Summary: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. doi Sensing odorants and pheromones with chemosensory receptors
    Kazushige Touhara
    Department of Integrated Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba, 277 8562 Japan
    Annu Rev Physiol 71:307-32. 2009
  2. ncbi Coding of odors by a receptor repertoire
    Elissa A Hallem
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cell 125:143-60. 2006
  3. pmc Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae
    Allison F Carey
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 464:66-71. 2010
  4. ncbi The molecular basis of odor coding in the Drosophila antenna
    Elissa A Hallem
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Cell 117:965-79. 2004
  5. pmc Molecular basis of odor coding in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae
    Guirong Wang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Institutes of Chemical Biology and Global Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4418-23. 2010
  6. ncbi Speed and accuracy of olfactory discrimination in the rat
    Naoshige Uchida
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA
    Nat Neurosci 6:1224-9. 2003
  7. pmc Non-redundant odor coding by sister mitral cells revealed by light addressable glomeruli in the mouse
    Ashesh K Dhawale
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:1404-12. 2010
  8. ncbi Genetic variation in a human odorant receptor alters odour perception
    Andreas Keller
    Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behaviour, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nature 449:468-72. 2007
  9. doi Representations of odor in the piriform cortex
    Dan D Stettler
    Department of Neuroscience and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 63:854-64. 2009
  10. pmc Odor coding in the maxillary palp of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae
    Tan Lu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Institute of Chemical Biology and Global Health and Program in Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA
    Curr Biol 17:1533-44. 2007

Detail Information

Publications399 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Sensing odorants and pheromones with chemosensory receptors
    Kazushige Touhara
    Department of Integrated Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba, 277 8562 Japan
    Annu Rev Physiol 71:307-32. 2009
    ..We review recent progress on chemosensory receptor structure, function, and circuitry in vertebrates and invertebrates from the point of view of the molecular biology and physiology of these sensory systems...
  2. ncbi Coding of odors by a receptor repertoire
    Elissa A Hallem
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cell 125:143-60. 2006
    ..We test the receptors with a panel of over 100 odors and find that strong responses are sparse, with response density dependent on chemical class...
  3. pmc Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae
    Allison F Carey
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 464:66-71. 2010
    ..Our analysis of the Anopheles gambiae repertoire identifies receptors that may be useful targets for controlling the transmission of malaria...
  4. ncbi The molecular basis of odor coding in the Drosophila antenna
    Elissa A Hallem
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Cell 117:965-79. 2004
    ..Receptors vary widely in their breadth of tuning, and odorants vary widely in the number of receptors they activate. Together, these properties provide a molecular basis for odor coding by the receptor repertoire of an olfactory organ...
  5. pmc Molecular basis of odor coding in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae
    Guirong Wang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Institutes of Chemical Biology and Global Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4418-23. 2010
    ..gambiae that ultimately may aid in fostering the design and development of olfactory-based strategies for reducing the transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases...
  6. ncbi Speed and accuracy of olfactory discrimination in the rat
    Naoshige Uchida
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA
    Nat Neurosci 6:1224-9. 2003
    ..Even when pushed to psychophysical limits using mixtures of two odors, rats needed to take only one sniff (<200 ms at theta frequency) to make a decision of maximum accuracy...
  7. pmc Non-redundant odor coding by sister mitral cells revealed by light addressable glomeruli in the mouse
    Ashesh K Dhawale
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:1404-12. 2010
    ..Sister cells had highly correlated responses to odors, as measured by average spike rates, but their spike timing in relation to respiration was differentially altered...
  8. ncbi Genetic variation in a human odorant receptor alters odour perception
    Andreas Keller
    Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behaviour, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nature 449:468-72. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate the first link between the function of a human odorant receptor in vitro and odour perception...
  9. doi Representations of odor in the piriform cortex
    Dan D Stettler
    Department of Neuroscience and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 63:854-64. 2009
    ..This representation suggests organizational principles that differ from those in neocortical sensory areas where cells responsive to similar stimulus features are clustered and response properties vary smoothly across the cortex...
  10. pmc Odor coding in the maxillary palp of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae
    Tan Lu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Institute of Chemical Biology and Global Health and Program in Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA
    Curr Biol 17:1533-44. 2007
    ..However, the molecular and cellular basis of such olfactory responses remains largely unknown...
  11. pmc Receptors and neurons for fly odors in Drosophila
    Wynand Van der Goes van Naters
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8103, USA
    Curr Biol 17:606-12. 2007
    ..We find that none respond strongly to food odors but that all respond to fly odors...
  12. ncbi A novel family of divergent seven-transmembrane proteins: candidate odorant receptors in Drosophila
    P J Clyne
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Neuron 22:327-38. 1999
    ..exploring the function, organization, and development of the olfactory system, the receptor molecules that bind odors have not been identified in any insect...
  13. pmc The molecular and cellular basis of olfactory-driven behavior in Anopheles gambiae larvae
    Yuanfeng Xia
    Department of Biological Sciences and Pharmacology, Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Institutes of Chemical Biology and Global Health and Program in Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:6433-8. 2008
    ..These advances may ultimately enhance the development of vector control strategies, targeting olfactory pathways in larval-stage mosquitoes to reduce the catastrophic effects of malaria and other diseases...
  14. pmc A large-scale analysis of odor coding in the olfactory epithelium
    Kiyomitsu Nara
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    J Neurosci 31:9179-91. 2011
    ..at this level, we tested the responses of 3000 mouse OSNs to 125 odorants with diverse structures and perceived odors. These studies revealed extraordinary diversity, but also bias, in odorant recognition by the OSN, and thus OR, ..
  15. pmc Cortical representations of olfactory input by trans-synaptic tracing
    Kazunari Miyamichi
    HHMI Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 472:191-6. 2011
    ..The trans-synaptic labelling method described here should be widely applicable to mapping connections throughout the mouse nervous system...
  16. doi Roles of continuous neurogenesis in the structural and functional integrity of the adult forebrain
    Itaru Imayoshi
    Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Shogoin Kawahara, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Nat Neurosci 11:1153-61. 2008
  17. pmc Odor coding by a Mammalian receptor repertoire
    Harumi Saito
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Sci Signal 2:ra9. 2009
    ..Our results provide a basis for translating odorants into receptor neuron responses and for unraveling mammalian odor coding...
  18. ncbi Enriched odor exposure increases the number of newborn neurons in the adult olfactory bulb and improves odor memory
    Christelle Rochefort
    Perception and Memory Laboratory, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité de Recherche Associée 2182, Institut Pasteur, 75 724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Neurosci 22:2679-89. 2002
    ..By maintaining a constitutive turnover of granule cells subjected to modulation by environmental cues, ongoing bulbar neurogenesis could be associated with improved olfactory memory...
  19. ncbi Information coding in the olfactory system: evidence for a stereotyped and highly organized epitope map in the olfactory bulb
    K J Ressler
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Cell 79:1245-55. 1994
    ..In our view, this map is in essence an epitope map, whose approximately 1000 distinct components are used in a multitude of different combinations to discriminate a vast array of different odors.
  20. pmc Transcriptome profiling of chemosensory appendages in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae reveals tissue- and sex-specific signatures of odor coding
    R Jason Pitts
    Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    BMC Genomics 12:271. 2011
  21. pmc Development of a portable electronic nose system for the detection and classification of fruity odors
    Kea Tiong Tang
    Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University No 101, Sec 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan
    Sensors (Basel) 10:9179-93. 2010
    ..Verification software was developed to verify system functions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system prototype is able to identify the fragrance of three fruits, namely lemon, banana, and litchi...
  22. pmc Cellular-resolution population imaging reveals robust sparse coding in the Drosophila mushroom body
    Kyle S Honegger
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA
    J Neurosci 31:11772-85. 2011
    ..The MB is thought to encode odors in sparse patterns of activity, but the code has yet to be explored either on a population level or with a wide ..
  23. pmc Odor representations in olfactory cortex: "sparse" coding, global inhibition, and oscillations
    Cindy Poo
    Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neuron 62:850-61. 2009
    ..We show that odors evoke spiking activity that is sparse across the cortical population...
  24. doi Neuronal filtering of multiplexed odour representations
    Francisca Blumhagen
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Nature 479:493-8. 2011
    ..These results demonstrate how temporal filtering can extract specific information from multiplexed neuronal codes...
  25. pmc Functional analysis of a higher olfactory center, the lateral horn
    Nitin Gupta
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 32:8138-48. 2012
    ..is thought to play several important roles in olfaction, including maintaining the sparseness of responses to odors by means of feedforward inhibition, and encoding preferences for innately meaningful odors...
  26. ncbi In vivo imaging of neuronal activity by targeted expression of a genetically encoded probe in the mouse
    Thomas Bozza
    The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Neuron 42:9-21. 2004
    ..Targeted expression of synapto-pHluorin in mouse will permit the analysis of previously inaccessible neuronal populations and chronic imaging from genetically identified neurons in vivo...
  27. doi Olfactory signalling in vertebrates and insects: differences and commonalities
    U Benjamin Kaupp
    Center of Advanced European Studies and Research, Ludwig Erhard Allee 2, Bonn, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:188-200. 2010
    ..Metabotropic signalling in vertebrates provides a rich panoply of positive and negative regulation, whereas ionotropic signalling in insects enhances processing speed...
  28. doi How is the olfactory map formed and interpreted in the mammalian brain?
    Kensaku Mori
    Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Annu Rev Neurosci 34:467-99. 2011
  29. ncbi Naris occlusion alters the electro-olfactogram: evidence for compensatory plasticity in the olfactory system
    Christopher T Waggener
    Department of Biology, Randolph Macon College, Ashland, VA 23005, USA
    Neurosci Lett 427:112-6. 2007
    ..This result was consistent across turbinates, odors, and all but the highest odor concentration...
  30. doi Odorant emissions from intensive pig production measured by online proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry
    Anders Feilberg
    Department of Biosystems Engineering, Aarhus University, Blichers alle 20, DK 8830 Tjele, Denmark
    Environ Sci Technol 44:5894-900. 2010
    ..Highest emissions are seen for hydrogen sulfide and acetic acid, whereas key odorants are evaluated from tabulated odor threshold values to be hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, 4-methylphenol, and butanoic acid...
  31. doi Robust odor coding via inhalation-coupled transient activity in the mammalian olfactory bulb
    Kevin M Cury
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Center for Brain Science, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Neuron 68:570-85. 2010
    ..These results suggest that inhalation-coupled transient activity forms a robust neural code that is invariant to changes in respiration behavior...
  32. pmc Cellular and behavioral effects of cranial irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult mice
    Francoise Lazarini
    Institut Pasteur, Laboratory for Perception and Memory, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 4:e7017. 2009
    ..Thousands of new neurons appear each day, but the function of this ongoing neurogenesis remains unclear...
  33. doi Antennal lobe processing increases separability of odor mixture representations in the honeybee
    Nina Deisig
    Research Centre for Animal Cognition UMR 5169, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Toulouse, France
    J Neurophysiol 103:2185-94. 2010
    ..As a result, mixture representations become more separable in the olfactory space, thus allowing better differentiation among floral blends in nature...
  34. ncbi Combinatorial receptor codes for odors
    B Malnic
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 96:713-23. 1999
    ..of the mammalian olfactory system is such that thousands of volatile chemicals are perceived as having distinct odors. Here we used a combination of calcium imaging and single-cell RT-PCR to identify odorant receptors (ORs) for ..
  35. ncbi Simultaneous activation of mouse main and accessory olfactory bulbs by odors or pheromones
    Fuqiang Xu
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Comp Neurol 489:491-500. 2005
    It is generally believed that the main olfactory system processes common odors and the accessory olfactory system is specifically for pheromones...
  36. doi Insect olfactory receptors are heteromeric ligand-gated ion channels
    Koji Sato
    Department of Integrated Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277 8562, Japan
    Nature 452:1002-6. 2008
    ..The ligand-gated ion channel formed by an insect OR complex seems to be the basis for a unique strategy that insects have acquired to respond to the olfactory environment...
  37. pmc Dynamic sensory representations in the olfactory bulb: modulation by wakefulness and experience
    Hiroyuki K Kato
    Center for Neural Circuits and Behavior and Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neuron 76:962-75. 2012
    ..This mitral cell plasticity is odor specific, recovers gradually over months, and can be repeated with different odors. Furthermore, the expression of this experience-dependent plasticity is prevented by anesthesia...
  38. doi A metric for odorant comparison
    Rafi Haddad
    Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Hertzel, Rehovot 76100 Israel
    Nat Methods 5:425-9. 2008
    ..We use this new metric to recommend sets of odorants that span the physicochemical space for use in olfaction experiments...
  39. ncbi Oscillations and sparsening of odor representations in the mushroom body
    Javier Perez-Orive
    Division of Biology, 139 74, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 297:359-65. 2002
    ..These results provide direct support for the functional relevance of correlation codes and shed some light on the role of oscillatory synchronization in sensory networks...
  40. ncbi The effects of predator odors in mammalian prey species: a review of field and laboratory studies
    Raimund Apfelbach
    Tierphysiologie, Zoologisches Institut, Universitat Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:1123-44. 2005
    ..For many mammalian species this includes sensitivity towards predator-derived odors. The typical sources of such odors include predator skin and fur, urine, feces and anal gland secretions...
  41. doi Modification of CO2 avoidance behaviour in Drosophila by inhibitory odorants
    Stephanie Lynn Turner
    Cellular, Molecular, and Developmental Biology Program, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Nature 461:277-81. 2009
    ..Our findings have broader implications in highlighting the important role of inhibitory odorants in olfactory coding, and in their potential to disrupt CO(2)-mediated host-seeking behaviour in disease-carrying insects like mosquitoes...
  42. pmc Effect of sniffing on the temporal structure of mitral/tufted cell output from the olfactory bulb
    Ryan M Carey
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Neurosci 31:10615-26. 2011
  43. doi Navigational strategies used by insects to find distant, wind-borne sources of odor
    Ring T Cardé
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Chem Ecol 34:854-66. 2008
  44. pmc Associative cortex features in the first olfactory brain relay station
    Wilder Doucette
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Neuron 69:1176-87. 2011
    ..We observed that as mice learned to discriminate between odors, synchronous firing responses to the rewarded and unrewarded odors became divergent...
  45. ncbi Identification of a testicular odorant receptor mediating human sperm chemotaxis
    Marc Spehr
    Department of Cell Physiology, Ruhr University Bochum, 150 University Street, D 44780 Bochum, Germany
    Science 299:2054-8. 2003
    ..In contrast, undecanal was a potent OR antagonist to bourgeonal and related compounds. Taken together, these results indicate that hOR17-4 functions in human sperm chemotaxis and may be a critical component of the fertilization process...
  46. pmc Detection and avoidance of a carnivore odor by prey
    David M Ferrero
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11235-40. 2011
    Predator-prey relationships provide a classic paradigm for the study of innate animal behavior. Odors from carnivores elicit stereotyped fear and avoidance responses in rodents, although sensory mechanisms involved are largely unknown...
  47. pmc Behavioral changes induced by Toxoplasma infection of rodents are highly specific to aversion of cat odors
    Ajai Vyas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6442-7. 2007
    ..In mice and rats, latent Toxoplasma infection converted the aversion to feline odors into attraction...
  48. ncbi Maintaining accuracy at the expense of speed: stimulus similarity defines odor discrimination time in mice
    Nixon M Abraham
    WIN Group of Olfactory Dynamics, Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften and Max Planck Institut für medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Neuron 44:865-76. 2004
    ..go/no-go operant conditioning paradigm, discrimination accuracy and time were determined for simple monomolecular odors and binary mixtures of odors. Mice discriminated simple odors with an accuracy exceeding 95%...
  49. doi Intrinsic membrane properties and inhibitory synaptic input of kenyon cells as mechanisms for sparse coding?
    Heike Demmer
    University of Cologne, Institute of Zoology and Physiology, Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, CECAD, Weyertal 119, 50931 Cologne, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 102:1538-50. 2009
  50. doi Neural basis of a pollinator's buffet: olfactory specialization and learning in Manduca sexta
    Jeffrey A Riffell
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 800, USA
    Science 339:200-4. 2013
    ..Such processing of stimuli through two olfactory channels, one involving an innate bias and the other a learned association, allows the moths to exist within a dynamic floral environment while maintaining specialized associations...
  51. pmc Encoding odorant identity by spiking packets of rate-invariant neurons in awake mice
    Olivier Gschwend
    Department of Basic Neurosciences, School of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 7:e30155. 2012
    ..Nevertheless, in the olfactory system, there is little experimental evidence supporting such model...
  52. doi Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET
    Mathias Ditzen
    Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 63, New York, NY 10065 USA
    Science 319:1838-42. 2008
    ..Here, we show that DEET blocks electrophysiological responses of olfactory sensory neurons to attractive odors in Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster...
  53. doi Enzymatic conversion of odorants in nasal mucus affects olfactory glomerular activation patterns and odor perception
    Ayumi Nagashima
    Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 8675, Japan
    J Neurosci 30:16391-8. 2010
    ..These results reveal that the enzymatic conversion of odorants in the nasal mucus appears be fast enough to affect olfactory perception, which sheds light on the previously unappreciated role of nasal mucosal enzymes in odor sensation...
  54. doi Interneurons produced in adulthood are required for the normal functioning of the olfactory bulb network and for the execution of selected olfactory behaviors
    Vincent Breton-Provencher
    Cellular Neurobiology Unit, Centre de Recherche Universite Laval Robert Giffard, Quebec, Quebec G1J 2G3, Canada
    J Neurosci 29:15245-57. 2009
    ..Altogether, our data highlight the importance of adult neurogenesis for the proper functioning of the OB network and imply that new bulbar interneurons are involved in some, but not all, odor-associated tasks...
  55. pmc Functional architecture of olfactory ionotropic glutamate receptors
    Liliane Abuin
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Neuron 69:44-60. 2011
    ..Our results provide insights into the conserved and distinct architecture of these olfactory and synaptic ion channels and offer perspectives into the use of IRs as genetically encoded chemical sensors...
  56. ncbi Associative learning disrupted by impaired Gs signaling in Drosophila mushroom bodies
    J B Connolly
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Science 274:2104-7. 1996
    ..The ability to associate odors with electroshock was abolished when Galphas* was targeted to MB, but not CC, structures, whereas sensorimotor ..
  57. doi Parallel olfactory systems in insects: anatomy and function
    C Giovanni Galizia
    University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
    Annu Rev Entomol 55:399-420. 2010
    ..In this paper, we review the situation across insect species and offer hypotheses for the function and evolution of parallel olfactory systems...
  58. doi Olfactory coding with patterns of response latencies
    Stephan Junek
    Department of Neurophysiology and Cellular Biophysics, University of Gottingen, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    Neuron 67:872-84. 2010
    The encoding of odors by spatiotemporal patterns of mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the vertebrate olfactory bulb has been discussed controversially...
  59. pmc Odor information processing by the olfactory bulb analyzed in gene-targeted mice
    Jie Tan
    Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    Neuron 65:912-26. 2010
    ..Our results indicate that olfactory information carried by an OR is channeled to its corresponding M/T cells and support the role of lateral inhibition via interneurons in sharpening the tuning of M/T cells...
  60. ncbi Odorant representations are modulated by intra- but not interglomerular presynaptic inhibition of olfactory sensory neurons
    John P McGann
    Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Neuron 48:1039-53. 2005
    ..This organization allows for control of input sensitivity while maintaining the spatial maps of glomerular activity thought to encode odorant identity...
  61. ncbi Identification and quantification of impact odorants of aged red wines from Rioja. GC-olfactometry, quantitative GC-MS, and odor evaluation of HPLC fractions
    M Aznar
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50.009 Zaragoza, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 49:2924-9. 2001
    ..Comparison among the three techniques shows good agreement and demonstrates that they are complementary...
  62. ncbi Intensity versus identity coding in an olfactory system
    Mark Stopfer
    California Institute of Technology, Division of Biology, Computation and Neural Systems Program, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Neuron 39:991-1004. 2003
    ..The tuning of KCs to identity and concentration and the patterning of their responses are consistent with piecewise decoding of their PN inputs over oscillation-cycle length epochs...
  63. pmc Characterization of an antennal carboxylesterase from the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis degrading a host plant odorant
    Nicolas Durand
    UMR A 1272 UPMC INRA Physiologie de l Insecte, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and INRA, Paris and Versailles, France
    PLoS ONE 5:e15026. 2010
    ..These enzymes are only expressed in the male antennae, and secreted into the lumen of the pheromone-sensitive sensilla. CCEs able to hydrolyze other odorants than sex pheromones, such as plant volatiles, have not been identified...
  64. doi Synaptic inhibition in the olfactory bulb accelerates odor discrimination in mice
    Nixon M Abraham
    Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Heidelberg, INF 307, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany WIN Olfactory Dynamics Group, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Neuron 65:399-411. 2010
    ..cells via granule cells may contribute to odor discrimination behavior by refining neuronal representations of odors. Here we show that selective deletion of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 in granule cells boosted synaptic Ca(2+) ..
  65. pmc Associative conditioning tunes transient dynamics of early olfactory processing
    Patricia C Fernandez
    Arizona State University, School of Life Sciences, Tempe, AZ 85287 4501, USA
    J Neurosci 29:10191-202. 2009
    b>Odors evoke complex spatiotemporal responses in the insect antennal lobe (AL) and mammalian olfactory bulb. However, the behavioral relevance of spatiotemporal coding remains unclear...
  66. pmc Select Drosophila glomeruli mediate innate olfactory attraction and aversion
    Julia L Semmelhack
    Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nature 459:218-23. 2009
    ..Together, these results indicate that individual glomeruli, rather than the entire pattern of active glomeruli, mediate innate behavioural output...
  67. pmc Characterization and coding of behaviorally significant odor mixtures
    Jeffrey A Riffell
    University of Arizona, Tucson, 85721, USA
    Curr Biol 19:335-40. 2009
    ..Surprisingly, how the olfactory system maintains identity of complex odors is unclear [6-10]...
  68. pmc Chemotopic odorant coding in a mammalian olfactory system
    Brett A Johnson
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 4550, USA
    J Comp Neurol 503:1-34. 2007
    ..A critical analysis suggests that alternative coding mechanisms for odor quality, such as those based on temporal patterns of responses, enjoy little experimental support...
  69. pmc Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour
    Sarah A Roberts
    Mammalian Behaviour and Evolution Group, University of Liverpool, Neston CH64 7TE, UK
    BMC Biol 8:75. 2010
  70. ncbi Olfactory representations by Drosophila mushroom body neurons
    Glenn C Turner
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    J Neurophysiol 99:734-46. 2008
    ..KC responses to odors were highly selective and, thus sparse, compared with those of their direct inputs, the antennal lobe projection ..
  71. ncbi Representation of odorants by receptor neuron input to the mouse olfactory bulb
    M Wachowiak
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Neuron 32:723-35. 2001
    ..Finally, odorant activation slopes could differ across glomeruli, and for different odorants activating the same glomerulus. These results imply a high degree of complexity in odorant representations at the level of olfactory bulb input...
  72. doi The neurobiology of insect olfaction: sensory processing in a comparative context
    Department of Neuroscience, College of Science, University of Arizona, 1040 East Fourth Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 0077, USA
    Prog Neurobiol 95:427-47. 2011
    ..We propose that this perspective is beneficial for insect olfactory neurobiology in particular and sensory neurobiology in general...
  73. pmc Odor quality coding and categorization in human posterior piriform cortex
    James D Howard
    Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer s Disease Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:932-8. 2009
    ..These findings substantiate theoretical models emphasizing the importance of distributed piriform templates for the perceptual reconstruction of odor object quality...
  74. ncbi Centre-surround inhibition among olfactory bulb glomeruli
    J L Aungst
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Program in Neuroscience, The University of Maryland School of Medicine, Room 222, 685 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nature 426:623-9. 2003
    ..This interglomerular centre-surround inhibitory network, along with the well-established mitral-granule-mitral inhibitory circuit, forms a serial, two-stage inhibitory circuit that could enhance spatiotemporal responses to odours...
  75. doi Precision and diversity in an odor map on the olfactory bulb
    Edward R Soucy
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, 52 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:210-20. 2009
    ..Identified glomeruli could be matched across animals by their response profile to hundreds of odors. Their layout in different individuals varied by only approximately 1 glomerular spacing, corresponding to a ..
  76. pmc Mice with a "monoclonal nose": perturbations in an olfactory map impair odor discrimination
    Alexander Fleischmann
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 60:1068-81. 2008
    We have altered the neural representation of odors in the brain by generating a mouse with a "monoclonal nose" in which greater than 95% of the sensory neurons express a single odorant receptor, M71...
  77. ncbi Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system
    Pierre Marie Lledo
    Laboratory of Perception and Memory, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France
    Physiol Rev 85:281-317. 2005
    ..Recent observations supporting the necessity of such plasticity for adult brain functions are also discussed. Due to space constraints, this review focuses mainly on the olfactory systems of vertebrates, and primarily those of mammals...
  78. ncbi Dynamic optimization of odor representations by slow temporal patterning of mitral cell activity
    R W Friedrich
    California Institute of Technology, Division of Biology, MC 139-74, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 291:889-94. 2001
    Mitral cells (MCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) respond to odors with slow temporal firing patterns...
  79. ncbi How the olfactory system makes sense of scents
    S Firestein
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA
    Nature 413:211-8. 2001
    ..Growing interest in the detection of diverse compounds at single-molecule levels has made the olfactory system an important system for biological modelling...
  80. pmc The vomeronasal organ mediates interspecies defensive behaviors through detection of protein pheromone homologs
    Fabio Papes
    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 141:692-703. 2010
    ..Neurons that sense these stimuli remain unknown. Here we show that detection and processing of fear-evoking odors emitted from cat, rat, and snake require the function of sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ...
  81. doi Stability of odorants from pig production in sampling bags for olfactometry
    Michael J Hansen
    Department of Biosystems Engineering, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark
    J Environ Qual 40:1096-102. 2011
    ..This can result in underestimation of odor emissions from pig production facilities and of the effect of odor reduction technologies...
  82. ncbi Intrinsic and circuit properties favor coincidence detection for decoding oscillatory input
    Javier Perez-Orive
    Computation and Neural Systems, Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    J Neurosci 24:6037-47. 2004
    ..Finally, we find that a decoding strategy that is based on coincidence detection enhances both noise tolerance and input discriminability by KCs...
  83. doi Switching attraction to inhibition: mating-induced reversed role of sex pheromone in an insect
    Romina B Barrozo
    INRA, UMR 1272 Physiologie de l Insecte Signalisation et Communication, Route de St Cyr, F 78000 Versailles, France
    J Exp Biol 213:2933-9. 2010
  84. pmc Optical imaging of postsynaptic odor representation in the glomerular layer of the mouse olfactory bulb
    Max L Fletcher
    Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    J Neurophysiol 102:817-30. 2009
  85. pmc Biophysical mechanisms underlying olfactory receptor neuron dynamics
    Katherine I Nagel
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Neurosci 14:208-16. 2011
    The responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to odors have complex dynamics...
  86. pmc A general odorant background affects the coding of pheromone stimulus intermittency in specialist olfactory receptor neurones
    Angela Rouyar
    UMR1272, PISC, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Versailles, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e26443. 2011
    ..Rapid recovery of behavior shows that change of perceived intensity is more important than absolute stimulus intensity. While decreasing the response intensity, background odor preserved the temporal parameters of the specific signal...
  87. pmc The averaging effect of odorant mixing as determined by air dilution sensory tests: a case study on reduced sulfur compounds
    Ki Hyun Kim
    Atmospheric Environment Laboratory, Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 143 747, Korea
    Sensors (Basel) 11:1405-17. 2011
    ..The overall results of this study thus suggest that the mixing phenomenon between odorants with similar chemical properties (like RSC family) can be characterized by the averaging effect of all participants...
  88. ncbi Mice deficient in G(olf) are anosmic
    L Belluscio
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Neuron 20:69-81. 1998
    ..striking reduction in the electrophysiological response of primary olfactory sensory neurons to a wide variety of odors. Despite this profound diminution in response to odors, the topographic map of primary sensory projections to the ..
  89. pmc Olfactory dysfunction correlates with amyloid-beta burden in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model
    Daniel W Wesson
    Emotional Brain Institute and Center for Dementia Research, Nathan S Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, New York 10962, USA
    J Neurosci 30:505-14. 2010
    ..Furthermore, these results present the odor cross-habituation test as a powerful behavioral assay, which reflects Abeta deposition and thus may serve to monitor the efficacy of therapies aimed at reducing Abeta...
  90. ncbi Optical imaging of odorant representations in the mammalian olfactory bulb
    B D Rubin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Neuron 23:499-511. 1999
    ..These characteristics suggest that odorants and their concentrations can be encoded by distinct spatial patterns of glomerular activation...
  91. ncbi Deficit in attachment behavior in mice lacking the mu-opioid receptor gene
    Anna Moles
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Institute of Neuroscience, Psychobiology and Psychopharmacology, Viale Marx 43, 00137 Roma, Italy
    Science 304:1983-6. 2004
    ..pups emit fewer ultrasonic vocalizations when removed from their mothers but not when exposed to cold or male mice odors. Moreover these knockout pups do not show a preference toward their mothers' cues and do not show ultrasonic calls ..
  92. pmc Electronic noses and tongues: applications for the food and pharmaceutical industries
    Elizabeth A Baldwin
    USDA ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory, 600 Ave S N W, Winter Haven, FL 33881, USA
    Sensors (Basel) 11:4744-66. 2011
    ..The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses...
  93. doi Central processing of natural odor mixtures in insects
    Hong Lei
    ARL Neurobiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    J Chem Ecol 34:915-27. 2008
    ..The difference between these two types of processing may reside in the degree of plasticity, with the former being hard-wired and the latter being more subjected to network modulation...
  94. pmc Bulbar acetylcholine enhances neural and perceptual odor discrimination
    Dipesh Chaudhury
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850, USA
    J Neurosci 29:52-60. 2009
    ..These results together present a first direct comparison between neural and perceptual effects of a bulbar neuromodulator...
  95. ncbi The olfactory bulb: coding and processing of odor molecule information
    K Mori
    Laboratory for Neuronal Recognition Molecules, Laboratory for Neurobiology of Synapse, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Science 286:711-5. 1999
    ..They also mediate synchronized oscillatory discharges among specific combinations of output neurons and may contribute to the integration of signals from distinct odorant receptors in the olfactory cortex...
  96. ncbi A zonal organization of odorant receptor gene expression in the olfactory epithelium
    K J Ressler
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Cell 73:597-609. 1993
    The mechanisms by which mammals discriminate a vast array of diverse odors are poorly understood...
  97. doi Odor detection in insects: volatile codes
    M de Bruyne
    Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
    J Chem Ecol 34:882-97. 2008
    ..We promote a more integrated research approach that links molecular physiology of receptor neurons to the ecology of odorants...
  98. ncbi Normative data for the "Sniffin' Sticks" including tests of odor identification, odor discrimination, and olfactory thresholds: an upgrade based on a group of more than 3,000 subjects
    T Hummel
    Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 264:237-43. 2007
    ..Further, the present data suggest specific changes of individual olfactory functions in relation to age, with odor thresholds declining most dramatically compared to odor discrimination and odor identification...
  99. doi Prevalence of smell loss in Parkinson's disease--a multicenter study
    A Haehner
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Dresden, Germany
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 15:490-4. 2009
    ..This figure falls to 74.5%, however, when adjusted to age-related norms. Thus, olfactory dysfunction should be considered as a reliable marker of the disease...
  100. pmc Cortical processing of odor objects
    Donald A Wilson
    Emotional Brain Institute, Nathan S Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
    Neuron 72:506-19. 2011
    Natural odors, generally composed of many monomolecular components, are analyzed by peripheral receptors into component features and translated into spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity in the olfactory bulb...
  101. ncbi Mitral and tufted cells differ in the decoding manner of odor maps in the rat olfactory bulb
    Shin Nagayama
    Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 91:2532-40. 2004
    ..These results indicate a clear difference between mitral and middle tufted cells in the manner of decoding the glomerular odor maps...

Research Grants75

  1. Olfactory Circuits for Reproduction and Reward
    James A Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, despite evidence in animals that such biologically relevant odors may act as natural rewards, the routes through which odors are conveyed to the mesolimbic dopamine system that ..
  2. Regulation of Odorant Receptor Gene Expression
    Paul Feinstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The ability to identify odors by humans is dependent on odorant receptors within olfactory neurons that line the nasal epithelium...
  3. Multiple Mechanisms of Nasal Chemoreception
    Diego Restrepo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the main olfactory epithelium also appears to be involved in detecting pheromones and other semiochemicals - odors involved in animal communication (Baxi et al., 2006;Buck, 2005;Lin et al., 2007;Lin et al., 2004)...
  4. Improving Air Quality for Laboratory Animal Research
    Sharron S Quisenberry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pre-review last fall expressed concerns about air quality, the need for greater air exchange, and "excessive odors." Renovation of the HVAC system in the Central Facility will include addition of a new heating, ventilating and ..
  5. Implementation of Microfluidic Automation for Large-Scale Searches of Olfactory N
    Albert Folch; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to characterize the dynamics and the specificity of the responses of OSNs to a large variety of odorants, complex odors, and pheromones...
  6. Signal transduction in TRPM5-expressing olfactory sensory neurons
    Diego Restrepo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..work in the Restrepo laboratory we show that signal transduction for pheromones and other biologically relevant odors in the MOE involves the transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5)...
  7. Olfactory and behavioral responses of kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae), vec
    John G Hildebrand; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to develop these surveillance and control tools is to identify the chemical constituents of the attractive animal odors. We will use gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electrophysiological recording from olfactory receptor cells (ORCs)..
  8. Disruption of Host-Seeking Behavior in Aedes and Culex Mosquitoes using Odorants
    Anandasankar Ray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..identify their human hosts primarily using olfactory cues like carbon dioxide in exhaled breath, as well as other odors present in skin emanations...
  9. Olfactory Adaptation in C. Elegans
    NOELLE D L 'ETOILE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..elegans. C. elegans is inherently attracted to specific odors which it senses using G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), however, its attraction is dampened if the odors are ..
  10. Molecular mechanisms of olfaction in mammals
    Linda B Buck; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..information to yet other brain areas involved in odor perception and the emotional and physiological effects of odors. Odorant detection in mice is mediated by ~1000 different odorant receptors (ORs), each expressed by a different ..
  11. Mechanisms of odor detection and transduction
    Austin Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many of the molecules that are critical for the detection and transduction of odors by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) have been identified, and their basic roles in these processes defined...
  12. Cognitive modulation of primary sensory processing in olfactory receptor neurons
    John P McGann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from olfactory receptor neurons (the very first neurons in the olfactory system) in awake mice that are smelling odors and learning about their environment...
  13. Understanding the function of trace amine-associated (TAARs)
    Kyoung hye Yoon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..OSNs express olfactory receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors specialized in detecting odors. There are ~1000 OR genes in mice, and ~350 in humans...
  14. Multisensory Integration for Food Perception and Behavior in Drosophila
    Ping Shen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have recently shown that like in mammals, attractive food odors elicited reward-driven overeating of readily accessible sugar-rich food in Drosophila larvae...
  15. Neuromodulatory regulation of early olfactory processing
    Sasha Devore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..odor representations in the OB and that these effects will lead to enhanced discrimination of perceptually similar odors. Together, the studies proposed here will improve our understanding of the role that centrifugal feedback loops ..
  16. Fear learning alters primary sensory representations of threat-predictive stimuli
    John P McGann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in neurotransmitter release from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) when they are stimulated by fear-associated odors (CS+) in vivo...
  17. Olfactory Singaling, Cilia, and Sensory Disorders
    JEFFREY MARTENS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cilia, hair-like projections into the nasal cavity, which contain all of the proteins responsible for detecting odors. The goal of this proposal is to understand how olfactory proteins get to the cilia and why genetic mutations in ..
  18. CRCNS: Multiple roles of inhibition in the olfactory system
    MAKSIM V BAZHENOV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..these models to investigate how feedback and feed-forward inhibition may help to discriminate between similar odors, to achieve optimal odor representation across a range of concentrations, and to minimize the effects of input ..
  19. Molecular and functional characterization of olfaction genes in tsetse flies
    Serap Aksoy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..flies are orthologuous, differentially expressed and significantly influence responses of the flies to different odors. Adults of the selected tsetse species will be sampled from respective sites and RNA will be extracted from head ..
  20. Parasite / host interaction and the neurobiology of fear
    Robert M Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..evolved the capacity to, once having formed cysts in the brain, abolish the innate fear that rodents have of the odors of cats, and to convert that fear into an attraction;this increases the likelihood of the rodent being predated, ..
  21. fMRI Correlates of Olfactory and Visual Cues in Tobacco Smoking
    STEVEN BRADLEY LOWEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cranial (olfactory) nerve has a direct connection to the limbic region of the central nervous system suggests that odors may play a significant role in cue-induced craving and so olfactory cues may evoke a more potent response than ..
  22. The architecture and development of a sensory processing circuit for smell
    KRISTIN KAY BALDWIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..viral tracing and neuron reconstruction techniques to label sets of "sister" MT neurons that respond to the same odors in the same animal and map their projections in three dimensions...
  23. Functional Networks in Migraine
    Todd Schwedt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..attacks are characterized by moderate to severe ain, nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to lights, sounds and odors, and cutaneous allodynia...
  24. Reward System Responses to Food Aromas: Effects of Obesity and Alcohol Intake
    David A Kareken; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further, there are no studies of how alcohol exposure alters the brain response to food odors, or how its disinhibiting qualities could facilitate overeating...
  25. Synaptic and circuit mechanisms of olfactory processing
    Rachel Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding how the brain processes odors should aid the design of so-called "artificial noses", sensors designed to analyze organic volatiles which have ..
  26. Manipulating the consolidation of fear memories during sleep
    ..Moreover, there is recent evidence to suggest that odors have privileged access to brain networks during sleep, and that non-emotional, episodic memories can be ..
  27. Mechanisms of pheromone signal transduction in C. elegans
    DANNA MINDY ZEIGER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For a complete understanding of how humans smell, and how odors affect development and behavior, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of detecting and relaying pheromonal ..
  28. The Role of Notch in Behavioral Plasticity
    Gary Struhl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Notch activity in ORNs is necessary but not sufficient for long-term behavioral adaptation to odors. This proposal will explore the hypothesis that in response to chronic odor exposure, Notch regulated gene ..
  29. Neural circuits that regulate dopamine neuron activity
    Naoshige Uchida; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from VTA will be recorded while mice perform a classical conditioning paradigm in which they associate different odors with different outcomes (big water, small water, nothing and airpuff)...
  30. Drugs of Abuse and Memory Span
    JOSEPH MARK GALIZIO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is to elaborate a recently developed test that assesses rodent's ability to remember an increasing number of odors within a single experimental session: the olfactory span task...
  31. Disruption of Host-Seeking Behavior in Anopheles Gambiae Mosquitoes using Odorant
    Anandasankar Ray; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mosquito navigates closer using the CO2 plumes, it is also thought to be attracted to skin and sweat associated odors. In this proposal we focus on the CO2-sensing neuron of Anopheles gambiae as a target for development of odor-..
  32. TrpM5 characterizes a main olfactory projection to the medial amygdala
    Shane H Rolen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..results obtained from the proposed experiments will aid in understanding how the MOS processes socially-related odors. These findings will be important in understanding how species (e.g...
  33. Dissecting neural mechanisms integrating multiple inputs in C. elegans
    Sreekanth H Chalasani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Chalasani lab has identified a novel neuropeptide-based communication between the AWC (sensing odors) and ASE (sensing salt) neurons. Surprisingly, a C...
  34. Olfactory navigation in Drosophila as a model for multi-sensory integration
    Katherine Nagel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Odors dispersed by the wind form turbulent plumes that contain only stochastic information about source location...
  35. Olfactory Evoked Potentials and Developmental Neuropathology in Schizophrenia
    Bruce I Turetsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This study will examine changes in neural responses to odors in schizophrenia patients and adolescents who are at risk for the illness...
  36. Taste, smell, and feeding behavior in autism: A quantitative traits study
    Loisa Bennetto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..processing, there is considerable evidence that children with autism show unusual responses to tastes and odors, and we have recently documented autism-specific impairments in psychophysiological tests of taste and odor ..
  37. CRCNS: Higher-order feature detection in olfactory bulb
    Thomas A Cleland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..computations in the EPL serve to render mitral cell output patterns selective for certain higher-order features of odors in the same sense that neurons in primary visual cortex are selective for higher-order visual features such as ..
  38. Cortical Processing
    Donald A Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..single-unit and ensemble odor evoked activity in the awake, freely moving LEC and PCX to novel and familiar odors. These data will be the first to characterize olfactory sensory physiology of this region of olfactory cortex, and ..
    John R Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The behavior elicited by pairs of odors is then analyzed...
  40. Trauma-Related Olfactory Cues in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    Bernadette Cortese; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Although odors have been described as more closely linked to memory, and emotional memories specifically, than stimuli from any ..
  41. Dynamics of glomerular coding in the olfactory bulb
    DALE M WACHOWIAK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): The goal of this research is to understand how the nervous system encodes information about odors. The sense of smell presents unique problems to the nervous system in terms of stimulus detection, neural encoding ..
  42. Ligand Recognition Among Mammalian Odorant Receptors
    CHARLES WARD LUETJE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Humans and other mammals detect odors using an enormous family of receptors (odorant receptors), which are similar in structure to many receptors that ..
  43. Structure-Stabilized GPCRs for Functional Analysis and Crystallography
    ERIC JAMES STEINMETZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are a major pathway through which cells respond to external signals, such as light, odors, hormones, or neurotransmitters...
  44. Neural mechanisms of olfactory reward value processing in the human brain
    James D Howard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In a second experiment (Aim 2), we will implement an olfactory classical conditioning paradigm in which odors are paired with varying levels of reward...
    Lawrence B Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..provided by applicant): The long term goal of the proposed experiments is to understand how animals perceive odors. The experiments in the present proposal are designed to improve our understanding of the function and role of the ..
  46. Neural circuits mediating food, pherome, and repulsive odor behaviors
    CHRISTOPHER JOHN POTTER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..demonstrated that the olfactory cortex (lateral horn) is divided into two broad domains, one representing food odors and one representing pheromones...
  47. Are drug-associated cues susceptible to the blocking effect?
    Adi Jaffe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for the odor paired with food (as the odor will have been blocked by the context) but will show preference for odors paired with drug...
    Charles A Greer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Olfactory sensitivity and the ability to discriminate among odors both decline, leading not only to decrements in the quality of life, but also to serious nutritional deficits...
  49. Neural Signatures of Long-Term Memory
    AMANDA J CROCKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, my proposal will address the following aims: SPECIFIC AIM 1) To determine how odors are represented among a population of MB extrinsic neurons...
  50. Prevention of mosquito-borne illness through manipulation of the CO2 receptor
    Michelle Brown; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Apart from serving as a long-range attraction cue, CO2 has been shown to sensitize mosquitoes to skin odors and using small-area landing assays, we will be able to determine efficacy of the compounds when skin odor is ..
  51. The Development and Organization of Central Synapses in Drosophila
    TIMOTHY JAMES MOSCA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the Drosophila olfactory system, three neuronal classes cooperate to enable robust sensing of odors from the environment, processing of these odors, and transmission of the information to higher brain centers...
  52. Molecular basis of insect attraction to human odorants
    KAREN ANNE MENUZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that transmit disease often detect humans through olfactory cues, making it imperative to better understand how odors are encoded and elicit behavior in insects...
  53. Mechanisms of olfactory signal processing
    NATHAN ERIC SCHOPPA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Most odors are composed of a mixture of many different molecules...
    John G Hildebrand; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..glomeruli, accessible receptor cells and brain neurons, and chemically identified, behaviorally relevant odors. It also provides an excellent opportunity to explore neural relationships within and among identified glomeruli ..
  55. Phosphoinositide Signaling in Mammalian Olfaction
    Barry W Ache; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Odors play an increasingly appreciated role in our general quality of life and well being, a role that is compromised by the effect of disease, drugs, aging and environmental onslaught on the ..
  56. The role of the thalamus in human olfactory processing
    CHRISTINA MARIA ZELANO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..By systematically altering attention to different odors, I will test the hypothesis that distributed codes of odor quality are attention dependent in the mediodorsal ..
  57. Short axon cells implement gain control in the mouse olfactory bulb
    DINU ALBEANU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the olfactory system, less is understood regarding how odors are reliably identified despite huge variations in their concentration...
    Brian Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..honeybee (Apis mellifera) as a model animal species for understanding mechanisms of behavioral plasticity toward odors. These animals are faced with the same types of olfactory problems as mammals...
    Timothy S McClintock; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..steps in the molecular mechanisms that lead to the genesis of these neurons, their ability to detect certain odors, and their ability to survive in their exposed position...
  60. Regulation of Olfactory Cortex Odor Responses by Somatostatin Interneurons
    James F Sturgill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We all have experienced how odors conjure strong emotional responses and memory associations, perhaps when encountering the familiar odor of a home after a long absence...
  61. Wnt5 and the Patterning of the Olfactory Map
    HUEY K HING; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Olfactory neurons responsive to different odors are interspersed in the receptor sheet...
  62. New approaches to phosphoinositide signaling in olfaction.
    Elizabeth A Corey; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..could establish a cellular substrate for a bipolar basis to coding olfactory information and aid in explaining how odors not only excite but also inhibit ORNs...
    John Teeter; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..our overall quality of life is becoming increasingly appreciated with advances in our understanding of how odors influence the enjoyment of food and beverages and our sense of well-being...
  64. Clade-specific changes in transcription of olfactory genes in fruit flies
    EREZYILMAZ DENIZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Each olfactory neuron expresses one unique odorant receptor (Or) that determines its response to different odors. I focus on two pairs of neurons;Or59b + Or85a-expressing neurons of the ab2 sensillum, and Or22a + Or85b-..
  65. Psychoneuroimmunology and Mind-Body Medicine
    Janice Kiecolt Glaser; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This design will allow us to examine the ability of the odors to modulate autonomic, endocrine, and immune function, and health-relevant cutaneous responses...
    Linda Buck; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..and discrimination of a vast number of structurally diverse odorants that are perceived as having different odors. On the other, it mediates the detection of pheromones, chemicals released from animals that stimulate ..
    Ruth Wood; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Castration also reduces sexual motivation, as measured by interest in vaginal odors and preference for a receptive female...
    ARTHUR COQUELIN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..For example, species specific odors (pheromones) disseminated by females are detected by the vomer nasal system and enhance luteinizing hormone (LH) ..
  69. Olfactory Coding in Mammals
    Minghong Ma; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Mammals have the remarkable ability to detect and discriminate thousands of odors. However, olfactory coding strategies in the olfactory sensory neurons are still largely unknown...
    Lloyd Hastings; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Whether the system can discriminate between different odors, i.e...
  71. Neural substrates of taste, smell and flavor in humans
    DANA SMALL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..brain response in healthy human volunteer subjects to tastes presented in isolation and tastes presented with odors. The neural substrates of taste must code for three major perceptual dimensions of taste; namely, intensity, ..
    Martha McClintock; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..In rats, ovulation can be accelerated by odors from pregnant or preovulatory females and delayed by odors from lactating or ovulatory females...
    Ruth Wood; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..chain of neurons that selectively take up androgens and estrogens from the bloodstream, and both of these signals (odors and hormones) are essential for normal mating to occur...
    VINCENT DIONNE; Fiscal Year: 2000
    b>Odors are transduced by processes that modulate ion channels in the membranes of olfactory receptor neurons...
  75. Contribution of Estradiol to Female Neural Development
    Michael Baum; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the outcome of Aim 1 will reverse adult deficits (previously seen in ArKO females) in the investigation of urinary odors and in sexual behavior...