biomass

Summary

Summary: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production
    Michael E Himmel
    Chemical and Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401, USA
    Science 315:804-7. 2007
  2. ncbi Metagenomic discovery of biomass-degrading genes and genomes from cow rumen
    Matthias Hess
    Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA
    Science 331:463-7. 2011
  3. pmc Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology
    Lee R Lynd
    Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66:506-77, table of contents. 2002
  4. ncbi Biodiesel from microalgae
    Yusuf Chisti
    Institute of Technology and Engineering, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Biotechnol Adv 25:294-306. 2007
  5. ncbi The worldwide leaf economics spectrum
    Ian J Wright
    Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia
    Nature 428:821-7. 2004
  6. ncbi Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems
    Robert J Diaz
    Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, USA
    Science 321:926-9. 2008
  7. ncbi Consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass: an update
    Lee R Lynd
    Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:577-83. 2005
  8. ncbi Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control
    Hendrik Poorter
    Plant Sciences IBG2, Forschungszentrum Julich, D 52425 Julich, Germany
    New Phytol 193:30-50. 2012
  9. pmc Insights into the oxidative degradation of cellulose by a copper metalloenzyme that exploits biomass components
    R Jason Quinlan
    Novozymes, Inc, Davis, CA 95618, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:15079-84. 2011
  10. pmc The biomass objective function
    Adam M Feist
    GT Life Sciences, Inc, 10520 Wateridge Circle, San Diego, CA 92122, USA
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:344-9. 2010

Detail Information

Publications366 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production
    Michael E Himmel
    Chemical and Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401, USA
    Science 315:804-7. 2007
    Lignocellulosic biomass has long been recognized as a potential sustainable source of mixed sugars for fermentation to biofuels and other biomaterials...
  2. ncbi Metagenomic discovery of biomass-degrading genes and genomes from cow rumen
    Matthias Hess
    Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA
    Science 331:463-7. 2011
    ..deconstruct plant polysaccharides represents a major bottleneck for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels...
  3. pmc Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology
    Lee R Lynd
    Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66:506-77, table of contents. 2002
    ..examined at successively higher levels of aggregation encompassing the structure and composition of cellulosic biomass, taxonomic diversity, cellulase enzyme systems, molecular biology of cellulase enzymes, physiology of ..
  4. ncbi Biodiesel from microalgae
    Yusuf Chisti
    Institute of Technology and Engineering, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Biotechnol Adv 25:294-306. 2007
    ..Oil productivity of many microalgae greatly exceeds the oil productivity of the best producing oil crops. Approaches for making microalgal biodiesel economically competitive with petrodiesel are discussed...
  5. ncbi The worldwide leaf economics spectrum
    Ian J Wright
    Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia
    Nature 428:821-7. 2004
    ..Reliable quantification of the leaf economics spectrum and its interaction with climate will prove valuable for modelling nutrient fluxes and vegetation boundaries under changing land-use and climate...
  6. ncbi Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems
    Robert J Diaz
    Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, USA
    Science 321:926-9. 2008
    ..Dead zones have now been reported from more than 400 systems, affecting a total area of more than 245,000 square kilometers, and are probably a key stressor on marine ecosystems...
  7. ncbi Consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass: an update
    Lee R Lynd
    Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:577-83. 2005
    ..mediated processes seem promising for energy conversion, in particular for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels...
  8. ncbi Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control
    Hendrik Poorter
    Plant Sciences IBG2, Forschungszentrum Julich, D 52425 Julich, Germany
    New Phytol 193:30-50. 2012
    We quantified the biomass allocation patterns to leaves, stems and roots in vegetative plants, and how this is influenced by the growth environment, plant size, evolutionary history and competition...
  9. pmc Insights into the oxidative degradation of cellulose by a copper metalloenzyme that exploits biomass components
    R Jason Quinlan
    Novozymes, Inc, Davis, CA 95618, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:15079-84. 2011
    The enzymatic degradation of recalcitrant plant biomass is one of the key industrial challenges of the 21st century. Accordingly, there is a continuing drive to discover new routes to promote polysaccharide degradation...
  10. pmc The biomass objective function
    Adam M Feist
    GT Life Sciences, Inc, 10520 Wateridge Circle, San Diego, CA 92122, USA
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:344-9. 2010
    ..To computationally predict cell growth using FBA, one has to determine the biomass objective function that describes the rate at which all of the biomass precursors are made in the correct ..
  11. ncbi Stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis by proteins of glycoside hydrolase family 61: structure and function of a large, enigmatic family
    Paul V Harris
    Novozymes Inc, 1445 Drew Avenue, Davis, California 95618, USA
    Biochemistry 49:3305-16. 2010
    ..of a biorefinery capable of producing renewable transportable fuels such as ethanol from abundant lignocellulosic biomass. Among the many families of glycoside hydrolases that catalyze cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis, few are ..
  12. pmc Global distribution of microbial abundance and biomass in subseafloor sediment
    Jens Kallmeyer
    Institut für Erd und Umweltwissenschaften, Universitat Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:16213-6. 2012
    ..9⋅10(29) cells [corresponding to 4.1 petagram (Pg) C and ∼0.6% of Earth's total living biomass]...
  13. pmc A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information
    Adam M Feist
    Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Mol Syst Biol 3:121. 2007
    ..of EcoCyc leading to the inclusion of the activities of 1260 ORFs, (2) characterization and quantification of the biomass components and maintenance requirements associated with growth of E...
  14. pmc The subgingival microbiome in health and periodontitis and its relationship with community biomass and inflammation
    Loreto Abusleme
    Division of Periodontology, Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, The University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA
    ISME J 7:1016-25. 2013
    ..In contrast, communities in health and periodontitis largely differed, with higher diversity and biomass in periodontitis...
  15. ncbi Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass
    Eric J Steen
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    Nature 463:559-62. 2010
    ..to this important class of chemicals would be through the microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks, such as biomass-derived carbohydrates...
  16. ncbi Rebuilding global fisheries
    Boris Worm
    Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Canada
    Science 325:578-85. 2009
    ..Impacts of international fleets and the lack of alternatives to fishing complicate prospects for rebuilding fisheries in many poorer regions, highlighting the need for a global perspective on rebuilding marine resources...
  17. ncbi Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review
    Ye Sun
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695 7625, USA
    Bioresour Technol 83:1-11. 2002
    Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil...
  18. ncbi Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities
    Ransom A Myers
    Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4J1
    Nature 423:280-3. 2003
    ..We constructed trajectories of community biomass and composition of large predatory fishes in four continental shelf and nine oceanic systems, using all available ..
  19. pmc Estimation of the total parasite biomass in acute falciparum malaria from plasma PfHRP2
    Arjen M Dondorp
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    PLoS Med 2:e204. 2005
    ..P. falciparum releases a specific histidine-rich protein (PfHRP2) into plasma. Quantitative measurement of plasma PfHRP2 concentrations may reflect the total parasite biomass in falciparum malaria.
  20. ncbi Challenges in engineering microbes for biofuels production
    Gregory Stephanopoulos
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 315:801-4. 2007
    ..There is justified optimism that the full potential of biofuel production from cellulosic biomass will be obtainable in the next 10 to 15 years.
  21. ncbi Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production
    Fang Chen
    Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 25:759-61. 2007
    Recalcitrance to saccharification is a major limitation for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol...
  22. ncbi Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998
    J Fang
    Department of Urban and Environmental Science, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    Science 292:2320-2. 2001
    ..Here, we used an improved estimation method of forest biomass and a 50-year national forest resource inventory in China to estimate changes in the storage of living biomass ..
  23. ncbi Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems
    James J Elser
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Ecol Lett 10:1135-42. 2007
    ..Thus, contrary to some prevailing paradigms, freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems are surprisingly similar in terms of N and P limitation...
  24. pmc Abrolhos bank reef health evaluated by means of water quality, microbial diversity, benthic cover, and fish biomass data
    Thiago Bruce
    Department of Marine Biology, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 7:e36687. 2012
    ..using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance...
  25. ncbi Metabolic engineering of novel lignin in biomass crops
    Ruben Vanholme
    Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Technologiepark 927, Gent, Belgium
    New Phytol 196:978-1000. 2012
    Lignin, a phenolic polymer in the secondary wall, is the major cause of lignocellulosic biomass recalcitrance to efficient industrial processing...
  26. ncbi Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems
    Bradley J Cardinale
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    Nature 443:989-92. 2006
    ..and examine how this alters the efficiency by which communities capture resources and convert those into biomass. So far, the generality of patterns and processes observed in individual studies have been the subjects of ..
  27. ncbi Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor
    Liliana Rodolfi
    Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Piazzale delle Cascine 24, 50144 Firenze, Italy
    Biotechnol Bioeng 102:100-12. 2009
    Thirty microalgal strains were screened in the laboratory for their biomass productivity and lipid content...
  28. pmc Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community
    Martin Allgaier
    Deconstruction Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e8812. 2010
    ....
  29. ncbi Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass
    Nathan Mosier
    Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, Potter Engineering Center, 500 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2022, USA
    Bioresour Technol 96:673-86. 2005
    ..structural and compositional factors hinder the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose present in lignocellulosic biomass. The goal of any pretreatment technology is to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to ..
  30. ncbi From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity
    Bill Shipley
    Departement de Biologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1, Canada
    Science 314:812-4. 2006
    ....
  31. ncbi Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments
    M Loreau
    Laboratoire d Ecologie, UMR 7625, Ecole Normale Superieure, 46 rue d Ulm, 75230 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Nature 412:72-6. 2001
    ..experiments have provided evidence that reduced species diversity may impair ecosystem processes such as plant biomass production...
  32. ncbi From dwarves to giants? Plant height manipulation for biomass yield
    Maria G Salas Fernandez
    Department of Agronomy, 1126E Agronomy Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 14:454-61. 2009
    The increasing demand for lignocellulosic biomass for the production of biofuels provides value to vegetative plant tissue and leads to a paradigm shift for optimizing plant architecture in bioenergy crops...
  33. ncbi The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials
    Arthur J Ragauskas
    School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
    Science 311:484-9. 2006
    b>Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials, and its enhanced use would address several societal needs...
  34. ncbi Feedstocks for lignocellulosic biofuels
    Chris Somerville
    Energy Biosciences Institute, The University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Science 329:790-2. 2010
    ..However, there has been relatively little discussion of what types of plants may be useful as bioenergy crops...
  35. ncbi Central carbon metabolism as a minimal biochemical walk between precursors for biomass and energy
    Elad Noor
    Department of Plant Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Mol Cell 39:809-20. 2010
    ..These precursors are then used to generate the entire biomass of the cell...
  36. ncbi Positive interactions among alpine plants increase with stress
    Ragan M Callaway
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812, USA
    Nature 417:844-8. 2002
    ..Here we show that the biomass, growth and reproduction of alpine plant species are higher when other plants are nearby...
  37. pmc Sustainable sources of biomass for bioremediation of heavy metals in waste water derived from coal-fired power generation
    Richard J Saunders
    School of Marine and Tropical Biology and Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
    PLoS ONE 7:e36470. 2012
    Biosorption of heavy metals using dried algal biomass has been extensively described but rarely implemented. We contend this is because available algal biomass is a valuable product with a ready market...
  38. pmc Baselines and degradation of coral reefs in the Northern Line Islands
    Stuart A Sandin
    Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e1548. 2008
    ..Sharks and other top predators overwhelmed the fish assemblages on Kingman and Palmyra so that the biomass pyramid was inverted (top-heavy)...
  39. pmc An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity
    Garret Suen
    Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1001129. 2010
    ..the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity...
  40. pmc Absence of branches from xylan in Arabidopsis gux mutants reveals potential for simplification of lignocellulosic biomass
    Jennifer C Mortimer
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QW, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17409-14. 2010
    ..The results also demonstrate the potential for manipulating and simplifying the structure of xylan to improve the properties of lignocellulose for bioenergy and other uses...
  41. ncbi Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity
    Michael J Behrenfeld
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA
    Nature 444:752-5. 2006
    ..The distribution of phytoplankton biomass and NPP is defined by the availability of light and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate, iron)...
  42. ncbi How do plants respond to nutrient shortage by biomass allocation?
    Christian Hermans
    Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Génétique Moléculaire des Plantes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe CP 242, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
    Trends Plant Sci 11:610-7. 2006
    ..changes in their environment; when mineral elements are scarce, they often allocate a greater proportion of their biomass to the root system...
  43. ncbi Nitrogen additions and microbial biomass: a meta-analysis of ecosystem studies
    Kathleen K Treseder
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Ecol Lett 11:1111-20. 2008
    ..In this meta-analysis, I synthesized responses of microbial biomass to N additions in 82 published field studies...
  44. ncbi Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests
    Simon L Lewis
    Earth and Biosphere Institute, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Nature 457:1003-6. 2009
    ....
  45. ncbi Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass
    H B Klinke
    Department of Plant Research, Risø National Laboratory, P O Box 49, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66:10-26. 2004
    ..The resulting hydrolyzsates contain substances inhibitory to fermentation-depending on both the raw material (biomass) and the pre-treatment applied...
  46. ncbi Diversity and productivity in a long-term grassland experiment
    D Tilman
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Science 294:843-5. 2001
    ..7 times greater biomass than monocultures...
  47. ncbi Global allocation rules for patterns of biomass partitioning in seed plants
    Brian J Enquist
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 87519, USA
    Science 295:1517-20. 2002
    ..derived to predict intraspecific and interspecific scaling relationships among seed plant leaf, stem, and root biomass. Analysis of a large compendium of standing organ biomass sampled across a broad sampling of taxa inhabiting ..
  48. ncbi Nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is globally distributed
    David S LeBauer
    Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92054, USA
    Ecology 89:371-9. 2008
    ..These results suggest that the global N and C cycles interact strongly and that geography can mediate ecosystem response to N within certain biome types...
  49. pmc Estimation of fish biomass using environmental DNA
    Teruhiko Takahara
    Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan
    PLoS ONE 7:e35868. 2012
    ..We hypothesized that fish release DNA into the water at a rate commensurate with their biomass. Thus, the concentration of eDNA of a target species may be used to estimate the species biomass...
  50. ncbi Respiratory disease associated with solid biomass fuel exposure in rural women and children: systematic review and meta-analysis
    June Y T Po
    Department of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Thorax 66:232-9. 2011
    Numerous studies with varying associations between domestic use of solid biomass fuels (wood, dung, crop residue, charcoal) and respiratory diseases have been reported.
  51. pmc Insights into plant biomass conversion from the genome of the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM 6725
    Phuongan Dam
    Institute of Bioinformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:3240-54. 2011
    ..It is a promising anaerobic bacterium for studying high-temperature biomass conversion. Its genome contains 2666 protein-coding sequences organized into 1209 operons...
  52. ncbi Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass: biochemical and molecular perspectives
    Raj Kumar
    Radiation Biotechnology Unit, Division of Radiation Biology and Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, New Delhi, 110054 India
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 35:377-91. 2008
    ..Lignocelluloses as agricultural, industrial and forest residuals account for the majority of the total biomass present in the world...
  53. ncbi Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris
    Randy M Berka
    Novozymes, Inc, Davis, CA, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 29:922-7. 2011
    ..enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels...
  54. ncbi Genomics of cellulosic biofuels
    Edward M Rubin
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA
    Nature 454:841-5. 2008
    The development of alternatives to fossil fuels as an energy source is an urgent global priority. Cellulosic biomass has the potential to contribute to meeting the demand for liquid fuel, but land-use requirements and process ..
  55. ncbi Determinants of woody cover in African savannas
    Mahesh Sankaran
    Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    Nature 438:846-9. 2005
    ..These results provide insights into the nature of African savannas and suggest that future changes in precipitation may considerably affect their distribution and dynamics...
  56. ncbi A general model for ontogenetic growth
    G B West
    Theoretical Division, MS B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
    Nature 413:628-31. 2001
    ..for the allocation of metabolic energy between maintenance of existing tissue and the production of new biomass. We thus predict the parameters governing growth curves from basic cellular properties and derive a single ..
  57. ncbi Significant contribution of Archaea to extant biomass in marine subsurface sediments
    Julius S Lipp
    Organic Geochemistry Group, Department of Geosciences and MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, PO Box 330 440, 28334 Bremen, Germany
    Nature 454:991-4. 2008
    ..of live cells, are attributable to archaeal membranes, suggesting that Archaea constitute a major fraction of the biomass. Results obtained from modified quantitative polymerase chain reaction and slot-blot hybridization protocols ..
  58. pmc Genome-scale reconstruction and analysis of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 metabolic network facilitates applications in biotechnology
    Jacek Puchałka
    Synthetic and Systems Biology Group, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research HZI, Braunschweig, Germany
    PLoS Comput Biol 4:e1000210. 2008
    ..revealed that the metabolic network structure is the main factor determining the accuracy of predictions, whereas biomass composition has negligible influence...
  59. ncbi Transcriptional regulation of biomass-degrading enzymes in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei
    Pamela K Foreman
    Genencor International, Inc, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:31988-97. 2003
    ..produces and secretes profuse quantities of enzymes that act synergistically to degrade cellulase and related biomass components. We partially sequenced over 5100 random T. reesei cDNA clones...
  60. pmc Efficient degradation of lignocellulosic plant biomass, without pretreatment, by the thermophilic anaerobe "Anaerocellum thermophilum" DSM 6725
    Sung Jae Yang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:4762-9. 2009
    Very few cultivated microorganisms can degrade lignocellulosic biomass without chemical pretreatment...
  61. ncbi An outlook on microalgal biofuels
    Rene H Wijffels
    Wageningen University, Bioprocess Engineering, Post Office Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, Netherlands
    Science 329:796-9. 2010
    ....
  62. pmc Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming
    Shaobing Peng
    Crop, Soil, and Water Sciences Division, International Rice Research Institute, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9971-5. 2004
    ..This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming...
  63. ncbi Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt
    Joseph Fargione
    The Nature Conservancy, 1101 West River Parkway, Suite 200, Minneapolis, MN 55415, USA
    Science 319:1235-8. 2008
    ..In contrast, biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on degraded and abandoned agricultural lands planted with perennials incur little or no ..
  64. ncbi Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest
    Oliver L Phillips
    Ecology and Global Change, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Science 323:1344-7. 2009
    ..Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually ..
  65. pmc Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change
    Regina S Redman
    Western Fisheries Research Center, United States Geological Survey, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e14823. 2011
    ..Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants...
  66. ncbi Biomass deconstruction to sugars
    Harvey W Blanch
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Biotechnol J 6:1086-102. 2011
    The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass relies on the depolymerization of its polysaccharide content into fermentable sugars...
  67. ncbi Woodsmoke health effects: a review
    Luke P Naeher
    Department of Environmental Health Science, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 19:67-106. 2007
    ..of smoke from wildland fires and agricultural burning, and related controlled human laboratory exposures to biomass smoke; the epidemiology of outdoor and indoor woodsmoke exposures from residential woodburning in developed ..
  68. ncbi An overview of second generation biofuel technologies
    Ralph E H Sims
    Centre for Energy Research, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Bioresour Technol 101:1570-80. 2010
    ..The logistics of providing a competitive, all-year-round, supply of biomass feedstock to a commercial-scale plant is challenging, as is improving the performance of the conversion process ..
  69. ncbi Development, parallelization, and automation of a gas-inducing milliliter-scale bioreactor for high-throughput bioprocess design (HTBD)
    R Puskeiler
    Lehrstuhl für Bioverfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitat Munchen, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching, Germany
    Biotechnol Bioeng 89:512-23. 2005
    ..5 g L(-1) in fed-batch cultivation with air aeration. Growth of E. coli at the milliliter scale (10 mL) was shown to be equivalent to laboratory scale (3 L) with regard to growth rate, mu, and biomass yield, Y(XS).
  70. ncbi Ecosystem stability and compensatory effects in the Inner Mongolia grassland
    Yongfei Bai
    Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    Nature 431:181-4. 2004
    ..First, that January-July precipitation is the primary climatic factor causing fluctuations in community biomass production; second, that ecosystem stability (conversely related to variability in community biomass production) ..
  71. pmc Global human footprint on the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in reef fishes
    Camilo Mora
    Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    PLoS Biol 9:e1000606. 2011
    ..that in contrast to previous theoretical and experimental studies, ecosystem functioning (as measured by standing biomass) scales in a non-saturating manner with biodiversity (as measured by species and functional richness) in this ..
  72. pmc Trichoderma virens, a plant beneficial fungus, enhances biomass production and promotes lateral root growth through an auxin-dependent mechanism in Arabidopsis
    Hexon Angel Contreras-Cornejo
    Instituto de Investigaciones Quimico Biologicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 58030 Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico
    Plant Physiol 149:1579-92. 2009
    ..virens or T. atroviride showed characteristic auxin-related phenotypes, including increased biomass production and stimulated lateral root development...
  73. ncbi Nutrient co-limitation of primary producer communities
    W Stanley Harpole
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, 133 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Ecol Lett 14:852-62. 2011
    ..We found support for strict definitions of co-limitation in 28% of the studies: i.e. community biomass responded to only combined N and P addition, or to both N and P when added separately...
  74. ncbi The 2010 Amazon drought
    Simon L Lewis
    School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Science 331:554. 2011
    ..By using relationships between drying and forest biomass responses measured for 2005, we predict the impact of the 2010 drought as 2...
  75. pmc Global patterns and predictions of seafloor biomass using random forests
    Chih Lin Wei
    Department of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15323. 2010
    A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects...
  76. pmc Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels
    Jason Hill
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11206-10. 2006
    ..Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and ..
  77. ncbi Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-diversity grassland biomass
    David Tilman
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Science 314:1598-600. 2006
    ..32 megagram hectare(-1) year(-1)). Moreover, LIHD biofuels can be produced on agriculturally degraded lands and thus need to neither displace food production nor cause loss of biodiversity via habitat destruction...
  78. ncbi Emergent biogeography of microbial communities in a model ocean
    Michael J Follows
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 54 1514 MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 315:1843-6. 2007
    ..This flexible representation of community structure can be used to explore relations between ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles, and climate change...
  79. ncbi Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula
    Martin Montes-Hugo
    Coastal Ocean Observation Lab, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Science 323:1470-3. 2009
    ..Regional changes in phytoplankton coincide with observed changes in krill (Euphausia superba) and penguin populations...
  80. ncbi Plants integrate information about nutrients and neighbors
    James F Cahill
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada
    Science 328:1657. 2010
    ....
  81. pmc Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass
    M R Schmer
    U S Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, University of Nebraska, 314 Biochemistry Hall, P O Box 830737, Lincoln, NE 68583 0737, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:464-9. 2008
    ..We managed switchgrass as a biomass energy crop in field trials of 3-9 ha (1 ha = 10,000 m2) on marginal cropland on 10 farms across a wide ..
  82. ncbi Regulation of plant biomass production
    Taku Demura
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916 5 Takayama cho, Ikoma, Nara 630 0192, Japan
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 13:299-304. 2010
    Plant biomass used for cellulosic biofuel production is primarily from vegetative tissues. Therefore, an increase in the vegetative growth of plants will lead to a higher production of plant biomass...
  83. ncbi Silencing of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase in switchgrass leads to reduced lignin content and improved fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production
    Bin Xu
    Department of Horticulture, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    New Phytol 192:611-25. 2011
    ..of feedstock has been proposed as one key agronomic trait impacting biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is one of the key enzymes involved in the monolignol biosynthethic pathway...
  84. pmc Analysis of optimality in natural and perturbed metabolic networks
    Daniel Segrè
    Lipper Center for Computational Genetics and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:15112-7. 2002
    ..MOMA and its possible future extensions may be useful in understanding the evolutionary optimization of metabolism...
  85. ncbi Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration
    J Zaldivar
    Center for Process Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56:17-34. 2001
    ..Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation...
  86. ncbi Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security
    R Lal
    Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Science 304:1623-7. 2004
    ..5 to 1 kg/ha for cowpeas. As well as enhancing food security, carbon sequestration has the potential to offset fossil fuel emissions by 0.4 to 1.2 gigatons of carbon per year, or 5 to 15% of the global fossil-fuel emissions...
  87. ncbi Trends in biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from different feedstocks
    Oscar J Sánchez
    Department of Chemical Engineering, National University of Colombia at Manizales, Cra 27 No 64 60 Of F 505, Manizales, Caldas, Colombia
    Bioresour Technol 99:5270-95. 2008
    ..fuel ethanol from sucrose-containing feedstocks (mainly sugar cane), starchy materials and lignocellulosic biomass are described along with the major research trends for improving them...
  88. ncbi Deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals
    Shishir P S Chundawat
    Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2:121-45. 2011
    ..To produce infrastructure-compatible fuels from biomass, two challenges remain: overcoming plant cell wall recalcitrance to extract sugar and phenolic intermediates, and ..
  89. pmc Phylogenetic, microbiological, and glycoside hydrolase diversities within the extremely thermophilic, plant biomass-degrading genus Caldicellulosiruptor
    Sara E Blumer-Schuette
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 7905, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:8084-92. 2010
    ..toward the capacity of these extremely thermophilic bacteria to degrade the complex carbohydrate content of plant biomass. Seven species from this genus (C. saccharolyticus, C. bescii, C. hydrothermalis, C. owensensis, C...
  90. ncbi Transition of cellulose crystalline structure and surface morphology of biomass as a function of ionic liquid pretreatment and its relation to enzymatic hydrolysis
    Gang Cheng
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, California, USA
    Biomacromolecules 12:933-41. 2011
    ..and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus ), and its influence on cellulose hydrolysis kinetics of the resultant biomass. These feedstocks were pretreated using 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) at 120 and 160 °C ..
  91. pmc Unraveling the complex trait of crop yield with quantitative trait loci mapping in Brassica napus
    Jiaqin Shi
    National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China
    Genetics 182:851-61. 2009
    ..The idea of estimating indicator QTL for yield QTL and identifying potential candidate genes for yield provides an advance in methodology for complex traits...
  92. ncbi Comparison of dilute acid and ionic liquid pretreatment of switchgrass: Biomass recalcitrance, delignification and enzymatic saccharification
    Chenlin Li
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, CA, USA
    Bioresour Technol 101:4900-6. 2010
    The efficiency of two biomass pretreatment technologies, dilute acid hydrolysis and dissolution in an ionic liquid, are compared in terms of delignification, saccharification efficiency and saccharide yields with switchgrass serving as a ..
  93. pmc Expression of biomass-degrading enzymes is a major event during conidium development in Trichoderma reesei
    Benjamin Metz
    Institute of Chemical Engineering, University of Technology of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Eukaryot Cell 10:1527-35. 2011
    ..reesei, contributes to the hypothesis that the ability to hydrolyze plant biomass is a major trait of this fungus enabling it to break dormancy and reinitiate vegetative growth after a period of ..
  94. ncbi Extremely thermophilic microorganisms for biomass conversion: status and prospects
    Sara E Blumer-Schuette
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 7905, United States
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 19:210-7. 2008
    ..temperatures are able to utilize a variety of carbohydrates pertinent to the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioenergy. The range of substrates utilized depends on growth temperature optimum and biotope...
  95. pmc OptStrain: a computational framework for redesign of microbial production systems
    Priti Pharkya
    Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Genome Res 14:2367-76. 2004
    ..In summary, OptStrain provides a useful tool to aid microbial strain design and, more importantly, it establishes an integrated framework to accommodate future modeling developments...
  96. ncbi Loss of plant species after chronic low-level nitrogen deposition to prairie grasslands
    Christopher M Clark
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, 100 Ecology, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA
    Nature 451:712-5. 2008
    ..A second experiment showed that a decade after cessation of nitrogen addition, relative plant species number, although not species abundances, had recovered, demonstrating that some effects of nitrogen addition are reversible...
  97. pmc Flux balance analysis of primary metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Nanette R Boyle
    School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA
    BMC Syst Biol 3:4. 2009
    ..organisms convert atmospheric carbon dioxide into numerous metabolites along the pathways to make new biomass. Aquatic photosynthetic organisms, which fix almost half of global inorganic carbon, have great potential: as a ..
  98. ncbi Plant species richness and functional composition drive overyielding in a six-year grassland experiment
    Elisabeth Marquard
    Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans Knöll Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany
    Ecology 90:3290-302. 2009
    Plant diversity has been shown to increase community biomass in experimental communities, but the mechanisms resulting in such positive biodiversity effects have remained largely unknown...
  99. ncbi Soil biota and exotic plant invasion
    Ragan M Callaway
    Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812, USA
    Nature 427:731-3. 2004
    ..But in soils from North America, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly positive effects on itself, which may contribute to the success of this exotic species in North America...
  100. ncbi The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China
    Shilong Piao
    Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Science, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    Nature 458:1009-13. 2009
    ..carbon balance of China and its driving mechanisms during the 1980s and 1990s using three different methods: biomass and soil carbon inventories extrapolated by satellite greenness measurements, ecosystem models and atmospheric ..
  101. ncbi Shifts in lake N:P stoichiometry and nutrient limitation driven by atmospheric nitrogen deposition
    James J Elser
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Science 326:835-7. 2009
    ....

Research Grants64

  1. Molecular Basis of E. coli Adhesins in Bladder Disorders
    Scott J Hultgren; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IBCs are transient and upon IBC maturation bacteria disperse from the biomass, filament, and spread to neighboring BECs, re-initiating the IBC cycle...
  2. Endotoxin, the airway transcriptome, and obstructive lung disease
    PEGGY SUE LAI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Endotoxin is almost universally present, and has been found at high levels in tobacco smoke, homes burning biomass fuel, in the context of various occupations especially cotton textile work, and more recently as part of indoor ..
  3. Pulmonary effects of biomass fuel indoor PM from rural India
    Shyam Biswal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary About 3 billion people, half the worldwide population, are exposed to smoke from biomass fuel compared with 1 billion people who smoke tobacco, which suggests that exposure to biomass smoke might be the biggest risk ..
  4. X-ray Studies of Sugar-Modifying Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Carbohydrates constitute ~50% of the Earth's biomass where they major play roles in energy storage, signaling, molecular recognition, and cell structure...
  5. Bangladesh Centre for Global Environmental and Occupational Health
    Dewan Shamsul Alam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are a major environmental health concern for the pollution of Bangladesh primarily through exposure to indoor biomass fuels and urban air quality...
  6. Cookstove Replacement for Prevention of ARI and Low Birthweight in Nepal
    JAMES MACK TIELSCH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..for poor, rural areas in developing countries and the strong observational association between open burning of biomass fuel sources and ARI in young children and low birth weight, we have designed a community-based randomized trial ..
  7. GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASES IN HUMANS: DIETARY INFLUENCES
    Johanna Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..e., gut microbial composition of Eubacteria, total bacterial biomass)...
  8. Impact of an Indoor Stove Intervention on Indicators of Cardiorespiratory Health
    Jennifer L Peel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, quantitative and longitudinal assessments of improved stoves are limited. Indoor air pollution from biomass and coal smoke is estimated to account for approximately 1...
  9. Facilitating large scale biomass generation: acquisition of an automated 100 L fe
    Roger D Kornberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Growth of cell cultures on a large scale in the proposed system will permit the isolation of proteins involved in these fundamental processes. The isolated proteins will be subjected to biochemical and structural analyses. ..
  10. Maternal and Child Health Benefits from Reducing Household Air Pollution
    Patricia L Hibberd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Public Health Relevance: More than 3 billion people use traditional stoves and biomass fuels for cooking...
  11. Influence of the Enteric Microbiome on the Genesis of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Aaron Hamvas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the enteric microbiome of premature newborns will be leveraged to explore associations between this biomass and the development of BPD-related adverse pulmonary outcomes...
  12. Intervening to Improve Birth Weight and Infant Respiratory Health in Rural Ghana
    PATRICK LOTT KINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Smoke from biomass combustion leads to approximately 1...
  13. Community-based Participatory Research: A Tool to Advance Cookstove Interventions
    MAGGIE LYNN CLARK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Nearly 3 billion people rely on biomass combustion to meet basic domestic energy needs...
  14. Discovery of genes that extend yeast lifespan: Aging in immobilized cell reactors
    RAPHAEL ROSENZWEIG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These reactors continue to produce close-to-theoretical yields of ethanol but very little biomass, relative to substrate input...
  15. Household air pollution in Tanzania, placental health and pregnancy outcome
    BLAIR JOHNSON WYLIE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant) The majority of households in sub-Saharan Africa rely on solid biomass fuels (charcoal, wood, crop residues) for cooking...
  16. Research Training on Chronic Lung Diseases in Southern Africa
    Thomas G Robins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., ambient air pollution, burning of biomass fuels in domiciles, indoor and outdoor exposure to bioaerosols, environmental tobacco smoke)and occupational (e.g...
  17. Metabolic Engineering Studies of Extreme Thermoacidophily
    Robert M Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the Crenarcheaota (not all of which are extreme thermoacidophiles) comprise a significant fraction of the global biomass, and are relevant beyond extreme niches...
  18. Temporal and spatial expression of regulators affecting Escherichia coli biofilm
    BIRGIT MAGDALENE PRUESS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using the environmental conditions that gave the largest differences in biofilm associated biomass between mutants in flhD, rcsB, ompR, and genes encoding enzymes of acetate metabolism, qualitative and ..
  19. REGULATION OF THE HEAT SHOCK RESPONSE IN E. COLI
    CAROL ANNE GROSS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Bacteria live in diverse and variable environments and constitute about half of the world's biomass. Free-living bacteria must adapt to daily and seasonal temperature changes;those living in host organisms ..
  20. Linking Gene Regulation to Metabolism
    Michael R Brent; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..aggressive cancer cells shunt carbon away from aerobic respiration toward anaerobic energy production and biomass. The three master regulators of carbon fate are conserved from yeast to man: Protein Kinase A (PKA), AMP ..
  21. Investigation of Indoor Solid Fuel and Kerosene Use as Tuberculosis Risk Factors
    Kirk R Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The most common fuel for heating and cooking in developing countries is biomass (wood, cow dung and agricultural waste), often burnt without any chimney or ventilation. Houses fill with smoke...
  22. The Neonatal Microbiome and Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    Phillip I Tarr; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In doing so, we will test the overarching hypothesis that NEC is a direct or indirect consequence of the enteric biomass, its products, or both...
  23. Indoor woodsmoke PM and asthma: a randomized trial
    TONY JOHN WARD; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The results from this project will be translatable to other regions in the US and the world where biomass burning is commonly used for heating and cooking. Relevance: This study will determine if reductions in PM2...
  24. The AP2 factors required for Toxoplasma replication
    Michael W White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and disease severity are critically influenced by asexual stage growth rates that can lead to increased parasite biomass and significant tissue destruction and inflammation...
  25. Phase II studies of gamma tocopherol as an intervention for environmental asthma
    David B Peden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or LPS) is a component of coarse and fine mode PM, bioaerosols, tobacco and biomass smoke. Ozone (O3) is the most commonly encountered ambient air pollutant in the US...
  26. MtdA, a Key Regulator for Assimilation and Oxidation of C1 Metabolism.
    NORMA CECILIA MARTINEZ-GOMEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The mechanism by which MtdA restricts flux to biomass will be assessed by first determining whether the effect occurs at the post-transcriptional or post-translational ..
  27. Enhanced Propagation of Adult Human Renal Epithelial Cells
    Angela Westover; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..for the isolation of REC progenitor cell populations from human cadaver kidneys and propagation to a much larger biomass than current protocols, followed by terminal differentiation to functional REC...
  28. EXPLORING RESPIRATORY HEALTH OUTCOMES FROM SUSTAINED USE OF EFFICIENT COOKSTOVES
    GAUTAM NAGABHUSHAN YADAMA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Nearly 2 million people die annually due to indoor air pollution from solid biomass combustion and 99 percent of these deaths are in developing countries...
  29. Dynamic cellular architecture of bacteria by system-wide super-resolution imaging
    Xiaowei Zhuang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacteria constitute the majority of the world's biomass and are responsible for most bioconversion on the planet...
  30. Low-Cost Catalytic Biomass Cookstove for Improved Indoor Air Quality
    PAUL YELVINGTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION: An estimated 2.5 billion people, or about one-third of the world's population, rely on biomass fuel for cooking...
  31. Plant-Derived hepatitis B Vaccine from Biomanufacturing System to Clinical Trial
    Robert Britt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Production via plants by growing biomass from plants that are genetically engineered to carry a specific biopharma product will allow for a fast and cost-..
  32. Population, land use &health dynamics;Biomass fuel use in sub-Saharan Africa
    PAMELA JAGGER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Globally over 3 billion people rely on biomass as their million deaths annually, more than the number of deaths from malaria and tuberculosis...
  33. A Drosophila Model for the regulation of Aerobic Glycolysis
    JASON MICHAEL TENNESSEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..or the Warburg effect, allows cancer cells to metabolize large quantities of glucose in order to generate the biomass required for cell growth and proliferation...
  34. Identification of Metabolic Liabilities in Breast Cancer
    RICHARD LEWIS POSSEMATO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and utilization of nutrients, such as glucose and glutamine, to accommodate the tumor's need to accumulate biomass. In contrast to normally proliferative tissues, cells within a tumor are frequently starved for nutrients due to ..
  35. Novel methods for high-level expression of aglycosylated or fully glycosylated mo
    Paul Colussi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The direct link between biomass and product accumulation implicit in this process may result in a substantial positive impact on the cost of ..
  36. Woodsmoke exposure and novel health indicators: a feasibility field study
    Jennifer L Peel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..found among the poorest populations, takes place using inefficient and poorly vented indoor cookstoves burning biomass (wood, animal dung, crop residues) and coal, resulting in extremely high indoor air pollution concentrations...
  37. LARVAL MOSQUITO FEEDING AND MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS
    Edward D Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..habitats is intimately linked to microbial transformations of organic matter and the production of microbial biomass. These relationships impose fundamental constraints on, and facilitate, larval mosquito growth by microbial ..
  38. Regulation of Apoptosis by Bcl-xL and other factors
    J Marie Hardwick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..also investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of Bcl-xL or mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion and biomass control) and energetics (Aim 2), and will determine the role of Bcl-xL in membrane fusion using cellular and in ..
  39. Particulate matter and black carbon:Respiratory Health in Sri Lankan Children
    Sumal Nandasena; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The main type of solid fuel in Sri Lanka is biomass. Particulate Matter (PM) released from burning of biomass fuel is known to be hazardous to human health ..
  40. Nano-scale Mechanisms of Metal(loid) Rhizostabilization in Desert Mine Tailings
    JONATHAN D CHOROVER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..with the goal of root zone metal accumulation to avoid metals from entering the food chain through above-ground biomass. The role of plant roots and microbes in promoting mineral dissolution-precipitation reactions and associated ..
  41. Engineering Enhanced Plants for Arsenic Remediation
    David Lee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the use of plants to remove toxins from contaminated soils or water and concentrate the toxins in the biomass compared to the environment...
  42. The role of ERRalpha/PGC-1 in disease pathogenesis
    Donald P McDonnell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, it is hypothesized that this receptor contributes to cellular biomass accumulation by inducing the expression of key gene products required for the generation of biosynthetic ..
  43. Center for Enviromental Health in Northern Manahattan
    Regina M Santella; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Flexible Working Groups (Biomass Combustion, Epigenetics, Environmental Determinants of Neurological Disease, Environmental Exposures across the ..
  44. The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Ulcerative Colitis
    Vincent B Young; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the gastrointestinal tract is the richest of the human- associated microbial communities in terms of absolute biomass and relative diversity...
  45. Using Second Coordination Sphere Interactions of Rhenium(I) Complexes to Promote
    LOI HUNG DO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is in the industrial use of synthesis gas (syngas), CO and H2, which can be readily obtained from coal and biomass. Although several large-scale manufacturing plants utilize syngas to produce hydrocarbons and oxygenates, current ..
  46. Pilot Study of Childhood Leukemia in Guatemala
    Libby Morimoto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..primarily of pure indigenous and mixed (mestizo) indigenous-European peoples, as well as the widespread use of biomass fuels for heating and cooking, Guatemala presents an ideal model system to study exposure to suspected ..
  47. Diversity and stability relationships in the murine microbiome
    PATRICK DAVID SCHLOSS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for this hypothesis comes from observations in the field of landscape ecology that variation in total plant biomass production is reduced in high diversity ecosystems, but the variation in biomass of individual plant populations ..
  48. Residential Wood Smoke Interventions Improving Health in Native American Populati
    TONY JOHN WARD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Biomass smoke exposures due to residential wood heating are common among rural Native American communities, and such ..
  49. Regulation of glucose metabolism to allow tumor initiation and growth
    MATTHEW VANDER HEIDEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cancer cells require altered metabolism to efficiently incorporate nutrients such as glucose into biomass to support proliferation...
  50. THE DEVELOPMENTAL STOOL METATRANSCRIPTOME IN NEWBORNS
    WILLIAM ESTUS BENNETT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of the precise metabolic activity of both host epithelial and inflammatory cells, and of the enteric microbial biomass. I propose to use RNA sequencing to characterize the intestinal microbial and host transcriptome in human ..
  51. A Plant-Derived Recombinant Bioscavenger to Prevent Insecticide Neurotoxicity
    Yvonne Rosenberg; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..rBChE using the plant expression system which is versatile and inexpensive due to its ability to yield a large biomass in GMP conditions (Phase I) and (2) as a result of their unsialyted and atypical glycans, these recombinant plant ..
  52. Enhanced endophyte:poplar system for remediation of organic contaminants
    Michael J Blaylock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because poplar is also a potential biomass energy crop, the potential use of the biomass for biopower or biofuel production following remedial activities ..
  53. Novel accelerated in vitro breeding for phytoremediation
    MIHALY CZAKO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..built on the successful demonstration of the feasibility of our novel technology for in vitro breeding of a large biomass plant for field-scale phytoremediation...
  54. CULTURE, PHYSIOLOGY, GENETICS, INFLUENCING TAXANE YIELDS
    RICK KELSEY; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..scions of high taxane-- producing genotypes onto more rapidly growing rootstocks to increase their harvestable biomass. Hedging and field-pruning procedures designed to stimulate foliage and stem growth will be assessed by measuring ..
  55. Novel Approaches to Studying the Situ Bioremediation of Complex Mixtures
    ROLF HALDEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..on microorganisms;(2) the response of microorganisms to presented compounds manifests itself as changes in biomass, community structure and function;and (3) these changes can be detected conveniently by biochemical, genetic and ..
  56. Microbial Mediation of Habitat Selection and Production
    Edward Walker; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Secondly, we will quantify microbial processing of nutrients and accrual of microbial biomass in larval habitats, and link them to adult production...
  57. Phytoextraction of Cadmium from Plant Trichomes Expressing a Stabilized Antibody
    Ryan W Shepherd; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..pursue is the modification of a natural process of heavy metal phytoextraction in the genetically-tractable, high-biomass plant Nicotiana tabacum...
  58. The Neonatal Microbiome and Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    Phillip Tarr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In doing so, we will test the overarching hypothesis that NEC is a direct or indirect consequence of the enteric biomass, its products, or both...
  59. Model-driven Media Optimization in Hybridoma Cell Line
    Iman Famili; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..to microbial systems, productivity and product titers in mammalian cell cultures are low mainly due to the low biomass concentration achievable in standard mammalian cell culture...
  60. LARVAL MOSQUITO FEEDING AND MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS
    Edward Walker; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..but it is constrained by conversion of refractile organic material into ingestible and digestible microbial biomass. The tree hole habitat of several mosquito species is our model system to study this phenomenon...
  61. COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ORAL BIOFILMS
    David White; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..define a species-composition measurement using phospholipid-bound fatty-acid (PLFA) profiles of whole-community biomass, and will validate that measurement by correlation with checkerboard hybridization and cultivable flora methods...
  62. Effects of cooking smoke on health
    Vinod Mishra; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..heating causes substantial ill health in developing countries where a majority of households rely on unprocessed biomass fuels such as wood, crop residues, and dung cakes, but research on this subject is limited and many uncertainties ..
  63. The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Ulcerative Colitis
    Vincent Young; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of the gastrointestinal tract is the richest of the human associated microbial communities in terms of absolute biomass and relative diversity...