Genomes and Genes
Summary: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Publications340 found, 100 shown here
- Beyond heart rate variability: vagal regulation of allostatic systemsJulian F Thayer
Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1088:361-72. 2006..Decreased vagal function and heart rate variability (HRV) were shown to be associated with increased fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, ..
- The relationship of autonomic imbalance, heart rate variability and cardiovascular disease risk factorsJulian F Thayer
The Ohio State University, Department of Psychology, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Int J Cardiol 141:122-31. 2010..b>Heart rate variability (HRV) may be used to assess autonomic imbalances, diseases and mortality...
- Heart rate variability: origins, methods, and interpretive caveatsG G Berntson
Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
Psychophysiology 34:623-48. 1997Components of heart rate variability have attracted considerable attention in psychology and medicine and have become important dependent measures in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine...
- Impact of depression and antidepressant treatment on heart rate variability: a review and meta-analysisAndrew H Kemp
School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Biol Psychiatry 67:1067-74. 2010..in the likelihood of cardiac events; however, studies investigating the relationship between depression and heart rate variability (HRV) have generally focused on patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
- Neural correlates of heart rate variability during emotionRichard D Lane
Department of Psychiatry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Neuroimage 44:213-22. 2009The vagal (high frequency [HF]) component of heart rate variability (HRV) predicts survival in post-myocardial infarction patients and is considered to reflect vagal antagonism of sympathetic influences...
- The polyvagal perspectiveStephen W Porges
University of Illinois at Chicago, Brain Body Center, Department of Psychiatry, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Biol Psychol 74:116-43. 2007....
- Low-frequency power of heart rate variability is not a measure of cardiac sympathetic tone but may be a measure of modulation of cardiac autonomic outflows by baroreflexesDavid S Goldstein
Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1620, USA
Exp Physiol 96:1255-61. 2011Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability has often been used to assess cardiac autonomic function; however, the relationship of low-frequency (LF) power of heart rate variability to cardiac sympathetic tone has been unclear...
- Cardiac interbeat interval dynamics from childhood to senescence : comparison of conventional and new measures based on fractals and chaos theoryS M Pikkujämsä
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland
Circulation 100:393-9. 1999..interval variability based on fractal scaling and nonlinear dynamics ("chaos theory") may give new insights into heart rate dynamics...
- Heart rate variability: a reviewU Rajendra Acharya
Department of ECE, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 535 Clementi Road, Singapore, Singapore 599 489
Med Biol Eng Comput 44:1031-51. 2006b>Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the heart...
- A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillationD G Wyse
AFFIRM Clinical Trial Center, Axio Research, 2601 4th Ave, Ste 200, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
N Engl J Med 347:1825-33. 2002..In both approaches, the use of anticoagulant drugs is recommended...
- Heart rate variability, prefrontal neural function, and cognitive performance: the neurovisceral integration perspective on self-regulation, adaptation, and healthJulian F Thayer
Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Ann Behav Med 37:141-53. 2009In the present paper, we describe a model of neurovisceral integration in which a set of neural structures involved in cognitive, affective, and autonomic regulation are related to heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance.
- Depression, comorbid anxiety disorders, and heart rate variability in physically healthy, unmedicated patients: implications for cardiovascular riskAndrew H Kemp
School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
PLoS ONE 7:e30777. 2012There is evidence that heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced in major depressive disorder (MDD), although there is debate about whether this effect is caused by medication or the disorder per se...
- Short-term heart rate variability strongly predicts sudden cardiac death in chronic heart failure patientsMaria Teresa La Rovere
Divisione di Cardiologia e Bioingegneria, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS Istituto Scientifico di Montescano, Pavia, Italy
Circulation 107:565-70. 2003The predictive value of heart rate variability (HRV) in chronic heart failure (CHF) has never been tested in a comprehensive multivariate model using short-term laboratory recordings designed to avoid the confounding effects of ..
- Heart rate variability and its relation to prefrontal cognitive function: the effects of training and detrainingAnita Lill Hansen
University of Bergen, Department of Psychosocial Science, Christiesgate 12, 5015 Bergen, Norway
Eur J Appl Physiol 93:263-72. 2004The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical fitness, heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive function in 37 male sailors from the Royal Norwegian Navy...
- Transcontinental and translational high-tech acupuncture research using computer-based heart rate and "Fire of Life" heart rate variability analysisGerhard Litscher
Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, Austria
J Acupunct Meridian Stud 3:156-64. 2010..Today, new computer-based methods (e.g., "Fire of Life" analysis) allow quantification of heart rate and heart rate variability during acupuncture...
- Fractal correlation properties of R-R interval dynamics and mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular function after an acute myocardial infarctionH V Huikuri
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland
Circulation 101:47-53. 2000..The purpose of this study was to compare the prognostic power of new fractal and traditional measures of R-R interval variability as predictors of death after acute myocardial infarction...
- Physiological background of the loss of fractal heart rate dynamicsMikko P Tulppo
Merikoski Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Kasarmintie 13, PO Box 404, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
Circulation 112:314-9. 2005Altered fractal heart rate (HR) dynamics occur during various disease states, but the physiological background of abnormal fractal HR behavior is not well known...
- A meta-analysis of heart rate variability and neuroimaging studies: implications for heart rate variability as a marker of stress and healthJulian F Thayer
Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 36:747-56. 2012..Specifically, we performed a meta-analysis of recent neuroimaging studies on the relationship between heart rate variability and regional cerebral blood flow...
- Cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke: nearly as large as smokingJoaquin Barnoya
Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, Cardiovascular Research Institute, and Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Francisco 94143 1390, USA
Circulation 111:2684-98. 2005..This effect is larger than one would expect on the basis of the risks associated with active smoking and the relative doses of tobacco smoke delivered to smokers and nonsmokers...
- The role of vagal function in the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortalityJulian F Thayer
Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Biol Psychol 74:224-42. 2007..Using a broad range of indicators of vagal function including resting heart rate, heart rate recovery, heart rate variability, and baroreflex sensitivity we show that decreased vagal function ..
- Accuracy and validity of a combined heart rate and motion sensor for the measurement of free-living physical activity energy expenditure in adults in CameroonFelix K Assah
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
Int J Epidemiol 40:112-20. 2011..Combined heart rate (HR) and movement monitoring make it possible to objectively measure physical activity in free-living ..
- Acute effect of a single high-fat meal on forearm blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate in healthy male Asians and Caucasians: a pilot studyChumjit Bui
Department of Health Promotion and Education, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41:490-500. 2010..These findings suggest that a single HF meal may contribute to the detrimental effects on vascular health in Asian males and raises speculation regarding the cumulative impact of a chronic HF diet in this population...
- Impaired exercise performance in the heat is associated with an anticipatory reduction in skeletal muscle recruitmentRoss Tucker
MRC UCT Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, PO Box 115, 7725, Newlands, South Africa
Pflugers Arch 448:422-30. 2004..during self-paced exercise in the heat occurs before there is any abnormal increase in rectal temperature, heart rate or perception of effort...
- Vagal tone dominates autonomic control of mouse heart rate at thermoneutralityS J Swoap
Dept of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 4300, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H1581-8. 2008It is generally accepted that cardiac sympathetic tone dominates the control of heart rate (HR) in mice...
- Effects of cardiac autonomic dysfunction on mortality risk in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trialRodica Pop-Busui
Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Diabetes Care 33:1578-84. 2010....
- Randomized trial of rate-control versus rhythm-control in persistent atrial fibrillation: the Strategies of Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (STAF) studyJorg Carlsson
Department of Internal Medicine II, Klinikum Lippe Detmold, Röntgenstrasse 18, D 32760 Detmold, Germany
J Am Coll Cardiol 41:1690-6. 2003....
- Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory response patterns to fear- and sadness-inducing filmsSylvia D Kreibig
Department of Psychology, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Psychophysiology 44:787-806. 2007Responses to fear- and sadness-inducing films were assessed using a broad range of cardiovascular (heart rate, T-wave amplitude, low- and high-frequency heart rate variability, stroke volume, preejection period, left-ventricular ejection ..
- Plasma leptin concentrations and cardiac autonomic nervous system in healthy subjects with different body weightsG Paolisso
Department of Geriatric Medicine and Metabolic Diseases II, University of Naples, Italy
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:1810-4. 2000Previous studies have shown that leptin stimulates sympathetic nervous system; heart rate variability (HRV) is a widely used technique for assessing the sympathovagal balance at the cardiac level...
- An autonomic flexibility-neurovisceral integration model of anxiety and cardiac vagal toneBruce H Friedman
Department of Psychology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 0436, USA
Biol Psychol 74:185-99. 2007Research on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac vagal tone, and their relationship to anxiety is reviewed in the context of the autonomic flexibility and neurovisceral integration models of adaptive functioning...
- Nocturnal hypertension in mice consuming a high fructose dietVera Farah
Boonshoft School of Medicine of Wright State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dayton, OH 45401, USA
Auton Neurosci 130:41-50. 2006To investigate the effect of fructose consumption on the light/dark pattern of blood pressure, heart rate and autonomic neural function in mice.
- Increased heart rate and reduced heart-rate variability are associated with subclinical inflammation in middle-aged and elderly subjects with no apparent heart diseaseAhmad Sajadieh
Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital of Bispebjerg, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, Copenhagen NV 2400, Denmark
Eur Heart J 25:363-70. 2004Elevation of inflammation markers, high heart rate, and reduced heart-rate variability are all strong markers of mortality in a broad spectrum of patients. The association between these markers has not been clarified thoroughly...
- Heart rate as a prognostic risk factor in patients with coronary artery disease and left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (BEAUTIFUL): a subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trialKim Fox
Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK
Lancet 372:817-21. 2008The BEAUTIFUL study assessed the morbidity and mortality benefits of the heart rate-lowering agent ivabradine...
- Effect of fish oil on heart rate in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsDariush Mozaffarian
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Circulation 112:1945-52. 2005The effect of fish oil on heart rate (HR), a major risk factor for sudden death, is not well established. We calculated this effect in a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in humans.
- Optimization and validation of a fully-integrated pulse sequence for modified look-locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping of the heartDaniel R Messroghli
Cardiac MRI Unit, Franz Volhard Klinik, Charite Campus Buch, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, HELIOS Klinikum Berlin, Germany
J Magn Reson Imaging 26:1081-6. 2007..To optimize and validate a fully-integrated version of modified Look-Locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) for clinical single-breathhold cardiac T1 mapping...
- Heart-rate turbulence after ventricular premature beats as a predictor of mortality after acute myocardial infarctionG Schmidt
Erste Medizinische Klinik, Technischen Universitat Munchen, Germany
Lancet 353:1390-6. 1999..Thus, establishment of a new powerful method for risk prediction independent of the available stratifiers is of considerable practical value...
- Toward understanding respiratory sinus arrhythmia: relations to cardiac vagal tone, evolution and biobehavioral functionsPaul Grossman
Department of Psychosomatic and Internal Medicine, Psychophysiology Research Laboratory, University of Basel Hospital, Hebelstrasse 2, CH 4031 Basel, Switzerland
Biol Psychol 74:263-85. 2007..Finally, a recent hypothesis is expanded upon, in which RSA plays a primary role in regulation of energy exchange by means of synchronizing respiratory and cardiovascular processes during metabolic and behavioral change...
- Insights into the mechanisms and mediators of the effects of air pollution exposure on blood pressure and vascular function in healthy humansRobert D Brook
University of Michigan, 24 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA
Hypertension 54:659-67. 2009..We aimed to determine the mechanism and air pollutant responsible. The effects of pollution on heart rate variability, blood pressure, biomarkers, and brachial flow-mediated dilatation were determined in 2 randomized, ..
- Ivabradine and outcomes in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): a randomised placebo-controlled studyKarl Swedberg
Department of Emergency and Cardiovascular Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Goteborg, Sweden
Lancet 376:875-85. 2010Chronic heart failure is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Raised resting heart rate is a risk factor for adverse outcomes...
- Predicting survival in heart failure case and control subjects by use of fully automated methods for deriving nonlinear and conventional indices of heart rate dynamicsK K Ho
Cardiovascular Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass 02215 5491, USA
Circulation 96:842-8. 1997Despite much recent interest in quantification of heart rate variability (HRV), the prognostic value of conventional measures of HRV and of newer indices based on nonlinear dynamics is not universally accepted.
- [Geometric index of heart rate variability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]T Dias de Carvalho
Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil
Rev Port Pneumol 17:260-5. 2011It was already evidenced decreased heart rate variability (HRV) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients at rest.
- Is heart rate variability related to memory performance in middle-aged men?Amit Jasvant Shah
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
Psychosom Med 73:475-82. 2011b>Heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic function, has been associated with cognitive function, but studies are conflicting. Previous studies have also not controlled for familial and genetic influences.
- High sensitivity of human melatonin, alertness, thermoregulation, and heart rate to short wavelength lightChristian Cajochen
Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric University Clinic, Wilhelm Kleinstr 27, CH 4025 Basel, Switzerland
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:1311-6. 2005..Here, we report that the alerting response of light as well as its effects on thermoregulation and heart rate are also wavelength dependent...
- Health benefits of a pedometer-based physical activity intervention in sedentary workersCatherine B Chan
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3
Prev Med 39:1215-22. 2004..Here, we examined the effects of a pedometer-based physical activity intervention (Prince Edward Island-First Step Program, PEI-FSP) on activity and specific health indices in 106 sedentary workers...
- Heart-rate profile during exercise as a predictor of sudden deathXavier Jouven
Service de cardiologie, Faculté René Descartes, Universite Paris 5, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
N Engl J Med 352:1951-8. 2005Changes in heart rate during exercise and recovery from exercise are mediated by the balance between sympathetic and vagal activity...
- Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects: differing effects of aging and gender on heart rate variabilityHendrik Bonnemeier
Medizinische Kinik II, Medizinische Universitat zu Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 14:791-9. 2003Circadian Profile of Heart Rate Variability.
- Dronedarone for maintenance of sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation or flutterBramah N Singh
Cardiology Division, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System and the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
N Engl J Med 357:987-99. 2007..Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically related to amiodarone but developed to reduce the risk of side effects...
- Vagal nerve stimulation markedly improves long-term survival after chronic heart failure in ratsMeihua Li
Department of Cardiovascular Dynamics, Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Suita, Japan
Circulation 109:120-4. 2004Diminished cardiac vagal activity and higher heart rate predict a high mortality rate of chronic heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction...
- An advanced detrending method with application to HRV analysisMika P Tarvainen
University of Kuopio, Department of Applied Physics, Finland
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 49:172-5. 2002An advanced, simple to use, detrending method to be used before heart rate variability analysis (HRV) is presented...
- Cardiovascular and autonomic phenotype of db/db diabetic miceDanielle Senador
Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435, USA
Exp Physiol 94:648-58. 2009..Parameters measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and their variabilities...
- Claude Bernard and the heart-brain connection: further elaboration of a model of neurovisceral integrationJulian F Thayer
The Ohio State University, Department of Psychology, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:81-8. 2009..pathways between the amygdala and the sympathetic and parasympathetic medullary output neurons that modulate heart rate and thus heart rate variability...
- Bioengineering assessment of acupuncture, part 7: heart rate variabilityGerhard Litscher
Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
Crit Rev Biomed Eng 35:183-95. 2007In the seventh part of this review article, preliminary research on the topic of acupuncture and heart rate variability is described. Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the beat-to-beat alterations in heart rate...
- Effect of aging on gender differences in neural control of heart rateT B Kuo
Institute of Neuroscience, Tzu Chi College of Medicine and Humanities, Hualien 970, Taiwan, Republic of China
Am J Physiol 277:H2233-9. 1999To clarify the influence of gender on sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart rate in middle-aged subjects and on the subsequent aging process, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in normal populations of women (n = 598) and ..
- Dietary fish oil reduces pacemaker current and heart rate in rabbitArie O Verkerk
Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Heart Rhythm 6:1485-92. 2009Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil (FO) reduce heart rate in humans. The mechanism underlying this cardioprotective effect of FO is unknown.
- Software for advanced HRV analysisJuha Pekka Niskanen
Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, P O Box 1627, FIN 70211 Kuopio, Finland
Comput Methods Programs Biomed 76:73-81. 2004A computer program for advanced heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is presented. The program calculates all the commonly used time- and frequency-domain measures of HRV as well as the nonlinear Poincaré plot...
- Effects of different doses of physical activity on cardiorespiratory fitness among sedentary, overweight or obese postmenopausal women with elevated blood pressure: a randomized controlled trialTimothy S Church
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge 70808 4124, USA
JAMA 297:2081-91. 2007..However, a poor understanding of the physical activity-fitness dose response relation remains...
- Fractal dynamics in physiology: alterations with disease and agingAry L Goldberger
Cardiovascular Division and Margret and H A Rey Laboratory for Nonlinear Dynamics in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:2466-72. 2002..Elucidating the fractal and nonlinear mechanisms involved in physiologic control and complex signaling networks is emerging as a major challenge in the postgenomic era...
- Heart rate variability: measurement and clinical utilityRobert E Kleiger
Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 10:88-101. 2005..g., exercise or drugs. RR interval variability is useful for assessing risk of cardiovascular death or arrhythmic events, especially when combined with other tests, e.g., left ventricular ejection fraction or ventricular arrhythmias...
- Relationship between spectral components of cardiovascular variabilities and direct measures of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humansM Pagani
Centro Ricerche Cardiovascolari, CNR, Medicina Interna II, Ospedale L Sacco, Universita di Milano, Italy
Circulation 95:1441-8. 1997..Spectral analysis of RR interval and systolic arterial pressure variabilities may provide indirect markers of the balance between sympathetic and vagal cardiovascular control...
- Cardiovascular effects of human insular cortex stimulationS M Oppenheimer
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
Neurology 42:1727-32. 1992..These findings may be of relevance in predicting the autonomic effects of stroke in humans and in the explanation of sudden unexpected epileptic death...
- Heart rate variability and myocardial infarction: systematic literature review and metanalysisE Buccelletti
Department of Emergency Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Hearth, Rome, Italy
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 13:299-307. 2009b>Heart rate, measured as beat-to-beat intervals, is not constant and varies in time. This property is known as heart rate variability (HRV) and it has been investigated in several diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI)...
- Insights from the study of heart rate variabilityP K Stein
Division of Cardiology, Barnes Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Annu Rev Med 50:249-61. 1999Indices of heart rate variability (HRV) provide a window onto autonomic modulation of the heart...
- Heart rate as a risk factor in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): the association between heart rate and outcomes in a randomised placebo-controlled trialMichael Bohm
Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fur Innere Medizin III, Homburg Saar, Germany
Lancet 376:886-94. 2010Raised resting heart rate is a marker of cardiovascular risk. We postulated that heart rate is also a risk factor for cardiovascular events in heart failure...
- RGS6/Gβ5 complex accelerates IKACh gating kinetics in atrial myocytes and modulates parasympathetic regulation of heart rateEkaterina Posokhova
Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Circ Res 107:1350-4. 2010The parasympathetic reduction in heart rate involves the sequential activation of m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptors (m(2)Rs), pertussis toxin-sensitive (Gi/o) heterotrimeric G proteins, and the atrial potassium channel I(KACh)...
- Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisitedH Tanaka
Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309 0354, USA
J Am Coll Cardiol 37:153-6. 2001We sought to determine a generalized equation for predicting maximal heart rate (HRmax) in healthy adults.
- Comparison of three mobile devices for measuring R-R intervals and heart rate variability: Polar S810i, Suunto t6 and an ambulatory ECG systemMatthias Weippert
Institute for Preventive Medicine, University of Rostock, St Georg Str 108, 18055 Rostock, Germany
Eur J Appl Physiol 109:779-86. 2010..available breast belt measuring devices; Polar S810i and Suunto t6, in terms of R-R interval measures and heart rate variability (HRV) indices. The second aim was to compare different HRV spectral analysis methods...
- Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on hemodynamics in humansS Grimsgaard
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway
Am J Clin Nutr 68:52-9. 1998..parallel-design intervention study to assess possible separate effects of EPA and DHA on blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac mechanics...
- Implementation and interpretation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia measures in psychosomatic medicine: practice against better evidence?Thomas Ritz
Department of Psychology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75205, USA
Psychosom Med 68:617-27. 2006Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) or high-frequency heart rate variability has been widely used as a noninvasive measure of cardiac vagal tone. However, their dependency on both respiration rate and tidal volume is largely ignored...
- Heart rate variability predicts ESRD and CKD-related hospitalizationDaniel J Brotman
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
J Am Soc Nephrol 21:1560-70. 2010..We measured resting heart rate and heart rate variability in 13,241 adults (45- to 64-years old) followed for a median of 16 years in the ..
- Traffic-related air pollution and acute changes in heart rate variability and respiratory function in urban cyclistsScott Weichenthal
Air Health Sciences Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Environ Health Perspect 119:1373-8. 2011..Few studies have examined the acute health effects of air pollution exposures experienced while cycling in traffic...
- Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on resting heart rate, heart rate recovery after exercise, and heart rate variability in men with healed myocardial infarctions and depressed ejection fractionsJames H O'Keefe
Mid America Heart Institute, Saint Luke s Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
Am J Cardiol 97:1127-30. 2006..At the end of each period, heart rate (HR), HR variability, and rate of HR recovery after exercise were determined, as were effects on arterial ..
- Heart rate variability biofeedback as a behavioral neurocardiac intervention to enhance vagal heart rate controlRobert P Nolan
Behavioural Cardiology Research Unit, University Health Network and Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Am Heart J 149:1137. 2005..heart disease (CHD) who experience depressed mood or psychological stress exhibit decreased vagal control of heart rate (HR), as assessed by spectral analysis of HR variability (HRV)...
- Exercise training associated with diet improves heart rate recovery and cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in obese childrenD M Prado
Medical School, Department of Endocrinology, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Int J Sports Med 31:860-5. 2010..The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that in obese children: 1) hypocaloric diet (D) improves both heart rate recovery at 1 min (Δ HRR1) cfter an exercise test, and cardiac autonomic nervous system activity (CANSA) in ..
- Fractal correlation property of heart rate variability in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseTatiana D Carvalho
Departamento de Fisioterapia da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Presidente Prudente, Sao Paulo, Brasil
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 6:23-8. 2011It was reported that autonomic nervous system function is altered in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated short- and long-term fractal exponents of heart rate variability (HRV) in COPD subjects.
- Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on the heart rate and the heart rate variability responses to myocardial ischemia or submaximal exerciseGeorge E Billman
Dept of Physiology and Cell Biology, Ohio State Univ, 304 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 1218, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 300:H2288-99. 2011The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) has been reported to decrease resting heart rate (HR) and increase heart rate variability (HRV)...
- Effects of VDT tasks with a bright display at night on melatonin, core temperature, heart rate, and sleepinessShigekazu Higuchi
Department of Public Health, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita 010 8543, Japan
J Appl Physiol (1985) 94:1773-6. 2003..tasks with a bright display (BD) at night on nocturnal salivary melatonin concentration, rectal temperature, heart rate, and sleepiness were examined...
- Effects of propranolol on recovery of heart rate variability following acute myocardial infarction and relation to outcome in the Beta-Blocker Heart Attack TrialRachel Lampert
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
Am J Cardiol 91:137-42. 2003This study evaluated the effects of propranolol on recovery of heart rate variability (HRV) after acute myocardial infarction and its relation to outcome in the Beta-blocker Heart Attack Trial (BHAT)...
- Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy cost of ascending and descending the stairsKong Chuan Teh
Sports Medicine and Research Center, Singapore Sports Council, National Stadium, 15 Stadium Road, Kallang, Singapore 397718
Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:695-9. 2002This study describes the heart rate and oxygen uptake responses during, and the intensity and caloric cost of, ascending and descending a public-access staircase.
- Long term vagal stimulation in patients with advanced heart failure: first experience in manPeter J Schwartz
Department of Cardiology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
Eur J Heart Fail 10:884-91. 2008..In man, VS is used in refractory epilepsy but has never been used in cardiovascular diseases. Increased sympathetic and reduced vagal activity predict increased mortality in HF...
- Heart rate variability, overnight urinary norepinephrine and C-reactive protein: evidence for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in healthy human adultsJ F Thayer
Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
J Intern Med 265:439-47. 2009..Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effects of the ANS...
- Reduced serotonergic functioning changes heart rate in ADHDFlorian Daniel Zepf
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main, Deutschordenstr, Frankfurt, Germany
J Neural Transm 116:105-8. 2009Reduced mean heart rate (HR) was shown to be a biophysiological marker for aggression, which in turn was proven to be related to changed serotonergic neurotransmission...
- Particulate air pollution, metabolic syndrome, and heart rate variability: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)Sung Kyun Park
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
Environ Health Perspect 118:1406-11. 2010..5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the associations of PM2.5 with heart rate variability, a marker of autonomic function, and whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) modified these associations.
- Autonomic dysregulation in essential hypertension: insight from heart rate and arterial pressure variabilityM Pagani
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Milano, Italy
Auton Neurosci 90:76-82. 2001..In prior studies, we reported that parameters obtained by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) might furnish useful information on autonomic normal and abnormal nervous system regulation...
- American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation/Heart Rhythm Society Scientific Statement on Noninvasive Risk Stratification Techniques for Identifying Patients at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death. A scientific statement from the AmericaJeffrey J Goldberger
J Am Coll Cardiol 52:1179-99. 2008
- Adiponectin concentrations in sera from patients with type 2 diabetes are negatively associated with sympathovagal balance as evaluated by power spectral analysis of heart rate variationSadao Wakabayashi
Department of Internal Medicine, Koshigaya Hospital, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, 2 1 50 Minami Koshigaya, Koshigaya, Saitama 343 8555, Japan
Diabetes Care 27:2392-7. 2004..whether cardiac autonomic activity, particularly sympathovagal balance as estimated by power spectral analysis (PSA) of heart rate variation (HRV), is associated with serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes.
- Effects of indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure to particulate air pollution on cardiovascular physiology and systemic mediators in seniorsLing Liu
Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9
J Occup Environ Med 51:1088-98. 2009..To investigate the associations between exposure to particulate air pollution and changes in cardiovascular function and plasma mediators in seniors...
- Heart rate dependency of pulse pressure amplification and arterial stiffnessIan B Wilkinson
Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, United Kingdom
Am J Hypertens 15:24-30. 2002..The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of acute changes in heart rate on arterial stiffness and on peripheral and central pulse pressure in healthy subjects.
- Validity of the polar S810 heart rate monitor to measure R-R intervals at restFrançois Xavier Gamelin
Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Lille, Ronchin, France
Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:887-93. 2006This study was conducted to compare R-R intervals and the subsequent analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) obtained from the Polar S810 heart rate monitor (HRM) (Polar Electro Oy) with an electrocardiogram (ECG) (Physiotrace, Estaris, ..
- Reduced heart rate multiscale entropy predicts death in critical illness: a study of physiologic complexity in 285 trauma patientsPatrick R Norris
Division of Trauma, Burn, and Surgical Critical Care, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
J Crit Care 23:399-405. 2008We have shown previously that reduced integer heart rate variability (HRVi) predicts death in trauma patients...
- Deceleration capacity of heart rate as a predictor of mortality after myocardial infarction: cohort studyAxel Bauer
Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Germany
Lancet 367:1674-81. 2006..variability, we used a signal-processing algorithm to separately characterise deceleration and acceleration of heart rate. We postulated that diminished deceleration-related modulation of heart rate is an important prognostic marker...
- Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testingJonathan Myers
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center and the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, Calif CA 94304, USA
N Engl J Med 346:793-801. 2002..There is also uncertainty regarding the predictive power of exercise capacity relative to other clinical and exercise-test variables...
- Heart rate variability explored in the frequency domain: a tool to investigate the link between heart and behaviorNicola Montano
Department of Clinical Science, Luigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:71-80. 2009..Spectral analysis of cardiovascular signal variability, and in particular of RR period (heart rate variability, HRV), is a widely used procedure to investigate autonomic cardiovascular control and/or target ..
- Longitudinal evidence for unfavorable effects of antidepressants on heart rate variabilityCarmilla M M Licht
Department of Psychiatry, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Biol Psychiatry 68:861-8. 2010..It was previously shown that antidepressants are associated with diminished vagal control over the heart. Longitudinal studies are needed to test the causality of this association further...
- Diesel exhaust inhalation does not affect heart rhythm or heart rate variabilityNicholas L Mills
Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Heart 97:544-50. 2011..This study was undertaken to determine the effect of diesel exhaust inhalation on heart rhythm and heart rate variability in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease.
- Genome-wide association analysis identifies multiple loci related to resting heart rateMark Eijgelsheim
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Hum Mol Genet 19:3885-94. 2010Higher resting heart rate is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Though heritable factors play a substantial role in population variation, little is known about specific genetic determinants...
- Prediction of mortality using measures of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in the diabetic and nondiabetic population: the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Cohort StudyDan Ziegler
Institute for Clinical Diabetes Research, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Institute at the Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
Diabetes Care 31:556-61. 2008To evaluate whether reduced heart rate variability (HRV), prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval, or increased QT dispersion (QTD) are predictors of mortality in the general diabetic and nondiabetic population.
- Basic notions of heart rate variability and its clinical applicabilityLuiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei
Faculty of Health and Technology, FCT UNESP, Presidente Prudente, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 24:205-17. 2009..Among the techniques used in its evaluation, the heart rate variability (HRV) has arising as a simple and non-invasive measure of the autonomic impulses, representing one ..
- Clinical impact of evaluation of cardiovascular control by novel methods of heart rate dynamicsHeikki V Huikuri
Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Centre of Excellence in Research, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 367:1223-38. 2009b>Heart rate variability (HRV) has been conventionally analysed with time- and frequency-domain methods, which measure the overall magnitude of RR interval fluctuations around its mean value or the magnitude of fluctuations in some ..
- Autonomic effects of controlled fine particulate exposure in young healthy adults: effect modification by ozoneAsghar A Fakhri
Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Environ Health Perspect 117:1287-92. 2009..studies have assessed the impact of ambient fine particulate matter on cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV), but whether these effects are modified by concomitant ozone exposure remains unknown.
- Point: cardiovascular variability is/is not an index of autonomic control of circulationGianfranco Parati
Department of Clinical Medicine Prevention and Applied Biotechnology University of Milano Bicocca Milan, Italy
J Appl Physiol 101:676-8; discussion 681-2. 2006
- Increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity rather than changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is associated with metabolic abnormalitiesCarmilla M M Licht
Department of Psychiatry EMGO Institute, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, AJ Ernststraat 887, 1081 HL Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:2458-66. 2010..Stress is suggested to lead to metabolic dysregulations as clustered in the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not yet well understood...
- Nitric oxide can increase heart rate by stimulating the hyperpolarization-activated inward current, I(f)P Musialek
University Laboratory of Physiology, Oxford, UK
Circ Res 81:60-8. 1997..This may contribute to the sinus tachycardia in pathological conditions associated with an increase in myocardial production of NO...
- FETAL REFLEX RESPONSES TO CEREBRAL HYPOPERFUSIONCharles Wood; Fiscal Year: 1999..We have demonstrated that the reflex vasomotor and heart rate responses and the reflex hormonal responses are mediated by both baroreceptor- and chemoreceptor- reflexes...
- The baroreflex in pregnancy: effects of adrenal and placental steroidsMaureen Keller Wood; Fiscal Year: 2010..In nonpregnant ewes cortisol increases blood pressure and heart rate, and decreases baroreflex sensitvity;adrenalectomy and total withdrawal from adrenal steroids causes decreased ..
- Red Blood Cell Fatty Acid Biomarkers and Cardiovascular Disease RiskWilliam S Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010..A decrease in heart rate, an increase in heart rate variability, and improved endothelial function have all been associated with higher ..
- Sleep and Brain Structure in Heart FailureMARY ANN WOO; Fiscal Year: 2010..and changes in tissue properties and function, occurs in areas which regulate mood, memory, blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing. All of these symptoms have been linked to increased morbidity and mortality in HF...
- EMA Assessment of Biobehavioral Processes in Human PregnancyPathik D Wadhwa; Fiscal Year: 2010..Continuous ambulatory measures of maternal heart rate, respiration and physical activity, as well as seven saliva samples over the course of each day, will be ..
- Factors that Initiate Arrhythamias in Long QT SyndromeGuy Salama; Fiscal Year: 2006..Sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation of heart rate, conduction of the specialized conduction system and ventricular myocardium, AP upstroke velocity, APDs, DOR, ..
- The baroreflex in pregnancy: effects of adrenal and placental steroidsMaureen Keller Wood; Fiscal Year: 2009..In nonpregnant ewes cortisol increases blood pressure and heart rate, and decreases baroreflex sensitvity; adrenalectomy and total withdrawal from adrenal steroids causes decreased ..
- Autonomic consequences of brief seizuresMark Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2004..A broader spectrum of autonomic signs, including changes in heart rate and rhythm (most often bradycardia), blood pressure (most often pressure increases), pupillary size, vasomotor ..
- Factors that Initiate Arrhythmias in lung QT SyndromeGuy Salama; Fiscal Year: 2004..Sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation of heart rate, conduction of the specialized conduction system and ventricular myocardium, AP upstroke velocity, APDs, DOR, ..
- Lead, Cadmium,Arsenic, and cardiovascular risk in childrenEliseo Guallar; Fiscal Year: 2010..factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) in children;and 3) Exposures, cadmium, or arsenic are inversely associated with heart rate variability in children...
- Lead, Cadmium,Arsenic, and cardiovascular risk in childrenEliseo Guallar; Fiscal Year: 2009..factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) in children; and 3) Exposures, cadmium, or arsenic are inversely associated with heart rate variability in children...
- Lead, Cadmium,Arsenic, and cardiovascular risk in childrenEliseo Guallar; Fiscal Year: 2011..factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) in children;and 3) Exposures, cadmium, or arsenic are inversely associated with heart rate variability in children...
- CENTRAL BAROREFLEX MECHANISMS OF ANESTHETIC ACTIONMICHAEL ANDRESEN; Fiscal Year: 2000..general anesthetics cause cardiovascular dysfunction in part by compromising brainstem baroreflex control of heart rate via actions in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and nucleus ambiguus (NA)...
- Integrative Cardiovascular Control During Exercise in HypertensionDONAL S O apos LEARY; Fiscal Year: 2010..with established hypertension abnormally large increases in sympathetic nerve activity, arterial pressure and heart rate often occur in response to exercise which precludes advisement of any strenuous physical activity due to the ..
- Sleep and Brain Structure in Heart FailureMary Woo; Fiscal Year: 2009..and changes in tissue properties and function, occurs in areas which regulate mood, memory, blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing. All of these symptoms have been linked to increased morbidity and mortality in HF...
- The role of dynamic changes in repolarization and calcium transients in Long QT rBum Rak Choi; Fiscal Year: 2010..In addition, heart rate variation such as short-long-short cycle length (pause-dependent mode) or acceleration of heart rates often ..
- The role of dynamic changes in repolarization and calcium transients in Long QT rBum Rak Choi; Fiscal Year: 2009..In addition, heart rate variation such as short-long-short cycle length (pause-dependent mode) or acceleration of heart rates often ..
- Epigenetic Effects of Particles and Metals on Cardiac Health of an Aging CohortJoel Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2009..particulate air pollution exposures are associated with specific cardiovascular outcomes, such as decreased heart rate variability, arterial stiffness, and ST-segment depression, resulting in increased death rates for CVD...
- Epigenetic Effects of Particles and Metals on Cardiac Health of an Aging CohortJoel Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2007..particulate air pollution exposures are associated with specific cardiovascular outcomes, such as decreased heart rate variability, arterial stiffness, and ST-segment depression, resulting in increased death rates for CVD...
- Red Blood Cell Fatty Acid Biomarkers and Cardiovascular Disease RiskWilliam Harris; Fiscal Year: 2009..A decrease in heart rate, an increase in heart rate variability, and improved endothelial function have all been associated with higher ..
- Nicotine Modulation of Parasympathetic Cardiac NeuronsDavid Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2010..Electrical or mechanical stimulation of the trigeminal nerve evokes a dramatic decrease in heart rate in animals including man, and has often been termed the `trigeminocardiac reflex'in the clinical literature,..
- Nicotine Modulation of Parasympathetic Cardiac NeuronsDavid Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2009..Electrical or mechanical stimulation of the trigeminal nerve evokes a dramatic decrease in heart rate in animals including man, and has often been termed the `trigeminocardiac reflex' in the clinical ..
- PREDICTING FETAL ACIDEMIA WITH INTRAPARTUM ELECTRONIC FETAL HEART RATE MONITORINGGeorge A Macones; Fiscal Year: 2010DESCRIPTION (provided by investigator): Intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) has become the most frequently used instrument in obstetrics in the United States, despite its classification as a "D" by the U.S...
- HEART RATE RECOVERY AND MORTALITYMichael Lauer; Fiscal Year: 2002Although there has been considerable attention paid to the prognostic significance of the heart rate rise during exercise, only recently has it been noted that the heart rate fall after exercise, or "heart-rate recovery," may be an even ..
- Spontaneous Arousals in "CHIME" Infants at Risk for SIDSROBERT DARNALL; Fiscal Year: 2006..Subcortical arousals associated with changes in breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability, may be particularly important in infants...
- Y Receptor In and Cardiovascular Function From the PHNJohn Martin; Fiscal Year: 2004..by the pancreatic polypeptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) that mediates increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), and to explore the mechanism by which the related pancreatic polypeptide PYY, which appears to stimulate a ..
- IN VITRO MODEL OF PRECONDITIONING WITH ISOLATED MYOCYTESCHARLES GANOTE; Fiscal Year: 2001..of ischemic preconditioning using isolated cardiac myocytes from rabbits, as an example of an animal with a fast heart rate, and from pigs, as an example of an animal with a slow heart rate...
- Role of Sterols and Insulin in Cardiac Autonomic ResponseJONAS BERNARD GALPER; Fiscal Year: 2010..IKACh, the hyperpolarizing K+ current that causes a hyperpolarization of the cardiac membrane and a decrease in heart rate. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are the transcription factors that regulate genes involved ..
- Biobehavioral Cardiovascular Health Promotion Intervention in a State Prison SystDebra Moser; Fiscal Year: 2009..e., Cooper Clinic Mortality Risk Index [a composite index that includes heart rate, blood pressure, diabetes, smoking status, body mass index, age, and cardio-respiratory fitness], lipid profile, ..
- Spiral Electrode Sensor for Intrapartum Fetal OximetryJONAS POLOGE; Fiscal Year: 2003Fetal heart rate monitoring is intended to detect signs of fetal distress due to oxygen starvation of the fetus...
- Physiologic Responses to Simulated Care Activities in Older Surgical PatientsColleen Casey; Fiscal Year: 2007..This study aims to evaluate the utility of using the ActiHeart(tm), a type of actigraph that measures motion and heart rate simultaneously, to measure simulated clinical care activities with older adults prior to their hospitalization ..