respiratory dead space

Summary

Summary: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A prolonged postinspiratory pause enhances CO2 elimination by reducing airway dead space
    Leif Uttman
    Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
    Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 23:252-6. 2003
  2. pmc Prospective targeting and control of end-tidal CO2 and O2 concentrations
    Marat Slessarev
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University Health Network, Toronto General Hospital 7EN 242, 200 Elizabeth St, Toronto, Canada, M5G 2C4
    J Physiol 581:1207-19. 2007
  3. ncbi Mucociliary and long-term particle clearance in the airways of healthy nonsmoker subjects
    Winfried Möller
    Clinical Research Group, Inflammatory Lung Diseases of the GSF, National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute for Inhalation Biology, D 82131 Gauting, Germany
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 97:2200-6. 2004
  4. ncbi Prognostic value of the pulmonary dead-space fraction during the early and intermediate phases of acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Joan M Raurich
    Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario Son Dureta, 07014, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears, Spain
    Respir Care 55:282-7. 2010
  5. pmc Effects of inspiratory pause on CO2 elimination and arterial PCO2 in acute lung injury
    Jérôme Devaquet
    Medical Intensive Care Unit, AP HP, INSERM Unit 841, Centre Hospitalier Albert Chenevier Henri Mondor, Creteil, France
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 105:1944-9. 2008
  6. ncbi Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on dead space and its partitions in acute lung injury
    L Beydon
    Department of Anaesthesia, University Hospital, 49033 Angers Cedex 01, France
    Intensive Care Med 28:1239-45. 2002
  7. ncbi Aspiration of dead space allows isocapnic low tidal volume ventilation in acute lung injury. Relationships to gas exchange and mechanics
    E De Robertis
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University Federico II, Napoli, Italy
    Intensive Care Med 27:1496-503. 2001
  8. pmc Bedside quantification of dead-space fraction using routine clinical data in patients with acute lung injury: secondary analysis of two prospective trials
    Hassan Siddiki
    Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 1stStreet, Rochester 55905, USA
    Crit Care 14:R141. 2010
  9. ncbi Alveolar dead space as a predictor of severity of pulmonary embolism
    J A Kline
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 7:611-7. 2000
  10. pmc The influence of venous admixture on alveolar dead space and carbon dioxide exchange in acute respiratory distress syndrome: computer modelling
    Lisbet Niklason
    Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, Getingevagen 4, SE 221 85 Lund, Sweden
    Crit Care 12:R53. 2008

Research Grants

  1. INTERACTIONS IN VENTILATORY CONTROL DURING EXERCISE
    Gordon Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 1999
  2. Expired CO2/O2 Analysis to Diagnose Pulmonary Embolism
    JEFFREY KLINE; Fiscal Year: 2008
  3. Surrogate markers for Severe Pulmonary Embolism
    JEFFREY KLINE; Fiscal Year: 2005
  4. Pretest Probability Assessment for Pulmonary Embolism
    JEFFREY KLINE; Fiscal Year: 2005
  5. DEVELOPMENTAL PLASTICITY IN VENTILATORY CONTROL
    Gordon Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2001
  6. PLASTICITY IN RESPIRATORY MOTOR CONTROL
    Gordon Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2004
  7. Neuromorphic Electronic Model of Synaptic Plasticity
    Chi Sang Poon; Fiscal Year: 2006
  8. Nonlinear Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
    Chi Sang Poon; Fiscal Year: 2009
  9. Pontomedullary Integration of Respiratory Afferents
    Chi Sang Poon; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. Integrative Models of Neural Adaptive Control
    Chi Sang Poon; Fiscal Year: 2007

Detail Information

Publications178 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A prolonged postinspiratory pause enhances CO2 elimination by reducing airway dead space
    Leif Uttman
    Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
    Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 23:252-6. 2003
    ..The objective was to quantify changes in airway dead space (VDaw), slope of the alveolar plateau (SLOPE) and VCO2,T as a function of MDT in healthy pigs...
  2. pmc Prospective targeting and control of end-tidal CO2 and O2 concentrations
    Marat Slessarev
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University Health Network, Toronto General Hospital 7EN 242, 200 Elizabeth St, Toronto, Canada, M5G 2C4
    J Physiol 581:1207-19. 2007
    ..6 l min(-1)). We conclude that targeted end-tidal gas concentrations can be attained in spontaneously breathing subjects using this prospective, feed-forward, low gas flow system...
  3. ncbi Mucociliary and long-term particle clearance in the airways of healthy nonsmoker subjects
    Winfried Möller
    Clinical Research Group, Inflammatory Lung Diseases of the GSF, National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute for Inhalation Biology, D 82131 Gauting, Germany
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 97:2200-6. 2004
    ....
  4. ncbi Prognostic value of the pulmonary dead-space fraction during the early and intermediate phases of acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Joan M Raurich
    Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario Son Dureta, 07014, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears, Spain
    Respir Care 55:282-7. 2010
    ..We measured the dead-space fraction in the early phase (first week) and the intermediate phase (second week) of ARDS, and evaluated the association of dead-space fraction with mortality...
  5. pmc Effects of inspiratory pause on CO2 elimination and arterial PCO2 in acute lung injury
    Jérôme Devaquet
    Medical Intensive Care Unit, AP HP, INSERM Unit 841, Centre Hospitalier Albert Chenevier Henri Mondor, Creteil, France
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 105:1944-9. 2008
    ..001) with no significant variation in Pa(O(2)). Postinspiratory pause has a significant influence on CO(2) elimination when small tidal volumes are used during mechanical ventilation for ALI...
  6. ncbi Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on dead space and its partitions in acute lung injury
    L Beydon
    Department of Anaesthesia, University Hospital, 49033 Angers Cedex 01, France
    Intensive Care Med 28:1239-45. 2002
    ..We investigated how physiological, airway and alveolar VD varied with PEEP and analysed possible links to respiratory mechanics...
  7. ncbi Aspiration of dead space allows isocapnic low tidal volume ventilation in acute lung injury. Relationships to gas exchange and mechanics
    E De Robertis
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University Federico II, Napoli, Italy
    Intensive Care Med 27:1496-503. 2001
    ..No side effects were noticed. CONCLUSIONS: ASPIDS allowed the use of higher PEEP at lower V(T) and inflation pressure and constant PaCO(2). Multiple Pel/V curves gave insight into the tendency of lungs to collapse...
  8. pmc Bedside quantification of dead-space fraction using routine clinical data in patients with acute lung injury: secondary analysis of two prospective trials
    Hassan Siddiki
    Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 1stStreet, Rochester 55905, USA
    Crit Care 14:R141. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to determine prognostic value of Vd/Vt estimated from routinely collected pulmonary variables...
  9. ncbi Alveolar dead space as a predictor of severity of pulmonary embolism
    J A Kline
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 7:611-7. 2000
    ..To determine whether the alveolar dead space volume (V(D)alv), expressed as a percentage of the alveolar tidal volume (V(D)alv/V(T)alv), can predict the degree of vascular occlusion caused by pulmonary embolism (PE)...
  10. pmc The influence of venous admixture on alveolar dead space and carbon dioxide exchange in acute respiratory distress syndrome: computer modelling
    Lisbet Niklason
    Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, Getingevagen 4, SE 221 85 Lund, Sweden
    Crit Care 12:R53. 2008
    ..The purpose of the present study was to analyze the extent to which shunt contributes to alveolar dead space and perturbs carbon dioxide exchange in ancillary physiological disturbances...
  11. ncbi CO2 elimination at varying inspiratory pause in acute lung injury
    J Aboab
    Medical Intensive Care Unit, INSERM U492, Hôpital H Mondor, Creteil, France
    Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 27:2-6. 2007
    ..By varying T(P), effects are observed on V(T)CO(2), airway dead space and alveolar PCO(2). These effects depend on perfusion, gas distribution and diffusion in the lung periphery, which need to be further elucidated...
  12. ncbi Respiratory dead space measurement in the investigation of pulmonary embolism in outpatients with pleuritic chest pain
    Kerstin Hogg
    Emergency Medicine Research Group, Emergency Department, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9WL UK
    Chest 128:2195-202. 2005
    ..Our study aimed to compare the clinical utility of three methods for calculating respiratory dead space in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in outpatients with pleuritic chest pain.
  13. pmc Alveolar dead space and capnographic variables before and after thrombolysis in patients with acute pulmonary embolism
    Marcos Mello Moreira
    Department of Surgery, State University of Campinas, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas, Brazil
    Vasc Health Risk Manag 5:9-12. 2009
    ..Lung scintigraphy was used to compare VCap results from the two subjects with VCap results from healthy volunteers and pigs before and after treatment associated with arterial blood gas, D-dimer, and showed satisfactory agreement...
  14. ncbi Pulmonary dead-space fraction as a risk factor for death in the acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Thomas J Nuckton
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0130, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:1281-6. 2002
    ....
  15. ncbi Pattern of inspiratory gas delivery affects CO2 elimination in health and after acute lung injury
    Elisabet Aström
    University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, SE 221 85, Lund, Sweden
    Intensive Care Med 34:377-84. 2008
    ..A study was conducted to investigate how MDT affects CO2 elimination in pigs at health and after ALI...
  16. ncbi Decrease in PaCO2 with prone position is predictive of improved outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Luciano Gattinoni
    Istituto di Anestesia e Rianimazione, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Ospedale Policlinico, Milan, Italy
    Crit Care Med 31:2727-33. 2003
    ..To determine whether gas exchange improvement in response to the prone position is associated with an improved outcome in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
  17. ncbi Prognostic value of the pulmonary dead-space fraction during the first 6 days of acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Richard H Kallet
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Respir Care 49:1008-14. 2004
    ..35 and 0.55. However, VD/VT has seldom been measured with consideration to the evolving pathophysiology of ARDS...
  18. ncbi Impact of a rapid rule-out protocol for pulmonary embolism on the rate of screening, missed cases, and pulmonary vascular imaging in an urban US emergency department
    Jeffrey A Kline
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28323 2861, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 44:490-502. 2004
    ..0% of patients with a negative protocol would have an adverse outcome...
  19. ncbi Volumetric capnography as a noninvasive diagnostic procedure in acute pulmonary thromboembolism
    Marcos Mello Moreira
    Surgery Department, State University at Campinas School of Medical Sciences, Campinas, Brazil
    J Bras Pneumol 34:328-32. 2008
    ..The D-dimer test result was positive. Volumetric capnography was performed at admission and after treatment. The values obtained were compared with the imaging test results...
  20. ncbi Pre and post-pulmonary thromboendarterectomies capnographic variables
    Marcos Mello Moreira
    Department of Surgery Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas
    Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 22:509-12. 2007
    ..04 and AVDSf was 0.16; for the second patient, the values were 0.07 and 0.28, respectively. The association of these capnographic variables with image exams reinforces the importance of this noninvasive diagnosis method...
  21. ncbi Prognostic value of different dead space indices in mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury and ARDS
    Umberto Lucangelo
    Department of Perioperative Medicine, Intensive Care and Emergency, Cattinara Hospital, Trieste University School of Medicine, Trieste, Italy
    Chest 133:62-71. 2008
    ..The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the utility of derived dead space indexes to predict survival in mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS...
  22. ncbi The bedside investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis study: a double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing combinations of 3 bedside tests vs ventilation-perfusion scan for the initial investigation of suspected pulmonary embolism
    Marc A Rodger
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa Health Research Institute, and Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Arch Intern Med 166:181-7. 2006
    ....
  23. ncbi Pulmonary dead space fraction and pulmonary artery systolic pressure as early predictors of clinical outcome in acute lung injury
    Magda Cepkova
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Chest 132:836-42. 2007
    ....
  24. ncbi Accuracy of physiologic dead space measurements in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome using volumetric capnography: comparison with the metabolic monitor method
    Richard H Kallet
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Respir Care 50:462-7. 2005
    ..We investigated the accuracy of volumetric capnography in measuring V(D)/V(T), compared to both uncorrected and corrected measurements, using a metabolic monitor in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
  25. ncbi Noninvasive measurement of mean alveolar carbon dioxide tension and Bohr's dead space during tidal breathing
    N G Koulouris
    Dept of Respiratory Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, SOTIRIA Hospital for Diseases of the Chest, Greece
    Eur Respir J 17:1167-74. 2001
    ....
  26. ncbi Labeled carbon dioxide (C18O2): an indicator gas for phase II in expirograms
    Holger Schulz
    GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute for Inhalation Biology, PO Box 1129, D 85758 Neuherberg Munich, Germany
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 97:1755-62. 2004
    ....
  27. ncbi [Measurement of the Fowler dead space in patients with pulmonary emphysema using C18O2]
    T Meyer
    GSF, ,
    Pneumologie 55:126-9. 2001
    ..change in airway resistance is caused by obstruction of central airways, which is supposed to reduce the respiratory dead space. Until now, it was not possible to measure the respiratory dead space in patients with lung emphysema ..
  28. ncbi Elimination of ventilator dead space during synchronized ventilation in premature infants
    Nelson Claure
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA
    J Pediatr 143:315-20. 2003
    ..Mainstream airflow sensors used in neonatal ventilators to synchronize mechanical breaths with spontaneous inspiration and measure ventilation increase dead space and may impair carbon dioxide (CO(2)) elimination...
  29. ncbi Validation of an original mathematical model of CO(2) elimination and dead space ventilation
    Jonathan G Hardman
    University Department of Anesthesia, University Hospital, Nottingham, UK
    Anesth Analg 97:1840-5. 2003
    ..6% to 0.8% and PECO(2) -4.9% to 1.2%. This validation allows future application of our model in appropriate theoretical investigations...
  30. ncbi Measurement of changes in respiratory mechanics during partial liquid ventilation using jet pulses
    Gerd Schmalisch
    Clinic of Neonatology Charité, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany
    Crit Care Med 31:1435-41. 2003
    ..To compare the changes in respiratory mechanics within the breathing cycle in healthy lungs between gas ventilation and partial liquid ventilation using a special forced-oscillation technique...
  31. ncbi Systematic errors and susceptibility to noise of four methods for calculating anatomical dead space from the CO2 expirogram
    Y Tang
    Department of Anaesthetics, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Sydney, NSW 2050, Sydney, Australia
    Br J Anaesth 98:828-34. 2007
    ..This study assessed systematic errors and susceptibility to noise of the Fowler, Hatch, Cumming, and Bowes dead spaces calculated over 40-80% of the CO2 expirogram...
  32. ncbi Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure increments can be predicted by computer simulation based on a physiological profile in acute respiratory failure
    L Uttman
    Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, 22185, Lund, Sweden
    Intensive Care Med 29:226-32. 2003
    ..We examined whether computer simulation predicts airway pressures after increments of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in acute respiratory failure...
  33. ncbi Prone position, carbon dioxide elimination, and survival: a turn for the better?
    Thomas Bein
    Crit Care Med 31:2804-5. 2003
  34. ncbi Continuous tracheal gas insufflation during partial liquid ventilation in juvenile rabbits with acute lung injury
    Guangfa Zhu
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai First People s Hospital, Shanghai, China
    J Appl Physiol 96:1415-24. 2004
    ..either treatment alone. These results indicate that combined treatment of TGI and PLV results in improved pulmonary outcome than either treatment alone in this animal model of ALI...
  35. ncbi The dependence of measured alveolar deadspace on anatomical deadspace volume
    I K Moppett
    University Department of Anaesthesia, University Hospital, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Br J Anaesth 95:400-5. 2005
    ..We sought to quantify the variability in measured VDalv induced by changes in VDanat using a cardiorespiratory computational model...
  36. ncbi [Conditions under which alveolar air equations are modified and the compensation terms of saturated water vapor in those equations]
    Hirofumi Nose
    Department of Anesthesia, Yokohama Ekisaikai Hospital, Yokohama
    Masui 54:427-35. 2005
    ....
  37. ncbi Tracheal gas insufflation as a lung-protective strategy: physiologic, histologic, and biochemical markers
    Rees E Oliver
    Department of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 6:64-9. 2005
    ..Our objective was to use physiologic, histologic, and biochemical markers to test the hypothesis that tracheal gas insufflation in acute lung injury is lung protective...
  38. ncbi Alveolar recruitment improves ventilatory efficiency of the lungs during anesthesia
    Gerardo Tusman
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina
    Can J Anaesth 51:723-7. 2004
    ..The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), with and without a lung recruitment maneuver, on dead space...
  39. ncbi Changes in respiratory physiological dead space and compliance during non-abdominal, upper abdominal and lower abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia
    T Unoki
    University of Tsukuba, Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 21:302-8. 2004
    ....
  40. ncbi Monitoring dead space during recruitment and PEEP titration in an experimental model
    Gerardo Tusman
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina
    Intensive Care Med 32:1863-71. 2006
    ..To test the usefulness of dead space for determining open-lung PEEP, the lowest PEEP that prevents lung collapse after a lung recruitment maneuver...
  41. ncbi Unevenness of ventilation assessed by the expired CO(2) gas volume versus V(T) curve in asthmatic patients
    N G Koulouris
    Respiratory Function Laboratory, Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, SOTIRIA Hospital for Diseases of the Chest, 152, Mesogion Ave, Athens GR 11527, Greece
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 140:293-300. 2004
    ..The change of the above ratios was not related to the percentage decrease of FEV1.0 following methacholine administration...
  42. ncbi Pressure-controlled versus volume-controlled one-lung ventilation for MIDCAB
    C Heimberg
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Hanover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 54:516-20. 2006
    ..We conclude that pressure-controlled ventilation may be useful to improve gas exchange and alveolar recruitment during one lung ventilation...
  43. ncbi Exercise response after rapid intravenous infusion of saline in healthy humans
    H Thomas Robertson
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 6522, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 97:697-703. 2004
    ..The reduction in maximal power output, maximal O(2) uptake, and heart rate after saline infusion may be linked to accumulation of edema fluid in exercising muscle, impairing the diffusion of O(2) to muscle mitochondria...
  44. ncbi Tracheal double-lumen ventilation attenuates hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis in lung injured pigs
    Sven Lethvall
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Intensive Care Med 30:686-92. 2004
    ..Evaluation of ventilatory and circulatory effects with coaxial double-lumen tube ventilation for dead-space reduction as compared with standard endotracheal tube ventilation...
  45. ncbi Unveiling alveolar recruitment: the fascinating trail between theory and practice
    Enrico Calzia
    Intensive Care Med 32:1686-8. 2006
  46. ncbi Differential contribution of dead space ventilation and low arterial pCO2 to exercise hyperpnea in patients with chronic heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
    Roland Wensel
    Department of Clinical Cardiology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Cardiol 93:318-23. 2004
    ..Second, this latter component (depression of arterial pCO(2)) was not related to conventional measures of heart failure severity...
  47. ncbi The effects of breath-holds and Muller manoeuvres on upper airway carbon dioxide concentration in humans
    A Raza
    Department of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Respiration 74:533-6. 2007
    ..However, it is not known if CO(2) can transfer from the alveoli to the anatomical dead space of the upper airway during apnoea...
  48. ncbi Effect of the Y-piece of the ventilation circuit on ventilation requirements in extremely low birth weight infants
    M Wald
    Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Intensive Care Med 31:1095-100. 2005
    ..Yet high tidal volumes are required to overcome dead space. In an experimental arrangement we tested whether reduction of dead space might reduce ventilation requirements and thus reduce volutrauma in preterm infants...
  49. ncbi [Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension]
    C Chenivesse
    Clinique des Maladies Respiratoires, Hopital Calmette, CHRU Lille, France
    Rev Mal Respir 23:141-8. 2006
    ..To determine the accuracy of cardiopulmonary exercise-testing (CPET) in detecting exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension...
  50. ncbi End-tidal CO2-derived values during emergency trauma surgery correlated with outcome: a prospective study
    James G Tyburski
    Department of Surgery, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    J Trauma 53:738-43. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO) derived variables assist in evaluating the adequacy of resuscitation during emergency surgery for trauma...
  51. ncbi The principle of upper airway unidirectional flow facilitates breathing in humans
    Yandong Jiang
    Dept of Respiratory Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 105:854-8. 2008
    ..We suggest this may be the reason that such a breathing pattern is preferred during respiratory distress...
  52. ncbi Changes in respiratory function following the intramuscular administration of etorphine to boer goats (Capra hircus)
    P E Buss
    Department of Companion Animal Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 72:137-42. 2001
    ..It was not possible to determine how effectively diprenorphine reversed the respiratory effects due to etorphine...
  53. ncbi Pigs are not a reliable experimental model in the study of the haemodynamic and respiratory effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum
    L Richard
    Department of Anesthesia, Jean Bernard Hospital, University School of Medecine, Poitiers, France
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 46:74-9. 2002
    ..The pneumoperitoneum induced a moderate rise in mean arterial pressure (+17%) (P<0.001) without any variation in heart rate, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistances...
  54. ncbi The effect of increased apparatus dead space and tidal volumes on carbon dioxide elimination and oxygen saturations in a low-flow anesthesia system
    Bruno J Enekvist
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Lund, 221 85 Lund, Sweden
    J Clin Anesth 20:170-4. 2008
    ..To determine if a large tidal volume (VT), with an unchanged end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETco2), could improve arterial carbon dioxide elimination, oxygen saturation (Spo2), and arterial blood oxygenation...
  55. ncbi Early onset of pulmonary gas exchange disturbance during progressive exercise in healthy active men
    B Aguilaniu
    HYLAB, Clinique du Mail, F 38100 Grenoble, France
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 92:1879-84. 2002
    ..Results thus suggest the existence of a common denominator that contributes to the GED of submaximal exercise and affects the maximal ventilatory response...
  56. ncbi Dead-space reduction and tracheal pressure measurements using a coaxial inner tube in an endotracheal tube
    S Lethvall
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 413 45 Goteborg, Sweden
    Intensive Care Med 28:1042-8. 2002
    ..Precision of tracheal pressure monitoring through the DLT and safety issues, including intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi) formation during DLT ventilation, were also evaluated...
  57. ncbi Pulmonary dead space and survival
    Francois Feihl
    N Engl J Med 347:850-2; author reply 850-2. 2002
  58. doi Changes in dead space can explain part of the reduction in gas exchange efficiency found, not necessarily linked to respiratory sinus arrhythmia
    Alessandro Beda
    Exp Physiol 93:513-4; author reply 515. 2008
  59. ncbi [Adjusting background flow in measuring ventilation of newborn infants and infants using the flow-through technique]
    G Schmalisch
    Abteilung Neonatologie,
    Pneumologie 49:461-5. 1995
    ..Therefore, during tidal breathing the background flow should be at least three but not more than the six times VE to avoid an impairment of measurements...
  60. ncbi Short-term modulation of the exercise ventilatory response in young men
    Helen E Wood
    Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75231, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 104:244-52. 2008
    ..g., with chronic acid-base changes or acute increases in respiratory dead space. When resting ventilation and/or Pa(CO(2)) are altered, maintenance of isocapnia requires active ..
  61. ncbi Effects of age and exercise on physiological dead space during simulated dives at 2.8 ATA
    H J Mummery
    Department of Anesthesiology, Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Appl Physiol 94:507-17. 2003
    ..8 ATA because of wide variability. Older subjects had higher Vd at 1 ATA but similar changes in Vd, Pa(CO(2)), and Pet(CO(2)) at pressure. These results are consistent with an effect of increased gas density...
  62. ncbi Comparison of the effects of heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers on ventilation and gas exchange during non-invasive ventilation
    Samir Jaber
    Unité de Réanimation et de Transplantation Département d Anesthésie Réanimation B, Chu de Montpellier Hopital Saint Eloi, 80 avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex, France
    Intensive Care Med 28:1590-4. 2002
    ..To compare the short-term effects of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) and a heated humidifier (HH) during non-invasive ventilation (NIV)...
  63. ncbi Increase in vasopressin concentration and cardiodepressant activity in the blood dialysates from the sella turcica during acute hypoxia
    A Goraca
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, 90 131 Lodz, Poland
    Endocr Regul 34:127-34. 2000
    ..The aim of present study was to investigate if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin are simultaneously released from the pituitary into the blood dialysate during acute hypoxia...
  64. ncbi Tracheostomy in ventilator dependent trauma patients: a prospective, randomized intention-to-treat study
    Erik S Barquist
    Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, 9380 SW 150th Street, Ste 100, Miami, FL 33176, USA
    J Trauma 60:91-7. 2006
    ..of ventilator dependence as well as having other benefits such as better patient tolerance and lower respiratory dead space. We conducted a randomized, prospective, single institution study comparing the length ventilator ..
  65. ncbi A model for evaluation of gas exchange: mouth to mouth ventilation of infants by emergency medical technicians
    R K Kanter
    Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York, Syracuse 13210
    Resuscitation 20:145-51. 1990
    ..20 +/- 0.007. Assuming normal metabolic rate and respiratory dead space, alveolar gas composition resulting from the simulated resuscitations would be PACO2 = 31 +/- 20 and PAO2 =..
  66. ncbi Short-term modulation of the exercise ventilatory response in goats: effects of 8-OH-DPAT and MPPI
    D R Henderson
    Department of Comparative Biosciences, Division of Science and Math, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 279:R1880-8. 2000
    Increased respiratory dead space increases the exercise ventilatory response, a response known as short-term modulation (STM). We hypothesized that STM results from a spinal, serotonin (5-HT)-dependent mechanism...
  67. ncbi In vivo and in vitro morphometry of the human trachea
    Kirollos Salah Kamel
    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Clin Anat 22:571-9. 2009
    ..The variation in adult tracheal dimensions in vivo is greater than in standard descriptions. These data may be valuable when interpreting chest CT scans and when calculating respiratory dead space.
  68. ncbi Effects of serotonin re-uptake inhibition on ventilatory control in goats
    D R Henderson
    Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Respir Physiol 115:1-10. 1999
    ..at rest, during steady-state treadmill exercise, and during successive rest/exercise trials with increased respiratory dead space (0.4-0.6 L). Fluoxetine was administered (> or = 4 weeks, 1 mg/kg, SQ, SID) and protocols were repeated...
  69. ncbi Long term modulation of the leg exercise ventilatory response is not elicited by hypercapnic arm exercise
    D Paul Sumners
    Sport and Exercise Science Research Centre, School of Applied Science, South Bank University, 103 Borough Road, London SE1 0AA, UK
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 138:107-14. 2003
    ..0+/-4.4), or (b) ten trials of arm cranking exercise paired with external respiratory dead space (1400 ml; V(I)=57.3+/-6.5)...
  70. ncbi Influence of smoking and obesity on alveolar-arterial gas pressure differences and dead space ventilation at rest and peak exercise in healthy men and women
    Sven Glaser
    Department of Internal Medicine B Cardiology, Intensive Care, Pulmonary Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
    Respir Med 107:919-26. 2013
    ..Smoking and nutritional status are also important factors in defining disorders. Using a large healthy population we considered the impact of these factors to develop useful prediction equations...
  71. ncbi Comparison of 2 lung recruitment strategies in children with acute lung injury
    John N Kheir
    Department of Cardiology, Boston Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Respir Care 58:1280-90. 2013
    ..Here we describe a pilot study to compare the acute effects of 2 commonly used lung recruitment maneuvers on lung volume, gas exchange, and hemodynamic profiles in children with acute lung injury...
  72. ncbi Alveolar LCI vs. standard LCI in detecting early CF lung disease
    K Haidopoulou
    Fourth Department of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 180:247-51. 2012
    ..LCI) was not significant (p=0.36). We conclude that LCI is minimally affected by airway deadspace, or relative equipment deadspace, and is an appropriate measure of lung function in infancy...
  73. ncbi Isoflurane inhalation enhances increased physiologic deadspace volume associated with positive pressure ventilation and compromises arterial oxygenation
    Claudia Praetel
    University of Florida College of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Gainesville, FL 32610 0254, USA
    Anesth Analg 99:1107-13, table of contents. 2004
    ..These findings may apply to subjects with compromised pulmonary function (i.e., acute respiratory distress syndrome or severe inhalational burn injury)...
  74. ncbi An algebraic solution to dead space determination according to Fowler's graphical method
    H Heller
    Department of Physiology, University of Bonn, Germany
    Comput Biomed Res 32:161-7. 1999
    ..Their major advantage is facilitating and speeding up computer-aided on-line determinations of VD...
  75. ncbi Exercise ventilation inefficiency and cardiovascular mortality in heart failure: the critical independent prognostic value of the arterial CO2 partial pressure
    Marco Guazzi
    Cardiopulmonary Laboratory, Cardiology Division, University of Milano, San Paolo Hospital, Via A Di Rudini, 8, 20142, Milano, Italy
    Eur Heart J 26:472-80. 2005
    ..Ve/Vco(2) slope determinants are the dead space-tidal volume (Vd/Vt) ratio and the arterial CO(2) partial pressure (Paco(2)). We aimed at defining the respective prognostic role of these two variables...
  76. ncbi Simultaneously recorded single-exhalation profiles of ethanol, water vapour and CO(2) in humans: impact of pharmacokinetic phases on ethanol airway exchange
    L Lindberg
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Children s Hospital, PICU, University Hospital of Lund, SE 221 85 Lund, Sweden
    J Breath Res 6:036001. 2012
    ..recorded alcohol, water vapour and CO(2) against exhaled volume (volumetric expirogram) for respiratory dead space volume (VD), cumulative gas output and phase III slope within one breath to evaluate whether changes in ..
  77. ncbi Layers of exercise hyperpnea: modulation and plasticity
    Gordon S Mitchell
    Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 151:251-66. 2006
    ..g. development, aging, onset of disease) or exogenous (e.g. altitude, wearing a breathing apparatus during physical exertion) physiological conditions...
  78. ncbi Evaluation of variables to describe the shape of volumetric capnography curves during bronchoconstriction in dogs
    Martina Mosing
    Department of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Chester High Road, Neston CH64 7TE, UK
    Res Vet Sci 93:386-92. 2012
    ..We conclude that the shape of the V(C) curve in combination with dead space calculation can be used to verify bronchoconstriction on a breath-to-breath basis...
  79. ncbi Postural and respiratory functions of the pelvic floor muscles
    P W Hodges
    Division of Physiotherapy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Neurourol Urodyn 26:362-71. 2007
    ..Furthermore, as IAP is modulated during respiration this is likely to be accompanied by changes in PFM activity...
  80. ncbi Tracheostomy in the critically ill: the myth of dead space
    M J Joseph
    Department of Surgery, Trauma Critical Care, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Anaesth Intensive Care 41:216-21. 2013
    ..This study shows that there is no significant difference in respiratory mechanics and dead space with a tracheostomy versus endotracheal tube...
  81. ncbi Application of an optical flow method to inspiratory and expiratory lung MDCT to assess regional air trapping: a feasibility study
    Drew A Torigian
    Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 4283, USA
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 188:W276-80. 2007
    ..We describe the application of an optical flow method to inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution volumetric lung MDCT for the assessment of regional air trapping...
  82. ncbi [Respiratory function monitoring in a child on mechanical respiratory ventilation. 2: compliance, resistance, dynamic hyperinflation, pulmonary dead-space, work of breathing]
    J Lopez-Herce Cid
    Seccion de Cuidados Intensivos Pediatricos, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid, Espana
    An Pediatr (Barc) 59:278-85. 2003
    ..1, maximum inspiratory pressure). However, these measures have not yet been standardized in children...
  83. ncbi Deadspace estimation from CO2 versus molar mass measurements in infants
    C Thamrin
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, Children s University Hospital of Berne, Bern, Switzerland
    Pediatr Pulmonol 42:920-7. 2007
    ..We hypothesize that this estimation is correlated with that calculated from the CO2 signal using the Fowler method...
  84. ncbi The role of dead space ventilation in predicting outcome of successful weaning from mechanical ventilation
    A M Mohr
    Department of Surgery, Section of Critical Care, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    J Trauma 51:843-8. 2001
    ..Theoretically, tracheostomy should reduce dead space ventilation and improve pulmonary mechanics, thereby facilitating weaning from mechanical ventilation...
  85. ncbi Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis during polystyrene microsphere-induced pulmonary embolism in the rat
    Alan E Jones
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina 28203, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 284:L1072-81. 2003
    ..Experimental PE increased lung and systemic production of TxB(2). Inhibition at the COX-1/2 enzyme was equally as effective as inhibition of thromboxane synthase at reducing alveolar dead space and improving heart function after PE...
  86. ncbi Sisters of the sinuses: cetacean air sacs
    Joy S Reidenberg
    Center for Anatomy and Functional Morphology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 6574, USA
    Anat Rec (Hoboken) 291:1389-96. 2008
    ..they may subserve unique aquatic functions, such as increasing inspiratory volume, mitigating pressure-induced volume change, air shunting to reduce respiratory dead space, and facilitating underwater sound production and transmission.
  87. ncbi Volumetric capnography as a screening test for pulmonary embolism in the emergency department
    Franck Verschuren
    Department of Emergency and Intensive Care, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Bruxelles, Belgium
    Chest 125:841-50. 2004
    ....
  88. ncbi Excess ventilation during exercise and prognosis in chronic heart failure
    Darryl Y Sue
    Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509 2910, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183:1302-10. 2011
    ....
  89. ncbi Deadspace free ventilatory measurements in newborns during mechanical ventilation
    B Foitzik
    Humboldt-University Berlin, , Berlin, Germany
    Crit Care Med 29:413-9. 2001
    ..The correcting procedure improved the accuracy of the volume measurement remarkably, especially for lower respiratory compliance...
  90. ncbi Research in high flow therapy: mechanisms of action
    Kevin Dysart
    Department of Pediatrics, Jefferson Medical College Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Respir Med 103:1400-5. 2009
    ....
  91. ncbi Effects of lung time constant, gas analyser delay and rise time on measurements of respiratory dead-space
    Yongquan Tang
    Department of Anaesthetics, University of Sydney, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW 2050, Sydney, Australia
    Physiol Meas 26:1103-14. 2005
    ..Shorter tau(m) increase the error sensitivity of both physiological and anatomic dead-spaces to both delay and rise time. P(CO)(2) and flow should be well synchronized, particularly when tau(m) are short, to avoid dead-space errors...
  92. ncbi Comparison of two different methods for physiologic dead space measurements in ventilated dogs in a clinical setting
    Martina Mosing
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Chester High Road, Neston, UK
    Vet Anaesth Analg 37:393-400. 2010
    ....
  93. ncbi States of low pulmonary blood flow can be detected non-invasively at the bedside measuring alveolar dead space
    Gerardo Tusman
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina
    J Clin Monit Comput 26:183-90. 2012
    ..37 ± 0.04 and 0.19 ± 0.06, respectively). At constant ventilation the alveolar component of VD(Bohr)/VT increased in proportion to the deficit in lung perfusion...
  94. ncbi Comparison of volumetric capnography and mixed expired gas methods to calculate physiological dead space in mechanically ventilated ICU patients
    Pratik Sinha
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH, UK
    Intensive Care Med 38:1712-7. 2012
    ..Volumetric capnography (VCAP) offers a relatively simple solution to calculating dead space. Few studies have been conducted to directly compare dead space measured by VCAP and the DB method in critically unwell adults...
  95. ncbi Pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation after cardiac surgery
    R P Smith
    Department of Anaesthesia, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 18:401-6. 2001
    ..recorded on a laptop personal computer, which together with arterial PCO2 permitted measurement of the respiratory dead space. Once measurements were complete the ventilator was switched to the other mode and new measurements taken...
  96. ncbi Ventilation/perfusion scan and dead space in pulmonary embolism: are they useful for the diagnosis?
    C Giuntini
    Cardiac and Thoracic Department, University of Pisa, Italy
    Q J Nucl Med 45:281-6. 2001
    ..Taken together, all these observations provide the pathophysiological explanation of the unacceptedly low level of sensitivity for the diagnostic strategy of APE based on the mismatch of the ventilation/perfusion scan...
  97. ncbi Compliance and dead space fraction indicate an optimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure after recruitment in anesthetized patients
    Stefan Maisch
    Department of Anesthesiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany
    Anesth Analg 106:175-81, table of contents. 2008
    ....
  98. ncbi Jet or intensive care unit ventilator during simulated percutaneous transtracheal ventilation: a lung model study
    Y H Liu
    Anaesthesia and Operation Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China
    Br J Anaesth 110:456-62. 2013
    ..Our goal was to evaluate the tidal volume (V(T)) generated by a conventional ventilator during simulated PTV compared with PTJV in a lung model...
  99. pmc The effect of a peptide-containing synthetic lung surfactant on gas exchange and lung mechanics in a rabbit model of surfactant depletion
    Johann M van Zyl
    Division of Pharmacology, Cape Town, South Africa
    Drug Des Devel Ther 7:139-48. 2013
    ....
  100. ncbi Effects of dead space loading on neuro-muscular and neuro-ventilatory coupling of the respiratory system during exercise in healthy adults: implications for dyspnea and exercise tolerance
    Dennis Jensen
    Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 179:219-26. 2011
    ..Under these circumstances, DSL-induced increases in exertional dyspnea intensity ratings reflected, at least in part, the awareness of increased neural respiratory drive, contractile respiratory muscle effort and ventilatory output...
  101. ncbi Potential effects of corticosteroids on physiological dead-space fraction in acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Joan M Raurich
    Hospital Universitari Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears, Spain
    Respir Care 57:377-83. 2012
    ..We evaluated the changes in the oxygenation and dead-space fraction in patients with persistent ARDS after corticosteroid therapy...

Research Grants17

  1. INTERACTIONS IN VENTILATORY CONTROL DURING EXERCISE
    Gordon Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The specific aims are: 1) to test the hypothesis that short term modulation (STM) with increased respiratory dead space requires changes in spinal respiratory neuron excitability via descending serotonergic mechanisms...
  2. Expired CO2/O2 Analysis to Diagnose Pulmonary Embolism
    JEFFREY KLINE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This project will fund a clinical study designed to test the diagnostic accuracy of a hand- held breath device that detects the altered gas exchange physiology caused by PE in post-surgical and other patients at high risk for PE. ..
  3. Surrogate markers for Severe Pulmonary Embolism
    JEFFREY KLINE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This study will determine if criteria that are widely and immediately available in most hospitals can be used to risk-stratify severity of PE and to clarify the role of nonmalignant thrombophilias on the prognosis of PE. ..
  4. Pretest Probability Assessment for Pulmonary Embolism
    JEFFREY KLINE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In phase III, we will test the validity of the PE PREtest Consult TM and determine if the use of the PE PREtest ConsultTM will decrease unnecessary testing for PE. ..
  5. DEVELOPMENTAL PLASTICITY IN VENTILATORY CONTROL
    Gordon Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Further understanding of mechanism(s) that underlie developmental plasticity with its associated functional impairments may provide the rationale for therapeutic intervention, thereby enhancing functional recovery. ..
  6. PLASTICITY IN RESPIRATORY MOTOR CONTROL
    Gordon Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A multidisciplinary approach will be used to test key elements of the model. ..
  7. Neuromorphic Electronic Model of Synaptic Plasticity
    Chi Sang Poon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. Nonlinear Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
    Chi Sang Poon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These clinical and modeling studies in turn will showcase the proposed analytical techniques thereby paving the way for their application to other complex biomedical modeling and analysis problems in general. ..
  9. Pontomedullary Integration of Respiratory Afferents
    Chi Sang Poon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  10. Integrative Models of Neural Adaptive Control
    Chi Sang Poon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS IN RESPIRATORY CONTROL
    Chi Sang Poon; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Five specific aims are proposed to investigate these mechanisms. The results obtained will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of afferent signal integration in the NTS and the corresponding effects on respiratory control. ..
  12. Xth Oxford Conference on Modeling and Control of Breathing
    Chi Sang Poon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. Physiological Consequences of Hypoxia and Lung Disease
    Peter Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. COPD Clinical Research Network & Clinical Research Skills Core Development
    Gerard Criner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. WORKING MEMORY IN OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA-AN fMRI STUDY
    Robert Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. ECG-derived estimators of sleep physiology
    Robert Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..3) To correlate the biomarker with excessive daytime sleepiness, subjective sleep quality and cardiovascular morbidity (SHHS), and reduced neurocognitive function (NAPS). ..