Blood Cell Proliferation and Differentiation
    Dong Er Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mutations, such as abnormal hematopoietic growth factor signal transduction due to loss of one of the human sex chromosomes or deletion or mutation of the NHR4 zinc finger domain of AML1- ETO, cooperate with t(8;21) in AML ..
  21. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and the developmental basis of hybrid male st
    JEFFREY GOOD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Proper genetic and epigenetic regulation of the sex chromosomes during spermatogenesis is crucial for the development of normal male fertility...
  22. Role of Spo11 and recombination in mouse meiosis
    Scott Keeney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aims are: 1. To define mechanisms that ensure X-Y recombination. Sex chromosomes pose significant challenges to male meiotic cells because the X and Y share only a small region of homology (..
  23. Understanding genetics of spermatogenic failure by resequencing the sex chromosome
    RENEE GEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..I will then identify mutations that are responsible for male infertility by resequencing the sex chromosomes of men with nonobstructive azoospermia, a condition where no sperm is detected in their semen...
  24. DNA Damage Response Pathways in Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation
    Satoshi Namekawa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this proposal, we aim to dissect the molecular basis of epigenetic silencing of sex chromosomes. An intriguing link between epigenetic silencing of sex chromosomes and components involved in DNA damage ..
  25. The impact of sex chromosomes on the ability to recover from sleep loss
    KETEMA NNAMDI PAUL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This finding led us to hypothesize that sex chromosomes directly influence the ability to recover from sleep loss...
  26. Understanding how developmental systems compensate for and are affected by change
    Susan E Lott; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..2) characterize dosage compensation in a species with recently derived sex chromosomes to identify genes with a strong requirement for compensation, and A.3) manipulate gene dose in transgenic D...
  27. Sex Differences in Angiotensin-Induced Vascular Diseases
    Lisa A Cassis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose that sex hormones, as well as sex chromosomes, mediate sexual dimorphism of AngII-induced AAAs...
  28. Sex chromosome effects on neural and behavioral differentiation
    Emilie F Rissman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Another potential source of differences between males and females are the genes that reside on the sex chromosomes. A transgenic mouse model in which gonadal and chromosomal sex are uncoupled is being employed to test this ..
  29. Sex chromosome control of chromatin in the gametes
    BLUMA JESSICA LESCH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The sex chromosomes of mammalian germ cells must match those of the surrounding soma in order for the germ cells to successfully complete development as sperm or eggs...
  30. Understanding how developmental systems compensate for and are affected by change
    Susan E Lott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) characterize dosage compensation in a species with recently derived sex chromosomes to identify genes with a strong requirement for compensation, and A.3) manipulate gene dose in transgenic D...
  31. The Evolutionary and Functional Genomics of Dosage Compensation in Drosophila
    Doris Bachtrog; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Drosophila miranda - a species for which we recently generated a de novo genome sequence assembly - has three sex chromosomes of different age and at different stages of transition from ordinary autosomes into heteromorphic sex ..
  32. The X-factor of complex disease: From population genetics to GWAS of Chromosome X
    Alon Keinan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..disease genes and to elucidate how evolutionary history has shaped human genetic variation differently on the sex chromosomes. The objective of this application is to discover X-linked loci underlying various complex diseases while ..
  33. "Gene Trafficking on an Evolving X Chromosome in Drosophila"
    Doris Bachtrog; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..D.)miranda)therefore)provides)a)unique) system)to)study)the)mechanisms)of)gene)trafficking)on)an)evolving)X)chromosome) and)its)evolutionary)causes)in)action)using)a)comparative)and)functional)genomics) approach.) ..
  34. RADIATION CYTOGENETICS
    Joel Bedford; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..V. and x-rays occur predominantly in one or the other in Microtus agrestus cells with giant heterochromatic sex chromosomes. Studies on the inhibition of rejoining or increased expression of x-ray induced PCC breaks using anisotonic ..
  35. Molecular Genetics of Speciation Driven by Intragenomic Conflicts
    Yun Tao; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Sex- ratio meiotic drive is a phenomenon of non-Mendelian segregation manifested by genetic conflicts between sex chromosomes and autosomes...
  36. Evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in Reptilia
    DANIEL JANES; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..creation of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries will allow us to sequence and compare portions of sex chromosomes among reptiles and birds...
  37. Chromatin Structure during Spermatogenesis
    Mary Ann Handel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Accurate meiotic segregation of physically and genetically intact sex chromosomes is essential for male reproduction and species survival;chromosome segregation is set up in meiotic prophase...
  38. CLONING HOMOLOGOUS SEGMENTS OF HUMAN XP AND YQ
    PAULINE YEN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Investigator's Abstract): The human sex chromosomes are thought to have evolved from a common ancestral homologous chromosome pair, and, therefore, share many regions of homology. The long- term objectives of Dr...
  39. Medical anthropological approaches to gender confusion
    SHERINE HAMDY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..form of depression specific to confusion over one?s gender identity) and intersexuality (a condition in which sex chromosomes, genitalia, and/or secondary sex characteristics are neither clearly male nor female)...
  40. MECHANISM OF HUMAN X-INACTIVATION
    THULUVANCHERI MOHANDAS; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..will be constructed from the fusion of cells from individuals with these genetic conditions to separate their sex chromosomes. DNA of individual X or Y chromosomes will then be evaluated with a number of probes located at the distal ..
  41. Genetic Analysis of Germ Cell Formation
    Renee Reijo Pera; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This is most-plainly illustrated by contrasting the roles of the sex chromosomes in germ cell development in humans and mice...
  42. CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION DURING MEIOSIS
    Mary Ann Handel; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..occur? What is the nature of these events? How are these events related to meiotic condensation of the sex chromosomes? What Proteins mediate them? The specific aims are designed to fill these gaps in our knowledge...
  43. XIX North American Testis Workshop
    Michael Griswold; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..has the broad theme of "Chromosome structure and gene expression," it has been organized into five sessions: Sex chromosomes and genomics; Germ-line stem cells; Regulation of gene expression; Testicular somatic cells; and Testicular ..
  44. Mammalian Genomes - Stasis and Change
    HOLLY WICHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to estimate the rate of mutation at methylated CpG sites on the autosomes and sex chromosomes;ii...
  45. Rapid Human Sex Chromosomes Aneuploidy FISH Test
    JOAN AURICH COSTA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The ultimate goal of this SBIR project is to develop a full set of chromosome specific FISH probes for PGD. ..
  46. GENE EXPRESSION DURING SPERMATOGENESIS
    NORMAN HECHT; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..transport through intercellular bridges will be examined focusing on a kinesin and specific mRNAs encoded on sex chromosomes. These studies will provide important and novel data on critical mechanisms that regulate the expression of ..
  47. GENETIC BASIS OF SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN DROSOPHILA
    Jerry Coyne; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Are the genes involved in mating discrimination concentrated on the sex chromosomes, like those causing hybrid sterility and inviability? 6...
  48. The Effect of Sex Chromosomes on Immune Responses
    Rhonda Voskuhl; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Mice which differ in the complement of sex chromosomes, while having the same gonadal type, have been created and backcrossed onto the SJL strain to determine the ..
  49. NEURAL AND HORMONAL BASES OF VOCALIZATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..circuit for song in zebra finches conflicts with this classic dogma, and indicates that genes encoded on the sex chromosomes, which are differently expressed in male and female brain cells, acts within those cells to cause sexual ..
  50. GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF BRAIN SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..not induced by gonadal steroids, and the proposed studies test an alternative hypothesis, that genes on the sex chromosomes are differentially expressed in male and female brain and lead, via non- hormonal mechanisms, to sex ..
  51. Sex Differences in Dopamine Systems
    Arthur Arnold; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..direct or indirect on dopamine neurons; the cellular mechanisms of the sex chromosome effect; and whether the sex chromosomes contribute to sex differences in the development and adult structure of the nigrostriatal dopamine system in ..
  52. GENETIC STUDIES OF DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS
    Myrna Weissman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..patient samples using 391 microsatellite markers spaced on average every 9cM over all 22 autosomes and both sex chromosomes. Preliminary analyses indicate a number of strong results...
  53. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BRAIN PLASTICITY
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The final category of experiments is particularly important as it will discern whether the incubation temperature effects are direct or indirect. ..
  54. EVOLUTION OF BRAIN-BEHAVIOR CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  55. Epigenetic Influences on Brain and Behavior
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Specific Aim III. To establish if the different behavioral profiles exhibited in such animals in adulthood are reflected in different patterns of activity in a network of interconnected limbic nuclei. ..
  56. TRAINING PROGRAM IN NEUROBIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..All of the laboratories comply with NIH requirements. ..
  57. Regulation of Spermiogenesis in Mice
    PEIJING WANG; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. ASYMMETRICALLY EXPRESSED GENES IN DEVELOPING CEREBRUM
    Daniel Geschwind; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  59. DOSAGE COMPENSATION OF THE ACTIVE X CHROMOSOME IN MAMMALS
    Christine M Disteche; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Maintenance of the balance of gene expression is critical for normal development, as can be seen from the presence of multiple congenital abnormalities in individuals with chromosomal imbalance due to autosomal monosomy. ..
  60. Evolutionary genomics of new Drosophila genes
    DAVEN PRESGRAVES; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The methods developed will be applicable in comparative analysis of other genomes, including those of humans and their primate relatives. ..
  61. Mechanism of Meiotic Pairing in Drosophila
    BRUCE MCKEE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3) What is the molecular basis for homologous pairing in early prophase. 4) How are homologous pairing and conjunction related? We will use predominant genetic and cell biological methods to address these questions. ..