bacterial drug resistance


Summary: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).

Top Publications

  1. pmc Genetic tools for select-agent-compliant manipulation of Burkholderia pseudomallei
    Kyoung Hee Choi
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Rocky Mountain Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1682, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:1064-75. 2008
  2. ncbi Antimicrobial resistance: it's not just for hospitals
    Elizabeth A Bancroft
    JAMA 298:1803-4. 2007
  3. pmc Bacteroides: the good, the bad, and the nitty-gritty
    Hannah M Wexler
    Wadsworth Anaerobe Laboratory, Greater Los Angeles VA Healthcare Systems University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 20:593-621. 2007
  4. ncbi Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones
    George A Jacoby
    Lahey Clinic, Burlington, Massachusetts 01805, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:S120-6. 2005
  5. ncbi Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross-national database study
    Herman Goossens
    ESAC Management Team, Department of Microbiology, University of Antwerp, B 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
    Lancet 365:579-87. 2005
  6. ncbi Typhoid fever
    Christopher M Parry
    Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 347:1770-82. 2002
  7. pmc Growing group of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: the CTX-M enzymes
    R Bonnet
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Faculte de Medecine, 63001 Clermont Ferrand cedex, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1-14. 2004
  8. pmc Biofilms and planktonic cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have similar resistance to killing by antimicrobials
    A L Spoering
    Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 405 Mugar, 360 Huntington Ave, Boston, MS 02115, USA
    J Bacteriol 183:6746-51. 2001
  9. ncbi The worldwide emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance
    Ari Robicsek
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 2696, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:629-40. 2006
  10. ncbi Non-inherited antibiotic resistance
    Bruce R Levin
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30307, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:556-62. 2006

Detail Information

Publications326 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Genetic tools for select-agent-compliant manipulation of Burkholderia pseudomallei
    Kyoung Hee Choi
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Rocky Mountain Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1682, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:1064-75. 2008
    ..The new tools allow routine select-agent-compliant genetic manipulations of B. pseudomallei and other Burkholderia species...
  2. ncbi Antimicrobial resistance: it's not just for hospitals
    Elizabeth A Bancroft
    JAMA 298:1803-4. 2007
  3. pmc Bacteroides: the good, the bad, and the nitty-gritty
    Hannah M Wexler
    Wadsworth Anaerobe Laboratory, Greater Los Angeles VA Healthcare Systems University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 20:593-621. 2007
    ..Clinically, Bacteroides species have exhibited increasing resistance to many antibiotics, including cefoxitin, clindamycin, metronidazole, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones (e.g., gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin)...
  4. ncbi Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones
    George A Jacoby
    Lahey Clinic, Burlington, Massachusetts 01805, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:S120-6. 2005
    ..Although Qnr by itself produces only low-level resistance, its presence facilitates the selection of higher-level resistance mutations, thus contributing to the alarming increase in resistance to quinolones...
  5. ncbi Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross-national database study
    Herman Goossens
    ESAC Management Team, Department of Microbiology, University of Antwerp, B 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
    Lancet 365:579-87. 2005
    ..Our aim was to assess outpatient use of antibiotics and the association with resistance...
  6. ncbi Typhoid fever
    Christopher M Parry
    Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 347:1770-82. 2002
  7. pmc Growing group of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: the CTX-M enzymes
    R Bonnet
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Faculte de Medecine, 63001 Clermont Ferrand cedex, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1-14. 2004
  8. pmc Biofilms and planktonic cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have similar resistance to killing by antimicrobials
    A L Spoering
    Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 405 Mugar, 360 Huntington Ave, Boston, MS 02115, USA
    J Bacteriol 183:6746-51. 2001
    ..We further suggest that tolerance to antibiotics in stationary-phase or biofilm cultures is largely dependent on the presence of persister cells...
  9. ncbi The worldwide emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance
    Ari Robicsek
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 2696, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:629-40. 2006
  10. ncbi Non-inherited antibiotic resistance
    Bruce R Levin
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30307, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:556-62. 2006
  11. ncbi Bacterial persistence as a phenotypic switch
    Nathalie Q Balaban
    Laboratory of Living Matter and Center for Studies in Physics and Biology, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 305:1622-5. 2004
    ..Inherent heterogeneity of bacterial populations may be important in adaptation to fluctuating environments and in the persistence of bacterial infections...
  12. ncbi A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality
    Vivian G Loo
    Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Que, Canada
    N Engl J Med 353:2442-9. 2005
    ..In March 2003, several hospitals in Quebec, Canada, noted a marked increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea...
  13. pmc Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: the Maastricht III Consensus Report
    P Malfertheiner
    Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Medizinische Fakultat, Zentrum fur Innere Medizin, Klinik fur Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und Infektiologie, Leipziger Strasse 44, D 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    Gut 56:772-81. 2007
    ..Guidelines on the management of Helicobacter pylori, which cover indications for management and treatment strategies, were produced in 2000...
  14. ncbi The antibiotic resistome: the nexus of chemical and genetic diversity
    Gerard D Wright
    Antimicrobial Research Centre, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:175-86. 2007
    ..Why is resistance inevitable and where does it come from? Understanding the molecular diversity that underlies resistance will inform our use of these drugs and guide efforts to develop new efficacious antibiotics...
  15. ncbi Multiple mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: our worst nightmare?
    David M Livermore
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, Colindale, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 34:634-40. 2002
    ..A few isolates of P. aeruginosa are resistant to all reliable antibiotics, and this problem seems likely to grow with the emergence of integrins that carry gene cassettes encoding both carbapenemases and amikacin acetyltransferases...
  16. ncbi Mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella: recent developments
    Katie L Hopkins
    Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 25:358-73. 2005
  17. ncbi Identification of high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes: global dispersion and antibiotic resistance
    Helen L Leavis
    Eijkman Winkler Institute for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Inflammation, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin Microbiol 9:454-60. 2006
    ..This complex is correlated with ampicillin and quinolone resistance and with the presence of a putative pathogenicity island. Preliminary MLST data suggest that similar hospital-adapted complexes might also exist in E. faecalis...
  18. ncbi Resistance in gram-negative bacteria: enterobacteriaceae
    David L Paterson
    Antibiotic Management Program, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Am J Med 119:S20-8; discussion S62-70. 2006
    ..Better antibiotic stewardship and infection control are needed to prevent further spread of ESBLs and other forms of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae throughout the world...
  19. ncbi Bistability in bacteria
    David Dubnau
    Public Health Research Institute, 225 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Mol Microbiol 61:564-72. 2006
    ..A review describing additional examples of bistability in bacteria has been published recently...
  20. ncbi Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones: target alterations, decreased accumulation and DNA gyrase protection
    Joaquim Ruiz
    Department of Microbiology, Institut Clinic Infeccions i Immunologia, Hospital Clinic, C Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:1109-17. 2003
    ..Recently, mobile elements have also been described, carrying the qnr gene, which confers resistance to quinolones...
  21. pmc Complete genomes of two clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains: evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance
    Matthew T G Holden
    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9786-91. 2004
  22. ncbi Bacteria subsisting on antibiotics
    Gautam Dantas
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 320:100-3. 2008
    ..This phenomenon suggests that this unappreciated reservoir of antibiotic-resistance determinants can contribute to the increasing levels of multiple antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria...
  23. pmc Screening and characterization of mutations in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained in Brazil
    Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso
    Department of Clincal Analysis, State University of Maringa, Parana, Brazil
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3373-81. 2004
    ..Since ca. 90.7% of the INH-resistant isolates had mutations identified by SSCP electrophoresis, this method may be a useful genotypic screen for INH resistance...
  24. pmc New plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone efflux pump, QepA, found in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate
    Kunikazu Yamane
    Department of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Infection Control, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4 7 1 Gakuen, Musashi Murayama, Tokyo 208 0011, Japan
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:3354-60. 2007
    ..coli was first identified. Surveillance of the qepA-harboring clinical isolates should be encouraged to minimize further dissemination of the kind of plasmid-dependent FQ resistance determinants among pathogenic microbes...
  25. pmc Phenotypic tolerance: antibiotic enrichment of noninherited resistance in bacterial populations
    C Wiuff
    Department of Biology, Emory University, 1510 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1483-94. 2005
  26. pmc Inhibition of mutation and combating the evolution of antibiotic resistance
    Ryan T Cirz
    Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e176. 2005
    ..Our findings indicate that the inhibition of mutation could serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to combat the evolution of antibiotic resistance...
  27. pmc Ecological theory suggests that antimicrobial cycling will not reduce antimicrobial resistance in hospitals
    Carl T Bergstrom
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 1800, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:13285-90. 2004
    ..As a consequence, cycling is unlikely to be effective and may even hinder resistance control. These results may explain the limited success reported thus far from clinical trials of antimicrobial cycling...
  28. ncbi An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases
    David E Griffith
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:367-416. 2007
  29. pmc Bloodstream infections caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli: risk factors for mortality and impact of inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy on outcome
    Cheol In Kang
    Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon dong Chongno gu, Seoul 110 744, Republic of Korea
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:760-6. 2005
    ..72; P = 0.030). Our data suggest that inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with adverse outcome in antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteremia, particularly in patients with a high-risk source of bacteremia...
  30. pmc Tuberculosis due to resistant Haarlem strain, Tunisia
    Helmi Mardassi
    Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis Belvedere, Tunisia
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:957-61. 2005
    ..A detailed investigation showed accelerated transmission of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis clone of the Haarlem type in 90% of all patients. This finding highlights the epidemic potential of this prevalent genotype...
  31. pmc Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from humans, cattle, swine, and food
    Carl M Schroeder
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, 3304 Marie Mount Hall, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:576-81. 2002
  32. pmc Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes associated with isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Srinivas V Ramaswamy
    Houston Tuberculosis Initiative, Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1241-50. 2003
    ..These genes either are involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis or are overexpressed as a response to the buildup or cellular toxicity of INH...
  33. pmc Origin of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant QnrA
    Laurent Poirel
    Service de Bacteriologie Virologie, Hopital de Bicetre, 78, rue du General Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3523-5. 2005
    ..Shewanella algae, an environmental species from marine and fresh water, was identified as its reservoir. This is a one of the very few examples of progenitor identification of an acquired antibiotic resistance gene...
  34. ncbi Ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni evolves rapidly in chickens treated with fluoroquinolones
    Patrick F McDermott
    Division of Animal and Food Microbiology, Center for Veterinary Medicine, US Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland 20708, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:837-40. 2002
  35. pmc Prevalence in the United States of aac(6')-Ib-cr encoding a ciprofloxacin-modifying enzyme
    Chi Hye Park
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 2696, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3953-5. 2006
    ..aac(6')-Ib-cr was geographically widespread, stable over time, most common in Escherichia coli, equally prevalent in ciprofloxacin-susceptible and -resistant strains, and not associated with qnr genes...
  36. pmc Antimicrobial drug use and resistance in Europe
    Nienke van de Sande-Bruinsma
    National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1722-30. 2008
    ..Ecologic studies based on routine surveillance data indicate a relation between use and resistance and support interventions designed to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption at a national level in Europe...
  37. ncbi Community and hospital spread of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the UK
    N Woodford
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division Colindale, Health Protection Agency, London
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54:735-43. 2004
    ..e. MICs of cefotaxime > or = 8-fold higher than MICs of ceftazidime. Many were referred as being from community patients. We examined 291 CTX-M-producing isolates from the UK and investigated the genetic basis of their phenotype...
  38. ncbi How do bacteria resist human antimicrobial peptides?
    Andreas Peschel
    Microbial Genetics, University of Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076, Tubingen, Germany
    Trends Microbiol 10:179-86. 2002
    ..Mutants susceptible to CAMPs are more efficiently inactivated by phagocytes and are virulence-attenuated, indicating that CAMP resistance plays a key role in bacterial infections...
  39. pmc The Beijing genotype and drug resistant tuberculosis in the Aral Sea region of Central Asia
    Helen Suzanne Cox
    Medecins Sans Frontieres, Aral Sea Area Programme, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan Tashkent, Uzbekistan
    Respir Res 6:134. 2005
    ..However, recent studies have raised concern that the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis might be contributing to the epidemic through its widespread presence and potentially enhanced ability to acquire resistance...
  40. ncbi Decrease of invasive pneumococcal infections in children among 8 children's hospitals in the United States after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Sheldon L Kaplan
    Pediatric Infectious Diseases Sections of the Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    Pediatrics 113:443-9. 2004
  41. ncbi Treatment of health-care-associated infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria: a consensus statement
    Ian Chopra
    Antimicrobial Research Centre and Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:133-9. 2008
    ..An important strategy to promote drug discovery will be the development of focused cooperations between academic institutions and small pharmaceutical companies...
  42. ncbi HEPN: a common domain in bacterial drug resistance and human neurodegenerative proteins
    Marcin Grynberg
    Program in Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 28:224-6. 2003
    ..The distant structural similarity suggests that this domain might be involved in nucleotide binding...
  43. ncbi Development of a miniaturised microarray-based assay for the rapid identification of antimicrobial resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria
    Miranda Batchelor
    Department of Food and Environmental Safety, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 31:440-51. 2008
  44. ncbi Sustainability for behaviour change in the fight against antibiotic resistance: a social marketing framework
    Timothy Edgar
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Emerson College, 120 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02116, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 63:230-7. 2009
    ..This paper provides an overview of previous communication-based initiatives and offers a detailed approach to social marketing to guide future efforts...
  45. ncbi Mechanisms of resistance to macrolides and lincosamides: nature of the resistance elements and their clinical implications
    Roland Leclercq
    Service de Microbiologie, Hôpital Côte de Nacre, Universite de Caen, Caen 14033, France
    Clin Infect Dis 34:482-92. 2002
    ..These results support the need for in vitro detection of macrolide resistance and correct interpretation of susceptibility tests to guide therapy...
  46. ncbi A crystal structure of the bifunctional antibiotic simocyclinone D8, bound to DNA gyrase
    Marcus J Edwards
    Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
    Science 326:1415-8. 2009
    ..Our results should facilitate the design of drug molecules that target these unexploited binding pockets...
  47. ncbi Emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones in Enterobacteriaceae
    Patrice Nordmann
    Service de Bacteriologie Virologie, Hopital de Bicetre, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Faculte de Medecine Paris Sud, Universite Paris Sud, 78 rue du General Leclerc, 94275, K Bicêtre, France
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:463-9. 2005
    ..Further analysis of the role (if any) of quinolones for enhancing this gene transfer may be conducted. This could prevent the spread, if still possible, of this novel antibiotic resistance mechanism...
  48. ncbi Susceptibility of Lactobacillus spp. to antimicrobial agents
    Morten Danielsen
    Identification Section, Applied Biotechnology, Chr Hansen A S, Bøge Allé 10 12, 2970 Hørsholm, Denmark
    Int J Food Microbiol 82:1-11. 2003
    ..On the basis of the result, it was possible to suggest minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) for the individual Lactobacillus species to be used as a microbiological breakpoint when screening strains for transferable resistance genes...
  49. pmc Genomic diversity among drug sensitive and multidrug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with identical DNA fingerprints
    Stefan Niemann
    Molecular Mycobacteriology, Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e7407. 2009
    ..According to the standard view, isolates exhibiting the same fingerprinting pattern are considered direct progeny of the same bacterial clone, and most likely reflect ongoing transmission or disease relapse within individual patients...
  50. ncbi Structures of MLSBK antibiotics bound to mutated large ribosomal subunits provide a structural explanation for resistance
    Daqi Tu
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Cell 121:257-70. 2005
    ..coli) that stacks between them. The structure of large subunit containing a three residue deletion mutant of L22 shows a change in the L22 structure and exit tunnel shape that illuminates its macrolide resistance phenotype...
  51. ncbi 16S ribosomal RNA methylation: emerging resistance mechanism against aminoglycosides
    Yohei Doi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:88-94. 2007
    ..A 2-tiered approach, consisting of disk diffusion tests followed by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction, is recommended for detection of 16S rRNA methylase-mediated resistance...
  52. ncbi Transfer of antibiotic resistance between commensal and pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceae under ileal conditions
    D P Blake
    Centre for Microbiological Research, Veterinary Science Division, SAC, Craibstone, Aberdeen, AB21 9YA, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 95:428-36. 2003
    ..To determine the rate of antibiotic resistance transmission between commensal and pathogenic representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae...
  53. pmc Clostridium difficile infections in a Canadian tertiary care hospital before and during a regional epidemic associated with the BI/NAP1/027 strain
    Annie Claude Labbe
    Department of Microbiology, Hopital Maisonneuve Rosemont, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3180-7. 2008
    ..Stringent antibiotic stewardship measures, combined with aggressive infection control, are required to curtail the epidemic of C. difficile infections...
  54. ncbi Impact of imipenem resistance on mortality in patients with Acinetobacter bacteraemia
    Ki Tae Kwon
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Irwon dong, Seoul 135 710, Korea
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:525-30. 2007
    ..To investigate the impact of imipenem resistance on the mortality rate among patients with Acinetobacter bacteraemia...
  55. pmc Incidence and mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from commercial poultry flocks in the United Kingdom before, during, and after fluoroquinolone treatment
    Deborah J Griggs
    Antimicrobial Agents Research Group, Division of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:699-707. 2005
    ..Most ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates had the GyrA substitution Thr-86-->Ile. Resistant isolates were isolated from the feces of some flocks up to the point of slaughter, which may have consequences for public health...
  56. ncbi Persister cells and the riddle of biofilm survival
    K Lewis
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Biochemistry (Mosc) 70:267-74. 2005
    ..Persisters are essentially altruistic cells that forfeit propagation in order to ensure survival of kin cells in the presence of lethal factors...
  57. ncbi The genetic background for streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli influences the distribution of MICs
    Marianne Sunde
    Section of Bacteriology and Norwegian Zoonosis Centre, National Veterinary Institute, Oslo
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:87-90. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic background for streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli and perform analysis of the MICs in relation to genetic background...
  58. pmc Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates
    Anita Paula Ortiz Godoy
    Clinical Pharmacology and Gastroenterology Unit, Sao Francisco University Medical School, Braganca Paulista, SP, Brazil
    BMC Gastroenterol 3:20. 2003
    ..In addition, the vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE genotypes of strains isolated from Brazilian patients were determined and associated with clinical data in an effort to correlate these four virulence markers and antibiotic resistance...
  59. pmc Mutation rate and evolution of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infections
    Patricia Komp Lindgren
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology Programme, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, S 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:3222-32. 2003
    ..This correlation suggests that an increased general mutation rate may play a significant role in the development of high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones by increasing the rate of accumulation of rare new mutations...
  60. pmc Prevalence of mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and association with antibiotic resistance in quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica
    Deborah J Eaves
    Antimicrobial Agents Research Group, Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4012-5. 2004
    ..Although it is counterintuitive, isolates with a mutation in both gyrA and parC were more susceptible to ciprofloxacin than were isolates with a mutation in gyrA alone...
  61. pmc Emergence of a clinical daptomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate during treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and osteomyelitis
    Francisco M Marty
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, PBB A4, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:595-7. 2006
    ..The breakthrough isolate was indistinguishable from pretreatment daptomycin-susceptible isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Daptomycin nonsusceptibility was confirmed by MIC and time-kill curve analyses...
  62. ncbi Antibiotics: a shot in the arm
    Martin Leeb
    Nature 431:892-3. 2004
  63. pmc Complete nucleotide sequence of a 92-kilobase plasmid harboring the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase involved in an outbreak in long-term-care facilities in Toronto, Canada
    David A Boyd
    Nosocomial Infections, National Microbiology Laboratory, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3758-64. 2004
    ..coli strain isolated in India in 1999, revealed that the plasmids had several features in common, including an R100 backbone and several of the resistance genes, including bla(CTX-M-15), bla(TEM-1), bla(OXA-1), tetA, and aac(6')-Ib...
  64. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides
    D Kraus
    Cellular and Molecular Microbiology Division, Medical Microbiology and Hygiene Institute, University of Tubingen, Germany
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 306:231-50. 2006
    ..CAMPs or conserved CAMP resistance factors are discussed as new mediators and targets, respectively, of novel and sustainable anti-infective strategies...
  65. ncbi Antimicrobial susceptibility trends among Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. isolated from rural Egyptian paediatric populations with diarrhoea between 1995 and 2000
    S D Putnam
    Enteric Disease Department, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA
    Clin Microbiol Infect 10:804-10. 2004
    ..Overall, high levels, but decreasing trends, of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents were detected among isolates of E. coli and Shigella spp. from children in rural Egypt...
  66. pmc Molecular analysis of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from England and Wales reveals the phylogenetic significance of the ahpC -46A polymorphism
    L V Baker
    HPA Mycobacterium Reference Unit, Department of Microbiology, Guy s, King s and St Thomas School of Medicine, King s College Hospital, East Dulwich Grove, London SE22 8QF, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1455-64. 2005
    ..Analysis of the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region, although phylogenetically interesting, does not contribute significantly to further identification of isoniazid-resistant isolates...
  67. ncbi Common regions e.g. orf513 and antibiotic resistance: IS91-like elements evolving complex class 1 integrons
    Mark A Toleman
    Bristol Centre for Antimicrobial Research and Evaluation BCARE, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 58:1-6. 2006
    ..In this article, we provide a brief description of these new and clinically important mobile elements, and how they are able to mobilize antibiotic resistance genes...
  68. pmc Emergence and spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates harboring mosaic-like structure of penicillin-binding protein 2 in Central Japan
    Masayasu Ito
    Department of Urology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1 1 Yanagido, Gifu City 501 1194, Japan
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:137-43. 2005
    ..The emergence of such strains may be the result of the in vivo generation of clones in which interspecies recombination occurred between the penA genes of N. gonorrhoeae and commensal Neisseria species...
  69. ncbi Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to chromium compounds
    Martha I Ramírez-Díaz
    Instituto de Investigaciones Quimico Biologicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio B 3, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacan 58030, Mexico
    Biometals 21:321-32. 2008
    ..Other mechanisms of bacterial resistance to chromate involve the expression of components of the machinery for repair of DNA damage, and systems related to the homeostasis of iron and sulfur...
  70. pmc Mutations in ribosomal protein L3 are associated with oxazolidinone resistance in staphylococci of clinical origin
    Jeffrey B Locke
    Trius Therapeutics, Inc, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:5275-8. 2009
    ..The oxazolidinone torezolid maintained a >or=8-fold potency advantage over linezolid for both strains...
  71. ncbi Modelling protection from antimicrobial agents in biofilms through the formation of persister cells
    Mark E Roberts
    Center for Biofilm Engineering and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University Bozeman, Bozeman, MT 59717 3980, USA
    Microbiology 151:75-80. 2005
    ..This modelling study provides motivation for further investigation of the hypothetical persister cell state as an explanation for biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents...
  72. ncbi Diversity of arsenite transporter genes from arsenic-resistant soil bacteria
    Asma Rokbani Achour
    Laboratoire Ecotoxicité et Santé Environnementale ESE, UMR7146, CNRS, Universite Paul Verlaine, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz, France
    Res Microbiol 158:128-37. 2007
  73. ncbi Favorable impact of a multidisciplinary antibiotic management program conducted during 7 years
    Philip Carling
    Infectious Diseases Section, Carney Hospital, 2100 Dorchester Avenue, Boston, MA 02124, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24:699-706. 2003
  74. ncbi Antibiotics in animal feed and their role in resistance development
    Henrik C Wegener
    Danish Zoonosis Centre, Danish Veterinary Institute, Bulowsvej 27, DK 1790 V, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Curr Opin Microbiol 6:439-45. 2003
    ..The data shows that although the levels of resistance in animals and food, and consequently in humans, has been markedly reduced after the termination of use, the effects on animal health and productivity have been very minor...
  75. pmc Correlations of mutations in katG, oxyR-ahpC and inhA genes and in vitro susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains segregated by spoligotype families from tuberculosis prevalent countries in South America
    Elis R Dalla Costa
    State Foundation for Production and Research in Health FEPPS, Porto Alegre, Brazil
    BMC Microbiol 9:39. 2009
    ..tuberculosis strains...
  76. ncbi Isolation and characterization of arsenate-reducing bacteria from arsenic-contaminated sites in New Zealand
    Craig R Anderson
    Department of Microbiology, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, P O Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Curr Microbiol 48:341-7. 2004
    ..As a subsidiary process to arsenate reduction, the external pH of the growth medium increased (i.e., became more alkaline), allowing these bacteria to grow for extended periods of time...
  77. ncbi Bacterial adaptation and resistance to antiseptics, disinfectants and preservatives is not a new phenomenon
    A D Russell
    Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XF, UK
    J Hosp Infect 57:97-104. 2004
  78. ncbi Relapse and acquired rifampin resistance in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with rifampin- or rifabutin-based regimens in New York City, 1997-2000
    Jiehui Li
    Bureau of Tuberculosis Control, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, NY 10007, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:83-91. 2005
    ..The relationship between rifamycin use and either relapse or treatment failure with acquired rifampin resistance (ARR) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB) is not well understood...
  79. ncbi Campylobacter susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and corresponding fluoroquinolone concentrations within the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens
    M B Farnell
    Poultry Production and Product Safety Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 99:1043-50. 2005
    ..This study evaluated the relationship between Campylobacter susceptibility and enteric fluoroquinolone concentrations in chickens treated with different doses of enrofloxacin...
  80. pmc The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens
    Alicia Fajardo
    Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS ONE 3:e1619. 2008
    ..Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature...
  81. doi The bacteria fight back
    Gary Taubes
    Science 321:356-61. 2008
  82. pmc CTX-M beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli from community-acquired urinary tract infections, Cambodia
    Etienne Ruppe
    Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:741-8. 2009
    ..The prevalence of CTX-M beta-lactamases has reached a critical level in Cambodia, which highlights the need for study of their spread in developing countries...
  83. ncbi Multiplex PCR for genes encoding prevalent OXA carbapenemases in Acinetobacter spp
    Neil Woodford
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Ave, London NW9 5HT, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 27:351-3. 2006
    ..Genes encoding OXA-58 were detected (with bla(OXA-51-like)) in a cluster of related isolates from a single hospital. This simple assay will assist in monitoring the mechanisms responsible for carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp...
  84. pmc Isolation and molecular characterization of nalidixic acid-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli from retail chicken products
    James R Johnson
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55417, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:2161-8. 2003
  85. pmc Rapid dissemination and diversity of CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy children from low-resource settings in Latin America
    Lucia Pallecchi
    Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Sezione di Microbiologia, Universita di Siena, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Siena, Italy
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2720-5. 2007
    ..Three CTX-M-15-encoding conjugative plasmids from Peruvian isolates carried the new fluoroquinolone resistance gene aac(6')-Ib-cr. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of aac(6')-Ib-cr in Latin America...
  86. pmc Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in intensive care units in Canada: results of the Canadian National Intensive Care Unit (CAN-ICU) study, 2005-2006
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1430-7. 2008
    ..aeruginosa, H. influenzae, Enterococcus spp., S. pneumoniae, and K. pneumoniae are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Canadian ICUs. A MDR phenotype is common for P. aeruginosa isolates in Canadian ICUs...
  87. pmc Antimicrobial susceptibility and synergy studies of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis
    Pablo San Gabriel
    Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:168-71. 2004
    ..To determine appropriate treatment for patients with CF, it is important to monitor the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and clinical impact of S. maltophilia in this patient population...
  88. pmc A novel gene, erm(41), confers inducible macrolide resistance to clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus but is absent from Mycobacterium chelonae
    Kevin A Nash
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Saban Research Institute of Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1367-76. 2009
    ..The inducible macrolide resistance phenotype of some M. abscessus isolates may explain the lack of efficacy of macrolide-based chemotherapy against this organism...
  89. ncbi Antibiotic resistance in the absence of antimicrobial use: mechanisms and implications
    Lucia Pallecchi
    Universita di Siena, Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Sezione di Microbiologia, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Siena, Italy
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 6:725-32. 2008
  90. pmc Predictors of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae acquisition among hospitalized adults and effect of acquisition on mortality
    Mitchell J Schwaber
    Division of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizmann St, Tel Aviv 64239, Israel
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1028-33. 2008
    ..6; and P = 0.03; for the CRKP group versus the controls, OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 14.8; and P = 0.004). CRKP affects patients with poor functional status, an ICU stay, and antibiotic exposure and is an independent predictor of death...
  91. ncbi Antibiotic resistance--the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings
    Randall S Singer
    College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, IL, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:47-51. 2003
  92. ncbi Recurrent isolation of hydrogen peroxide-resistant spores of Bacillus pumilus from a spacecraft assembly facility
    Michael J Kempf
    Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA
    Astrobiology 5:391-405. 2005
    ..pumilus in a clean-room is a concern because their persistence might potentially compromise life-detection missions, which have very strict cleanliness and sterility requirements for spacecraft hardware...
  93. pmc High-level ciprofloxacin resistance from point mutations in gyrA and parC confined to global hospital-adapted clonal lineage CC17 of Enterococcus faecium
    Helen L Leavis
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Internal Medicine, Eijkman Winkler Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Rm G04 614, 3584CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 44:1059-64. 2006
    ..Acquisition of mutations in parC and gyrA, leading to high-level Cip(r), is, in addition to ampicillin resistance and the presence of a putative pathogenicity island, another cumulative step in hospital adaptation of CC17...
  94. ncbi A fluoroquinolone resistance protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that mimics DNA
    Subray S Hegde
    Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Science 308:1480-3. 2005
    ..This represents a form of DNA mimicry and explains both its inhibitory effect on DNA gyrase and fluoroquinolone resistance resulting from the protein's expression in vivo...
  95. ncbi Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment
    Felipe C Cabello
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Environ Microbiol 8:1137-44. 2006
  96. ncbi Efflux pumps as antimicrobial resistance mechanisms
    Keith Poole
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
    Ann Med 39:162-76. 2007
  97. ncbi Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: the Enterococcus genus
    Jean Claude Ogier
    Unité des Bactéries Lactiques et Pathogènes Opportunistes, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    Int J Food Microbiol 126:291-301. 2008
    ..According to food safety assessment guidelines, we propose a case-by-case evaluation of each potential technological strain and suggest several lines of research before using enterococci in fermented food products...
  98. pmc Variation in Salmonella enterica serovar typhi IncHI1 plasmids during the global spread of resistant typhoid fever
    Minh Duy Phan
    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:716-27. 2009
    ..We propose that antibiotic selection acts to maintain resistance genes on the plasmid, but there is also competition between plasmids encoding the same resistance phenotype...
  99. ncbi Update on macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, ketolide, and oxazolidinone resistance genes
    Marilyn C Roberts
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 282:147-59. 2008
    ..These mobile elements may play a role in the continued spread of the MLSKO resistance genes into new species, genera, and ecosystems...
  100. pmc qnr Gene nomenclature
    George Jacoby
    Lahey Clinic, Burlington, Massachusetts MA 01805, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2297-9. 2008
  101. ncbi The role of horizontal gene transfer in the spread of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Europe and Canada
    Matthew T Blahna
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, 48109, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 57:666-72. 2006

Research Grants71

    JAMES WALTER KAZURA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..diseases that have great health significance in the United States and the developing world - anti-bacterial drug resistance, tuberculosis, malaria, HIV, chronic worm infections that include the "Neglected Tropical Diseases" ..
  2. Emerging drug-resistance infections
    Lee W Riley; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..three areas of research: 1) field epidemiology, 2) molecular epidemiology, and 3) molecular biology of bacterial drug resistance. The training sites in the US will include the Infectious Disease and Epidemiology programs of the ..
  3. Innate Antimicrobial Nanotherapeutics for the Treatment of H. pylori Infection
    Liangfang Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, this work will also improve the fundamental understanding of how to kill bacteria through disrupting the properties of bacterial plasma membrane and thus avoiding inducing bacterial drug resistance.
  4. Assembling an understanding of Ribosome Biogenesis
    Gloria M Culver; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..coli may result in the identification of novel targets for antibiotic action and may aid in alleviating the problem of bacterial drug resistance as a health concern.
  5. Combating Bacterial Drug Resistance by Targeting the Enzymes of Evolution
    RAHUL MANU KOHLI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose to pursue an innovative approach to this problem, by targeting the very pathways that allow a pathogen to adapt, evolve and thereby acquire drug resistance. ..
    ..export of drug molecules by multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux proteins is one important mechanism of bacterial drug resistance. EmrE is one of the smallest known MDR transporters, making it an ideal system to study the minimum ..
    FREDDIE SALSBURY; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The later enzyme is implicated in bacterial drug resistance. So a detailed understanding of the catalytic cycles of these systems could assist in drug design...
    David Graham; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of this study should either confirm or refute the proposed etiologic association of M. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease as well as the identification of patients with Crohn's disease and M. paratuberculosis. ..
  9. Quinolone resistant E coli in long term care facilities
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. Novel Application of Infection Control Strategies to Limit Transmission of ESBL'S
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2004
  12. Clinical Impact of Quinolone-Resistant E.coli carriage
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. Molecular Epidemiology, Virulence, and Genomic Characterization of Ureaplasmas
    Ken B Waites; Fiscal Year: 2010
  14. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance
    George Jacoby; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. Resistant E.coli in Humans and Poultry
    James Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Does the research address a current and compelling problem of antimicrobial resistance that is of high public health importance and for which research is needed? [yes]. ..
  16. Towards drugs that prevent resistance to the HIV OI, TB
    David Alland; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..if embB306 mutations affect biosynthesis of LAM, capped LAM, arabinogalactan (AG) or other cell wall components in the presence and absence of EMB. ..
  17. Sample Processing Cartridges for Rapid PCR TB Detection
    David Alland; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The system will then be retested using a large number of clinical sputum specimens. Finally, we will develop complete documentation on the assay including production, and development reports. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Detection of Select Agents in Single-Well Assays
    David Alland; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3. To develop PCR assays that utilize "color-triplet coding" to uniquely label as many as 56 different species-specific molecular beacons. ..
    David Alland; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..4) To identify and validate an informative set of SNPs for worldwide evolutionary and epidemiological analyses. ..
    David Alland; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Studies of these sequence variations in clinical strains will be used to determine the associations between specific mutations and the phenotypes of infectivity and virulence. ..
  21. The Nature of Bacterial Uncultivability
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Unculturable bacteria are an enormous untapped source of potentially useful pharmaceutical compounds. Unculturable bacteria also make up most of the human oral and intestinal microflora. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. Legionella pneumophila developmental cycle & virulence
    PAUL STOKES HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These studies should also provide insights relevant to other opportunistic environmental pathogens including oxiella, Burkholderia and species of Mycobacterium. ..
  23. In vivo regulation of M. tuberculosis cell wall lipids
    Lee W Riley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..tuberculosis and granulomas may contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of persistence of M. tuberculosis that could lead to new tests to differentiate active TB from latent TB infection. ..
  24. Three Periodontal Therapies in Current & Non-Smokers
    Anne Haffajee; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed investigation should provide a model to examine methods that could be useful in treating compromised patients whether compromised by harmful habits such as smoking, systemic disease, or genetic background. ..
  25. Role of Oxidative Mechanisms in the Toxicity of Metals
    SIMON AVERY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. co-Trimoxazole in Zambian Infants (TZI)
    CHRISTOPHER GILL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Mathematically modeling the transmission and control of extensively drug resistan
    Sanjay Basu; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The goal of this project is to determine how to reduce XDR tuberculosis incidence, using mathematical models of its transmission. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Identification of Uncultivated and Unrecognized Pathogens of Periodontitis
    ANNE DENISE HAFFAJEE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The identification of such pathogens should, over time, lead to better diagnosis of disease, optimal treatment strategies for the individual patient, new therapeutic approaches and carefully targeted approaches to prevention. ..
  29. Mechanism of host cell apoptosis inhibition by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Volker Briken; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposal aims to identify targets within the bacteria for the development of more efficient drugs and vaccines. ..
  30. Directly Observed Therapy for Community-Released HIV-positive Prisoners
    Frederick Altice; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..It is therefore likely that the stated aim will be successfully accomplished, despite the challenges of working with prisoners and drug-using populations. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Microfluidic system for point of care diagnosis of GBS
    Michel Bergeron; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Moreover, this technology could also be applicable to the detection of other infectious disease agents including biological warfare agents. ..
  32. Neutrophil Apoptosis and Neonatal Inflammation
    JOYCE KOENIG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Thus, defining the biology of neutrophil apoptosis in the developing human is critical to future treatment modalities for CLD and other types of neonatal inflammation. ..
  33. Transport Across Two Membranes by AcrAB-TolC Complex
    Helen Zgurskaya; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This contribution is significant because MFPs are absolutely required for antibiotic resistance and their function could be targeted in development of effective inhibitors of multidrug efflux transporters. ..
  34. Signal Transduction by Histidine Kinases and their Response Regulators
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. Population genomics of Streptococcus pyogenes
    DEBRA BESSEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Secretion systems for anti-malarial bacterial strains
    David Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Both Type I and Type II secretion systems will be developed and tested. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Pathogenesis of Persistent Chlamydial STDs
    Deborah Dean; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..1 Description, ..
  38. Virulence-conferring siderophore biosynthesis inhibitors
    LUIS QUADRI; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These antimicrobials will constitute a base for subsequent studies for the development of new drugs that, alone or in combination therapies, are anticipated to be useful in the treatment of MDR Yp and Mb infections. ..
    Anne Haffajee; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These data will provide a basis for understanding microbial community structure, ecological relationships and define desired microbiological end-point of therapy. ..
    Timothy Opperman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will develop these compounds into innovative drugs that will be used in combination with clinically relevant antibiotics to eradicate biofilm infections. ..
  41. Novel Therapies for BioFilm-Related Infections
    Timothy Opperman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..epidermidis. The work in Phase I will provide all the molecular genetic tools and screening methods needed in Phase II for the discovery of potent small molecule inhibitors of staphylococcal biofilm formation. ..
  42. Structure Function Analysis of TB Pyrazinamidase
    Ying Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will provide important information about mechanisms of PZA action and resistance and may help design new antituberculosis drugs. ..
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Deborah Dean; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of trachoma will aid in developing public health interventions and a vaccine that can be implemented in trachoma endemic areas throughout the world. ..
    Daniel Stein; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..By understanding the relationship between disease and the expression of a specific surface component, we can design vaccines that can prevent the disease in specific demographic groups. ..
    Lee Riley; Fiscal Year: 2001
  47. Epidemiology of an uropathogenic E coli clonal group
    Lee Riley; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..coli can be spread by contaminated ingestible vehicles, and use the data generated from this project to design long-term studies to better characterize risk factors associated with CgA infection. ..
    ANNE DELCOUR; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This information on the three-dimensional structure of porins will be extremely valuable for the design of genetically engineered channels and the meaningful interpretation of the data. ..
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed research will provide important insight into the fundamental principles of stress response and adaptation in prokaryotes. ..
    Sanjay Sethi; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Identification of the integral bacterial and host components that contribute to immune-mediated inflammation in COPD will ultimately lead to novel therapeutic strategies to alter disease progression and improve outcome in COPD. ..
  51. Genomic Comparison of Infectious Strains E. Faecalis
    George Weinstock; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The introduction of the novel methods will reduce costs and increase throughput, both of which are important for future scale-up to larger numbers of strains. ..
  52. Regulation and function of Pseudomonas drug efflux pumps
    Herbert Schweizer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Aim 3: Probe other, perhaps global regulators of efflux operon expression, specifically MexS and PA4878. ..
  53. Comparative Genomics of Francisella
    George Weinstock; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. Non-antiobiotic resistance markers for bacteria
    Herbert Schweizer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..pseudomallei, F. tularensis and Y. pestis, as well as other bacterial pathogens for which one faces similar restrictions regarding use of antibiotic selection markers for genetic manipulation. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Drug-Resistant GNR
    Lisa Maragakis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Maragakis with the skills she needs to develop into an independent clinical investigator in epidemiologic research for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. ..
  56. Beta-defensins and pulmonary host defense
    Timothy Starner; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This environment will maximize the potential for the principal investigator to establish himself in a basic science career as an academic independent investigator. ..
  57. Propeptide-Mediated Protein Folding
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Another emphasis is to investigate how the nascent folding intermediate can be activated with small peptide substrates. ..
    Herbert Schweizer; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies should provide a better understanding of the quorum sensing pathways and lead to the identification of novel anti microbial targets and antimicrobials effective against gram-negative pathogens. ..
  59. Therapeutic vaccine against tuberculosis
    Lee Riley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Therapeutic vaccines against TB is a major priority in TB control, and we have an opportunity to identify such products by a novel approach using a simple, inexpensive, and reproducible animal model. ..
  60. PS06-011, HIV Prevention Research with HIV+ Incarcerated Populations
    Frederick Altice; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..MDR inhibitors will potentiate the action of conventional antibiotics, aiding eradication of multidrug resistant human pathogens. ..
    Moses Joloba; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This will expand our understanding of mycobacterial biology and may provide novel candidate vaccines and drug targets. ..
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Determination of chemical structure will be performed by a combination of MS and NMR methods. ..
  64. New Methods for Evaluating Interobserver Agreement
    Michael Haber; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Existing and new agreement indices will be compared and linked. All the proposed methods will be applied to real data sets from the behavioral and biomedical sciences. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
    MOSES LUTAAKOME JOLOBA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This will enrich our knowledge on mycobacterial biology and may reveal novel drug and vaccine targets. ..
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Determination of chemical structure will be performed by a combination of MS and NMR methods. ..
  67. Gonococcal Pilus Structure and Function
    H Seifert; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will provide new findings and insights into the structure and functions of the gonococcal pilus. ..
  68. Biofilm growth and detachment of an oral pathogen
    Jeffrey Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  69. C. difficile Toxin Membrane Test with Magnetic Particles
    ROBERT CARMAN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..perfringens enterotoxin, another cause of AAD. The technology developed in this project will be widely applicable for the development of new highly sensitive stool antigen tests. ..