viral drug resistance

Summary

Summary: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Characterization of mutation spectra with ultra-deep pyrosequencing: application to HIV-1 drug resistance
    Chunlin Wang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Genome Res 17:1195-201. 2007
  2. ncbi Low-abundance drug-resistant viral variants in chronically HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-naive patients significantly impact treatment outcomes
    Birgitte B Simen
    454 Life Sciences, a Roche Company, Branford, Connecticut, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:693-701. 2009
  3. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and protease sequence database
    Soo Yon Rhee
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:298-303. 2003
  4. ncbi Dynamic hepatitis C virus genotypic and phenotypic changes in patients treated with the protease inhibitor telaprevir
    Christoph Sarrazin
    Klinik fur Innere Medizin II, Universitat des Saarlandes, Homburg Saar, Germany
    Gastroenterology 132:1767-77. 2007
  5. ncbi Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza
    Anne Moscona
    Department of Pediatrics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:1363-73. 2005
  6. pmc Minority HIV-1 drug resistance mutations are present in antiretroviral treatment-naïve populations and associate with reduced treatment efficacy
    Jeffrey A Johnson
    Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Med 5:e158. 2008
  7. ncbi Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial
    Joel E Gallant
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    JAMA 292:191-201. 2004
  8. ncbi The World Health Organization's global strategy for prevention and assessment of HIV drug resistance
    Diane E Bennett
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Antivir Ther 13:1-13. 2008
  9. ncbi Recommendations for surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in countries scaling up antiretroviral treatment
    Diane E Bennett
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Antivir Ther 13:25-36. 2008
  10. ncbi HIV evolutionary dynamics within and among hosts
    Philippe Lemey
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    AIDS Rev 8:125-40. 2006

Detail Information

Publications276 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Characterization of mutation spectra with ultra-deep pyrosequencing: application to HIV-1 drug resistance
    Chunlin Wang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Genome Res 17:1195-201. 2007
    ..With appropriate analysis, ultra-deep pyrosequencing is a promising method for characterizing genetic diversity and detecting minor yet clinically relevant variants in biological samples with complex genetic populations...
  2. ncbi Low-abundance drug-resistant viral variants in chronically HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-naive patients significantly impact treatment outcomes
    Birgitte B Simen
    454 Life Sciences, a Roche Company, Branford, Connecticut, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:693-701. 2009
    ..Minor (i.e., <20% prevalence) drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) variants may go undetected, yet be clinically important...
  3. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and protease sequence database
    Soo Yon Rhee
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:298-303. 2003
    ..Sequence data on two new molecular targets of HIV drug therapy--gp41 (cell fusion) and integrase--will be added to the database in 2003...
  4. ncbi Dynamic hepatitis C virus genotypic and phenotypic changes in patients treated with the protease inhibitor telaprevir
    Christoph Sarrazin
    Klinik fur Innere Medizin II, Universitat des Saarlandes, Homburg Saar, Germany
    Gastroenterology 132:1767-77. 2007
    ..4A protease inhibitor, has shown strong antiviral activity in phase 1 clinical studies. Because of high levels of HCV replication and the low fidelity of HCV polymerase, selection of resistant isolates during therapy may occur...
  5. ncbi Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza
    Anne Moscona
    Department of Pediatrics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:1363-73. 2005
  6. pmc Minority HIV-1 drug resistance mutations are present in antiretroviral treatment-naïve populations and associate with reduced treatment efficacy
    Jeffrey A Johnson
    Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Med 5:e158. 2008
    ..We used sensitive and simple tests to investigate evidence of transmitted drug resistance in antiretroviral drug-naïve persons and assess the clinical implications of minority drug-resistant variants...
  7. ncbi Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial
    Joel E Gallant
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    JAMA 292:191-201. 2004
    ..Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a once-daily nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor...
  8. ncbi The World Health Organization's global strategy for prevention and assessment of HIV drug resistance
    Diane E Bennett
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Antivir Ther 13:1-13. 2008
    ..As of December 2007, 25 countries were planning or implementing the strategy; seven countries report results in this supplement...
  9. ncbi Recommendations for surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in countries scaling up antiretroviral treatment
    Diane E Bennett
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Antivir Ther 13:25-36. 2008
    ..Transmitted drug resistant HIV strains will be seen first in cities or health districts where antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been widely available for years. WHO recommends countries begin surveillance in these areas...
  10. ncbi HIV evolutionary dynamics within and among hosts
    Philippe Lemey
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    AIDS Rev 8:125-40. 2006
    ..Characterizing the impact of HIV transmission on viral genetic diversity will be a key factor in reconciling the different population genetic processes within and among hosts...
  11. pmc HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase mutations for drug resistance surveillance
    Robert W Shafer
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    AIDS 21:215-23. 2007
    ..However, such programs will not produce comparable estimates unless a standardized list of drug-resistance mutations is used to define transmitted resistance...
  12. pmc Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection
    Sharon A Riddler
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:2095-106. 2008
    ..The alternative regimen of lopinavir-ritonavir plus efavirenz may prevent toxic effects associated with NRTIs...
  13. ncbi Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV
    Susan J Little
    Antiviral Research Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego 92103, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:385-94. 2002
    ..Among persons in North America who are newly infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the prevalence of transmitted resistance to antiretroviral drugs has been estimated at 1 to 11 percent...
  14. ncbi Antiviral drug-resistant HBV: standardization of nomenclature and assays and recommendations for management
    Anna S Lok
    Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0362, USA
    Hepatology 46:254-65. 2007
    ..Thus, there is a need to standardize nomenclature relating to hepatitis B antiviral resistance, and to define genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical resistance to NA therapy...
  15. pmc Drug resistance mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance: 2009 update
    Diane E Bennett
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 4:e4724. 2009
    ..The updated SDRM list has 93 mutations including 34 NRTI-resistance mutations at 15 RT positions, 19 NNRTI-resistance mutations at 10 RT positions, and 40 PI-resistance mutations at 18 protease positions...
  16. pmc Rationale and uses of a public HIV drug-resistance database
    Robert W Shafer
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:S51-8. 2006
    ..Such genotype-treatment, genotype-phenotype, and genotype-outcome correlations are contained in the Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database and have specific usefulness...
  17. ncbi Predictors of long-term viral failure among ugandan children and adults treated with antiretroviral therapy
    Moses R Kamya
    Department of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:187-93. 2007
    ..We identified predictors of viral failure and documented genotypic mutations in a subset of patients with viral failure after 12 months on antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  18. ncbi Infections with oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) virus in the United States
    Nila J Dharan
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Office of Workforce and Career Development Assigned to Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, MS A 32, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 301:1034-41. 2009
    ..Early surveillance data suggest that the prevalence of oseltamivir resistance among A(H1N1) viruses will most likely be higher during the 2008-2009 season...
  19. pmc Time trends in primary resistance to HIV drugs in the United Kingdom: multicentre observational study
    Patricia Cane
    BMJ 331:1368. 2005
    ..To examine whether the level of primary resistance to HIV drugs is increasing in the United Kingdom...
  20. pmc Reduced maximal inhibition in phenotypic susceptibility assays indicates that viral strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc utilize inhibitor-bound receptor for entry
    Mike Westby
    Globel Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Sandwich Labs, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, Kent CT13 9NJ, United Kingdom
    J Virol 81:2359-71. 2007
    ..This hypothesis was further corroborated by the observation that a high concentration of maraviroc blocks the activity of aplaviroc against maraviroc-resistant virus...
  21. ncbi Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz compared with zidovudine/lamivudine and efavirenz in treatment-naive patients: 144-week analysis
    Jose R Arribas
    Internal Medicine Service, Hospital de La Paz, Madrid, Spain
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:74-8. 2008
    ..As antiretroviral regimens for the treatment of HIV infection improve, trials providing data on long-term follow-up are increasingly important...
  22. pmc The hepatitis B virus polymerase mutation rtV173L is selected during lamivudine therapy and enhances viral replication in vitro
    William E Delaney
    Gilead Sciences Inc, Foster City, California 94404, USA
    J Virol 77:11833-41. 2003
    ..Together, these results suggest that rtV173L is a compensatory mutation that is selected in lamivudine-resistant patients due to an enhanced replication phenotype...
  23. ncbi Resistance to adefovir dipivoxil therapy associated with the selection of a novel mutation in the HBV polymerase
    Peter Angus
    Austin Hospital, Studley Road, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084, Australia
    Gastroenterology 125:292-7. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize adefovir resistance in a patient who developed clinical and virologic evidence of breakthrough during a 96-week course of treatment...
  24. ncbi Prevalence of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in untreated individuals in Europe: implications for clinical management
    Annemarie M J Wensing
    Eijkman Winkler Institute, Department of Virology, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 192:958-66. 2005
    ..Widespread transmission of drug-resistant variants has the disturbing potential of limiting future therapy options and affecting the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis...
  25. pmc Blinded, multicenter comparison of methods to detect a drug-resistant mutant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 at low frequency
    Elias K Halvas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, S818 Scaife Hall, 3550 Terrace St, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, and Children s Hospital of Los Angeles, CA, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2612-4. 2006
    ..1 to 0.4%. These technologies should help define the impact of low-frequency drug-resistant mutants on response to antiretroviral therapy...
  26. pmc Impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral therapy on protease and reverse transcriptase genotype: results of a global collaboration
    Rami Kantor
    Division of Infectious Disease and Center for AIDS Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    PLoS Med 2:e112. 2005
    ..The genetic differences among HIV-1 subtypes may be critical to clinical management and drug resistance surveillance as antiretroviral treatment is expanded to regions of the world where diverse non-subtype-B viruses predominate...
  27. pmc Amino acid mutation N348I in the connection subdomain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase confers multiclass resistance to nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Atsuko Hachiya
    Laboratory of Virus Immunology, Research Center for AIDS, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53, Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Virol 82:3261-70. 2008
    ..Our results further highlight the role of connection subdomain residues in drug resistance...
  28. ncbi The genesis and spread of reassortment human influenza A/H3N2 viruses conferring adamantane resistance
    Lone Simonsen
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 24:1811-20. 2007
    ..More generally, these findings illustrate that drug selection pressure is not the sole factor determining the evolution and maintenance of drug resistance in human pathogens...
  29. pmc Genetic and phenotypic analyses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escape from a small-molecule CCR5 inhibitor
    Shawn E Kuhmann
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Virol 78:2790-807. 2004
    ..2-CCR5 cells under conditions where gp120 proteins from the parental virus and a partially AD101-resistant virus bound strongly. Hence, the full impact of the V3 substitutions may only be apparent at the level of the native Env complex...
  30. ncbi A V106M mutation in HIV-1 clade C viruses exposed to efavirenz confers cross-resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Bluma Brenner
    McGill University AIDS Centre, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    AIDS 17:F1-5. 2003
    ..This study evaluates the prevalence of V106 (GTG) and 106M (ATG) codons in clinical isolates as well as the effects of V106M on resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)...
  31. ncbi Long-term benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Senegalese HIV-1-infected adults
    Christian Laurent
    Institut de Recherche pour le Développement and Department of International Health, University of Montpellier UMR 145, France
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:14-7. 2005
    ....
  32. ncbi HIV drug resistance
    Francois Clavel
    Unité de Recherche Antivirale, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 552, Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris
    N Engl J Med 350:1023-35. 2004
  33. pmc Maraviroc for previously treated patients with R5 HIV-1 infection
    Roy M Gulick
    Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:1429-41. 2008
    ..CC chemokine receptor 5 antagonists are a new class of antiretroviral agents...
  34. ncbi Estimating HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral-treated individuals in the United Kingdom
    Deenan Pillay
    Centre for Virology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 192:967-73. 2005
    ..Method 2 also nearly doubles estimates of numbers of individuals infected with multiclass drug-resistant virus. Our results identify an urgent need for new drugs within existing classes and new classes of antiretroviral therapy...
  35. ncbi Emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 after intrapartum administration of single-dose nevirapine is substantially underestimated
    Jeffrey A Johnson
    Laboratory Branch, National Center for HIV, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:16-23. 2005
    ..These findings indicate that resistance mutations emerged in at least 65% of the women after SD-NVP and emphasize the importance of further research to determine the clinical implications...
  36. ncbi The structure of H5N1 avian influenza neuraminidase suggests new opportunities for drug design
    Rupert J Russell
    MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Nature 443:45-9. 2006
    ..Our analysis suggests that it may be possible to exploit the size and location of the group-1 cavity to develop new anti-influenza drugs...
  37. ncbi The virological and clinical significance of mutations in the overlapping envelope and polymerase genes of hepatitis B virus
    Joseph Torresi
    Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Vic, Australia
    J Clin Virol 25:97-106. 2002
    ..The ability to change a viral protein by mutations in an overlapping but unrelated viral gene may produce HBV mutants with altered antigenicity and/or replication and a natural history that may be distinctly different to wild type HBV...
  38. pmc Importance of neuraminidase active-site residues to the neuraminidase inhibitor resistance of influenza viruses
    Hui Ling Yen
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    J Virol 80:8787-95. 2006
    ..The results of our study may help to optimize the design of NAIs...
  39. ncbi Mechanistic basis for reduced viral and enzymatic fitness of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase containing both K65R and M184V mutations
    Jerome Deval
    Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS et Université Aix Marseille I et II, ESIL, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    J Biol Chem 279:509-16. 2004
    ..All together, these results define at the molecular level how nucleoside-resistant viruses can be driven to reduced viral fitness...
  40. pmc Structure and mechanism of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus
    Jason R Schnell
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 451:591-5. 2008
    ..Drug-resistance mutations are predicted to counter the effect of drug binding by either increasing the hydrophilicity of the pore or weakening helix-helix packing, thus facilitating channel opening...
  41. ncbi Non-parametric methods to predict HIV drug susceptibility phenotype from genotype
    A Gregory DiRienzo
    Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Stat Med 22:2785-98. 2003
    ....
  42. ncbi Naturally occurring NS3-protease-inhibitor resistant mutant A156T in the liver of an untreated chronic hepatitis C patient
    Maria Cubero
    Liver Unit, Department of Medicine, Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
    Virology 370:237-45. 2008
    ..Here we report the presence of the A156T mutation in close to 1% of NS3 sequences within the liver quasispecies of a chronic hepatitis C patient never treated with anti-NS3-protease inhibitors...
  43. ncbi Detection of minority populations of HIV-1 expressing the K103N resistance mutation in patients failing nevirapine
    Denise Lecossier
    INSERM U552, Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris, France
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:37-42. 2005
    ..These findings support the idea that minority viral populations with distinct resistance genotypes, although undetectable by standard genotyping, can contribute to the failure of salvage regimens...
  44. ncbi Dynamics of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus during adefovir monotherapy versus lamivudine plus adefovir combination therapy
    Samreen Ijaz
    Virus Reference Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    J Med Virol 80:1160-70. 2008
    ..The use of techniques such as Pyrosequencing provides an evidence-based approach for successful management of drug-resistant HBV...
  45. ncbi Herpes simplex virus resistance to antiviral drugs
    Florence Morfin
    Laboratory of Virology of the Hospices Civils de Lyon, Domaine Rockefeller, 8 avenue Rockefeller, 69373 Cedex 08, Lyon, France
    J Clin Virol 26:29-37. 2003
    ..A high level of gene polymorphism has also been reported for these genes, especially for TK. These results are useful for the development of rapid genotypic assays for the detection of mutations associated with resistance...
  46. ncbi Effect of adherence to HAART on virologic outcome and on the selection of resistance-conferring mutations in NNRTI- or PI-treated patients
    Franco Maggiolo
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, Italy
    HIV Clin Trials 8:282-92. 2007
    ..The effect of adherence on the risk of virologic failure and mutations selection was verified in a prospective study...
  47. ncbi Resistant influenza A viruses in children treated with oseltamivir: descriptive study
    Maki Kiso
    Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Lancet 364:759-65. 2004
    ..Our aim was to investigate oseltamivir resistance in a group of children treated for influenza...
  48. ncbi Adefovir dipivoxil therapy for lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B in pre- and post-liver transplantation patients
    Eugene R Schiff
    Center for Liver Diseases, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Hepatology 38:1419-27. 2003
    ..In conclusion, 48 weeks of adefovir dipivoxil resulted in significant improvements in virologic, biochemical, and clinical parameters in CHB patients pre- and post-LT with lamivudine-resistant HBV...
  49. ncbi Identification and analysis of fitness of resistance mutations against the HCV protease inhibitor SCH 503034
    Xiao Tong
    Department of Virology, Schering Plough Research Institute, 2015 Galloping Hill Road, Kenilwoth, NJ 07033, USA
    Antiviral Res 70:28-38. 2006
    ..Combination therapy with IFN-alpha should also greatly reduce the potential emergence of resistance...
  50. pmc Efavirenz therapy in rhesus macaques infected with a chimera of simian immunodeficiency virus containing reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Michael J Hofman
    Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3483-90. 2004
    ..Virus isolated from these two animals contained the K103N and Y188C or Y188L mutations. The RT-SHIV-rhesus macaque model may prove useful for studies of antiretroviral drug combinations that include efavirenz...
  51. ncbi The prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in the United States
    Douglas D Richman
    VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, The University of California San Diego, La Jolla, Santa Monica, California 92093 0679, USA
    AIDS 18:1393-401. 2004
    ..Antiretroviral therapy has dramatically reduced the morbidity and mortality of infection due to HIV. The emergence of drug-resistant virus has limited the usefulness of many drugs...
  52. ncbi Use of a novel assay based on intact recombinant viruses expressing green (EGFP) or red (DsRed2) fluorescent proteins to examine the contribution of pol and env genes to overall HIV-1 replicative fitness
    Jan Weber
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Section of Virology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Virol Methods 136:102-17. 2006
    ....
  53. pmc Minority human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants in antiretroviral-naive persons with reverse transcriptase codon 215 revertant mutations
    Yumi Mitsuya
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Virol 82:10747-55. 2008
    ....
  54. ncbi Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance among women attending antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    Geofrey R Somi
    National AIDS Control Program, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    Antivir Ther 13:77-82. 2008
    ..We used the WHO HIVDR threshold survey method to assess transmitted HIVDR in Dar es Salaam where ART was introduced in 1995 and where approximately 11,000 people are currently on ART...
  55. pmc Herpes simplex virus resistance to acyclovir and penciclovir after two decades of antiviral therapy
    Teresa H Bacon
    GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare, Weybridge, Surrey KT15 0DE, United Kingdom
    Clin Microbiol Rev 16:114-28. 2003
    ..These observations are examined in the light of characteristics of the virus, the drugs, and host factors...
  56. ncbi The CCR5 receptor-based mechanism of action of 873140, a potent allosteric noncompetitive HIV entry inhibitor
    Christian Watson
    Assay Development and Compound Profiling, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 67:1268-82. 2005
    ..This idea is discussed in terms of using these drugs sequentially to overcome HIV viral resistance in the clinic...
  57. ncbi Antiviral drug resistance: clinical consequences and molecular aspects
    Angeline Bartholomeusz
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Semin Liver Dis 26:162-70. 2006
    ....
  58. pmc HIV recombination: what is the impact on antiretroviral therapy?
    Christophe Fraser
    Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J R Soc Interface 2:489-503. 2005
    ....
  59. ncbi Recombination in HIV and the evolution of drug resistance: for better or for worse?
    Michael T Bretscher
    Ecology and Evolution, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
    Bioessays 26:180-8. 2004
    ..Contrary to the commonly held belief, we find that, under the most plausible biological assumptions, recombination is expected to slow down the rate of evolution of multi-drug-resistant virus during therapy...
  60. ncbi Amantadine-resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Northern China
    Guimei He
    Department of Pathophysiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People s Republic of China
    Antiviral Res 77:72-6. 2008
    ..In the investigation of amantadine use, we found that amantadine was used extensively in poultry farms in this area, which maybe was one of reasons of the high amantadine-resistance incidence...
  61. ncbi Antiretroviral drug resistance testing in adult HIV-1 infection: 2008 recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA panel
    Martin S Hirsch
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:266-85. 2008
    ..As the roll out of antiretroviral therapy continues in developing countries, drug resistance monitoring for both subtype B and non-subtype B strains of HIV will become increasingly important...
  62. pmc Susceptibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir differs in vitro and in a mouse model
    Elena A Govorkova
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:3088-96. 2009
    ..Multiple viral and host factors modulate the effectiveness of NA inhibitor regimens against such viruses and new, more consistently effective treatment options, including combination therapies, are needed...
  63. ncbi HIV drug resistance acquired through superinfection
    Davey M Smith
    University of California San Diego, USA
    AIDS 19:1251-6. 2005
    ..We report an individual initially infected with a drug-sensitive clade B strain of HIV who was superinfected with another clade B strain resistant to two classes of antiretroviral drugs...
  64. pmc The fitness cost of mutations associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance is modulated by mutational interactions
    Mian er Cong
    Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Virol 81:3037-41. 2007
    ..We conclude that the persistence of transmitted RT mutants might range widely on the basis of fitness and that the modulation of fitness cost by mutational interactions will be a critical determinant of persistence...
  65. pmc Suppression of viremia and evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance in a macaque model for antiretroviral therapy
    Zandrea Ambrose
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, Building 535, Room 123, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Virol 81:12145-55. 2007
    ..By contrast, ART effectively suppressed RT-SHIV in 5/6 animals. These data indicate that suboptimal therapy facilitates HIV-1 drug resistance and suggest that this model can be used to investigate persisting viral reservoirs...
  66. ncbi The calculated genetic barrier for antiretroviral drug resistance substitutions is largely similar for different HIV-1 subtypes
    David A van de Vijver
    Eijkman Winkler Institute, Department of Virology, University Medical Center Utrecht, G04 614, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:352-60. 2006
    ..This study compared the genetic barrier between subtypes using some 2000 HIV-1 sequences (>600 of non-B subtype) isolated from anti-retroviral-naive patients in Europe...
  67. pmc Positive selection detection in 40,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 sequences automatically identifies drug resistance and positive fitness mutations in HIV protease and reverse transcriptase
    Lamei Chen
    Molecular Biology Institute, Center for Genomics and Proteomics, Dept of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1570, USA
    J Virol 78:3722-32. 2004
    ..bioinformatics.ucla.edu/HIV. Our data indicate that positive selection mapping is an analysis that can yield powerful insights from high-throughput sequencing of rapidly mutating pathogens...
  68. pmc DNA bar coding and pyrosequencing to identify rare HIV drug resistance mutations
    Christian Hoffmann
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6076, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:e91. 2007
    ....
  69. pmc Selection of mutations in the connection and RNase H domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase that increase resistance to 3'-azido-3'-dideoxythymidine
    Jessica H Brehm
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, S818 Scaife Hall, 3550 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Virol 81:7852-9. 2007
    ....
  70. ncbi Minority quasispecies of drug-resistant HIV-1 that lead to early therapy failure in treatment-naive and -adherent patients
    Karin J Metzner
    Institute of Clinical and Molecular Virology, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Clin Infect Dis 48:239-47. 2009
    ..Therefore, we evaluated the possible role of minority quasispecies of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which are undetectable at baseline by population sequencing, with regard to early virological failure...
  71. pmc Neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in influenza: assessing the danger of its generation and spread
    Andreas Handel
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 3:e240. 2007
    ..Better knowledge of the quantitative dynamics of the immune response during influenza infections will be crucial to further improve the results...
  72. ncbi Estimation of an in vivo fitness landscape experienced by HIV-1 under drug selective pressure useful for prediction of drug resistance evolution during treatment
    K Deforche
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Bioinformatics 24:34-41. 2008
    ..The method was evaluated for recovering 10 random fictive selective pressures in simulation experiments, and for modeling the selective pressure under treatment with the protease inhibitor nelfinavir...
  73. ncbi Selection and characterization of HIV-1 showing reduced susceptibility to the non-peptidic protease inhibitor tipranavir
    Louise Doyon
    Biological Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd Research and Development, 2100 Cunard Street, Laval, Que, Canada H7S 2G5
    Antiviral Res 68:27-35. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that the tipranavir resistance phenotype is associated with complex genotypic changes in the protease. Resistance necessitates the sequential accumulation of multiple mutations...
  74. ncbi Low resistance to adefovir combined with lamivudine: a 3-year study of 145 lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B patients
    Pietro Lampertico
    A M and A Migliavacca Center for Liver Disease, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Fondazione Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Gastroenterology 133:1445-51. 2007
    ..We assessed whether this risk could be overcome by adefovir-lamivudine combination therapy...
  75. ncbi A reverse genetics study of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors in an influenza A/H1N1 virus
    Yacine Abed
    Research Center in Infectious Diseases of the CHUQ CHUL, Quebec City, Canada
    Antivir Ther 9:577-81. 2004
    ..The replication capacity of both mutants, in particular that of the His274Tyr virus, was impaired when compared with the wild-type virus in vitro...
  76. pmc Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
    Vincent C Marconi
    Section of Retroviral Therapeutics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1589-97. 2008
    ..The prevalence of resistance was assessed among patients from KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, following failure of their first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen...
  77. pmc Oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1), Norway, 2007-08
    Siri H Hauge
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:155-62. 2009
    ..The ability of these viruses to sustain their fitness and spread among persons should be considered when shaping future strategies for treating and preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza...
  78. ncbi Hepatitis B virus mutations associated with antiviral therapy
    A Bartholomeusz
    Victorian Infectious Disease Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
    J Med Virol 78:S52-5. 2006
    ..Clearly, improved treatment strategies are required urgently to prevent the continued selection of HBV drug-resistant mutants...
  79. ncbi Repeated measures longitudinal analyses of HIV virologic response as a function of percent adherence, dose timing, genotypic sensitivity, and other factors
    Honghu Liu
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles UCLA, 911 Broxton Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1736, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:315-22. 2006
    ..The contribution of dose timing and other factors to achieving virologic suppression has received less scrutiny...
  80. ncbi Crystal structures of oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus neuraminidase mutants
    Patrick J Collins
    MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Nature 453:1258-61. 2008
    ..7) and H1N1 (ref. 8) viruses with neuraminidases carrying these mutations, our results indicate that it would be prudent for pandemic stockpiles of oseltamivir to be augmented by additional antiviral drugs, including zanamivir...
  81. ncbi Update of the drug resistance mutations in HIV-1: Fall 2006
    Victoria A Johnson
    Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Top HIV Med 14:125-30. 2006
    ..A number of amino acid substitutions, particularly minor mutations, represent polymorphisms that in isolation may not reflect prior drug selective pressure or reduced drug susceptibility...
  82. ncbi Threshold survey evaluating transmitted HIV drug resistance among public antenatal clinic clients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Woldaregay Erku Abegaz
    Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
    Antivir Ther 13:89-94. 2008
    ..The World Health Organization (WHO) recently introduced guidelines to address this issue...
  83. ncbi Prevalence of resistance to nevirapine in mothers and children after single-dose exposure to prevent vertical transmission of HIV-1: a meta-analysis
    Elise Arrive
    Unité INSERM 593, Bordeaux, France
    Int J Epidemiol 36:1009-21. 2007
    ..This systematic review and meta-analysis of summarized data aimed to estimate the proportion of mothers and children with NVP resistance mutations detected in plasma samples 4-8 weeks postpartum after single-dose NVP use for PMTCT...
  84. ncbi Persistence of primary drug resistance among recently HIV-1 infected adults
    Jason D Barbour
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California 94141 9100, USA
    AIDS 18:1683-9. 2004
    ..We sought to determine if primary drug resistance would be lost at a rapid rate, and viral pol replication capacity would increase, in the absence of treatment...
  85. ncbi Virologic, immunologic, clinical, safety, and resistance outcomes from a long-term comparison of efavirenz-based versus nevirapine-based antiretroviral regimens as initial therapy in HIV-1-infected persons
    Mary van den Berg-Wolf
    Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA
    HIV Clin Trials 9:324-36. 2008
    ..To compare long-term virologic, immunologic, and clinical outcomes in antiretroviral-naïve persons starting efavirenz (EFV)- versus nevirapine (NVP)-based regimens...
  86. pmc Structure of HIV-2 reverse transcriptase at 2.35-A resolution and the mechanism of resistance to non-nucleoside inhibitors
    J Ren
    Division of Structural Biology, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14410-5. 2002
    ..The availability of a refined structure of HIV-2 RT will provide a stimulus for the structure-based design of novel non-nucleoside inhibitors that could be used against HIV-2 infection...
  87. ncbi HIV-1 subtype distribution and the problem of drug resistance
    Mark A Wainberg
    McGill University AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    AIDS 18:S63-8. 2004
    ..This consideration notwithstanding, drug resistance is unlikely to become a more serious issue in developing than developed countries, and there is an urgency to make anti-HIV drugs available to all who are in need...
  88. ncbi APOBEC3G versus reverse transcriptase in the generation of HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations
    Ben Berkhout
    AIDS 18:1861-3. 2004
  89. ncbi Incidence of resistance in a double-blind study comparing lopinavir/ritonavir plus stavudine and lamivudine to nelfinavir plus stavudine and lamivudine
    Dale J Kempf
    Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:51-60. 2004
    ..These differences suggest substantially different genetic and pharmacological barriers to resistance for these 2 protease inhibitors and may have implications for strategies for initiating antiretroviral therapy...
  90. ncbi Effects of monotherapy with (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (PMPA) on the evolution of a primary Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate
    Rachel Taber
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, BSTWR E1240, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Virology 354:116-31. 2006
    ..These data suggest a role for intrinsic host factors in treatment responsiveness, and lend support for therapeutic vaccination as an adjunct to effective therapy...
  91. pmc Emergence of drug resistance is associated with an increased risk of death among patients first starting HAART
    Robert S Hogg
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    PLoS Med 3:e356. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the emergence of drug-resistance mutations on survival among persons initiating HAART...
  92. pmc Drug resistance in HIV-1 protease: Flexibility-assisted mechanism of compensatory mutations
    Stefano Piana
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, ETH Hönggerberg HCI, Zurich, Switzerland
    Protein Sci 11:2393-402. 2002
    ..We anticipate that this "flexibility-assisted" mechanism might be effective in the vast majority of compensatory mutations, which do not change the electrostatic properties of the enzyme...
  93. ncbi Detection of minor drug-resistant populations by parallel allele-specific sequencing
    Fangping Cai
    Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Methods 4:123-5. 2007
    ..This assay may serve as a useful tool to study drug resistance in HIV and other infectious agents...
  94. ncbi Diminished efficiency of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase containing the K65R and M184V drug resistance mutations
    Fernando A Frankel
    McGill AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    AIDS 21:665-75. 2007
    ..To determine the underlying biochemical mechanisms responsible for the diminished viral replicative capacity associated with K65R/M184V-containing viruses...
  95. pmc The emergence of HIV transmitted resistance in Botswana: "when will the WHO detection threshold be exceeded?"
    Raffaele Vardavas
    Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e152. 2007
    ..However, the WHO has not determined when this threshold will be reached. Here we model the Botswana government's treatment plan and predict, to 2009, the likely stochastic evolution of transmitted resistance...
  96. ncbi Should resistance testing be performed for treatment-naive HIV-infected patients? A cost-effectiveness analysis
    Paul E Sax
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1316-23. 2005
    ..Our objective was to determine the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of genotype resistance testing for treatment-naive patients with chronic HIV infection...
  97. ncbi Emergence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected patients after receipt of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review of clinical trials
    Ravindra Gupta
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 47:712-22. 2008
    ..Resistance to antiretroviral combination therapy is associated with increased mortality. Understanding the relative risks of emerging resistance to first-line therapy is of importance for both resource-rich and resource-poor settings...
  98. ncbi Efficient suppression of minority drug-resistant HIV type 1 (HIV-1) variants present at primary HIV-1 infection by ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy
    Karin J Metzner
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Infect Dis 201:1063-71. 2010
    ....
  99. pmc Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors
    Pavel Pugach
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Virology 377:401-7. 2008
    ..The need to preserve NAb resistance may therefore be a constraint upon how escape from CCR5 inhibitors occurs in vivo...
  100. ncbi New antivirals and drug resistance
    Peter M Colman
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3050
    Annu Rev Biochem 78:95-118. 2009
    ..However, other factors, such as entropy compensation and solvent anchoring, might also be exploited for improved drug design...
  101. ncbi Genetic analysis of HIV type 1 strains from newly infected untreated patients in cyprus: high genetic diversity and low prevalence of drug resistance
    Ioanna Kousiappa
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:23-35. 2009
    ..Taken together, these findings demonstrate that HIV-1 infection in Cyprus is being replenished by a continuous influx of new strains from many countries, establishing an ever-evolving and polyphyletic infection in the island...

Research Grants63

  1. Control of HIV drug resistance in older patients
    Alonso Heredia; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For elderly HIV patients failing HIV treatment due to viral drug resistance, the newly developed CCR5 antagonists represent an attractive treatment option because they are active ..
  2. A novel assay for inhibitors of influenza A virus polymerase complex assembly
    Feng Li; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Successful completion of the proposed research will help identify and design additional anti-influenza inhibitors that will provide additional treatment options and improve disease outcome. ..
  3. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF HSV DNA POLYMERASE GENE
    James M Hogle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The research proposed should not only provide information that could aid in drug discovery and understanding how viruses become resistant to current drugs, but aims directly to discover new anti-herpesvirus drugs. ..
  4. Effect of Iron Chelators on HIV-1 transcription
    ZUFAN KEREGO DEBEBE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..However, these drugs fail in long-term treatment of HIV-1 due to viral drug resistance. Alternative targets of attack of the HIV-1 would be targeting host cell transcription factors...
  5. Alternative antiviral drug targets for human cytomegalovirus infection
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  6. Phosphorylation of CDK9 by CDK2 in HIV-1 replication
    Denitra Breuer; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..However, due to onset of viral drug resistance resulting in infection persistence, alternative targets of HIV-1 are necessary...
  7. Hepatitis B Clinical Research Network Clinical Center: Michigan-Hawaii consortium
    Anna S F Lok; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Clinical trials on other important topics such as treatment of patients in the immune tolerance phase and optimal management of patients with antiviral-resistant HBV are also discussed. ..
  8. Correlates of Monocyte-Associated Virus in HIV Neurocognitive Impairment
    Walter Royal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..motifs associated with NCI, and to study the relationship to viral subtype and the relationship of viral drug resistance in different compartments to NCI...
  9. Discovery and Optimization of Novel Integrase Inhibitors as Anti-HIV Agents
    John K Buolamwini; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..severe toxicities, unable to control viral replication in some patients, and are rendered in effective by viral drug resistance. The absolute requirement of the integrase enzyme for HIV replication, and the fact that it has no host ..
  10. ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Detailed understanding of the genetic mechanisms of resistance will improve the design of suitable new drug structures and antiviral targets. ..
  11. Towards therapy-induced lethal HIV mutagenesis
    J VICTOR GARCIA-MARTINEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The limitations of HIV-1 therapeutics, which include viral drug resistance and off-target effects, provide the impetus for the identification of novel drug targets and the development of new anti-HIV-..
  12. Ultrapotent Inhibitors of Wild-type and Multi-drug Resistant HIV
    Stefan Sarafianos; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..efficiently, and by doing so, it will help develop anti- HIV therapeutics that are both less susceptible to current clinically significant resistance mutations as well as more refractory to the development of viral drug resistance.
  13. California NeuroAIDS Tissue Network (CNTN)
    Igor Grant; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of early neuronal aging among persons with prolonged exposure to HIV and ARV treatment, and the role of viral drug resistance in HIV brain disease...
  14. INTEGRATE/PHARMACOKINETIC/ANTIRETROVIRUS RESISTANCE TEST
    Edward Acosta; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..b>Viral drug resistance is a continuum; a certain fold-change in virus susceptibility does not necessitate a drug will be inactive ..
  15. MOLECULAR BEACONS FOR TUBERCULOSIS TESTING
    PETER MESEROL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Specific mutations linked to cancer, metabolic disorders, as well as bacterial and viral drug resistance are often as small as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...
  16. A cell-based assay to measure HCV drug susceptibility
    Neil Parkin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  17. DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..and virologic variables that predict drug resistance, and select specimens for detailed analysis of viral drug resistance markers. 2...
  18. A Training Program in International Women's Health
    BENJAMIN CHI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Numerous studies, however, have demonstrated significant viral drug resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) class of drugs (of which NVP is a part) in ..
  19. Molecular Standards for Hepatitis B and C Genotyping
    PAUL NEUWALD; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Commercial manufacturers of genotype assays have expressed a need for independent genotype standards. ..
  20. DAART+ AS A STRUCTURAL HIV INTERVENTION IN METHADONE MAINTENANCE
    James Sorensen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Non-adherence results in poor response to therapy, viral drug resistance, cross-resistance and the spread of drug-resistant viral strains...
  21. Drug Resistance in Non-Subtype B HIV-1
    Susan Eshleman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. DELETION MUTAGENESIS WITHIN NONCODING SEGMENTS OF HIV1
    Mark Wainberg; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..6. To determine whether these attenuated SIV constructs may protect against subsequent challenge with virulent forms of SIV and SIV/HIV hybrids. ..
  23. Combinatorial Chemistry for HIV Entry Inhibitors
    THOMAS NORTH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Future plans are to test the drugs and strategies in our SHIV/rhesus macaque models for mucosal membrane transmission and AIDS. ..
  24. A RCT of HIV Adherence Case Management and Modified DOT
    Margot Kushel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Outcomes will be assessed quarterly during the 6-month intervention and during a 6 month post-intervention period to examine the durability of the intervention effect. ..
  25. HIV Outcomes Research and Training in Uganda
    David Bangsberg; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Antiretviral therapy adherence in resource poor setting
    David Bangsberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This will be a first and necessary step to identifying the distribution and predictors of adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy in a resource poor setting. ..
  27. Immunologic Control of Drug-resistant HIV-1
    Steven Deeks; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Finally, since we will estimate the relative in vivo thresholds for HIV-mediated immunogenicity and pathogenicity, these studies may also have implications for vaccine development. ..
  28. The impact of early antiretroviral therapy on HIV persistence and inflammation
    STEVEN GRANT DEEKS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our work may also provide important insights in the role of chronic inflammation in driving viral persistence, and hence may lead to the development of novel interventions. ..
  29. Treatment Intensification for Drug-Resistant HIV
    Steven Deeks; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Funding for the pilot clinical trial has been obtained from other sources; funding is requested in this proposal only for costs associated with the measurements of immunologic response to drug-resistant HIV-1. ..
  30. DEVELOPMENT OF LIGAND ASSISTED ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESES
    Arun Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Besides the broad range of scope and generality, this line of research will provide excellent opportunities to teach and train graduate and undergraduate students in the laboratory. ..
  31. Clinical Significance of HIV Replication Fitness
    Lisa Demeter; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..If these studies are successful, they could identify tests that could help predict clinical outcomes for HIV-infected patients. ..
  32. Identification of Mulit-Drug Resistant HIV-1 Isolates
    Robert Shafer; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  33. Public HIV Drug Resistance Database
    ROBERT WILLIAM SHAFER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..UCL is on the forefront of research into the problem of transmitted drug resistance and Oxford University is on the forefront of research on virus evolution and population genetics. ..
  34. DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF NONPEPTIDE PROTEASE INHIBITORS
    Arun K Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research integrates organic synthesis, protein-ligand x-ray crystallography, molecular modeling and in-depth virus and cell-biological studies to design the next generation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. ..
  35. ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  36. Hepatitis C Microarrays to Detect Drug Resistance
    Michael Kozal; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..If successful this project will create a tool that can rapidly and accurately provide the sequence of HCV genes that encode drug targets and facilitate the investigations into the genetic determinants of HCV drug resistance. ..
  37. 9th Annual International Mtg on HIV Dynamics & Evolution
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Participants in the 9th Meeting will include leading figures in virology, biomathematics, and evolution, as well as junior workers actively involved in research in these areas. ..
  38. Mechanism/predictors of genital/rectal HIV shedding during ART w/plasma <50c/mL
    Lisa M Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A better understanding of this discordant genital tract and rectal shedding should allow us to develop better treatment strategies that should reduce HIV transmission. ..
  39. Reservoirs of drug-resistant HIV-1
    Lisa Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These data assist in establishing complementary MTCT prophylaxis regimens and HAART for women and children. ..
  40. HIV-1 THERAPEUTICS AND DRUG RESISTANCE
    Daniel R Kuritzkes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research program provides a framework within which the applicant can mentor beginning clinical investigators in patient-oriented research focused on critical issues in HIV-1 medicine. ..
  41. Topical virucides to prevent oral transmission
    Koen van Rompay; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..If topical tenofovir administration were effective, then this simple strategy would be highly affordable for developing countries. ..
  42. AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS
    Lisa Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The PACTG site reports and regulatory evaluations of the UW PACTU which have generally been excellent are discussed. This proposal requests funds for the continuation of the successful UW PACTU. ..
  43. HIV-1 resistance to nucleoside analogues
    Daniel Kuritzkes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Better understanding of the virologic, genetic, and biochemical aspects of AZT/3TC dual resistance will help direct therapy and may lead to better therapeutic strategies in the future. ..
  44. Etiology of mastitis in HIV-1 infected women
    Lisa Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  45. Fitness of Enfuvirtide-(T-20)-Resistant HIV-1
    Daniel Kuritzkes; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Results of these studies will provide a deeper understanding of the molecular, virologic, and clinical consequences ofT-20 resistance, and may help guide the use of T-20 in salvage therapy. ..
  46. Immunization by HIV exposure during chemoprophylaxis
    Lisa Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In the absence of an effective vaccine, the use of antiretrovirals should be optimized to prevent the spread of HIV-1 infection. This proposal works toward this goal. ..
  47. THERAPY EFFECTS ON HIV 1 POPULATION DYNAMICS IN CHILDREN
    Lisa Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  48. AIDS Clinical Trail Modeling and Stimulatinos
    Hulin Wu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The developed systems will be a useful tool for AIDS clinicians to develop individualized treatments for their patients. ..
  49. The Transmission and Fitness of Drug Resistant HIV-1
    MARTIN H MARKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  50. PHI-443: Novel Non-Spermicidal Anti-HIV Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Specific Aims 1 and 2 may provide the foundation for the clinical development of PHI-443 in Phase II studies as a safe, effective broad-spectrum anti-HIV microbicide without conception-inhibiting functions. ..
  51. PHI 346: A Novel Dual-Function Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Following successful completion of the Phase I in vivo efficacy studies, gel formulation of PHI-346 will be further explored as a vaginal dual-function microbicide in Phase II. ..
  52. METVAN: A Novel Anticancer Agent
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The knowledge gained from these studies described under Specific Aims 1-2 is expected to facilitate the design of innovative treatment regimens employing METVAN for metastatic breast cancer and brain tumor patients. ..
  53. MODELS AND INFERENTIAL TOOLS FOR HIV1 DYNAMICS IN VIVO
    Hulin Wu; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Thus, the proposed HIV-1 dynamic models in vivo and statistical inferential methodology will provide a powerful tool to understand the pathogenesis of HIV and to search for a cure for AIDS. ..
  54. Maternal and Infant Health and HAART Outcomes in the Mashi PMTCT Study, Botswana
    Shahin Lockman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..placebo exposure;and pediatric neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes, by infant feeding modality and antiretroviral exposure history. ..
  55. Directly Administered HIV Therapy in Methadone Clinics
    GREGORY LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our research team has an established history of collaboration in this area, and brings together a wealth of research expertise in HIV treatment outcomes, substance abuse, and behavioral aspects of adherence. ..
  56. International Mobility of HIV
    Hong Ha M Truong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  57. RESPIRATORY DISEASES/BSI STUDY
    Shahin Lockman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  58. Epidemiology of HIV-1/HIV-2 Dual Infection
    Geoffrey Gottlieb; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  59. Drug Resistance and Pathogenesis in Subtype C HIV-1
    David Katzenstein; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..ARV therapy is expected to dramatically increase in developing countries, and viral drug resistance evolution will inevitably take place...
  60. Midcareer Investigator Award /Patient-Oriented Research
    Charles Hicks; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. RECURRENT HEPATITIS B AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
    Anna Lok; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. Mechanisms of influenza NA drug resistance
    Jennifer L McKimm Breschkin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....