viral drug resistance

Summary

Summary: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Characterization of mutation spectra with ultra-deep pyrosequencing: application to HIV-1 drug resistance
    Chunlin Wang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Genome Res 17:1195-201. 2007
  2. doi Low-abundance drug-resistant viral variants in chronically HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-naive patients significantly impact treatment outcomes
    Birgitte B Simen
    454 Life Sciences, a Roche Company, Branford, Connecticut, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:693-701. 2009
  3. ncbi Dynamic hepatitis C virus genotypic and phenotypic changes in patients treated with the protease inhibitor telaprevir
    Christoph Sarrazin
    Klinik fur Innere Medizin II, Universitat des Saarlandes, Homburg Saar, Germany
    Gastroenterology 132:1767-77. 2007
  4. ncbi Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial
    Joel E Gallant
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    JAMA 292:191-201. 2004
  5. ncbi HIV evolutionary dynamics within and among hosts
    Philippe Lemey
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    AIDS Rev 8:125-40. 2006
  6. ncbi Antiviral drug-resistant HBV: standardization of nomenclature and assays and recommendations for management
    Anna S Lok
    Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0362, USA
    Hepatology 46:254-65. 2007
  7. pmc Minority HIV-1 drug resistance mutations are present in antiretroviral treatment-naïve populations and associate with reduced treatment efficacy
    Jeffrey A Johnson
    Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Med 5:e158. 2008
  8. pmc Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection
    Sharon A Riddler
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:2095-106. 2008
  9. pmc Drug resistance mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance: 2009 update
    Diane E Bennett
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 4:e4724. 2009
  10. ncbi Predictors of long-term viral failure among ugandan children and adults treated with antiretroviral therapy
    Moses R Kamya
    Department of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:187-93. 2007

Detail Information

Publications243 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Characterization of mutation spectra with ultra-deep pyrosequencing: application to HIV-1 drug resistance
    Chunlin Wang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Genome Res 17:1195-201. 2007
    ..With appropriate analysis, ultra-deep pyrosequencing is a promising method for characterizing genetic diversity and detecting minor yet clinically relevant variants in biological samples with complex genetic populations...
  2. doi Low-abundance drug-resistant viral variants in chronically HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-naive patients significantly impact treatment outcomes
    Birgitte B Simen
    454 Life Sciences, a Roche Company, Branford, Connecticut, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:693-701. 2009
    ..Minor (i.e., <20% prevalence) drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) variants may go undetected, yet be clinically important...
  3. ncbi Dynamic hepatitis C virus genotypic and phenotypic changes in patients treated with the protease inhibitor telaprevir
    Christoph Sarrazin
    Klinik fur Innere Medizin II, Universitat des Saarlandes, Homburg Saar, Germany
    Gastroenterology 132:1767-77. 2007
    ..4A protease inhibitor, has shown strong antiviral activity in phase 1 clinical studies. Because of high levels of HCV replication and the low fidelity of HCV polymerase, selection of resistant isolates during therapy may occur...
  4. ncbi Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial
    Joel E Gallant
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    JAMA 292:191-201. 2004
    ..Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a once-daily nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor...
  5. ncbi HIV evolutionary dynamics within and among hosts
    Philippe Lemey
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    AIDS Rev 8:125-40. 2006
    ..Characterizing the impact of HIV transmission on viral genetic diversity will be a key factor in reconciling the different population genetic processes within and among hosts...
  6. ncbi Antiviral drug-resistant HBV: standardization of nomenclature and assays and recommendations for management
    Anna S Lok
    Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0362, USA
    Hepatology 46:254-65. 2007
    ..Thus, there is a need to standardize nomenclature relating to hepatitis B antiviral resistance, and to define genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical resistance to NA therapy...
  7. pmc Minority HIV-1 drug resistance mutations are present in antiretroviral treatment-naïve populations and associate with reduced treatment efficacy
    Jeffrey A Johnson
    Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Med 5:e158. 2008
    ..We used sensitive and simple tests to investigate evidence of transmitted drug resistance in antiretroviral drug-naïve persons and assess the clinical implications of minority drug-resistant variants...
  8. pmc Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection
    Sharon A Riddler
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:2095-106. 2008
    ..The alternative regimen of lopinavir-ritonavir plus efavirenz may prevent toxic effects associated with NRTIs...
  9. pmc Drug resistance mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance: 2009 update
    Diane E Bennett
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 4:e4724. 2009
    ..The updated SDRM list has 93 mutations including 34 NRTI-resistance mutations at 15 RT positions, 19 NNRTI-resistance mutations at 10 RT positions, and 40 PI-resistance mutations at 18 protease positions...
  10. ncbi Predictors of long-term viral failure among ugandan children and adults treated with antiretroviral therapy
    Moses R Kamya
    Department of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:187-93. 2007
    ..We identified predictors of viral failure and documented genotypic mutations in a subset of patients with viral failure after 12 months on antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  11. doi Infections with oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) virus in the United States
    Nila J Dharan
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Office of Workforce and Career Development Assigned to Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, MS A 32, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 301:1034-41. 2009
    ..Early surveillance data suggest that the prevalence of oseltamivir resistance among A(H1N1) viruses will most likely be higher during the 2008-2009 season...
  12. pmc Reduced maximal inhibition in phenotypic susceptibility assays indicates that viral strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc utilize inhibitor-bound receptor for entry
    Mike Westby
    Globel Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Sandwich Labs, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, Kent CT13 9NJ, United Kingdom
    J Virol 81:2359-71. 2007
    ..This hypothesis was further corroborated by the observation that a high concentration of maraviroc blocks the activity of aplaviroc against maraviroc-resistant virus...
  13. ncbi Recommendations for surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in countries scaling up antiretroviral treatment
    Diane E Bennett
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Antivir Ther 13:25-36. 2008
    ..Transmitted drug resistant HIV strains will be seen first in cities or health districts where antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been widely available for years. WHO recommends countries begin surveillance in these areas...
  14. ncbi Resistance to adefovir dipivoxil therapy associated with the selection of a novel mutation in the HBV polymerase
    Peter Angus
    Austin Hospital, Studley Road, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084, Australia
    Gastroenterology 125:292-7. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize adefovir resistance in a patient who developed clinical and virologic evidence of breakthrough during a 96-week course of treatment...
  15. pmc Amino acid mutation N348I in the connection subdomain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase confers multiclass resistance to nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Atsuko Hachiya
    Laboratory of Virus Immunology, Research Center for AIDS, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53, Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Virol 82:3261-70. 2008
    ..Our results further highlight the role of connection subdomain residues in drug resistance...
  16. ncbi The World Health Organization's global strategy for prevention and assessment of HIV drug resistance
    Diane E Bennett
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Antivir Ther 13:1-13. 2008
    ..As of December 2007, 25 countries were planning or implementing the strategy; seven countries report results in this supplement...
  17. ncbi A V106M mutation in HIV-1 clade C viruses exposed to efavirenz confers cross-resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Bluma Brenner
    McGill University AIDS Centre, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    AIDS 17:F1-5. 2003
    ..This study evaluates the prevalence of V106 (GTG) and 106M (ATG) codons in clinical isolates as well as the effects of V106M on resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)...
  18. ncbi Long-term benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Senegalese HIV-1-infected adults
    Christian Laurent
    Institut de Recherche pour le Développement and Department of International Health, University of Montpellier UMR 145, France
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:14-7. 2005
    ....
  19. pmc Maraviroc for previously treated patients with R5 HIV-1 infection
    Roy M Gulick
    Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:1429-41. 2008
    ..CC chemokine receptor 5 antagonists are a new class of antiretroviral agents...
  20. ncbi Resistant influenza A viruses in children treated with oseltamivir: descriptive study
    Maki Kiso
    Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Lancet 364:759-65. 2004
    ..Our aim was to investigate oseltamivir resistance in a group of children treated for influenza...
  21. doi Crystal structures of oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus neuraminidase mutants
    Patrick J Collins
    MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Nature 453:1258-61. 2008
    ..7) and H1N1 (ref. 8) viruses with neuraminidases carrying these mutations, our results indicate that it would be prudent for pandemic stockpiles of oseltamivir to be augmented by additional antiviral drugs, including zanamivir...
  22. pmc Genetic and phenotypic analyses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escape from a small-molecule CCR5 inhibitor
    Shawn E Kuhmann
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Virol 78:2790-807. 2004
    ..2-CCR5 cells under conditions where gp120 proteins from the parental virus and a partially AD101-resistant virus bound strongly. Hence, the full impact of the V3 substitutions may only be apparent at the level of the native Env complex...
  23. ncbi Effect of adherence to HAART on virologic outcome and on the selection of resistance-conferring mutations in NNRTI- or PI-treated patients
    Franco Maggiolo
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, Italy
    HIV Clin Trials 8:282-92. 2007
    ..The effect of adherence on the risk of virologic failure and mutations selection was verified in a prospective study...
  24. pmc The hepatitis B virus polymerase mutation rtV173L is selected during lamivudine therapy and enhances viral replication in vitro
    William E Delaney
    Gilead Sciences Inc, Foster City, California 94404, USA
    J Virol 77:11833-41. 2003
    ..Together, these results suggest that rtV173L is a compensatory mutation that is selected in lamivudine-resistant patients due to an enhanced replication phenotype...
  25. ncbi Herpes simplex virus resistance to antiviral drugs
    Florence Morfin
    Laboratory of Virology of the Hospices Civils de Lyon, Domaine Rockefeller, 8 avenue Rockefeller, 69373 Cedex 08, Lyon, France
    J Clin Virol 26:29-37. 2003
    ..A high level of gene polymorphism has also been reported for these genes, especially for TK. These results are useful for the development of rapid genotypic assays for the detection of mutations associated with resistance...
  26. ncbi Adefovir dipivoxil therapy for lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B in pre- and post-liver transplantation patients
    Eugene R Schiff
    Center for Liver Diseases, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Hepatology 38:1419-27. 2003
    ..In conclusion, 48 weeks of adefovir dipivoxil resulted in significant improvements in virologic, biochemical, and clinical parameters in CHB patients pre- and post-LT with lamivudine-resistant HBV...
  27. pmc HIV recombination: what is the impact on antiretroviral therapy?
    Christophe Fraser
    Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J R Soc Interface 2:489-503. 2005
    ....
  28. ncbi The structure of H5N1 avian influenza neuraminidase suggests new opportunities for drug design
    Rupert J Russell
    MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Nature 443:45-9. 2006
    ..Our analysis suggests that it may be possible to exploit the size and location of the group-1 cavity to develop new anti-influenza drugs...
  29. pmc Herpes simplex virus resistance to acyclovir and penciclovir after two decades of antiviral therapy
    Teresa H Bacon
    GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare, Weybridge, Surrey KT15 0DE, United Kingdom
    Clin Microbiol Rev 16:114-28. 2003
    ..These observations are examined in the light of characteristics of the virus, the drugs, and host factors...
  30. ncbi Recombination in HIV and the evolution of drug resistance: for better or for worse?
    Michael T Bretscher
    Ecology and Evolution, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
    Bioessays 26:180-8. 2004
    ..Contrary to the commonly held belief, we find that, under the most plausible biological assumptions, recombination is expected to slow down the rate of evolution of multi-drug-resistant virus during therapy...
  31. ncbi Amantadine-resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in Northern China
    Guimei He
    Department of Pathophysiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People s Republic of China
    Antiviral Res 77:72-6. 2008
    ..In the investigation of amantadine use, we found that amantadine was used extensively in poultry farms in this area, which maybe was one of reasons of the high amantadine-resistance incidence...
  32. ncbi The CCR5 receptor-based mechanism of action of 873140, a potent allosteric noncompetitive HIV entry inhibitor
    Christian Watson
    Assay Development and Compound Profiling, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 67:1268-82. 2005
    ..This idea is discussed in terms of using these drugs sequentially to overcome HIV viral resistance in the clinic...
  33. ncbi Antiviral drug resistance: clinical consequences and molecular aspects
    Angeline Bartholomeusz
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Semin Liver Dis 26:162-70. 2006
    ....
  34. ncbi Naturally occurring NS3-protease-inhibitor resistant mutant A156T in the liver of an untreated chronic hepatitis C patient
    Maria Cubero
    Liver Unit, Department of Medicine, Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
    Virology 370:237-45. 2008
    ..Here we report the presence of the A156T mutation in close to 1% of NS3 sequences within the liver quasispecies of a chronic hepatitis C patient never treated with anti-NS3-protease inhibitors...
  35. pmc Selection of mutations in the connection and RNase H domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase that increase resistance to 3'-azido-3'-dideoxythymidine
    Jessica H Brehm
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, S818 Scaife Hall, 3550 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Virol 81:7852-9. 2007
    ....
  36. pmc Neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in influenza: assessing the danger of its generation and spread
    Andreas Handel
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 3:e240. 2007
    ..Better knowledge of the quantitative dynamics of the immune response during influenza infections will be crucial to further improve the results...
  37. ncbi Estimation of an in vivo fitness landscape experienced by HIV-1 under drug selective pressure useful for prediction of drug resistance evolution during treatment
    K Deforche
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Bioinformatics 24:34-41. 2008
    ..The method was evaluated for recovering 10 random fictive selective pressures in simulation experiments, and for modeling the selective pressure under treatment with the protease inhibitor nelfinavir...
  38. doi Minority quasispecies of drug-resistant HIV-1 that lead to early therapy failure in treatment-naive and -adherent patients
    Karin J Metzner
    Institute of Clinical and Molecular Virology, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Clin Infect Dis 48:239-47. 2009
    ..Therefore, we evaluated the possible role of minority quasispecies of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which are undetectable at baseline by population sequencing, with regard to early virological failure...
  39. ncbi Selection and characterization of HIV-1 showing reduced susceptibility to the non-peptidic protease inhibitor tipranavir
    Louise Doyon
    Biological Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd Research and Development, 2100 Cunard Street, Laval, Que, Canada H7S 2G5
    Antiviral Res 68:27-35. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that the tipranavir resistance phenotype is associated with complex genotypic changes in the protease. Resistance necessitates the sequential accumulation of multiple mutations...
  40. pmc Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
    Vincent C Marconi
    Section of Retroviral Therapeutics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1589-97. 2008
    ..The prevalence of resistance was assessed among patients from KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, following failure of their first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen...
  41. ncbi Low resistance to adefovir combined with lamivudine: a 3-year study of 145 lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B patients
    Pietro Lampertico
    A M and A Migliavacca Center for Liver Disease, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Fondazione Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Gastroenterology 133:1445-51. 2007
    ..We assessed whether this risk could be overcome by adefovir-lamivudine combination therapy...
  42. ncbi Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz compared with zidovudine/lamivudine and efavirenz in treatment-naive patients: 144-week analysis
    Jose R Arribas
    Internal Medicine Service, Hospital de La Paz, Madrid, Spain
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:74-8. 2008
    ..As antiretroviral regimens for the treatment of HIV infection improve, trials providing data on long-term follow-up are increasingly important...
  43. pmc Oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1), Norway, 2007-08
    Siri H Hauge
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:155-62. 2009
    ..The ability of these viruses to sustain their fitness and spread among persons should be considered when shaping future strategies for treating and preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza...
  44. ncbi A reverse genetics study of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors in an influenza A/H1N1 virus
    Yacine Abed
    Research Center in Infectious Diseases of the CHUQ CHUL, Quebec City, Canada
    Antivir Ther 9:577-81. 2004
    ..The replication capacity of both mutants, in particular that of the His274Tyr virus, was impaired when compared with the wild-type virus in vitro...
  45. ncbi APOBEC3G versus reverse transcriptase in the generation of HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations
    Ben Berkhout
    AIDS 18:1861-3. 2004
  46. ncbi Incidence of resistance in a double-blind study comparing lopinavir/ritonavir plus stavudine and lamivudine to nelfinavir plus stavudine and lamivudine
    Dale J Kempf
    Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:51-60. 2004
    ..These differences suggest substantially different genetic and pharmacological barriers to resistance for these 2 protease inhibitors and may have implications for strategies for initiating antiretroviral therapy...
  47. ncbi Effects of monotherapy with (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (PMPA) on the evolution of a primary Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate
    Rachel Taber
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, BSTWR E1240, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Virology 354:116-31. 2006
    ..These data suggest a role for intrinsic host factors in treatment responsiveness, and lend support for therapeutic vaccination as an adjunct to effective therapy...
  48. pmc Drug resistance in HIV-1 protease: Flexibility-assisted mechanism of compensatory mutations
    Stefano Piana
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, ETH Hönggerberg HCI, Zurich, Switzerland
    Protein Sci 11:2393-402. 2002
    ..We anticipate that this "flexibility-assisted" mechanism might be effective in the vast majority of compensatory mutations, which do not change the electrostatic properties of the enzyme...
  49. ncbi Detection of minor drug-resistant populations by parallel allele-specific sequencing
    Fangping Cai
    Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Methods 4:123-5. 2007
    ..This assay may serve as a useful tool to study drug resistance in HIV and other infectious agents...
  50. pmc Emergence of drug resistance is associated with an increased risk of death among patients first starting HAART
    Robert S Hogg
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    PLoS Med 3:e356. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the emergence of drug-resistance mutations on survival among persons initiating HAART...
  51. pmc Positive selection detection in 40,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 sequences automatically identifies drug resistance and positive fitness mutations in HIV protease and reverse transcriptase
    Lamei Chen
    Molecular Biology Institute, Center for Genomics and Proteomics, Dept of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1570, USA
    J Virol 78:3722-32. 2004
    ..bioinformatics.ucla.edu/HIV. Our data indicate that positive selection mapping is an analysis that can yield powerful insights from high-throughput sequencing of rapidly mutating pathogens...
  52. ncbi Diminished efficiency of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase containing the K65R and M184V drug resistance mutations
    Fernando A Frankel
    McGill AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    AIDS 21:665-75. 2007
    ..To determine the underlying biochemical mechanisms responsible for the diminished viral replicative capacity associated with K65R/M184V-containing viruses...
  53. ncbi Emergence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected patients after receipt of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review of clinical trials
    Ravindra Gupta
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 47:712-22. 2008
    ..Resistance to antiretroviral combination therapy is associated with increased mortality. Understanding the relative risks of emerging resistance to first-line therapy is of importance for both resource-rich and resource-poor settings...
  54. ncbi Use of a novel assay based on intact recombinant viruses expressing green (EGFP) or red (DsRed2) fluorescent proteins to examine the contribution of pol and env genes to overall HIV-1 replicative fitness
    Jan Weber
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Section of Virology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Virol Methods 136:102-17. 2006
    ....
  55. ncbi Should resistance testing be performed for treatment-naive HIV-infected patients? A cost-effectiveness analysis
    Paul E Sax
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1316-23. 2005
    ..Our objective was to determine the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of genotype resistance testing for treatment-naive patients with chronic HIV infection...
  56. pmc The emergence of HIV transmitted resistance in Botswana: "when will the WHO detection threshold be exceeded?"
    Raffaele Vardavas
    Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e152. 2007
    ..However, the WHO has not determined when this threshold will be reached. Here we model the Botswana government's treatment plan and predict, to 2009, the likely stochastic evolution of transmitted resistance...
  57. doi Efficient suppression of minority drug-resistant HIV type 1 (HIV-1) variants present at primary HIV-1 infection by ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy
    Karin J Metzner
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Infect Dis 201:1063-71. 2010
    ....
  58. pmc Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors
    Pavel Pugach
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Virology 377:401-7. 2008
    ..The need to preserve NAb resistance may therefore be a constraint upon how escape from CCR5 inhibitors occurs in vivo...
  59. doi Transmission of HIV-1 minority-resistant variants and response to first-line antiretroviral therapy
    Olivia Peuchant
    Virology Laboratory, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France
    AIDS 22:1417-23. 2008
    ..We investigated the clinical relevance of the detection of majority and minority-resistant variants in an observational study in antiretroviral therapy naive, recently infected patients...
  60. pmc Impact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to protease inhibitors on evolution of resistance to the maturation inhibitor bevirimat (PA-457)
    Catherine S Adamson
    Virus Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, NCI Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 83:4884-94. 2009
    ..These findings offer insights into the effect of PIR mutations on the evolution of BVM resistance in PI-experienced patients...
  61. doi New antivirals and drug resistance
    Peter M Colman
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3050
    Annu Rev Biochem 78:95-118. 2009
    ..However, other factors, such as entropy compensation and solvent anchoring, might also be exploited for improved drug design...
  62. ncbi Surveillance for neuraminidase-inhibitor-resistant influenza viruses in Japan, 1996-2007
    Masato Tashiro
    WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
    Antivir Ther 14:751-61. 2009
    ..High usage of the neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) oseltamivir in Japan since 2003 led the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network to assess the susceptibility of community isolates of influenza viruses to oseltamivir and zanamivir...
  63. doi Genetic analysis of HIV type 1 strains from newly infected untreated patients in cyprus: high genetic diversity and low prevalence of drug resistance
    Ioanna Kousiappa
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:23-35. 2009
    ..Taken together, these findings demonstrate that HIV-1 infection in Cyprus is being replenished by a continuous influx of new strains from many countries, establishing an ever-evolving and polyphyletic infection in the island...
  64. ncbi Dynamic patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir-based salvage therapies
    Filippo Canducci
    Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, Italy
    AIDS 23:455-60. 2009
    ..Evaluate HIV-1 subtype B integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir (RAL)-based savage regimens by clonal analysis of the replicating viral quasispecies...
  65. doi Antiretroviral drug resistance among antiretroviral-naïve persons with recent HIV infection in Thailand
    A Apisarnthanarak
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Thammasat University Hospital, Pratumthani, Thailand
    HIV Med 9:322-5. 2008
    ....
  66. pmc Gag non-cleavage site mutations contribute to full recovery of viral fitness in protease inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Lay Myint
    AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:444-52. 2004
    ..Our findings demonstrate a delicate interaction between the in vivo evolution of Gag and protease to evade drug selective pressure and the importance of Gag in evaluating drug-resistant viruses...
  67. ncbi Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1
    Sebastian Bonhoeffer
    Ecology and Evolution, ETH Zurich, ETH Zentrum NW, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 306:1547-50. 2004
    ..Using amino acid sequence data and fitness values from 9466 human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolates, we find in contrast to these theories strong statistical evidence for a predominance of positive epistasis in HIV-1...
  68. ncbi The antiretroviral rollout and drug-resistant HIV in Africa: insights from empirical data and theoretical models
    Sally Blower
    AIDS 19:1-14. 2005
    ..Instead, we recommend that patients should be closely monitored for acquired resistance, and sentinel surveillance (in a few urban centers) should be used to monitor transmitted resistance...
  69. ncbi Strong cell-mediated immune responses are associated with the maintenance of low-level viremia in antiretroviral-treated individuals with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Steven G Deeks
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:312-21. 2004
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that the selection of drug-resistance mutations may reduce the pathogenic potential of HIV, which leads to a balanced state of enhanced cellular immunity and low-level viremia...
  70. doi Characterization of resistance mutations against HCV ketoamide protease inhibitors
    Xiao Tong
    Virology, Schering Plough Research Institute, 2015 Galloping Hill Road, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA
    Antiviral Res 77:177-85. 2008
    ..Changes at V36 and R155 had more severe impact on VX-950, whereas mutations at Q41, F43 and V170 conferred higher resistance to SCH 503034. Structural analysis of resistance mutations on inhibitor binding is discussed...
  71. ncbi Hepatitis B virus mutations associated with antiviral therapy
    A Bartholomeusz
    Victorian Infectious Disease Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Australia
    J Med Virol 78:S52-5. 2006
    ..Clearly, improved treatment strategies are required urgently to prevent the continued selection of HBV drug-resistant mutants...
  72. pmc Virologic failure in therapy-naive subjects on aplaviroc plus lopinavir-ritonavir: detection of aplaviroc resistance requires clonal analysis of envelope
    Kathryn M Kitrinos
    GlaxoSmithKline Virology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1124-31. 2009
    ..Virologic failure during a regimen of aplaviroc and lopinavir-ritonavir may be associated with aplaviroc resistance, only at the clonal level, and/or, infrequently, tropism changes...
  73. pmc Impact of genotypic drug resistance mutations on clinical and immunological outcomes in HIV-infected adults on HAART in West Africa
    Catherine Seyler
    INSERM U593, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France
    AIDS 21:1157-64. 2007
    ..To analyse the association between the presence of resistance mutations and treatment outcomes. The impact of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in African adults on HAART has so far never been reported...
  74. ncbi Modeling long-term HIV dynamics and antiretroviral response: effects of drug potency, pharmacokinetics, adherence, and drug resistance
    Hulin Wu
    Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:272-83. 2005
    ..The proposed mathematic models and statistical techniques may provide a framework to simulate and predict antiviral response for individual patients...
  75. ncbi The requirement for surveillance of HIV drug resistance within antiretroviral rollout in the developing world
    Diane E Bennett
    Global AIDS Program, National Centre for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 19:607-14. 2006
    ..To describe surveillance measures to inform HIV drug-resistance prevention, as part of the public health approach to antiretroviral therapy in developing countries...
  76. ncbi Long term probability of detection of HIV-1 drug resistance after starting antiretroviral therapy in routine clinical practice
    Andrew N Phillips
    AIDS 19:487-94. 2005
    ..Little is known about the long term risk of development of HIV-1 drug resistance for patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with three or four drug regimens in routine clinical practice...
  77. pmc Quality control trial for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance testing using clinical samples reveals problems with detecting minority species and interpretation of test results
    Klaus Korn
    Institute of Clinical and Molecular Virology, German National Reference Centre for Retroviruses, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 41:3559-65. 2003
    ..This indicates that a consensus for the interpretation of drug resistance-associated mutations is urgently needed...
  78. ncbi Evolution of drug resistance in HIV-infected patients remaining on a virologically failing combination antiretroviral therapy regimen
    Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri
    Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    AIDS 21:721-32. 2007
    ..To estimate the extent of drug resistance accumulation in patients kept on a virologically failing regimen and its determinants in the clinical setting...
  79. doi High frequency of clinically significant mutations after first-line generic highly active antiretroviral therapy failure: implications for second-line options in resource-limited settings
    N Kumarasamy
    YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education, VHS, Chennai, India
    Clin Infect Dis 49:306-9. 2009
    ..This study demonstrates a high frequency of drug resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Indians who experience immunologic treatment failure and suggests the need for viral load monitoring...
  80. ncbi Adherence-resistance relationships to combination HIV antiretroviral therapy
    David R Bangsberg
    San Francisco General Hospital, UCSF, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Building 100, Room 301, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 4:65-72. 2007
    ..Optimal antiretroviral regimens should be constructed such that there is little overlap in the window of adherence that selects for antiretroviral drug resistance...
  81. doi Virologic, immunologic, clinical, safety, and resistance outcomes from a long-term comparison of efavirenz-based versus nevirapine-based antiretroviral regimens as initial therapy in HIV-1-infected persons
    Mary van den Berg-Wolf
    Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA
    HIV Clin Trials 9:324-36. 2008
    ..To compare long-term virologic, immunologic, and clinical outcomes in antiretroviral-naïve persons starting efavirenz (EFV)- versus nevirapine (NVP)-based regimens...
  82. pmc Minority human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants in antiretroviral-naive persons with reverse transcriptase codon 215 revertant mutations
    Yumi Mitsuya
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Virol 82:10747-55. 2008
    ....
  83. ncbi Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance with the World Health Organization threshold survey method in Lilongwe, Malawi
    Kelita Kamoto
    HIV Unit, Ministry of Health, Lilongwe, Malawi
    Antivir Ther 13:83-7. 2008
    ..Owing to capacity constraints, standard patient care, treatment initiation and follow up are based on World Health Organization (WHO) clinical staging and do not provide laboratory monitoring to assess treatment failure...
  84. ncbi Influenza virus susceptibility and resistance to oseltamivir
    Fred Y Aoki
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
    Antivir Ther 12:603-16. 2007
    ..However, continued vigilance, especially of emerging avian H5N1 strains, combined with careful, systematic laboratory-based monitoring, is essential...
  85. pmc Mutations in the E9L polymerase gene of cidofovir-resistant vaccinia virus strain WR are associated with the drug resistance phenotype
    Richard S Kornbluth
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0676, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:4038-43. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that drug therapy for poxviruses may be complicated by drug resistance but that treatment of the infection with currently known compounds is possible...
  86. ncbi Detection of minority populations of HIV-1 expressing the K103N resistance mutation in patients failing nevirapine
    Denise Lecossier
    INSERM U552, Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris, France
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:37-42. 2005
    ..These findings support the idea that minority viral populations with distinct resistance genotypes, although undetectable by standard genotyping, can contribute to the failure of salvage regimens...
  87. pmc Detection of influenza viruses resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors in global surveillance during the first 3 years of their use
    Arnold S Monto
    University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2395-402. 2006
    ..The frequency of variants with decreased sensitivity to the NAIs did not increase significantly during this period, but continued surveillance is required, especially in regions with higher NAI use...
  88. ncbi Prevalence and clinical correlates of YMDD variants during lamivudine therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B
    Ching Lung Lai
    University Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, People s Republic of China
    Clin Infect Dis 36:687-96. 2003
    ..Patients with YMDD variants losing clinical response with a significant increase in the HBV DNA and ALT levels may require additional therapy...
  89. pmc Structure and mechanism of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus
    Jason R Schnell
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 451:591-5. 2008
    ..Drug-resistance mutations are predicted to counter the effect of drug binding by either increasing the hydrophilicity of the pore or weakening helix-helix packing, thus facilitating channel opening...
  90. pmc The G140S mutation in HIV integrases from raltegravir-resistant patients rescues catalytic defect due to the resistance Q148H mutation
    Olivier Delelis
    LBPA, CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 94235 Cachan, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:1193-201. 2009
    ..Altogether, these results account for the predominance of G140S/Q148H mutants in clinical trials using Raltegravir...
  91. ncbi Compensatory mutations at the HIV cleavage sites p7/p1 and p1/p6-gag in therapy-naive and therapy-experienced patients
    Jens Verheyen
    Institute of Virology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    Antivir Ther 11:879-87. 2006
    ..Protease (PR) cleavage site (CS) mutations could compensate for impaired replication capacity of drug-resistant viruses...
  92. ncbi Algorithms for the interpretation of HIV-1 genotypic drug resistance information
    Jurgen Vercauteren
    Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 71:335-42. 2006
    ..Successful therapy heavily relies on the expertise of the clinician...
  93. ncbi Contribution of H7 haemagglutinin to amantadine resistance and infectivity of influenza virus
    Natalia A Ilyushina
    Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    J Gen Virol 88:1266-74. 2007
    ..Our finding reveals that sequence analysis of the transmembrane domain of M2 protein may not adequately identify all drug-resistant variants...
  94. ncbi Response to antiretroviral therapy after a single, peripartum dose of nevirapine
    Shahin Lockman
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:135-47. 2007
    ..A single dose of nevirapine during labor reduces perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but often leads to viral nevirapine resistance mutations in mothers and infants...
  95. ncbi Low prevalence of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance in a large UK HIV-1 cohort
    Brendan A I Payne
    Department of Infection and Travel Medicine, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:464-8. 2008
    ..To describe current practice in testing for transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance (TDR) and the prevalence of TDR in a large UK HIV-1 cohort...
  96. pmc Analysis of nevirapine (NVP) resistance in Ugandan infants who were HIV infected despite receiving single-Dose (SD) NVP versus SD NVP plus daily NVP up to 6 weeks of age to prevent HIV vertical transmission
    Jessica D Church
    School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:1075-82. 2008
    ..We analyzed NVP resistance in HIV-infected Ugandan infants who received either SD NVP or extended NVP prophylaxis...
  97. ncbi Detection of the rapid emergence of the H275Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance in severe pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1 09 infections
    Bin Wang
    Retroviral Genetics Laboratory, Center for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
    Antiviral Res 87:16-21. 2010
    ..In the light of emerging resistance, close monitoring and understanding of the nature and dynamics of resistance mutations in newly emerging strains should be a priority...
  98. doi Energetic analysis of the two controversial drug binding sites of the M2 proton channel in influenza A virus
    Qi Shi Du
    Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning, Guangxi, China
    J Theor Biol 259:159-64. 2009
    ..The findings reported here may stimulate and encourage new strategies for developing effective drugs against influenza A, particularly in dealing with the drug-resistant problems...
  99. pmc Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase mutation patterns in 4,183 persons undergoing genotypic resistance testing
    Soo Yon Rhee
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3122-6. 2004
    ..Characterization of the phenotypic and clinical significance of these common patterns may lead to improved treatment recommendations for a large proportion of patients for whom antiretroviral therapy is failing...
  100. pmc Identification of nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 in the latent reservoir after single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1
    Megan Wind-Rotolo
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:1301-9. 2009
    ..Although resistant viruses fade to undetectable levels in plasma, they may persist as stably integrated proviruses within the latent reservoir in resting CD4(+) T cells, potentially complicating future treatment...
  101. pmc Polymorphism of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) protease gene and selection of drug resistance mutations in HIV-2-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors
    F Damond
    Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 43:484-7. 2005
    ..Substitutions selected under treatment were observed at positions corresponding to HIV-1 resistance mutations as well as at positions of currently unknown impact on HIV-1...

Research Grants85

  1. ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Detailed understanding of the genetic mechanisms of resistance will improve the design of suitable new drug structures and antiviral targets. ..
  2. A novel assay for inhibitors of influenza A virus polymerase complex assembly
    Feng Li; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Successful completion of the proposed research will help identify and design additional anti-influenza inhibitors that will provide additional treatment options and improve disease outcome. ..
  3. A novel assay for inhibitors of influenza A virus polymerase complex assembly
    Feng Li; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Successful completion of the proposed research will help identify and design additional anti-influenza inhibitors that will provide additional treatment options and improve disease outcome. ..
  4. ACTG328 RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERLEUKIN 2--IV OR SUBCUTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION
    Elizabeth Connick; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..A subset of subjects will be evaluated for the effect of rhIL-2 on immune cell phenotypes and function and HIV viral load and on rate of development of antiviral drug resistance. ..
  5. ACTG328 RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERLEUKIN 2--IV OR SUBCUTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION
    Elizabeth Connick; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..A subset of subjects will be evaluated for the effect of rhIL-2 on immune cell phenotypes and function and HIV viral load and on rate of development of antiviral drug resistance. ..
  6. Discovery and Optimization of Novel Integrase Inhibitors as Anti-HIV Agents
    John K Buolamwini; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..severe toxicities, unable to control viral replication in some patients, and are rendered in effective by viral drug resistance. The absolute requirement of the integrase enzyme for HIV replication, and the fact that it has no host ..
  7. Discovery and Optimization of Novel Integrase Inhibitors as Anti-HIV Agents
    John Buolamwini; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..severe toxicities, unable to control viral replication in some patients, and are rendered in effective by viral drug resistance. The absolute requirement of the integrase enzyme for HIV replication, and the fact that it has no host ..
  8. CMV RETINITIS AND VIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE
    DOUGLAS JABS; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The' study will determine: 1) the incidence and prevalence of resistant CMV; 2) risk factors for the development of resistant CMV (e.g. duration of anti-CMV therapy); and 3) the relationship between viral resistance and clinical outcome...
  9. Hepatitis B Clinical Research Network Clinical Center: Michigan-Hawaii consortium
    Anna Lok; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Clinical trials on other important topics such as treatment of patients in the immune tolerance phase and optimal management of patients with antiviral-resistant HBV are also discussed. ..
  10. Hepatitis B Clinical Research Network Clinical Center: Michigan-Hawaii consortium
    Anna Sf Lok; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Clinical trials on other important topics such as treatment of patients in the immune tolerance phase and optimal management of patients with antiviral-resistant HBV are also discussed. ..
  11. IV OR SQRHIL2 IN HIV INFECTED SUBJECTS ON HAART
    Carol Dukes Hamilton; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Significance: Improvement in immune function remains an illusive goal for many patients with HIV infection. This study will aid in developing immune restorative therapies for patients with HIV infection. ..
  12. Control of HIV drug resistance in older patients
    Alonso Heredia; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For elderly HIV patients failing HIV treatment due to viral drug resistance, the newly developed CCR5 antagonists represent an attractive treatment option because they are active ..
  13. Control of HIV drug resistance in older patients
    Alonso Heredia; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..For elderly HIV patients failing HIV treatment due to viral drug resistance, the newly developed CCR5 antagonists represent an attractive treatment option because they are active ..
  14. ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. SUBCUTANEOUS IL-2 IN COMBINATION WITH HAART
    Robert Schooley; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..A subset of subjects will be evaluated for the effect of rhIL-2 on immune cell phenotypes and function, and HIV viral load and on rate of development of antiviral drug resistance. ..
  16. PHARMACOKINETICS & ANTIRETROVIRUS RESISTANCE TESTING
    Edward Acosta; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Viral drug resistance is a continuum; a certain fold-change in virus susceptibility does not necessitate a drug will be inactive ..
  17. INTEGRATE/PHARMACOKINETIC/ANTIRETROVIRUS RESISTANCE TEST
    Edward Acosta; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..b>Viral drug resistance is a continuum; a certain fold-change in virus susceptibility does not necessitate a drug will be inactive ..
  18. INTEGRATE/PHARMACOKINETIC/ANTIRETROVIRUS RESISTANCE TEST
    Edward Acosta; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..b>Viral drug resistance is a continuum; a certain fold-change in virus susceptibility does not necessitate a drug will be inactive ..
  19. Effect of Iron Chelators on HIV-1 transcription
    ZUFAN KEREGO DEBEBE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..However, these drugs fail in long-term treatment of HIV-1 due to viral drug resistance. Alternative targets of attack of the HIV-1 would be targeting host cell transcription factors...
  20. ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  21. ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  22. Correlates of Monocyte-Associated Virus in HIV Neurocognitive Impairment
    WALTER contact ROYAL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..motifs associated with NCI, and to study the relationship to viral subtype and the relationship of viral drug resistance in different compartments to NCI...
  23. ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  24. ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  25. ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  26. ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  27. DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..and virologic variables that predict drug resistance, and select specimens for detailed analysis of viral drug resistance markers. 2...
  28. DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..and virologic variables that predict drug resistance, and select specimens for detailed analysis of viral drug resistance markers. 2...
  29. MOLECULAR BEACONS FOR TUBERCULOSIS TESTING
    PETER MESEROL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Specific mutations linked to cancer, metabolic disorders, as well as bacterial and viral drug resistance are often as small as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...
  30. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF HSV DNA POLYMERASE GENE
    Donald Coen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A combination of genetic, virological, biochemical, and crystallographic approaches will be initiated. Efforts to discover new agents that exploit this interaction (and to understand their mechanisms) will also begin. ..
  31. Effect of Iron Chelators on HIV-1 transcription
    Zufan Debebe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However, these drugs fail in long-term treatment of HIV-1 due to viral drug resistance. Alternative targets of attack of the HIV-1 would be targeting host cell transcription factors...
  32. Effect of Iron Chelators on HIV-1 transcription
    ZUFAN KEBEDE DEBEBE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, these drugs fail in long-term treatment of HIV-1 due to viral drug resistance. Alternative targets of attack of the HIV-1 would be targeting host cell transcription factors...
  33. Phosphorylation of CDK9 by CDK2 in HIV-1 replication
    Denitra Breuer; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..However, due to onset of viral drug resistance resulting in infection persistence, alternative targets of HIV-1 are necessary...
  34. Novel prodrugs for treatment of human CMV infection
    John M Hilfinger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, the goal of this work is to modify these new drugs such that they are well absorbed when taken orally and will be effective against the human cytomegalovirus. ..
  35. A cell-based assay to measure HCV drug susceptibility
    Neil Parkin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  36. A cell-based assay to measure HCV drug susceptibility
    Neil Parkin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  37. HSV REPLICATION, EARLY ENZYMES AND LATENCY
    Donald Coen; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The proposed experiments should shed light on issues of virus and nervous system biology, regulation of gene expression, antiviral drug resistance, and the use of HSV as a vector or as therapy. ..
  38. HSV REPLICATION, EARLY ENZYMES AND LATENCY
    Donald Coen; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The proposed experiments should shed light on issues of virus and nervous system biology, regulation of gene expression, antiviral drug resistance, and the use of HSV as a vector or as therapy. ..
  39. ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  40. LOS ANGELES PEDIATRIC AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS UNIT
    Yvonne Bryson; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The overall goal is to shorten the time between basic scientific advances and clinical applicability...
  41. Drug Resistance and Pathogenesis in Subtype C HIV-1
    David Katzenstein; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..ARV therapy is expected to dramatically increase in developing countries, and viral drug resistance evolution will inevitably take place...
  42. Drug Resistance and Pathogenesis in Subtype C HIV-1
    David Katzenstein; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..ARV therapy is expected to dramatically increase in developing countries, and viral drug resistance evolution will inevitably take place...
  43. Drug Resistance and Pathogenesis in Subtype C HIV-1
    David Katzenstein; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..ARV therapy is expected to dramatically increase in developing countries, and viral drug resistance evolution will inevitably take place...
  44. CFS FLUID AFTER RETROVIRAL TREATMENT FOR HIV
    Richard Price; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Antiviral effects will be correlated with the kinetics of drug entry into the CSF. ..
  45. CFS FLUID AFTER RETROVIRAL TREATMENT FOR HIV
    Richard Price; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Antiviral effects will be correlated with the kinetics of drug entry into the CSF. ..
  46. Do Psychostimulatory Drugs Enhance Lentivirus Infection?
    Lawrence Mathes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The possibility that psychotropic drugs may accelerate the development of antiviral drug resistance in HIV-infected people is an important public health concern. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  47. A Training Program in International Women's Health
    BENJAMIN CHI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Numerous studies, however, have demonstrated significant viral drug resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) class of drugs (of which NVP is a part) in ..
  48. Molecular Standards for Hepatitis B and C Genotyping
    PAUL NEUWALD; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Commercial manufacturers of genotype assays have expressed a need for independent genotype standards. ..
  49. DAART+ AS A STRUCTURAL HIV INTERVENTION IN METHADONE MAINTENANCE
    James Sorensen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Non-adherence results in poor response to therapy, viral drug resistance, cross-resistance and the spread of drug-resistant viral strains...
  50. DAART+ AS A STRUCTURAL HIV INTERVENTION IN METHADONE MAINTENANCE
    James Sorensen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Non-adherence results in poor response to therapy, viral drug resistance, cross-resistance and the spread of drug-resistant viral strains...
  51. Ultrapotent Inhibitors of Wild-type and Multi-drug Resistant HIV
    Stefan Sarafianos; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..efficiently, and by doing so, it will help develop anti- HIV therapeutics that are both less susceptible to current clinically significant resistance mutations as well as more refractory to the development of viral drug resistance.
  52. Ultrapotent Inhibitors of Wild-type and Multi-drug Resistant HIV
    Stefan Sarafianos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..efficiently, and by doing so, it will help develop anti- HIV therapeutics that are both less susceptible to current clinically significant resistance mutations as well as more refractory to the development of viral drug resistance.
  53. Ultrapotent Inhibitors of Wild-type and Multi-drug Resistant HIV
    Stefan Sarafianos; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..efficiently, and by doing so, it will help develop anti- HIV therapeutics that are both less susceptible to current clinically significant resistance mutations as well as more refractory to the development of viral drug resistance.
  54. Ultrapotent Inhibitors of Wild-type and Multi-drug Resistant HIV
    Stefan Sarafianos; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..efficiently, and by doing so, it will help develop anti- HIV therapeutics that are both less susceptible to current clinically significant resistance mutations as well as more refractory to the development of viral drug resistance.
  55. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF HSV DNA POLYMERASE GENE
    James M Hogle; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A combination of genetic, virological, biochemical, and crystallographic approaches will be initiated. Efforts to discover new agents that exploit this interaction (and to understand their mechanisms) will also begin. ..
  56. California NeuroAIDS Tissue Network (CNTN)
    Igor Grant; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of early neuronal aging among persons with prolonged exposure to HIV and ARV treatment, and the role of viral drug resistance in HIV brain disease...
  57. California NeuroAIDS Tissue Network (CNTN)
    Igor Grant; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of early neuronal aging among persons with prolonged exposure to HIV and ARV treatment, and the role of viral drug resistance in HIV brain disease...
  58. Combinatorial Chemistry for HIV Entry Inhibitors
    THOMAS NORTH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Future plans are to test the drugs and strategies in our SHIV/rhesus macaque models for mucosal membrane transmission and AIDS. ..
  59. Combinatorial Chemistry for HIV Entry Inhibitors
    THOMAS NORTH; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Future plans are to test the drugs and strategies in our SHIV/rhesus macaque models for mucosal membrane transmission and AIDS. ..
  60. Combinatorial Chemistry for HIV Entry Inhibitors
    THOMAS NORTH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Future plans are to test the drugs and strategies in our SHIV/rhesus macaque models for mucosal membrane transmission and AIDS. ..
  61. Combinatorial Chemistry for HIV Entry Inhibitors
    THOMAS NORTH; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Future plans are to test the drugs and strategies in our SHIV/rhesus macaque models for mucosal membrane transmission and AIDS. ..
  62. Towards therapy-induced lethal HIV mutagenesis
    J VICTOR GARCIA-MARTINEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The limitations of HIV-1 therapeutics, which include viral drug resistance and off-target effects, provide the impetus for the identification of novel drug targets and the development of new anti-HIV-..
  63. ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..W. Lawrence Drew (UCSF) and from Dr. Alejo Erice (University of Minnesota). ..
  64. Towards therapy-induced lethal HIV mutagenesis
    J VICTOR GARCIA-MARTINEZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The limitations of HIV-1 therapeutics, which include viral drug resistance and off-target effects, provide the impetus for the identification of novel drug targets and the development of new anti-HIV-..
  65. ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  66. ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  67. ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  68. ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  69. ANTIVIRAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Sunwen Chou; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  70. Viral Populations in Early HIV Infection
    James Mullins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..j) When drug-resistant virus is detectable within PBMC using a highly sensitive oligoligase assay (OLA), a drug-resistant population will eventually overcome the suppressive activity of HAART. ..
  71. Virologic and host factors contributing to HIV control in elite controllers
    Hiroyu Hatano; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  72. DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF NONPEPTIDE PROTEASE INHIBITORS
    Arun Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This research integrates organic synthesis, protein-ligand x-ray crystallography, molecular modeling and in-depth virus and cell-biological studies to design the next generation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. ..
  73. DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF NONPEPTIDE PROTEASE INHIBITORS
    Arun Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Besides the broad range of scope and generality, this line of research will provide excellent opportunities to teach and train students in the laboratory. ..
  74. DEVELOPMENT OF LIGAND ASSISTED ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESES
    Arun Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Besides the broad range of scope and generality, this line of research will provide excellent opportunities to teach and train graduate and undergraduate students in the laboratory. ..
  75. PHASE IB TRIAL OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS GLYCOPROTEIN B VACCINE
    Paul Griffiths; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..If a vaccine schedule can be identified which controls viral load, this will be recommended for a phase II placebo-controlled trial of clinical efficacy. ..
  76. BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CHEMOTHERAPY
    Yung Chi Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....