- Characterization of mutation spectra with ultra-deep pyrosequencing: application to HIV-1 drug resistance
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Genome Res 17:1195-201. 2007
..With appropriate analysis, ultra-deep pyrosequencing is a promising method for characterizing genetic diversity and detecting minor yet clinically relevant variants in biological samples with complex genetic populations...
- Low-abundance drug-resistant viral variants in chronically HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-naive patients significantly impact treatment outcomes
Birgitte B Simen
454 Life Sciences, a Roche Company, Branford, Connecticut, USA
J Infect Dis 199:693-701. 2009
..Minor (i.e., <20% prevalence) drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) variants may go undetected, yet be clinically important...
- Dynamic hepatitis C virus genotypic and phenotypic changes in patients treated with the protease inhibitor telaprevir
Klinik fur Innere Medizin II, Universitat des Saarlandes, Homburg Saar, Germany
Gastroenterology 132:1767-77. 2007
..4A protease inhibitor, has shown strong antiviral activity in phase 1 clinical studies. Because of high levels of HCV replication and the low fidelity of HCV polymerase, selection of resistant isolates during therapy may occur...
- Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial
Joel E Gallant
Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
JAMA 292:191-201. 2004
..Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a once-daily nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor...
- HIV evolutionary dynamics within and among hosts
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
AIDS Rev 8:125-40. 2006
..Characterizing the impact of HIV transmission on viral genetic diversity will be a key factor in reconciling the different population genetic processes within and among hosts...
- Antiviral drug-resistant HBV: standardization of nomenclature and assays and recommendations for management
Anna S Lok
Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0362, USA
Hepatology 46:254-65. 2007
..Thus, there is a need to standardize nomenclature relating to hepatitis B antiviral resistance, and to define genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical resistance to NA therapy...
- Minority HIV-1 drug resistance mutations are present in antiretroviral treatment-naïve populations and associate with reduced treatment efficacy
Jeffrey A Johnson
Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
PLoS Med 5:e158. 2008
..We used sensitive and simple tests to investigate evidence of transmitted drug resistance in antiretroviral drug-naïve persons and assess the clinical implications of minority drug-resistant variants...
- Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection
Sharon A Riddler
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA
N Engl J Med 358:2095-106. 2008
..The alternative regimen of lopinavir-ritonavir plus efavirenz may prevent toxic effects associated with NRTIs...
- Drug resistance mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance: 2009 update
Diane E Bennett
World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
PLoS ONE 4:e4724. 2009
..The updated SDRM list has 93 mutations including 34 NRTI-resistance mutations at 15 RT positions, 19 NNRTI-resistance mutations at 10 RT positions, and 40 PI-resistance mutations at 18 protease positions...
- Predictors of long-term viral failure among ugandan children and adults treated with antiretroviral therapy
Moses R Kamya
Department of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:187-93. 2007
..We identified predictors of viral failure and documented genotypic mutations in a subset of patients with viral failure after 12 months on antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
- Infections with oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) virus in the United States
Nila J Dharan
Epidemic Intelligence Service, Office of Workforce and Career Development Assigned to Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, MS A 32, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
JAMA 301:1034-41. 2009
..Early surveillance data suggest that the prevalence of oseltamivir resistance among A(H1N1) viruses will most likely be higher during the 2008-2009 season...
- Reduced maximal inhibition in phenotypic susceptibility assays indicates that viral strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc utilize inhibitor-bound receptor for entry
Globel Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Sandwich Labs, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, Kent CT13 9NJ, United Kingdom
J Virol 81:2359-71. 2007
..This hypothesis was further corroborated by the observation that a high concentration of maraviroc blocks the activity of aplaviroc against maraviroc-resistant virus...
- Recommendations for surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in countries scaling up antiretroviral treatment
Diane E Bennett
World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
Antivir Ther 13:25-36. 2008
..Transmitted drug resistant HIV strains will be seen first in cities or health districts where antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been widely available for years. WHO recommends countries begin surveillance in these areas...
- Resistance to adefovir dipivoxil therapy associated with the selection of a novel mutation in the HBV polymerase
Austin Hospital, Studley Road, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084, Australia
Gastroenterology 125:292-7. 2003
..The aim of this study was to characterize adefovir resistance in a patient who developed clinical and virologic evidence of breakthrough during a 96-week course of treatment...
- Amino acid mutation N348I in the connection subdomain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase confers multiclass resistance to nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Laboratory of Virus Immunology, Research Center for AIDS, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53, Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
J Virol 82:3261-70. 2008
..Our results further highlight the role of connection subdomain residues in drug resistance...
- The World Health Organization's global strategy for prevention and assessment of HIV drug resistance
Diane E Bennett
World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
Antivir Ther 13:1-13. 2008
..As of December 2007, 25 countries were planning or implementing the strategy; seven countries report results in this supplement...
- A V106M mutation in HIV-1 clade C viruses exposed to efavirenz confers cross-resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
McGill University AIDS Centre, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
AIDS 17:F1-5. 2003
..This study evaluates the prevalence of V106 (GTG) and 106M (ATG) codons in clinical isolates as well as the effects of V106M on resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)...
- Long-term benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Senegalese HIV-1-infected adults
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement and Department of International Health, University of Montpellier UMR 145, France
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:14-7. 2005
- Maraviroc for previously treated patients with R5 HIV-1 infection
Roy M Gulick
Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
N Engl J Med 359:1429-41. 2008
..CC chemokine receptor 5 antagonists are a new class of antiretroviral agents...
- Resistant influenza A viruses in children treated with oseltamivir: descriptive study
Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Lancet 364:759-65. 2004
..Our aim was to investigate oseltamivir resistance in a group of children treated for influenza...
- Crystal structures of oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus neuraminidase mutants
Patrick J Collins
MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
Nature 453:1258-61. 2008
..7) and H1N1 (ref. 8) viruses with neuraminidases carrying these mutations, our results indicate that it would be prudent for pandemic stockpiles of oseltamivir to be augmented by additional antiviral drugs, including zanamivir...
- Genetic and phenotypic analyses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escape from a small-molecule CCR5 inhibitor
Shawn E Kuhmann
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
J Virol 78:2790-807. 2004
..2-CCR5 cells under conditions where gp120 proteins from the parental virus and a partially AD101-resistant virus bound strongly. Hence, the full impact of the V3 substitutions may only be apparent at the level of the native Env complex...
- Effect of adherence to HAART on virologic outcome and on the selection of resistance-conferring mutations in NNRTI- or PI-treated patients
Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, Italy
HIV Clin Trials 8:282-92. 2007
..The effect of adherence on the risk of virologic failure and mutations selection was verified in a prospective study...
- The hepatitis B virus polymerase mutation rtV173L is selected during lamivudine therapy and enhances viral replication in vitro
William E Delaney
Gilead Sciences Inc, Foster City, California 94404, USA
J Virol 77:11833-41. 2003
..Together, these results suggest that rtV173L is a compensatory mutation that is selected in lamivudine-resistant patients due to an enhanced replication phenotype...
- Herpes simplex virus resistance to antiviral drugs
Laboratory of Virology of the Hospices Civils de Lyon, Domaine Rockefeller, 8 avenue Rockefeller, 69373 Cedex 08, Lyon, France
J Clin Virol 26:29-37. 2003
..A high level of gene polymorphism has also been reported for these genes, especially for TK. These results are useful for the development of rapid genotypic assays for the detection of mutations associated with resistance...
- Adefovir dipivoxil therapy for lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B in pre- and post-liver transplantation patients
Eugene R Schiff
Center for Liver Diseases, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
Hepatology 38:1419-27. 2003
..In conclusion, 48 weeks of adefovir dipivoxil resulted in significant improvements in virologic, biochemical, and clinical parameters in CHB patients pre- and post-LT with lamivudine-resistant HBV...
- HIV recombination: what is the impact on antiretroviral therapy?
Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
J R Soc Interface 2:489-503. 2005
- The structure of H5N1 avian influenza neuraminidase suggests new opportunities for drug design
Rupert J Russell
MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
Nature 443:45-9. 2006
..Our analysis suggests that it may be possible to exploit the size and location of the group-1 cavity to develop new anti-influenza drugs...
- Herpes simplex virus resistance to acyclovir and penciclovir after two decades of antiviral therapy
Teresa H Bacon
GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare, Weybridge, Surrey KT15 0DE, United Kingdom
Clin Microbiol Rev 16:114-28. 2003
..These observations are examined in the light of characteristics of the virus, the drugs, and host factors...
- Recombination in HIV and the evolution of drug resistance: for better or for worse?
Michael T Bretscher
Ecology and Evolution, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Bioessays 26:180-8. 2004
..Contrary to the commonly held belief, we find that, under the most plausible biological assumptions, recombination is expected to slow down the rate of evolution of multi-drug-resistant virus during therapy...
- Amantadine-resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Northern China
Department of Pathophysiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People s Republic of China
Antiviral Res 77:72-6. 2008
..In the investigation of amantadine use, we found that amantadine was used extensively in poultry farms in this area, which maybe was one of reasons of the high amantadine-resistance incidence...
- The CCR5 receptor-based mechanism of action of 873140, a potent allosteric noncompetitive HIV entry inhibitor
Assay Development and Compound Profiling, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
Mol Pharmacol 67:1268-82. 2005
..This idea is discussed in terms of using these drugs sequentially to overcome HIV viral resistance in the clinic...
- Antiviral drug resistance: clinical consequences and molecular aspects
Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Semin Liver Dis 26:162-70. 2006
- Naturally occurring NS3-protease-inhibitor resistant mutant A156T in the liver of an untreated chronic hepatitis C patient
Liver Unit, Department of Medicine, Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
Virology 370:237-45. 2008
..Here we report the presence of the A156T mutation in close to 1% of NS3 sequences within the liver quasispecies of a chronic hepatitis C patient never treated with anti-NS3-protease inhibitors...
- Selection of mutations in the connection and RNase H domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase that increase resistance to 3'-azido-3'-dideoxythymidine
Jessica H Brehm
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, S818 Scaife Hall, 3550 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
J Virol 81:7852-9. 2007
- Neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in influenza: assessing the danger of its generation and spread
Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
PLoS Comput Biol 3:e240. 2007
..Better knowledge of the quantitative dynamics of the immune response during influenza infections will be crucial to further improve the results...
- Estimation of an in vivo fitness landscape experienced by HIV-1 under drug selective pressure useful for prediction of drug resistance evolution during treatment
Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Bioinformatics 24:34-41. 2008
..The method was evaluated for recovering 10 random fictive selective pressures in simulation experiments, and for modeling the selective pressure under treatment with the protease inhibitor nelfinavir...
- Minority quasispecies of drug-resistant HIV-1 that lead to early therapy failure in treatment-naive and -adherent patients
Karin J Metzner
Institute of Clinical and Molecular Virology, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
Clin Infect Dis 48:239-47. 2009
..Therefore, we evaluated the possible role of minority quasispecies of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which are undetectable at baseline by population sequencing, with regard to early virological failure...
- Selection and characterization of HIV-1 showing reduced susceptibility to the non-peptidic protease inhibitor tipranavir
Biological Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd Research and Development, 2100 Cunard Street, Laval, Que, Canada H7S 2G5
Antiviral Res 68:27-35. 2005
..These results demonstrate that the tipranavir resistance phenotype is associated with complex genotypic changes in the protease. Resistance necessitates the sequential accumulation of multiple mutations...
- Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
Vincent C Marconi
Section of Retroviral Therapeutics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Clin Infect Dis 46:1589-97. 2008
..The prevalence of resistance was assessed among patients from KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, following failure of their first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen...
- Low resistance to adefovir combined with lamivudine: a 3-year study of 145 lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B patients
A M and A Migliavacca Center for Liver Disease, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Fondazione Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Gastroenterology 133:1445-51. 2007
..We assessed whether this risk could be overcome by adefovir-lamivudine combination therapy...
- Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz compared with zidovudine/lamivudine and efavirenz in treatment-naive patients: 144-week analysis
Jose R Arribas
Internal Medicine Service, Hospital de La Paz, Madrid, Spain
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:74-8. 2008
..As antiretroviral regimens for the treatment of HIV infection improve, trials providing data on long-term follow-up are increasingly important...
- Oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1), Norway, 2007-08
Siri H Hauge
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
Emerg Infect Dis 15:155-62. 2009
..The ability of these viruses to sustain their fitness and spread among persons should be considered when shaping future strategies for treating and preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza...
- A reverse genetics study of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors in an influenza A/H1N1 virus
Research Center in Infectious Diseases of the CHUQ CHUL, Quebec City, Canada
Antivir Ther 9:577-81. 2004
..The replication capacity of both mutants, in particular that of the His274Tyr virus, was impaired when compared with the wild-type virus in vitro...
- APOBEC3G versus reverse transcriptase in the generation of HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations
AIDS 18:1861-3. 2004
- Incidence of resistance in a double-blind study comparing lopinavir/ritonavir plus stavudine and lamivudine to nelfinavir plus stavudine and lamivudine
Dale J Kempf
Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA
J Infect Dis 189:51-60. 2004
..These differences suggest substantially different genetic and pharmacological barriers to resistance for these 2 protease inhibitors and may have implications for strategies for initiating antiretroviral therapy...
- Effects of monotherapy with (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (PMPA) on the evolution of a primary Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate
Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, BSTWR E1240, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Virology 354:116-31. 2006
..These data suggest a role for intrinsic host factors in treatment responsiveness, and lend support for therapeutic vaccination as an adjunct to effective therapy...
- Drug resistance in HIV-1 protease: Flexibility-assisted mechanism of compensatory mutations
Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, ETH Hönggerberg HCI, Zurich, Switzerland
Protein Sci 11:2393-402. 2002
..We anticipate that this "flexibility-assisted" mechanism might be effective in the vast majority of compensatory mutations, which do not change the electrostatic properties of the enzyme...
- Detection of minor drug-resistant populations by parallel allele-specific sequencing
Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Nat Methods 4:123-5. 2007
..This assay may serve as a useful tool to study drug resistance in HIV and other infectious agents...
- Emergence of drug resistance is associated with an increased risk of death among patients first starting HAART
Robert S Hogg
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
PLoS Med 3:e356. 2006
..The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the emergence of drug-resistance mutations on survival among persons initiating HAART...
- Positive selection detection in 40,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 sequences automatically identifies drug resistance and positive fitness mutations in HIV protease and reverse transcriptase
Molecular Biology Institute, Center for Genomics and Proteomics, Dept of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1570, USA
J Virol 78:3722-32. 2004
..bioinformatics.ucla.edu/HIV. Our data indicate that positive selection mapping is an analysis that can yield powerful insights from high-throughput sequencing of rapidly mutating pathogens...
- Diminished efficiency of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase containing the K65R and M184V drug resistance mutations
Fernando A Frankel
McGill AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
AIDS 21:665-75. 2007
..To determine the underlying biochemical mechanisms responsible for the diminished viral replicative capacity associated with K65R/M184V-containing viruses...
- Emergence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected patients after receipt of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review of clinical trials
Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Clin Infect Dis 47:712-22. 2008
..Resistance to antiretroviral combination therapy is associated with increased mortality. Understanding the relative risks of emerging resistance to first-line therapy is of importance for both resource-rich and resource-poor settings...
- Use of a novel assay based on intact recombinant viruses expressing green (EGFP) or red (DsRed2) fluorescent proteins to examine the contribution of pol and env genes to overall HIV-1 replicative fitness
Department of Molecular Genetics, Section of Virology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
J Virol Methods 136:102-17. 2006
- Should resistance testing be performed for treatment-naive HIV-infected patients? A cost-effectiveness analysis
Paul E Sax
Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Clin Infect Dis 41:1316-23. 2005
..Our objective was to determine the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of genotype resistance testing for treatment-naive patients with chronic HIV infection...
- The emergence of HIV transmitted resistance in Botswana: "when will the WHO detection threshold be exceeded?"
Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
PLoS ONE 2:e152. 2007
..However, the WHO has not determined when this threshold will be reached. Here we model the Botswana government's treatment plan and predict, to 2009, the likely stochastic evolution of transmitted resistance...
- Efficient suppression of minority drug-resistant HIV type 1 (HIV-1) variants present at primary HIV-1 infection by ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy
Karin J Metzner
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
J Infect Dis 201:1063-71. 2010
- Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
Virology 377:401-7. 2008
..The need to preserve NAb resistance may therefore be a constraint upon how escape from CCR5 inhibitors occurs in vivo...
- Transmission of HIV-1 minority-resistant variants and response to first-line antiretroviral therapy
Virology Laboratory, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France
AIDS 22:1417-23. 2008
..We investigated the clinical relevance of the detection of majority and minority-resistant variants in an observational study in antiretroviral therapy naive, recently infected patients...
- Impact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to protease inhibitors on evolution of resistance to the maturation inhibitor bevirimat (PA-457)
Catherine S Adamson
Virus Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, NCI Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
J Virol 83:4884-94. 2009
..These findings offer insights into the effect of PIR mutations on the evolution of BVM resistance in PI-experienced patients...
- New antivirals and drug resistance
Peter M Colman
The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3050
Annu Rev Biochem 78:95-118. 2009
..However, other factors, such as entropy compensation and solvent anchoring, might also be exploited for improved drug design...
- Surveillance for neuraminidase-inhibitor-resistant influenza viruses in Japan, 1996-2007
WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
Antivir Ther 14:751-61. 2009
..High usage of the neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) oseltamivir in Japan since 2003 led the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network to assess the susceptibility of community isolates of influenza viruses to oseltamivir and zanamivir...
- Genetic analysis of HIV type 1 strains from newly infected untreated patients in cyprus: high genetic diversity and low prevalence of drug resistance
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:23-35. 2009
..Taken together, these findings demonstrate that HIV-1 infection in Cyprus is being replenished by a continuous influx of new strains from many countries, establishing an ever-evolving and polyphyletic infection in the island...
- Dynamic patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir-based salvage therapies
Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, Italy
AIDS 23:455-60. 2009
..Evaluate HIV-1 subtype B integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir (RAL)-based savage regimens by clonal analysis of the replicating viral quasispecies...
- Antiretroviral drug resistance among antiretroviral-naïve persons with recent HIV infection in Thailand
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Thammasat University Hospital, Pratumthani, Thailand
HIV Med 9:322-5. 2008
- Gag non-cleavage site mutations contribute to full recovery of viral fitness in protease inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1
AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:444-52. 2004
..Our findings demonstrate a delicate interaction between the in vivo evolution of Gag and protease to evade drug selective pressure and the importance of Gag in evaluating drug-resistant viruses...
- Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1
Ecology and Evolution, ETH Zurich, ETH Zentrum NW, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Science 306:1547-50. 2004
..Using amino acid sequence data and fitness values from 9466 human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolates, we find in contrast to these theories strong statistical evidence for a predominance of positive epistasis in HIV-1...
- The antiretroviral rollout and drug-resistant HIV in Africa: insights from empirical data and theoretical models
AIDS 19:1-14. 2005
..Instead, we recommend that patients should be closely monitored for acquired resistance, and sentinel surveillance (in a few urban centers) should be used to monitor transmitted resistance...
- Strong cell-mediated immune responses are associated with the maintenance of low-level viremia in antiretroviral-treated individuals with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Steven G Deeks
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
J Infect Dis 189:312-21. 2004
..Collectively, these data suggest that the selection of drug-resistance mutations may reduce the pathogenic potential of HIV, which leads to a balanced state of enhanced cellular immunity and low-level viremia...
- Characterization of resistance mutations against HCV ketoamide protease inhibitors
Virology, Schering Plough Research Institute, 2015 Galloping Hill Road, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA
Antiviral Res 77:177-85. 2008
..Changes at V36 and R155 had more severe impact on VX-950, whereas mutations at Q41, F43 and V170 conferred higher resistance to SCH 503034. Structural analysis of resistance mutations on inhibitor binding is discussed...
- Hepatitis B virus mutations associated with antiviral therapy
Victorian Infectious Disease Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
J Med Virol 78:S52-5. 2006
..Clearly, improved treatment strategies are required urgently to prevent the continued selection of HBV drug-resistant mutants...
- Virologic failure in therapy-naive subjects on aplaviroc plus lopinavir-ritonavir: detection of aplaviroc resistance requires clonal analysis of envelope
Kathryn M Kitrinos
GlaxoSmithKline Virology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1124-31. 2009
..Virologic failure during a regimen of aplaviroc and lopinavir-ritonavir may be associated with aplaviroc resistance, only at the clonal level, and/or, infrequently, tropism changes...
- Impact of genotypic drug resistance mutations on clinical and immunological outcomes in HIV-infected adults on HAART in West Africa
INSERM U593, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France
AIDS 21:1157-64. 2007
..To analyse the association between the presence of resistance mutations and treatment outcomes. The impact of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in African adults on HAART has so far never been reported...
- Modeling long-term HIV dynamics and antiretroviral response: effects of drug potency, pharmacokinetics, adherence, and drug resistance
Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:272-83. 2005
..The proposed mathematic models and statistical techniques may provide a framework to simulate and predict antiviral response for individual patients...
- The requirement for surveillance of HIV drug resistance within antiretroviral rollout in the developing world
Diane E Bennett
Global AIDS Program, National Centre for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Curr Opin Infect Dis 19:607-14. 2006
..To describe surveillance measures to inform HIV drug-resistance prevention, as part of the public health approach to antiretroviral therapy in developing countries...
- Long term probability of detection of HIV-1 drug resistance after starting antiretroviral therapy in routine clinical practice
Andrew N Phillips
AIDS 19:487-94. 2005
..Little is known about the long term risk of development of HIV-1 drug resistance for patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with three or four drug regimens in routine clinical practice...
- Quality control trial for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance testing using clinical samples reveals problems with detecting minority species and interpretation of test results
Institute of Clinical and Molecular Virology, German National Reference Centre for Retroviruses, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
J Clin Microbiol 41:3559-65. 2003
..This indicates that a consensus for the interpretation of drug resistance-associated mutations is urgently needed...
- Evolution of drug resistance in HIV-infected patients remaining on a virologically failing combination antiretroviral therapy regimen
Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
AIDS 21:721-32. 2007
..To estimate the extent of drug resistance accumulation in patients kept on a virologically failing regimen and its determinants in the clinical setting...
- High frequency of clinically significant mutations after first-line generic highly active antiretroviral therapy failure: implications for second-line options in resource-limited settings
YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education, VHS, Chennai, India
Clin Infect Dis 49:306-9. 2009
..This study demonstrates a high frequency of drug resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Indians who experience immunologic treatment failure and suggests the need for viral load monitoring...
- Adherence-resistance relationships to combination HIV antiretroviral therapy
David R Bangsberg
San Francisco General Hospital, UCSF, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Building 100, Room 301, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 4:65-72. 2007
..Optimal antiretroviral regimens should be constructed such that there is little overlap in the window of adherence that selects for antiretroviral drug resistance...
- Virologic, immunologic, clinical, safety, and resistance outcomes from a long-term comparison of efavirenz-based versus nevirapine-based antiretroviral regimens as initial therapy in HIV-1-infected persons
Mary van den Berg-Wolf
Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA
HIV Clin Trials 9:324-36. 2008
..To compare long-term virologic, immunologic, and clinical outcomes in antiretroviral-naïve persons starting efavirenz (EFV)- versus nevirapine (NVP)-based regimens...
- Minority human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants in antiretroviral-naive persons with reverse transcriptase codon 215 revertant mutations
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305, USA
J Virol 82:10747-55. 2008
- Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance with the World Health Organization threshold survey method in Lilongwe, Malawi
HIV Unit, Ministry of Health, Lilongwe, Malawi
Antivir Ther 13:83-7. 2008
..Owing to capacity constraints, standard patient care, treatment initiation and follow up are based on World Health Organization (WHO) clinical staging and do not provide laboratory monitoring to assess treatment failure...
- Influenza virus susceptibility and resistance to oseltamivir
Fred Y Aoki
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Antivir Ther 12:603-16. 2007
..However, continued vigilance, especially of emerging avian H5N1 strains, combined with careful, systematic laboratory-based monitoring, is essential...
- Mutations in the E9L polymerase gene of cidofovir-resistant vaccinia virus strain WR are associated with the drug resistance phenotype
Richard S Kornbluth
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0676, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:4038-43. 2006
..These findings suggest that drug therapy for poxviruses may be complicated by drug resistance but that treatment of the infection with currently known compounds is possible...
- Detection of minority populations of HIV-1 expressing the K103N resistance mutation in patients failing nevirapine
INSERM U552, Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris, France
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:37-42. 2005
..These findings support the idea that minority viral populations with distinct resistance genotypes, although undetectable by standard genotyping, can contribute to the failure of salvage regimens...
- Detection of influenza viruses resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors in global surveillance during the first 3 years of their use
Arnold S Monto
University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2395-402. 2006
..The frequency of variants with decreased sensitivity to the NAIs did not increase significantly during this period, but continued surveillance is required, especially in regions with higher NAI use...
- Prevalence and clinical correlates of YMDD variants during lamivudine therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B
Ching Lung Lai
University Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, People s Republic of China
Clin Infect Dis 36:687-96. 2003
..Patients with YMDD variants losing clinical response with a significant increase in the HBV DNA and ALT levels may require additional therapy...
- Structure and mechanism of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus
Jason R Schnell
Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 451:591-5. 2008
..Drug-resistance mutations are predicted to counter the effect of drug binding by either increasing the hydrophilicity of the pore or weakening helix-helix packing, thus facilitating channel opening...
- The G140S mutation in HIV integrases from raltegravir-resistant patients rescues catalytic defect due to the resistance Q148H mutation
LBPA, CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 94235 Cachan, France
Nucleic Acids Res 37:1193-201. 2009
..Altogether, these results account for the predominance of G140S/Q148H mutants in clinical trials using Raltegravir...
- Compensatory mutations at the HIV cleavage sites p7/p1 and p1/p6-gag in therapy-naive and therapy-experienced patients
Institute of Virology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Antivir Ther 11:879-87. 2006
..Protease (PR) cleavage site (CS) mutations could compensate for impaired replication capacity of drug-resistant viruses...
- Algorithms for the interpretation of HIV-1 genotypic drug resistance information
Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Antiviral Res 71:335-42. 2006
..Successful therapy heavily relies on the expertise of the clinician...
- Contribution of H7 haemagglutinin to amantadine resistance and infectivity of influenza virus
Natalia A Ilyushina
Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
J Gen Virol 88:1266-74. 2007
..Our finding reveals that sequence analysis of the transmembrane domain of M2 protein may not adequately identify all drug-resistant variants...
- Response to antiretroviral therapy after a single, peripartum dose of nevirapine
Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
N Engl J Med 356:135-47. 2007
..A single dose of nevirapine during labor reduces perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but often leads to viral nevirapine resistance mutations in mothers and infants...
- Low prevalence of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance in a large UK HIV-1 cohort
Brendan A I Payne
Department of Infection and Travel Medicine, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, UK
J Antimicrob Chemother 62:464-8. 2008
..To describe current practice in testing for transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance (TDR) and the prevalence of TDR in a large UK HIV-1 cohort...
- Analysis of nevirapine (NVP) resistance in Ugandan infants who were HIV infected despite receiving single-Dose (SD) NVP versus SD NVP plus daily NVP up to 6 weeks of age to prevent HIV vertical transmission
Jessica D Church
School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
J Infect Dis 198:1075-82. 2008
..We analyzed NVP resistance in HIV-infected Ugandan infants who received either SD NVP or extended NVP prophylaxis...
- Detection of the rapid emergence of the H275Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance in severe pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1 09 infections
Retroviral Genetics Laboratory, Center for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
Antiviral Res 87:16-21. 2010
..In the light of emerging resistance, close monitoring and understanding of the nature and dynamics of resistance mutations in newly emerging strains should be a priority...
- Energetic analysis of the two controversial drug binding sites of the M2 proton channel in influenza A virus
Qi Shi Du
Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning, Guangxi, China
J Theor Biol 259:159-64. 2009
..The findings reported here may stimulate and encourage new strategies for developing effective drugs against influenza A, particularly in dealing with the drug-resistant problems...
- Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase mutation patterns in 4,183 persons undergoing genotypic resistance testing
Soo Yon Rhee
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3122-6. 2004
..Characterization of the phenotypic and clinical significance of these common patterns may lead to improved treatment recommendations for a large proportion of patients for whom antiretroviral therapy is failing...
- Identification of nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 in the latent reservoir after single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
J Infect Dis 199:1301-9. 2009
..Although resistant viruses fade to undetectable levels in plasma, they may persist as stably integrated proviruses within the latent reservoir in resting CD4(+) T cells, potentially complicating future treatment...
- Polymorphism of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) protease gene and selection of drug resistance mutations in HIV-2-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors
Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris, France
J Clin Microbiol 43:484-7. 2005
..Substitutions selected under treatment were observed at positions corresponding to HIV-1 resistance mutations as well as at positions of currently unknown impact on HIV-1...