Summary: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities
    N Myers
    Green College, Oxford University, Headington, UK
    Nature 403:853-8. 2000
  2. pmc Microbial diversity in the deep sea and the underexplored "rare biosphere"
    Mitchell L Sogin
    Josephine Bay Paul Center, Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12115-20. 2006
  3. pmc MEGAN analysis of metagenomic data
    Daniel H Huson
    Center for Bioinformatics, Tubingen University, Sand 14, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Genome Res 17:377-86. 2007
  4. ncbi A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems
    Camille Parmesan
    Integrative Biology, Patterson Laboratories 141, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Nature 421:37-42. 2003
  5. ncbi Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification
    O Hoegh-Guldberg
    Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072 Queensland, Australia
    Science 318:1737-42. 2007
  6. pmc Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health
    Matthew C Fisher
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 484:186-94. 2012
  7. ncbi Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100
    O E Sala
    Department of Ecology and Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiológicas y Ecológicas vinculadas a la Agricultura, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Buenos Aires, Avenida San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires 1417, Argentina
    Science 287:1770-4. 2000
  8. ncbi A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems
    Benjamin S Halpern
    National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, 735 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA
    Science 319:948-52. 2008
  9. ncbi Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs
    T P Hughes
    Centre for Coral Reef Biodiversity, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia
    Science 301:929-33. 2003
  10. ncbi Global consequences of land use
    Jonathan A Foley
    Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment SAGE, University of Wisconsin, 1710 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53726, USA
    Science 309:570-4. 2005

Detail Information

Publications290 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities
    N Myers
    Green College, Oxford University, Headington, UK
    Nature 403:853-8. 2000
    ..4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk...
  2. pmc Microbial diversity in the deep sea and the underexplored "rare biosphere"
    Mitchell L Sogin
    Josephine Bay Paul Center, Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12115-20. 2006
    ..Members of the rare biosphere are highly divergent from each other and, at different times in earth's history, may have had a profound impact on shaping planetary processes...
  3. pmc MEGAN analysis of metagenomic data
    Daniel H Huson
    Center for Bioinformatics, Tubingen University, Sand 14, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Genome Res 17:377-86. 2007
    ..Also, simulations that evaluate the performance of the approach for different read lengths are presented...
  4. ncbi A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems
    Camille Parmesan
    Integrative Biology, Patterson Laboratories 141, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Nature 421:37-42. 2003
    ..This suite of analyses generates 'very high confidence' (as laid down by the IPCC) that climate change is already affecting living systems...
  5. ncbi Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification
    O Hoegh-Guldberg
    Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072 Queensland, Australia
    Science 318:1737-42. 2007
    ..As the International Year of the Reef 2008 begins, scaled-up management intervention and decisive action on global emissions are required if the loss of coral-dominated ecosystems is to be avoided...
  6. pmc Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health
    Matthew C Fisher
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 484:186-94. 2012
    ..We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide.
  7. ncbi Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100
    O E Sala
    Department of Ecology and Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiológicas y Ecológicas vinculadas a la Agricultura, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Buenos Aires, Avenida San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires 1417, Argentina
    Science 287:1770-4. 2000
    ..Plausible changes in biodiversity in other biomes depend on interactions among the causes of biodiversity change. These interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in projections of future biodiversity change...
  8. ncbi A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems
    Benjamin S Halpern
    National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, 735 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA
    Science 319:948-52. 2008
    ..We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological ..
  9. ncbi Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs
    T P Hughes
    Centre for Coral Reef Biodiversity, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia
    Science 301:929-33. 2003
    ..International integration of management strategies that support reef resilience need to be vigorously implemented, and complemented by strong policy decisions to reduce the rate of global warming...
  10. ncbi Global consequences of land use
    Jonathan A Foley
    Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment SAGE, University of Wisconsin, 1710 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53726, USA
    Science 309:570-4. 2005
    ..We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term...
  11. doi Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks
    Martin Heimann
    Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans Knöll Strasse 10, D 07745 Jena, Germany
    Nature 451:289-92. 2008
  12. ncbi Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide
    Simon N Stuart
    IUCN Species Survival Commission Conservation International Center for Applied Biodiversity Science Biodiversity Assessment Unit, 1919 M Street N W, Washington, DC 20036, USA
    Science 306:1783-6. 2004
    ..The lack of conservation remedies for these poorly understood declines means that hundreds of amphibian species now face extinction...
  13. ncbi Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife--threats to biodiversity and human health
    P Daszak
    Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Science 287:443-9. 2000
  14. ncbi Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation
    David Bickford
    Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Republic of Singapore
    Trends Ecol Evol 22:148-55. 2007
    ..The discovery of cryptic species is likely to be non-random with regard to taxon and biome and, hence, could have profound implications for evolutionary theory, biogeography and conservation planning...
  15. ncbi Confronting the coral reef crisis
    D R Bellwood
    Centre for Coral Reef Biodiversity, Dept of Marine Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia
    Nature 429:827-33. 2004
    ..These findings have profound implications for restoration of degraded reefs, management of fisheries, and the focus on marine protected areas and biodiversity hotspots as priorities for conservation...
  16. ncbi Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming
    I Ching Chen
    Department of Biology, University of York, Wentworth Way, York YO10 5DD, UK
    Science 333:1024-6. 2011
    ..Rapid average shifts derive from a wide diversity of responses by individual species...
  17. ncbi Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines
    Stuart H M Butchart
    United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK
    Science 328:1164-8. 2010
  18. ncbi A large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests
    Yude Pan
    U S Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA
    Science 333:988-93. 2011
    ..Using forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies, we estimate a total forest sink of 2.4 ± 0...
  19. ncbi Functional metagenomic profiling of nine biomes
    Elizabeth A Dinsdale
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, USA
    Nature 452:629-32. 2008
  20. ncbi Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms
    James C Orr
    Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l Environnement, UMR CEA CNRS, CEA Saclay, F 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Nature 437:681-6. 2005
    ..Our findings indicate that conditions detrimental to high-latitude ecosystems could develop within decades, not centuries as suggested previously...
  21. ncbi Environmental niche equivalency versus conservatism: quantitative approaches to niche evolution
    Dan L Warren
    Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Evolution 62:2868-83. 2008
    ..We suggest various randomization tests that may prove useful in other areas of ecology and evolutionary biology...
  22. ncbi Uses and misuses of bioclimatic envelope modeling
    Miguel B Araujo
    Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Calle Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2 28006, Madrid, Spain
    Ecology 93:1527-39. 2012
  23. ncbi Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants
    Terry L Root
    Center for Environmental Science and Policy, Institute for International Studies, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 421:57-60. 2003
  24. ncbi Community genomics among stratified microbial assemblages in the ocean's interior
    Edward F DeLong
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 311:496-503. 2006
    ..Comparative genomic analyses of stratified microbial communities have the potential to provide significant insight into higher-order community organization and dynamics...
  25. ncbi Trophic downgrading of planet Earth
    James A Estes
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA
    Science 333:301-6. 2011
    ..These findings emphasize the urgent need for interdisciplinary research to forecast the effects of trophic downgrading on process, function, and resilience in global ecosystems...
  26. ncbi Archaea predominate among ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in soils
    S Leininger
    Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Jahnebakken 5, N 5020 Bergen, Norway
    Nature 442:806-9. 2006
    ..Our results indicate that crenarchaeota may be the most abundant ammonia-oxidizing organisms in soil ecosystems on Earth...
  27. ncbi Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: current knowledge and future challenges
    M Loreau
    Laboratoire d Ecologie, UMR 7625, Ecole Normale Superieure, 46 rue d Ulm, F 75230 Paris cedex 05, France
    Science 294:804-8. 2001
    ..Major advances have been made in describing the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem processes, in identifying functionally important species, and in revealing underlying mechanisms...
  28. ncbi Marine viruses--major players in the global ecosystem
    Curtis A Suttle
    University of British Columbia, Departments of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Botany, and Microbiology and Immunology, 1461 BioSciences, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:801-12. 2007
    ..Probing this vast reservoir of genetic and biological diversity continues to yield exciting discoveries...
  29. ncbi A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change
    David U Hooper
    Department of Biology, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225 9160, USA
    Nature 486:105-8. 2012
    ..Further species loss will accelerate change in ecosystem processes, but it is unclear how these effects compare to the direct effects of other forms of environmental ..
  30. ncbi Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals
    Toby A Gardner
    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Science 301:958-60. 2003
    ..The ability of Caribbean coral reefs to cope with future local and global environmental change may be irretrievably compromised...
  31. ncbi Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services
    Boris Worm
    Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4J1
    Science 314:787-90. 2006
    ..long-term regional time series, and global fisheries data to test how biodiversity loss affects marine ecosystem services across temporal and spatial scales...
  32. ncbi Oceanography: anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH
    Ken Caldeira
    Energy and Environment Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550, USA
    Nature 425:365. 2003
  33. ncbi Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota
    C Drew Harvell
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Science 296:2158-62. 2002
    ..To improve our ability to predict epidemics in wild populations, it will be necessary to separate the independent and interactive effects of multiple climate drivers on disease impact...
  34. ncbi Divergent selection and heterogeneous genomic divergence
    Patrik Nosil
    Zoology Department and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada
    Mol Ecol 18:375-402. 2009
    ..e. genomic islands of divergence), a topic in need of future investigation...
  35. ncbi Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems
    Robert J Diaz
    Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, USA
    Science 321:926-9. 2008
    Dead zones in the coastal oceans have spread exponentially since the 1960s and have serious consequences for ecosystem functioning...
  36. ncbi Environmental genome shotgun sequencing of the Sargasso Sea
    J Craig Venter
    Institute for Biological Energy Alternatives, 1901 Research Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 304:66-74. 2004
    ..2 million previously unknown genes represented in these samples, including more than 782 new rhodopsin-like photoreceptors. Variation in species present and stoichiometry suggests substantial oceanic microbial diversity...
  37. pmc Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora
    Paul B Eckburg
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Room S 169, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford CA 94305 5107, USA
    Science 308:1635-8. 2005
    ..We discovered significant intersubject variability and differences between stool and mucosa community composition. Characterization of this immensely diverse ecosystem is the first step in elucidating its role in health and disease.
  38. ncbi The impact of climate change on the world's marine ecosystems
    Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
    Ocean and Coasts Program, Global Change Institute, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
    Science 328:1523-8. 2010
    ..Further change will continue to create enormous challenges and costs for societies worldwide, particularly those in developing countries...
  39. ncbi Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas
    Heike K Lotze
    Biology Department, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford Street, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4J1
    Science 312:1806-9. 2006
    ..conservation efforts achieved partial recovery of upper trophic levels but have so far failed to restore former ecosystem structure and function...
  40. ncbi The worldwide leaf economics spectrum
    Ian J Wright
    Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia
    Nature 428:821-7. 2004
    ..Reliable quantification of the leaf economics spectrum and its interaction with climate will prove valuable for modelling nutrient fluxes and vegetation boundaries under changing land-use and climate...
  41. ncbi Ensemble forecasting of species distributions
    Miguel B Araujo
    Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, C Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006, Madrid, Spain
    Trends Ecol Evol 22:42-7. 2007
  42. ncbi Consequences of changing biodiversity
    F S Chapin
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks 99775, USA
    Nature 405:234-42. 2000
    ..These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change...
  43. ncbi Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems
    J B Jackson
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0244, USA
    Science 293:629-37. 2001
  44. ncbi Toward an ecological classification of soil bacteria
    Noah Fierer
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
    Ecology 88:1354-64. 2007
  45. ncbi Global change and the ecology of cities
    Nancy B Grimm
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 4501, USA
    Science 319:756-60. 2008
    ..Cities themselves present both the problems and solutions to sustainability challenges of an increasingly urbanized world...
  46. pmc Simultaneous assessment of soil microbial community structure and function through analysis of the meta-transcriptome
    Tim Urich
    Centre of Geobiology, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    PLoS ONE 3:e2527. 2008
    ..Experimental approaches studying these systems usually focus on either the soil community's taxonomic structure or its functional characteristics. Many methods target DNA as marker molecule and use PCR for amplification...
  47. ncbi The microbial engines that drive Earth's biogeochemical cycles
    Paul G Falkowski
    Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology Program, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Science 320:1034-9. 2008
    ..A major challenge in the coming decades is to understand how these machines evolved, how they work, and the processes that control their activity on both molecular and planetary scales...
  48. ncbi One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts
    Kent E Carpenter
    IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature Species Programme Species Survival Commission SSC, Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
    Science 321:560-3. 2008
    ..Our results emphasize the widespread plight of coral reefs and the urgent need to enact conservation measures...
  49. ncbi Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century
    Henrique M Pereira
    Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749 016 Lisboa, Portugal
    Science 330:1496-501. 2010
    ..of age as a tool for evaluating the impact of future socioeconomic development pathways on biodiversity and ecosystem services...
  50. ncbi Meta-analysis reveals negative yet variable effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms
    Kristy J Kroeker
    Stanford University, Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, CA 93950, USA
    Ecol Lett 13:1419-34. 2010
    ..Our analyses suggest that the biological effects of ocean acidification are generally large and negative, but the variation in sensitivity amongst organisms has important implications for ecosystem responses.
  51. ncbi Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services
    Patricia Balvanera
    Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, UNAM, Morelia, Mexico
    Ecol Lett 9:1146-56. 2006
    Concern is growing about the consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning, for the provision of ecosystem services, and for human well being...
  52. ncbi Tracking apex marine predator movements in a dynamic ocean
    B A Block
    Stanford University, Biology Department, Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California 93950, USA
    Nature 475:86-90. 2011
    ..Improved understanding of ecological patterns, evolutionary constraints and ecosystem function is critical for preventing extinctions, loss of biodiversity and disruption of ecosystem services...
  53. ncbi The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases
    Kevin D Lafferty
    Western Ecological Research Center, U S Geological Survey, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    Ecology 90:888-900. 2009
    ..Many factors can affect infectious disease, and some may overshadow the effects of climate...
  54. ncbi The velocity of climate change
    Scott R Loarie
    Carnegie Institution for Science, Department of Global Ecology, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 462:1052-5. 2009
    ..Montane landscapes may effectively shelter many species into the next century. Elsewhere, reduced emissions, a much expanded network of protected areas, or efforts to increase species movement may be necessary...
  55. ncbi Evidence for ecological speciation and its alternative
    Dolph Schluter
    Biodiversity Research Centre and Zoology Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 323:737-41. 2009
    ..However, we still have not identified all aspects of selection, and identifying the underlying genes for reproductive isolation remains challenging...
  56. ncbi Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems
    M Scheffer
    Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, PO Box 8080, NL 6700 DD Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Nature 413:591-6. 2001
    ..This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience...
  57. pmc Regional decline of coral cover in the Indo-Pacific: timing, extent, and subregional comparisons
    John F Bruno
    Department of Marine Sciences, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e711. 2007
    ..However, little is known about the timing, rate or spatial variability of the loss of reef-building corals, especially in the Indo-Pacific, which contains 75% of the world's coral reefs...
  58. ncbi The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge
    Jan Schipper
    International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN Species Programme, IUCN, 28 Rue Mauverney, 1196 Gland, Switzerland
    Science 322:225-30. 2008
    ..Marine mammals are also disproportionately poorly known. These data are made freely available to support further scientific developments and conservation action...
  59. ncbi A molecular view of microbial diversity and the biosphere
    N R Pace
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3102, USA
    Science 276:734-40. 1997
  60. ncbi Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine
    Fredrik Backhed
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 307:1915-20. 2005
    ..We are also starting to understand how certain keystone members of the microbiota operate to maintain the stability and functional adaptability of this microbial organ...
  61. ncbi Do invasive species show higher phenotypic plasticity than native species and, if so, is it adaptive? A meta-analysis
    Amy Michelle Davidson
    Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 0200, Australia
    Ecol Lett 14:419-31. 2011
  62. pmc A guide to the natural history of freshwater lake bacteria
    Ryan J Newton
    Great Lakes WATER Institute, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 75:14-49. 2011
    ..We conclude by emphasizing the role that this review can play in providing a coherent framework for future studies...
  63. ncbi Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map
    Jennifer B Hughes Martiny
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 80 Waterman Street, Box G W, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:102-12. 2006
    ..However, recent studies also dispute the idea that 'everything is everywhere'. We also consider how the processes that generate and maintain biogeographic patterns in macroorganisms could operate in the microbial world...
  64. ncbi Plant species and soil type cooperatively shape the structure and function of microbial communities in the rhizosphere
    Gabriele Berg
    Graz University of Technology, Environmental Biotechnology, Graz, Austria
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 68:1-13. 2009
    ..not only for plant nutrition, health and quality but also for microorganism-driven carbon sequestration, ecosystem functioning and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems...
  65. ncbi Early-warning signals for critical transitions
    Marten Scheffer
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Nature 461:53-9. 2009
  66. ncbi Detection of reduction in population size using data from microsatellite loci
    J C Garza
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Mol Ecol 10:305-18. 2001
    ..This method, and others like it, promises to be an important tool for the conservation and management of populations that are in need of intervention or recovery...
  67. ncbi Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses
    Teja Tscharntke
    Agroecology, Department of Crop Sciences, Georg August University, Grisebachstrasse 6, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 87:661-85. 2012
    ..on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes...
  68. pmc Introducing DOTUR, a computer program for defining operational taxonomic units and estimating species richness
    Patrick D Schloss
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1630 Linden Dr, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1501-6. 2005
    ..We anticipate that an equivalent extent of sampling for soil would require sampling more than 10,000 sequences, almost 100 times the size of typical sequence collections obtained from soil...
  69. ncbi Phase shifts, herbivory, and the resilience of coral reefs to climate change
    Terence P Hughes
    Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811, Australia
    Curr Biol 17:360-5. 2007
  70. ncbi Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems
    Bradley J Cardinale
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    Nature 443:989-92. 2006
    ..species diversity to examine how it affects the functioning of numerous trophic groups in multiple types of ecosystem. We show that the average effect of decreasing species richness is to decrease the abundance or biomass of the ..
  71. ncbi Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems
    James J Elser
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Ecol Lett 10:1135-42. 2007
    ..Thus, contrary to some prevailing paradigms, freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems are surprisingly similar in terms of N and P limitation...
  72. ncbi Microbial community structure and its functional implications
    Jed A Fuhrman
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA
    Nature 459:193-9. 2009
    ..Some microbial systems are found to change predictably, helping us to anticipate how microbial communities and their activities will shift in a changing world...
  73. doi An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle
    Nicolas Gruber
    Environmental Physics Group, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitatstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 451:293-6. 2008
  74. ncbi Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems
    John M Pandolfi
    Department of Paleobiology, MRC 121, National Museum of Natural History, Post Office Box 37012, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013 7012, USA
    Science 301:955-8. 2003
    ..All reefs were substantially degraded long before outbreaks of coral disease and bleaching. Regardless of these new threats, reefs will not survive without immediate protection from human exploitation over large spatial scales...
  75. pmc Multivariate analyses in microbial ecology
    Alban Ramette
    Microbial habitat group, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 62:142-60. 2007
    ..Because such tools aim at reducing data set complexity, at identifying major patterns and putative causal factors, they will certainly find many applications in microbial ecology...
  76. ncbi Global dispersal of free-living microbial eukaryote species
    Bland J Finlay
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Windermere, Ferry House, Ambleside, Cumbria LA22 0LP, UK
    Science 296:1061-3. 2002
    ..dispersal requires an alternative view of the scale and dynamics of biodiversity at the microbial level, wherein global species number is relatively low and local species richness is always sufficient to drive ecosystem functions.
  77. ncbi Rebuilding global fisheries
    Boris Worm
    Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Canada
    Science 325:578-85. 2009
    ..Impacts of international fleets and the lack of alternatives to fishing complicate prospects for rebuilding fisheries in many poorer regions, highlighting the need for a global perspective on rebuilding marine resources...
  78. pmc Ecological niche partitioning between Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in Cameroon: the ecological side of speciation
    Frederic Simard
    Laboratoire de Lutte contre les Insectes Nuisibles, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UR016, 911 Av Agropolis, Cedex 5, Montpellier, France
    BMC Ecol 9:17. 2009
  79. ncbi Mechanistic niche modelling: combining physiological and spatial data to predict species' ranges
    Michael Kearney
    Department of Zoology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
    Ecol Lett 12:334-50. 2009
    ..As physiological knowledge becomes better integrated into SDMs, we will make more robust predictions of range shifts in novel or non-equilibrium contexts such as invasions, translocations, climate change and evolutionary shifts...
  80. pmc Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude
    Curtis A Deutsch
    Program on Climate Change and Department of Oceanography and Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:6668-72. 2008
    ..Our analyses imply that, in the absence of ameliorating factors such as migration and adaptation, the greatest extinction risks from global warming may be in the tropics, where biological diversity is also greatest...
  81. pmc An integrative study of a meromictic lake ecosystem in Antarctica
    Federico M Lauro
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    ISME J 5:879-95. 2011
    ..Our view is that the health of this delicate ecosystem is dictated by the effects of the polar light cycle on the dominant role of green sulfur bacteria in primary ..
  82. ncbi Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification
    Jason M Hall-Spencer
    Marine Institute, Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
    Nature 454:96-9. 2008 almost all studies have been in vitro, short-term, rapid perturbation experiments on isolated elements of the ecosystem. Here we show the effects of acidification on benthic ecosystems at shallow coastal sites where volcanic CO(2) ..
  83. ncbi Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil
    Jason Gans
    Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87501, USA
    Science 309:1387-90. 2005
    ..Metal pollution reduced diversity more than 99.9%, revealing the highly toxic effect of metal contamination, especially for rare taxa...
  84. ncbi Pattern-oriented modeling of agent-based complex systems: lessons from ecology
    Volker Grimm
    UFZ Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig Halle, Department Okologische Systemanalyse, PF 500 136, 04301 Leipzig, Germany
    Science 310:987-91. 2005
    ..This strategy provides a unifying framework for decoding the internal organization of agent-based complex systems and may lead toward unifying algorithmic theories of the relation between adaptive behavior and system complexity...
  85. ncbi Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands
    J C Biesmeijer
    Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology and Earth and Biosphere Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
    Science 313:351-4. 2006
    ..Taken together, these findings strongly suggest a causal connection between local extinctions of functionally linked plant and pollinator species...
  86. ncbi Genetic diversity and connectivity of deep-sea hydrothermal vent metapopulations
    Robert C Vrijenhoek
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA
    Mol Ecol 19:4391-411. 2010
    ..Understanding the diversity and connectivity of vent metapopulations provides essential information for designing deep-sea preserves in regions that are under consideration for submarine mining of precious metals...
  87. pmc Baselines and degradation of coral reefs in the Northern Line Islands
    Stuart A Sandin
    Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e1548. 2008
    ..Thus, protection from overfishing and pollution appears to increase the resilience of reef ecosystems to the effects of global warming...
  88. ncbi Niche partitioning among Prochlorococcus ecotypes along ocean-scale environmental gradients
    Zackary I Johnson
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 15 Vassar Street 48 419, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 311:1737-40. 2006
    ..Light, nutrients, and competitor abundances also appeared to play a role in shaping different distributions...
  89. ncbi Range shifts and adaptive responses to Quaternary climate change
    M B Davis
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Science 292:673-9. 2001
  90. ncbi Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota
    David A Wardle
    Landcare Research, Post Office Box 69, Lincoln, New Zealand
    Science 304:1629-33. 2004
    ..ecosystems consist of aboveground and belowground components that interact to influence community- and ecosystem-level processes and properties...
  91. ncbi Microbial structuring of marine ecosystems
    Farooq Azam
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:782-91. 2007
    ..This approach to microbial oceanography is not only helpful, but is in fact indispensable...
  92. ncbi Environmental context explains Lévy and Brownian movement patterns of marine predators
    Nicolas E Humphries
    Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK
    Nature 465:1066-9. 2010
    ..These results are consistent with the Lévy-flight foraging hypothesis, supporting the contention that organism search strategies naturally evolved in such a way that they exploit optimal Lévy patterns...
  93. ncbi The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems
    Christopher D G Harley
    Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California Davis, Bodega Bay, CA 94923, USA
    Ecol Lett 9:228-41. 2006
  94. ncbi A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field
    Deborah S Kelley
    School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Science 307:1428-34. 2005
    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked...
  95. ncbi The unseen majority: soil microbes as drivers of plant diversity and productivity in terrestrial ecosystems
    Marcel G A van der Heijden
    Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Ecol Lett 11:296-310. 2008
    ..Despite their abundance, the impact of soil microbes on ecosystem processes is still poorly understood...
  96. pmc Global patterns and predictions of seafloor biomass using random forests
    Chih Lin Wei
    Department of Oceanography, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15323. 2010
    ..This biomass census and associated maps are vital components of mechanistic deep-sea food web models and global carbon cycling, and as such provide fundamental information that can be incorporated into evidence-based management...
  97. ncbi Global patterns in biodiversity
    K J Gaston
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, UK
    Nature 405:220-7. 2000
    ..Theory is, however, developing rapidly, improving in its internal consistency, and more readily subjected to empirical challenge...
  98. pmc The nested assembly of plant-animal mutualistic networks
    Jordi Bascompte
    Integrative Ecology Group, Estacion Biologica de Donana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 1056, E 41080 Sevilla, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:9383-7. 2003
    ..Our results indicate a nonrandom pattern of community organization that may be relevant for our understanding of the organization and persistence of biodiversity...
  99. ncbi Multiple functions increase the importance of biodiversity for overall ecosystem functioning
    Lars Gamfeldt
    Department of Marine Ecology, Goteborg University, Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory, SE 452 96 Strömstad, Sweden
    Ecology 89:1223-31. 2008
    Biodiversity is proposed to be important for the rate of ecosystem functions...
  100. ncbi Autotrophic carbon fixation in archaea
    Ivan A Berg
    Mikrobiologie, Fakultat Biologie, Universitat Freiburg, Schanzlestrasse 1, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:447-60. 2010
    ..These reactions differ fundamentally from those of the well-known Calvin cycle, and their distribution mirrors the phylogenetic positions of the archaeal lineages and the needs of the ecological niches that they occupy...
  101. ncbi Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts
    D R Easterling
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA National Climatic Data Center, 151 Patton Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801, USA
    Science 289:2068-74. 2000
    ..Several apparently gradual biological changes are linked to responses to extreme weather and climate events...

Research Grants71

  1. Analysis of gene regulation of Vibrio cholerae during infection
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, how V. cholerae alters its gene expression upon transition from its marine ecosystem to the human host and along progression of infection is largely unknown...
  2. Preconception Nutrition, Endocrine Disruptors, Reproductive Outcomes
    Xiaobin Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DDT/DDE remain a public health concern because these chemicals are omnipresent in the ecosystem and may cause adverse health effects at background levels of exposure as a result of their stability, lipophilic ..
  3. Geobiological approaches to understanding pulmonary infections in situ
    Dianne K Newman; Fiscal Year: 2013 lung at micrometer length scales, looking for chemical gradients that shape the behavior of the microbial ecosystem and/or are generated by it...
  4. Interaction between Vibrio cholerae and Dictylostelium discoideum
    SHELLEY M contact PAYNE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Some of the genes required for V. cholerae to form these associations and persist in its aquatic ecosystem are also involved in promoting disease in humans. In vitro studies have suggested that protozoans may both use V...
  5. Bacterial fermentation in skin microbiome as probiotics (Bfismp) against S. aureu
    Chun Ming Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Fermentation of milk with gut- friendly bacteria, yogurt is an excellent aid to balance the bacteriological ecosystem in the human intestine...
  6. Imaging Nonlinear Control of the Pulmonary Circulation with Proton MRI
    Susan R Hopkins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since pulmonary vascular disease is largely silent until it is advanced, ultimately this work may lead to a new screening tool for high-risk patient populations, or a new way of identifying populations for targeted therapies. ..
  7. Randomized Trial of IFCBT-HIVPI to Prevent HIV Among Non-Injection Drug Users
    William W Latimer; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Emergency Contraception to Prevent Pregnancy: Missed Opportunities for Care.
    MICHELLE LYNNE MUNRO; Fiscal Year: 2012
  9. Effects of Climate Change on Cholera Dynamics and Prediction
    Shafiqul Islam; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such extreme events are also likely to create unseen changes in the ecosystem and can potentially impact cholera bacteria...
  10. The Rosetta Enzyme ReDesign: Targeting PON1 as OP Scavenger
    Jennifer M Bui; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..compounds in commercial products have been linked to several adverse health effects and permanent damages to our ecosystem. The search for enzymes that act as bioscavengers against toxic OP compounds has become an intense research ..
  11. Symbiosis of E. coli and the Intestinal Microbiota in a Mouse Model
    Tyrrell Conway; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Yet the functional roles of individual microorganisms in the intestinal ecosystem and the dynamic interactions of its community members remain largely uncharacterized, including those ..
    JEFFREY IVAN GORDON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These analyses should provide the first genome-wide view of Hp evolution in ChAG and Ca, and yield new bacterial and host biomarkers associated with these states. ..
  13. Disparities in HPV vaccine completion: Identifying and quantifying the barriers
    Linda M Niccolai; Fiscal Year: 2013
  14. Spatial characterization of microbial communities in the cystic fibrosis lung
    RYAN COULSON HUNTER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the effect of environmental chemistry on the microbial community is paramount in fully understanding a given ecosystem. Yet, this approach in a medical microbiology context is seldom used...
  15. Spatial characterization of microbial communities in the cystic fibrosis lung
    RYAN COULSON HUNTER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the effect of environmental chemistry on the microbial community is paramount in fully understanding a given ecosystem. Yet, this approach in a medical microbiology context is seldom used...
  16. Overwintering mortality of nymphal Ixodes scapularis, Lyme disease vector, in a c
    RICHARD S contact OSTFELD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will use these to study overwintering mortality in the forests of the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, where ticks and tick-borne disease are common, and SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, ..
  17. Complex glycan utilization by human gut Bacteroides
    Eric C Martens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..dietary and host-derived glycans - evolved features that likely influence their fitness in the crowded gut ecosystem. At least one of these organisms, 6...
  18. Understanding Etiology: Mapping Clostridium difficile Spatial Distribution and Mi
    William E Holben; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By considering the intestinal microbiome as an ecosystem and combining techniques commonly used in microbial ecology with sampling and analysis techniques from invasion ..
  19. Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in PNG
    Louis R Barrows; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Plot activities will integrate the botanical survey with the ecosystem study to include soil microbes and small plants...
    Teresa Ruiz; Fiscal Year: 2012 inhabited by more than 500 species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which exist in a complex ecosystem referred to as a biofilm...
  21. Population genomic analysis of gut microbial colonization in premature infants
    David A Relman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..More broadly, this research will uncover aspects of ecosystem colonization dynamics that have implications for other aspects of human health and the environment. !
  22. Gestational Metabolic Conditions and Autism
    CHERYL KATHERINE WALKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aberrations in the maternal ecosystem, deficits or imbalances of any sort in circulatory, immunologic or metabolic functional capacities, have the ..
  23. Phylogeographic dynamics of a vector and pathogen in a natural environment
    Dustin Brisson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will investigate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in a natural ecosystem and assess the biotic, abiotic, and historical factors that have given rise to that heterogeneity...
  24. Proton Sponge Adhesives, Interfacial Milieu: Molecular Structure-Mechanics
    Paulette Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that supports the subsequent attachment and growth of other bacterial species, ultimately forming a micro-ecosystem, i.e., a biofilm...
  25. Genomic Tools For Studying The Ecology Of The Human Vaginal Microflora
    Jacques Ravel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..long-term goal is to develop an accurate understanding of the composition and ecology of the vagina microbial ecosystem in normal, healthy women as an essential prerequisite for comprehending how the normal microflora reduces the ..
    Gautam Dantas; Fiscal Year: 2013 association of resistance genes with mobile genetic elements) influence the stability of this critical ecosystem. To this end, our first specific aim i to characterize resistome development in healthy infants through testing ..
  27. Climate impact on coastal ecosystem methylmercury: human exposure implications
    Celia Y Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 2: Determine the interactive effects of temperature and nutrient supply/ecosystem eutrophication on bioaccumulation of MeHg by primary producers, and transfer between primary and secondary ..
  28. 2011 Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins Gordon Research Conference
    James J Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Safeguarding the public and ecosystem health from the effects of mycotoxins and phycotoxins depends on understanding their toxicology and how, when ..
    Edward D Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the mosquito Aedes triseriatus and the invasive species Aedes japonicus into water-filled tree holes as a model ecosystem for study, we have now positioned our research to explore analogous relationships with the dengue virus vector ..
  30. Intersectoral Fellowships on Irrigated Agriculture and Human Health in Malawi
    Edward D Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013, land transformation, and agricultural production;(3) governance, policy, and implementation;and (4) ecosystem services and integrity...
  31. Role of cyclo(Phe-Pro) in Vibrio cholerae virulence factor production
    JAMES EDWARD BINA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..establishment of the hyperinfective phenotype exhibited by human shed vibrios, and for survival in the aquatic ecosystem. The mechanisms that control gene expression in vivo are largely unknown...
  32. Tobacco smoking and perturbations in the subgingival microbial ecosystem
    Purnima Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our goal is to test the hypothesis that smoking preferentially enriches this polymicrobial ecosystem for pathogenic organisms at the expense of health-compatible species...
    Celia Cordon-Rosales; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a better understanding of the ecology and biology of WNV and other potentially relevant arbovirus in a tropical ecosystem (including dengue viruses and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus)...
  34. Treating Depressed, Cognitively Impaired Elders
    Dimitris N Kiosses; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus the proposed treatment aims to create an "ecosystem" that allows the patients'competencies to be brought to bear in solving their own problems...
  35. Nutrition and Superfund Chemical Toxicity
    Bernhard Hennig; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given the abundance of Superfund chemicals and widespread distribution in the ecosystem, it is unlikely that remediation alone will be sufficient to address their health risks...
  36. Evaluating ART for All HIV Seropositives: Can it work with the hardest cases?
    Don C Des Jarlais; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recommendations will be produced by a Collaborative Board comprised of community stakeholders and clinical researchers. ..
  37. Impact of climate change on mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission
    C M Barker; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..arthropod vector and upon both arthropod vector and vertebrate host population dynamics related to hydrology and ecosystem dynamics...
  38. "Ecosystem Focused Therapy" in Post Stroke Depression
    George S Alexopoulos; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We propose to study the efficacy of "Ecosystem Focused Therapy" (EFT) in post-stroke depression (PSD), a disorder that afflicts a large number of stroke victims and increases mortality, cognitive ..
  39. Systems biology approach to MAPK regulation of malaria infection in A. stephensi
    Yoram Vodovotz; Fiscal Year: 2013 these signaling pathways set in motion new signals that must be interpreted by all three members of this ecosystem. This challenge is daunting, given the complexity of the inflammatory response in a single species...
  40. Toxicology Education Summit
    Aaron Barchowsky; Fiscal Year: 2011 identifying the adverse effects of chemical, physical or biological agents on living organisms and the ecosystem, and to prevent and ameliorate such adverse effects...
  41. Combining bioavailability assays with modeling to predict PCBs in fish after reme
    Upal Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..toxic compounds in higher trophic level organisms like fish that are consumed by humans and top predators in the ecosystem. However, changes in fish are slow to manifest as a consequence of a remedial action and often one has to wait ..
  42. A Desktop Assembly and Analysis Pipeline for Next-gen Metagenomic Sequencing
    TIMOTHY J DURFEE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Understanding the make-up and interactions within these communities is crucial in understanding how each ecosystem functions...
  43. Your Body's Microbial Ecosystem: Web-based Curriculum for Secondary Science
    LOUISA A STARK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Human Microbiome Project and related research are revealing this complex ecosystem and its relationship to health and disease...
  44. Impact of Bisphenol A on neural stem cells and development in the adult brain
    Hongjun Song; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because of its pervasive presence in our environment and ecosystem, it is critical that we understand the physiological effects of our incidental contact with BPA...
  45. Mosquito larval immunity and its impact on gut microbiota and malaria competence
    Jiannong Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The project will generate data towards a better understanding of larval immunity and its impact on mosquito gut ecosystem. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Mosquito larva-bacterium interactions contribute to the evolution of immune system...
  46. Developing a reduced complexity model gut microbiome in the behavior model, Droso
    WILLIAM LUDINGTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..interact with many more species than the average species does and these species have reverberating effects on an ecosystem when they are eliminated, such that the stability of the ecosystem often fails and many other species are ..
  47. Enterococcus niche formation in the GI tract
    Nita H Salzman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Intestinal mucosal surfaces harbor a vast complex microbial ecosystem, the microbiome, which is intimately involved in host development and protection...
  48. Integrating Prenatal Care to Reduce HIV/STDs Among Teens: A Translational Study
    JONATHAN N N TOBIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
  49. Integrating Prenatal Care to Reduce HIV/STDs Among Teens: A Translational Study
    Jeannette R Ickovics; Fiscal Year: 2010
  50. Longitudinal Follow-up to the National Faculty Survey
    Karen Freund; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..S. medical schools. Our results will assist policy makers and academic leaders in developing programs and policies that will eliminate inequities in career advancement. ..
  51. Bacteriocins of the Intestinal Bacteroidales
    Laurie E Comstock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The mammalian gut houses a complex and diverse microbial ecosystem in which microbial members establish commensal, symbiotic, and sometimes pathogenic relationships with their mammalian host...
  52. Home-Delivered Intervention for Depressed, Cognitively Impaired Elders
    Dimitris N Kiosses; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PATH is innovative because it focuses on the patient's ecosystem (i.e...
  53. Remediation Effectiveness for Mining Sites: Hysteresis and Metal Mixtures Effect
    James Ranville; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ultimately, in this project we expect to make improvements in assessment methods, which will provide a better means for protecting human and ecosystem health.
  54. Dynamic Ecological Simulation Model of Tsetse Transmitted Trypanosomosis in Kenya
    Joseph P Messina; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study will enhance the scientific understanding of climate change and human impacts on ecological systems, and how these changes influence disease ecology. ..
  55. UC BRAID Center for Accelerated Innovation
    MICHAEL J PALAZZOLO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Center taps into the vigor and creativity of California's legendary biomedical and engineering ecosystem and integrates the many successful business, engineering and health sciences programs at our campuses...
  56. Optimizing Medical Device Post-Market Surveillance for Public Value
    HARLAN MARC KRUMHOLZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the policies that define roles and responsibilities of expert parties engaged in the medical device surveillance ecosystem. This includes policies and procedures to assure integrity of the effort, strategies for sharing of device, ..
  57. Ecosystem disturbance and multiscale transmission of a zoonotic wildlife pathogen
    Philip Craig; Fiscal Year: 2007
    A key element in disease emergence/re-emergence is ecosystem disruption as a result of anthropogenic effects which may be rapid as in tropical deforestation or more subtle as in agricultural expansion and overgrazing in temperate biomes...
  58. Emergence and biological control of schistosomiasis
    Susanne H Sokolow; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Restoration of a native, edible, and marketable predator to control schistosome-transmitting snails may offer benefits for public health, ecosystem health, and poverty alleviation.
  59. A Home-Based Intervention for Young Children with Intellectual Disabilities
    Jin Shin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Parents will be trained to effectively work with their children in their home environment. ..
  60. Characterizing the gut microbial ecosystem for diagnosis and therapy in IBD
    Ramnik J Xavier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Instead, IBD has been repeatedly linked to the overall ecology of entire gut microbial ecosystem. This suggests that the disease may be best studied by integrating many different types of measurements of gut ..
  61. Explaining Differences in HIV Prevalence and Incidence in Black and White MSM
    PATRICK SEAN SULLIVAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Karl Kelsey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our non-biomedical studies relate to health of the ecosystem and to factors that affect aquatic organisms...
  63. Role of Bacterial Vaginosis in Preterm Delivery
    ROBIN ROSS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) results from a disruption of the vaginal ecosystem characterized by a complex shift in the microflora...
    WILLIAM NEWTON; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Because organic nitrogen is incompletely recycled in the global ecosystem due to the processes of nitrification and denitrification, biological N2 fixation occupies a pivotal position in ..
  65. Modeling of Hantavirus Reservoirs in Brazil
    Colleen Jonsson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the hypothesis that the rapid anthropogenic land cover change occurring in Paraguay will have a direct impact of ecosystem viability and biodiversity, and therefore, will affect rodent-hantavirus ecology...
    Sigmund Socransky; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..included uncertainty in defining specific etiologic gents, lack of order in our understanding of the complex ecosystem that colonizes the periodontal structures, difficulty in enumerating a wide range of taxa in the very large ..
  67. Stent Lock Mechanism for Transcutaneous Catheters
    NICHOLAS VITALE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Advances in peritoneal dialysis catheters attempt to close the open ecosystem with the implantation of a porous alloplastic component of the catheter into the body wall...
  68. Arbovirus quasispecies-impact of arthropod transmission
    GREGORY EBEL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the population-level mechanisms of genetic change that may occur when a new arbovirus is introduced into a halve ecosystem. To determine whether the quasispecies structure of arboviruses may promote viral adaptation and disease ..
  69. The Acquisition of Bacterial Vaginosis in Lesbians
    Jeanne Marrazzo; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacterial vaginosis (BV) results from a shift in the microbial ecosystem of the vagina from Lactobacillus predominance to overgrowth by anaerobic and facultative species, and has been ..
    LEE SHUMOW; Fiscal Year: 1999
  71. Structural, genetic, and functional analyses of the glycoproteins of Bacteroides
    LAURIE COMSTOCK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The mammalian gut is a complex and diverse ecosystem colonized with hundreds of different bacterial species...