microbial drug resistance

Summary

Summary: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Class restriction of cephalosporin use to control total cephalosporin resistance in nosocomial Klebsiella
    J J Rahal
    Department of Medicine, New York Hospital Medical Center of Queens and Cornell University Medical College, Flushing 11355, USA
    JAMA 280:1233-7. 1998
  2. ncbi Campylobacter jejuni Infections: update on emerging issues and trends
    B M Allos
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1201-6. 2001
  3. pmc Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates
    J Engberg
    Department of Gastrointestinal Infections, Division of Diagnostics, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:24-34. 2001
  4. ncbi Antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit
    M H Kollef
    Campus Box 8052, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Ann Intern Med 134:298-314. 2001
  5. ncbi Staphylococcal multidrug efflux protein QacA
    M H Brown
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:163-70. 2001
  6. ncbi Dissemination in Japanese hospitals of strains of Staphylococcus aureus heterogeneously resistant to vancomycin
    K Hiramatsu
    Department of Bacteriology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
    Lancet 350:1670-3. 1997
  7. pmc Vaccine escape recombinants emerge after pneumococcal vaccination in the United States
    Angela B Brueggemann
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 3:e168. 2007
  8. pmc The relationship between the volume of antimicrobial consumption in human communities and the frequency of resistance
    D J Austin
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:1152-6. 1999
  9. ncbi Inadequate antimicrobial treatment: an important determinant of outcome for hospitalized patients
    M H Kollef
    Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 31:S131-8. 2000
  10. ncbi Thermoanaerobacter mathranii sp. nov., an ethanol-producing, extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium from a hot spring in Iceland
    L Larsen
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bldg 115, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    Arch Microbiol 168:114-9. 1997

Detail Information

Publications217 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Class restriction of cephalosporin use to control total cephalosporin resistance in nosocomial Klebsiella
    J J Rahal
    Department of Medicine, New York Hospital Medical Center of Queens and Cornell University Medical College, Flushing 11355, USA
    JAMA 280:1233-7. 1998
    ..Resistance to most or all cephalosporin antibiotics in Klebsiella species has developed in many European and North American hospitals during the past 2 decades...
  2. ncbi Campylobacter jejuni Infections: update on emerging issues and trends
    B M Allos
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1201-6. 2001
    ..jejuni infection, but its incidence is <1 per 1000 infections. Careful food preparation and cooking practices may prevent some Campylobacter infections...
  3. pmc Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates
    J Engberg
    Department of Gastrointestinal Infections, Division of Diagnostics, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:24-34. 2001
    ....
  4. ncbi Antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit
    M H Kollef
    Campus Box 8052, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Ann Intern Med 134:298-314. 2001
    ..Careful, focused attention to this problem at the local ICU level, using a multidisciplinary approach, will have the greatest likelihood of limiting the development and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant infections...
  5. ncbi Staphylococcal multidrug efflux protein QacA
    M H Brown
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:163-70. 2001
    ..QacR, like the multidrug export protein whose expression it regulates, has been shown to interact directly with a number of structurally-dissimilar compounds...
  6. ncbi Dissemination in Japanese hospitals of strains of Staphylococcus aureus heterogeneously resistant to vancomycin
    K Hiramatsu
    Department of Bacteriology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
    Lancet 350:1670-3. 1997
    ..Two important questions need to be answered: (1) what is the prevalence of VRSA, and (2) by what mechanism does vancomycin resistance occur...
  7. pmc Vaccine escape recombinants emerge after pneumococcal vaccination in the United States
    Angela B Brueggemann
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 3:e168. 2007
    ..Vaccine escape by genetic recombination at the capsular locus has the potential to reduce PCV7 effectiveness in the longer term...
  8. pmc The relationship between the volume of antimicrobial consumption in human communities and the frequency of resistance
    D J Austin
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:1152-6. 1999
    ..These results highlight the need for early intervention once resistance is detected...
  9. ncbi Inadequate antimicrobial treatment: an important determinant of outcome for hospitalized patients
    M H Kollef
    Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 31:S131-8. 2000
    ..Further study evaluating the use of antibiotic practice guidelines and strategies to reduce inadequate treatment is necessary to determine their impact on patient outcomes...
  10. ncbi Thermoanaerobacter mathranii sp. nov., an ethanol-producing, extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium from a hot spring in Iceland
    L Larsen
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bldg 115, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    Arch Microbiol 168:114-9. 1997
    ..Genotypic and phenotypic differences between strain A3 and other related species indicate that strain A3 can be assigned to a new species, and the name Thermoanaerobacter mathranii is proposed...
  11. pmc DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones
    K Drlica
    Public Health Research Institute, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61:377-92. 1997
    ..Thus, quinolone-topoisomerase biology is providing a model for understanding aspects of host-parasite interactions and providing ways to investigate manipulation of the bacterial chromosome by topoisomerases...
  12. pmc Clinical, cellular, and molecular factors that contribute to antifungal drug resistance
    T C White
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Washington, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 11:382-402. 1998
    ..Since the study of antifungal drug resistance is relatively new, other factors that may also contribute to resistance are discussed...
  13. pmc Antifungal agents: mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, and correlation of these mechanisms with bacterial resistance
    M A Ghannoum
    Center for Medical Mycology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 12:501-17. 1999
    ..For example, modification of enzymes which serve as targets for antimicrobial action and the involvement of membrane pumps in the extrusion of drugs are well characterized in both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells...
  14. ncbi A novel family of potentially mobile DNA elements encoding site-specific gene-integration functions: integrons
    H W Stokes
    School of Biological Sciences, Macquarrie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Mol Microbiol 3:1669-83. 1989
    ..This family of elements appears formally distinct from other known mobile DNA elements and we propose the name DNA integration elements, or integrons...
  15. ncbi Predicting the emergence of antibiotic resistance by directed evolution and structural analysis
    M C Orencia
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Struct Biol 8:238-42. 2001
    ..Our results demonstrate that directed evolution coupled with structural analysis can be used to predict future mutations that lead to increased antibiotic resistance...
  16. pmc Genetic and functional analysis of a PmrA-PmrB-regulated locus necessary for lipopolysaccharide modification, antimicrobial peptide resistance, and oral virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium
    J S Gunn
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
    Infect Immun 68:6139-46. 2000
    ....
  17. ncbi Pharmacodynamics: relation to antimicrobial resistance
    Michael J Rybak
    Anti Infective Research Laboratory, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    Am J Med 119:S37-44; discussion S62-70. 2006
    ..But, further work needs to be done before this conclusion can be verified...
  18. ncbi A fluoroquinolone resistance protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that mimics DNA
    Subray S Hegde
    Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Science 308:1480-3. 2005
    ..This represents a form of DNA mimicry and explains both its inhibitory effect on DNA gyrase and fluoroquinolone resistance resulting from the protein's expression in vivo...
  19. ncbi Fluoroquinolone-modifying enzyme: a new adaptation of a common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase
    Ari Robicsek
    Harvard Medical School, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, GRJ 512, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nat Med 12:83-8. 2006
    ....
  20. pmc Contribution of rpoB mutations to development of rifamycin cross-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    D L Williams
    Gillis W Long Hansen s Disease Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 70894, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:1853-7. 1998
    ....
  21. ncbi PmrA-PmrB-regulated genes necessary for 4-aminoarabinose lipid A modification and polymyxin resistance
    J S Gunn
    University of Washington, Department of Medicine, Seattle 98195, USA
    Mol Microbiol 27:1171-82. 1998
    ....
  22. ncbi inhA, a gene encoding a target for isoniazid and ethionamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    A Banerjee
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461
    Science 263:227-30. 1994
    ..These results suggest that InhA is likely a primary target of action for INH and ETH...
  23. pmc Nomenclature of major antimicrobial-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae defined by the pneumococcal molecular epidemiology network
    L McGee
    MRC SAIMR Wits Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 39:2565-71. 2001
    ..This network can serve as a prototype for the collaboration of scientists in identifying clones of important human pathogens and as a model for the development of other networks...
  24. pmc A small protein that mediates the activation of a two-component system by another two-component system
    L F Kox
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110 1093, USA
    EMBO J 19:1861-72. 2000
    ..A pmrD mutant is sensitive to polymyxin if grown in low magnesium, but resistant if grown in high iron. The PmrD protein controls the activity of the PmrA-PmrB system at a post-transcriptional level...
  25. pmc Need for annual surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States: 2-year longitudinal analysis
    D F Sahm
    MRL, Herndon, Virginia 20171 4603, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1037-42. 2001
    ..This longitudinal surveillance study of resistance in S. pneumoniae revealed that significant changes do occur in just a single year and supports the need for surveillance at least on an annual basis, if not continuously...
  26. ncbi The catalase-peroxidase gene and isoniazid resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Y Zhang
    MRC Tuberculosis and Related Infections Unit, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nature 358:591-3. 1992
    ..Deletion of katG from the chromosome was associated with INH resistance in two patient isolates of M. tuberculosis...
  27. ncbi Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, an opportunistic pathogen
    C K Stover
    PathoGenesis Corporation, Seattle, Washington 98119, USA
    Nature 406:959-64. 2000
    ..We propose that the size and complexity of the P. aeruginosa genome reflect an evolutionary adaptation permitting it to thrive in diverse environments and resist the effects of a variety of antimicrobial substances...
  28. ncbi Regional trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States: results from the TRUST Surveillance Program, 1999-2000
    Clyde Thornsberry
    Focus Technologies Inc, Nashville, TN, USA answers com
    Clin Infect Dis 34:S4-S16. 2002
    ..6%) and M. catarrhalis (86.2%-96.8%) also varied by region. Notable variation in regional antimicrobial resistance rates (S. pneumoniae) and beta-lactamase production (H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis) exists throughout the United States...
  29. pmc Role of acid pH and deficient efflux of pyrazinoic acid in unique susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide
    Y Zhang
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Bacteriol 181:2044-9. 1999
    ..tuberculosis to PZA and that the natural PZA resistance of M. smegmatis is due to a highly active efflux pump. These findings may have implications with regard to the design of new antimycobacterial drugs...
  30. ncbi Cloning and primary structure of Staphylococcus aureus DNA topoisomerase IV: a primary target of fluoroquinolones
    L Ferrero
    Departement des Biotechnologies, Rhone Poulenc Rorer S A, Centre de Recherche de Vitry Alfortville, Vitry sur Seine, France
    Mol Microbiol 13:641-53. 1994
    ..coli GyrA, is substituted to Phe or Tyr in both high- and low-quinolone-resistant isolates. We propose that DNA topoisomerase IV is a primary target of fluoroquinolones in S. aureus...
  31. ncbi A signal transduction system that responds to extracellular iron
    M M Wösten
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Cell 103:113-25. 2000
    ..A pmrA mutant was hypersensitive to killing by iron but displayed wild-type resistance to a variety of oxidants, suggesting PmrA/PmrB controls a novel pathway mediating the avoidance of iron toxicity...
  32. ncbi Associations between the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs in Denmark, Finland, and Norway
    F M Aarestrup
    Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen
    Microb Drug Resist 6:63-70. 2000
    ..This study indicates that the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion in Denmark, Finland, and Norway have selected for resistance to most of these drugs among E. faecium in food animals...
  33. pmc A novel erythromycin resistance methylase gene (ermTR) in Streptococcus pyogenes
    H Seppala
    Antimicrobial Research Laboratory, National Public Health Institute, Turku, Finland
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:257-62. 1998
    ..5% identical to ermA, previously found, for example, in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Our finding provides the first sequence of an erm gene other than ermAM that mediates MLSB resistance in S. pyogenes...
  34. ncbi Rifampicin resistance and mutation of the rpoB gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    H Taniguchi
    Department of Microbiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 144:103-8. 1996
    ..tuberculosis, and the sites of mutations on the rpoB gene will affect the level of resistance to rifampicin...
  35. ncbi Nucleotide substitutions in Staphylococcus aureus strains, Mu50, Mu3, and N315
    Toshiko Ohta
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1 1 1 Tennohdai, Tukuba, Ibaraki 305 8575, Japan
    DNA Res 11:51-6. 2004
    ..All of the diverse genes and the high quality sequence of Mu50 can be viewed at the web site (http://133.5.48.239/VRSA/)...
  36. ncbi The frost gene of Neurospora crassa is a homolog of yeast cdc1 and affects hyphal branching via manganese homeostasis
    T Sone
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Fungal Genet Biol 28:227-37. 1999
    ..The fr mutant was also sensitive to calcineurin inhibitors. These results suggest that fr is involved in Mn(2+) homeostasis and point to a role for Mn(2+) in Neurospora branching...
  37. ncbi The natural evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes
    R S Gupta
    Department of Biochemistry, McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Crit Rev Microbiol 26:111-31. 2000
    ....
  38. ncbi Standard short-course chemotherapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: treatment outcomes in 6 countries
    M A Espinal
    World Health Organization, Communicable Diseases Programme, Ave Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    JAMA 283:2537-45. 2000
    ....
  39. pmc Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Escherichia coli strains lacking multidrug efflux pump genes
    M C Sulavik
    Genome Therapeutics Corporation, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1126-36. 2001
    ..The results identify which MDR pumps contribute to intrinsic resistance under the conditions tested and supply practical information useful for designing sensitive assay strains for cell-based screening of antibacterial compounds...
  40. ncbi Epidemiology of emerging pneumococcal drug resistance: implications for treatment and prevention
    J C Butler
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Vaccine 16:1693-7. 1998
    ..However, the vaccine is underutilized, and a substantial reduction in the morbidity and mortality associated with invasive pneumococcal infections is unlikely until the vaccine is used more widely among persons at risk for disease...
  41. pmc Pentapeptide repeat proteins
    Matthew W Vetting
    Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Biochemistry 45:1-10. 2006
    ..MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable similarity in size, shape, and electrostatics to DNA...
  42. pmc The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump contributes to multidrug resistance in the nosocomial pathogen Enterobacter aerogenes
    Elizabeth Pradel
    INSERM CJF9606 EA2197, IFR48, Faculte de Medecine, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2640-3. 2002
    ..Both derivatives were more susceptible to antibiotics than the parental strain. Sequence analysis and complementation experiments revealed that the multidrug-resistant isolate is an acrR mutant...
  43. pmc Contribution of exogenous genetic elements to the group A Streptococcus metagenome
    Stephen B Beres
    Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e800. 2007
    ..The data provide new information about the GAS metagenome and will assist studies of pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance, and population genomics...
  44. pmc Tensions in antibiotic prescribing: pitting social concerns against the interests of individual patients
    Joshua P Metlay
    Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 712 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 17:87-94. 2002
    ..However, optimal use from the perspective of the community (reserving newer agents for future use) is not always consistent with optimal use from the perspective of the individual patient (prescribing newer, broader agents)...
  45. pmc Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Campylobacter jejuni gyrA gene and characterization of quinolone resistance mutations
    Y Wang
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37:457-63. 1993
    ..The mutation at Thr-86, which is homologous to Ser-83 in Escherichia coli, was associated with high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in C. jejuni...
  46. ncbi Temperature-regulated efflux pump/potassium antiporter system mediates resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides in Yersinia
    J A Bengoechea
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN 20520 Turku, Finland
    Mol Microbiol 37:67-80. 2000
    ..It is proposed that the RosA/RosB system protects the bacteria by both acidifying the cytoplasm to prevent the CAMPs action and pumping the CAMPs out of the cell...
  47. ncbi Protein export and drug efflux through bacterial channel-tunnels
    C Andersen
    Cambridge University Department of Pathology, Tennis Court Road, CB2 1QP, Cambridge, UK
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 13:412-6. 2001
    ..TolC and its homologues thus provide large exit ducts for a wide range of substrates, including protein toxins and antibacterial drugs, that are engaged by specific recognition proteins in the cytosolic membrane...
  48. pmc Bypassing the periplasm: reconstitution of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli
    H I Zgurskaya
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3206, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:7190-5. 1999
    ....
  49. ncbi A model of a transmembrane drug-efflux pump from Gram-negative bacteria
    Juan Fernandez-Recio
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK
    FEBS Lett 578:5-9. 2004
    ..coli, and for the AcrA homologue MexA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on homology modelling and molecular docking, we show how AcrA, AcrB and TolC might assemble to form a tripartite pump, and how allostery may occur during transport...
  50. ncbi Mutations in the ss subunit of the Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase that confer both rifampicin resistance and hypersensitivity to NusG
    C J Ingham
    School of Biological Sciences, University Park, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Microbiology 146:3041-9. 2000
    ..Autoregulation required sequences within the 5' coding sequence of the nusG gene or immediately upstream. This is the first evidence from any bacterium that Rif(r) RNA polymerases can display altered transcription regulation by NusG...
  51. pmc The Rcs phosphorelay is a cell envelope stress response activated by peptidoglycan stress and contributes to intrinsic antibiotic resistance
    Mary E Laubacher
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:2065-74. 2008
    ..We propose that the Rcs pathway responds to peptidoglycan damage and contributes to the intrinsic resistance of E. coli to beta-lactam antibiotics...
  52. pmc Molecular analysis of antibiotic resistance gene clusters in vibrio cholerae O139 and O1 SXT constins
    B Hochhut
    Division of Geographic Medicine/Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:2991-3000. 2001
    ..These studies indicate that there is considerable flux in the antibiotic resistance genes found in the SXT family of constins and point to a model for the evolution of these related mobile elements...
  53. ncbi Overcoming antimicrobial resistance: profile of a new ketolide antibacterial, telithromycin
    R Leclercq
    CHU de Caen, Service de Microbiologie, Avenue Cote de Nacre, 14033 Caen Cedex, France
    J Antimicrob Chemother 48:9-23. 2001
    ..Telithromycin therefore represents an important addition to the therapeutic armamentarium in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, with an expected low likelihood of the development of resistance in clinical use...
  54. pmc Horizontal transfer of a multi-drug resistance plasmid between coliform bacteria of human and bovine origin in a farm environment
    H Oppegaard
    Department of Pharmacology, Microbiology, and Food Hygiene, The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, N 0033 Oslo, Norway
    Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3732-4. 2001
    ..Isolates from both cattle and humans harbored an R plasmid of 65 kb (pTMS1) that may have been transferred between them due to selective antibiotic pressure in the farm environment...
  55. ncbi Transient intestinal carriage after ingestion of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium from chicken and pork
    T L Sørensen
    Department of Microbiological Research and Development, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    N Engl J Med 345:1161-6. 2001
    ..Antibiotic-resistant enterococci are often present in retail meats, but it is unclear whether the ingestion of these contaminants leads to sustained intestinal carriage...
  56. ncbi Comparison of SXT and R391, two conjugative integrating elements: definition of a genetic backbone for the mobilization of resistance determinants
    J W Beaber
    Division of Geographic Medicine Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center, NEMC 041, 750 Washington St, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 59:2065-70. 2002
    ..This backbone represents a scaffold for the mobilization of genetic material between a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, allowing for rapid adaptation to changing environments...
  57. pmc Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria
    P M Bennett
    Bacterial Genetics, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 153:S347-57. 2008
    ..These various aspects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will be explored in this presentation...
  58. ncbi Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance--what, how and whither?
    R Bax
    Biosyn Inc, 3401 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6273, USA
    Clin Microbiol Infect 7:316-25. 2001
    ..To express the views of a working party held to consider antibiotic resistance surveillance systems, their strengths and weaknesses, and their current and future applications...
  59. ncbi Preventing drug access to targets: cell surface permeability barriers and active efflux in bacteria
    H Nikaido
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, 229 Stanley Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 3206, USA
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 12:215-23. 2001
    ....
  60. pmc Biofilm induced tolerance towards antimicrobial peptides
    Anders Folkesson
    Infection Microbiology Group, BioCentrum DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
    PLoS ONE 3:e1891. 2008
    ....
  61. pmc The rising impact of mathematical modelling in epidemiology: antibiotic resistance research as a case study
    L Temime
    CNAM, Chaire Hygiène and Sécurité, Paris, France
    Epidemiol Infect 136:289-98. 2008
    ..The results of this analysis, which might be applicable to other emerging public health problems, demonstrate the growing interest in mathematical modelling approaches to evaluate antibiotic resistance...
  62. pmc Intrinsic resistance of Mycobacterium smegmatis to fluoroquinolones may be influenced by new pentapeptide protein MfpA
    C Montero
    , , Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:3387-92. 2001
    ..smegmatis mutant strain lacking an intact mfpA gene than for the WT strain, suggesting that, by some unknown mechanism, the gene product plays a role in determining the innate level of FQ(R) in M. smegmatis...
  63. ncbi Single or double mutational alterations of gyrA associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli
    R Bachoual
    , Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri Mondor, , France
    Microb Drug Resist 7:257-61. 2001
    ..In contrast with the results obtained with clinical isolates, a variety of gyrA mutations were obtained in vitro...
  64. ncbi Clindamycin treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in children
    Arthur L Frank
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:530-4. 2002
    ..There is a risk for the appearance of resistance during clindamycin therapy of erythromycin-resistant MRSA infections because of the linked resistance mechanisms...
  65. ncbi The impact of antimicrobial resistance on health and economic outcomes
    Sara E Cosgrove
    Division of Infectious Disease, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:1433-7. 2003
    ....
  66. ncbi Mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics
    Gerard D Wright
    Department of Biochemistry, McMaster University, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Curr Opin Chem Biol 7:563-9. 2003
    ....
  67. pmc Distribution of mef(A) in gram-positive bacteria from healthy Portuguese children
    Vicki A Luna
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2513-7. 2002
    ..isolate, and an Enterococcus sp. isolate had their mef(A) genes completely sequenced and showed 100% identity at the DNA and amino acid levels with the mef(A) gene from S. pneumoniae...
  68. ncbi The crystal structure of the outer membrane protein VceC from the bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae at 1.8 A resolution
    Luca Federici
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 280:15307-14. 2005
    ..Our analyses of the external surfaces of VceC and other channel proteins suggest that different classes of efflux pumps have distinct architectures. We discuss the implications of these findings for mechanisms of drug and protein export...
  69. doi The epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections: a call to action for the medical community from the Infectious Diseases Society of America
    Brad Spellberg
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Harbor University of California Los Angeles UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:155-64. 2008
    ..If we are to address the antimicrobial resistance crisis, a concerted, grassroots effort led by the medical community will be required...
  70. ncbi A formyltransferase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli and the modification of lipid A with 4-Amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. Identification and function oF UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose
    Steven D Breazeale
    Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:14154-67. 2005
    ..Because the L-Ara4N unit attached to lipid A is not derivatized with a formyl group, we postulate the existence of a deformylase, acting later in the pathway...
  71. ncbi A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment
    Ajit K Sarmah
    Landcare Research New Zealand Limited, Private Bag 3127, Hamilton, New Zealand
    Chemosphere 65:725-59. 2006
    ..The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention...
  72. ncbi Veterinary drug usage and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin
    Frank M Aarestrup
    Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Copenhagen V, Denmark
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 96:271-81. 2005
    ..Programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of antimicrobial agents are strongly desirable, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine...
  73. ncbi Treatment of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis in southeastern Texas
    P Escalante
    Sections of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Institute for the Study of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
    Chest 119:1730-6. 2001
    ..However, the optimal regimen and duration are unclear. Study objective: To analyze the efficacy of treatment regimens used for INHr-TB in the southeastern Texas region...
  74. ncbi In vivo emergence of subpopulations expressing teicoplanin or vancomycin resistance phenotypes in a glycopeptide-susceptible, methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus
    P Vaudaux
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospitals of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
    J Antimicrob Chemother 47:163-70. 2001
    ..aureus subpopulations exhibiting decreased glycopeptide susceptibility and growing in the presence of otherwise inhibitory concentrations of these antimicrobial agents...
  75. ncbi Isoniazid affects multiple components of the type II fatty acid synthase system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    R A Slayden
    Tuberculosis Research Section, Twinbrook II, Room 239, Laboratory of Host Defenses, 12441 Parklawn Drive, NIAID, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Mol Microbiol 38:514-25. 2000
    ..Nonetheless, INH appeared to resemble TLM more closely in overall mode of action, and KasA levels appeared to be tightly correlated with INH sensitivity...
  76. pmc Efficient targeted mutagenesis in Borrelia burgdorferi
    J L Bono
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Bacteriol 182:2445-52. 2000
    ..The kanamycin resistance marker allows efficient direct selection of mutants in B. burgdorferi and hence is a significant improvement in the ability to construct isogenic mutant strains in this pathogen...
  77. ncbi Invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales: vaccination implications
    K Sleeman
    Oxford Vaccine Group, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 183:239-246. 2001
    ..The data also indicate that IPD varies by serotype, age, and country, emphasizing that the epidemiology of IPD is heterogeneous and requires continued surveillance...
  78. ncbi In vitro activity of mezlocillin, meropenem, aztreonam, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ribostamycin and fusidic acid against Borrelia burgdorferi
    K P Hunfeld
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 40, 60596 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 17:203-8. 2001
    ..burgdorferi complex. The excellent in vitro effectiveness of acylamino-penicillin derivatives and their suitability for the therapy of Lyme disease is emphasised...
  79. pmc Compensatory mutations, antibiotic resistance and the population genetics of adaptive evolution in bacteria
    B R Levin
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Genetics 154:985-97. 2000
    ....
  80. ncbi The effect of a community intervention trial on parental knowledge and awareness of antibiotic resistance and appropriate antibiotic use in children
    M J Trepka
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, State Branch, Division of Applied Public Health Training, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Pediatrics 107:E6. 2001
    ..Overuse of antibiotics for children's upper respiratory infections is widespread and contributes to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria...
  81. ncbi Development of antimicrobial agents in the era of new and reemerging infectious diseases and increasing antibiotic resistance
    G H Cassell
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Co, Drop Code 0438, LCC, Indianapolis, IN 46285
    JAMA 285:601-5. 2001
    ..Functional genomics and integrative biology should validate these targets and provide the best opportunity for developing effective new therapies, improved diagnostic techniques, and better tools to understand host-pathogen interactions...
  82. ncbi A small-molecule nitroimidazopyran drug candidate for the treatment of tuberculosis
    C K Stover
    PathoGenesis Corporation, Seattle, Washington 98119, USA
    Nature 405:962-6. 2000
    ..tuberculosis and promising oral activity in animal infection models. We conclude that nitroimidazopyrans offer the practical qualities of a small molecule with the potential for the treatment of tuberculosis...
  83. ncbi Can a nine-month regimen be used to treat isoniazid resistant tuberculosis diagnosed after standard treatment is started?
    L P Ormerod
    Chest Clinic, Blackburn Royal Infirmary, Blackburn, Lancs, BB2 3LR, UK
    J Infect 42:1-3. 2001
    ..A retrospective clinical study of all patients treated for non-MDR-TB isoniazid-resistant organisms was undertaken...
  84. ncbi Erythromycin resistance genes in group A streptococci of different geographical origins. The Macrolide Resistance Study Group
    J Kataja
    Antimicrobial Research Laboratory, National Public Health Institute, PO Box 57, 20521 Turku, Finland
    J Antimicrob Chemother 46:789-92. 2000
    ..In addition to the mefA gene, the recently sequenced ermTR gene was also widely distributed among isolates of different clonal origin...
  85. pmc Ethionamide activation and sensitivity in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    A E DeBarber
    Tuberculosis Research Section, Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:9677-82. 2000
    ..These isolates showed broad cross-resistance to thiocarbonyl containing drugs including ETA, thiacetazone, and thiocarlide...
  86. ncbi Identification of novel essential Escherichia coli genes conserved among pathogenic bacteria
    C Freiberg
    Institute for Anti infectives Research, Pharma Research, Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany
    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:483-9. 2001
    ..These findings demonstrate the potential of such proteins to be used in screening of large chemical libraries for inhibitors which could be further developed to novel broad-spectrum antibiotics...
  87. pmc Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in Korea
    M N Kim
    Department of Clinical Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
    J Clin Microbiol 38:3879-81. 2000
    ..The blood culture isolate of MRSA exhibited reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MIC, 8 microg/ml). This is the first report of a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus case from Korea...
  88. pmc Decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica serotype typhi, United Kingdom
    E J Threlfall
    Central Public Health Laboratory, London, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:448-50. 2001
    ..Increasing numbers of treatment failures have been noted. Most infections have been in patients with a recent history of travel to India and Pakistan...
  89. ncbi Breakthrough pneumococcal bacteremia in patients being treated with azithromycin and clarithromycin
    M A Kelley
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 31:1008-11. 2000
    ..Among pneumococci, low-level resistance to macrolides can lead to clinical failure, and resistance to macrolides should be considered during the selection of empiric therapy for patients with presumed pneumococcal infections...
  90. ncbi AcrAB and related multidrug efflux pumps of Escherichia coli
    H Nikaido
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3206, USA
    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:215-8. 2001
    ..It forms a trimer that interacts with a monomeric AcrB, which was shown by in vitro reconstitution to be a proton antiporter. Details of interaction between the..
  91. pmc [Standardization of the Neisseria meningitidis antibiogram. Detection of strains relatively resistant to penicillin]
    P Nicolas
    , France
    Bull World Health Organ 76:393-400. 1998
    ..Based on our results and literature data on pharmacokinetics, we propose critical concentrations for these various antibiotics as well as critical diameters for chloramphenicol and rifampicin discs...
  92. ncbi Methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Saudi hospitals
    Atif H Asghar
    Department of Environmental and Health Research, The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Institute of Hajj Research, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
    Med Princ Pract 15:52-5. 2006
    ..aureus isolates against 9 antimicrobial agents...
  93. pmc Drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A in India
    D S Chandel
    All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
    Emerg Infect Dis 6:420-1. 2000
    ..Paratyphi A abruptly increased in the New Delhi region. In the first 6 months of 1999, 32% of isolates were resistant to both chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole and another 13% were resistant to more than two antibiotics...
  94. ncbi [New antimicrobial drugs: an update]
    Heinz Burgmann
    Klinische Abteilung für Infektionen und Chemotherapie, Universitätsklinik für Innere Medizin I, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, A 1090 Wien
    Wien Med Wochenschr 153:166-8. 2003
    ..The following reviews deals with new substances such as carbapenems, quinolones, ketolides, oxazolidinones, glycylcyclines, echinocandines and azoles...
  95. ncbi In vitro inhibitory activities of essential oils from two Korean thymus species against antibiotic-resistant pathogens
    Seungwon Shin
    College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women s University, Seoul 132 714, Korea
    Arch Pharm Res 28:897-901. 2005
    ..Data from the checkerboard titer test confirmed synergism between the antibiotic, norfloxacin, and T. magnus oil or thymol, particularly against the resistant strains of S. aureus...
  96. ncbi Multidrug resistance in Serratia marcescens and cloning of genes responsible for the resistance
    Jing Chen
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Tsushima Naka, Japan
    Biol Pharm Bull 26:391-3. 2003
    ..It appears that each class of plasmid carries different types of drug resistance genes. Analysis of such genes will reveal the multiple mechanisms involved in multidrug resistance in S. marcescens...
  97. ncbi Topical ciprofloxacin versus topical gentamicin for chronic otitis media
    O Nawasreh
    Prince Rashid Ben Al-Hasan Hospital, Al-Husn, Jordan
    East Mediterr Health J 7:26-30. 2001
    ..Topical ciprofloxacin is safe and more efficacious and efficient than topical gentamicin in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media...
  98. ncbi Molecular epidemiology of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Brooklyn, New York
    D Landman
    Department of Medicine Box 77, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22:58-61. 2003
    ..Regional infection control strategies may need to be developed to limit the spread of the ORSA clone endemic to this area...
  99. ncbi Nosocomial and community-acquired spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: comparative microbiology and therapeutic implications
    F Bert
    Department of Microbiology, Hospital Beaujon, 100 Boulevard du General Leclerc, 92110 Clichy, France
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22:10-5. 2003
    ..The results indicate that the empirical treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis should differ for nosocomial and community-acquired cases...
  100. ncbi In vitro activity of ertapenem against common clinical isolates in relation to human pharmacokinetics
    I Friedland
    Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA, USA
    J Chemother 14:483-91. 2002
    ..e., the entire recommended dosing interval, and below the free drug concentration for at least 8 h...
  101. pmc AcrAB efflux pump plays a major role in the antibiotic resistance phenotype of Escherichia coli multiple-antibiotic-resistance (Mar) mutants
    H Okusu
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    J Bacteriol 178:306-8. 1996
    ..This experiment identified the AcrAB system as the major pump responsible for making the Mar mutants resistant to many agents, including tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, and rifampin...

Research Grants117 found, 100 shown here

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria
    Stanley Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  2. RISK FACTORS FOR DRUG RESISTANT PNEUMOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA
    Joshua Metlay; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, a cohort study will be completed within the study design, by examining outcomes for all patients, stratifying by pneumococcal drug susceptibility and adequacy of antimicrobial drug coverage. ..
  3. Advanced Infection Control methods for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance and Pathogen
    Christopher N Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research will increase our understanding of microbial drug resistance, enable the tracking of new drug resistant organisms, and provide a measurement and surveillance utility ..
  4. Bi-functional Polymer-Attached Inhibitors of Influenza Viruses
    Jianzhu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..that the proposed research will (i) yield one or more highly potent, optimized polymer-attached inhibitor(s) for future clinical development and (ii) provide a new paradigm of drug development for overcoming microbial drug resistance
  5. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria
    Stanley N Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  6. Molecular Detection of Blood Stream Infections in Women with Gynecologic Cancer
    JEANNE JORDAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  7. Molecular Basis of Microbial Pathogenesis
    Randall Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b>Microbial drug resistance, emerging infections, use of microbes as bioterrorism weapons, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (..
  8. Pan Genomic Discovery of Genes Toxic to Bacteria
    Edward M Rubin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This approach will be used to detect and develop new antimicrobial agents as well as study a new class of RNA molecules that are toxic to bacteria. ..
  9. Metabolic Drug Targeting in Haemophilus influenze
    CHRISTOPHE SCHILLING; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..influenzae infections; 5) and enhanced validation of existing targets in H. influenzae. ..
  10. Mechanisms of Capsular Diversity in Streptococcus Pneumoniae
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  11. VACCINATION AND THE EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS OF PNEUMOCOCCI
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. New Nosocomial Interventions to Decrease Antimicrobial Resistance Transmission
    Anthony Harris; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  13. Study design importance in analyzing emerging pathogens
    Anthony Harris; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The second aim will be done by combining epidemiological relatedness and molecular relatedness through pulse-field gel electrophoresis of ESBL cultures to quantify the importance of patient to patient transmission. ..
  14. Epidemiology of imipenem-resistant P.aeruginosa
    Anthony Harris; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 4: Determine the cost-effectiveness of three different infection control interventions. ..
  15. Methodological Approaches to Planning and Analysis of N*
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The goal of this work is to design tools that will aid in understanding and generalizing the output of computationally complex models of disease transmission. ..
  16. Mechanisms of Capsular Diversity in Streptococcus Pneumoniae
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  17. Mechanisms of Capsular Diversity in Streptococcus Pneumoniae
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  18. Epidemiology of emerging pathogens among hospitalizeds patients
    Anthony D Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The reasons for the emergence of A. baumannii are unknown and no interventions have been successful at curbing this emergence. For these reasons, A. baumannii is a significant public health problem. ..
  19. Epidemiologic Methods: Resistant Nosocomial Infections
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This will in turn lead to better practices to reduce the incidence of ARNI. ..
  20. Training in Interdisciplinary Research to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance (TIRAR)
    ELAINE LUCILLE LARSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These evaluationswill be a focal point of discussion in the Faculty Development Seminar, and suitable program modifications will be implemented by the Leadership Team. ..
  21. Targeted Infection-control Program (TIP) to reduce Resistant Pathogens and Infect
    Lona Mody; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Molecular epidemiologic methods will trace the origin of resistant strains in nursing homes and further characterize newer strains of MDROs emerging and spreading in this often neglected setting. ..
  22. Device use in Nursing Homes: Reducing Risk of Infection
    Lona Mody; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE AND OTHER HIV MOLECULAR STRUCTURES
    Thomas Steitz; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Crystallographic studies of both full length HIV integrase and the homologous transposase, TN552, complexed with suitable DNA substrates are aimed to produce mechanistic insights. ..
  24. Distribution of the Costs of Antimicrobial Resistant Infections
    ELAINE LUCILLE LARSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The analyses will match patients with resistant infections (hospital- and community-acquired) to susceptible patients and to uninfected patients. _^ ..
  25. REGULATION OF AMPICILLIN RESISTANCE IN E FACEIUM
    Louis Rice; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..They will also yield important new information on mechanisms of cell wall synthesis in E. faecium and other Gram-positive bacteria as well as on the mechanisms by which ampicillin resistance in E. faecium is regulated. ..
  26. Structures of DNA and RNA Polymerases and Functional Complexes
    Thomas Steitz; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..As the $29 DNA polymerase is homologous to those of several human pathogenic viruses, knowledge of its structure may yield insights into designing inhibitors of these pathogenic polymerases. ..
  27. Genetic Susceptibility to Mercury-Induced Immune Dysfunction in Autism & ASD
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Accomplishing the goals of this project will be the first stage in developing a broader study of gene-environment interactions in autism, as well as a targeted search for candidate genes related to mercury susceptibility in humans. ..
  28. Design, Syntheses and Studies of Novel Antituberculosis Agents
    Marvin J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  29. Derivatization/Functionalization of Natural Product(RMI)
    Marvin Miller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3. Broadly test the scaffold and derived libraries of novel compounds using the extensive set of assays in place at the Hans-Knoll Institute for Natural Products Research (HKI). ..
  30. PROPERTIES OF STREPTOCOCCAL M PROTEIN
    Vincent A Fischetti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  31. Role of Genomic Imprinting in Developmental Neurotoxici*
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..2. To utilize high throughput methods to examine patterns of DNA methylation in candidate genes in sperm and zygote in order to detect the presence of male-mediated effects on imprinted genes involved in early development. ..
  32. DNA GYRASE AND QUINOLONE RESISTANCE IN TUBERCULOSIS
    Karl Drlica; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..tuberculosis and will begin to describe relationships between DNA supercoiling and virulence in M. tuberculosis. The work is expected to help guide efforts to develop new, more effective anti-tuberculosis agents...
  33. Clinical Approaches to Ileal Pouch Dysfunction
    Bo Shen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The AIMS of study are to 1) investigate visceral hypersensitivity using barostat examination of the pouch; 2) conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating the use of amitriptyline in IPS. ..
  34. Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Human Sebaceous Glands
    Diane Thiboutot; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Data generated from the proposed experiments will advance our understanding of the mechanisms regulating sebum production and can lead to identification of potential additional therapeutic target sites in the treatment of acne. ..
  35. DNA GYRASE AND QUINOLONE RESISTANCE IN TUBERCULOSIS
    Karl Drlica; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Bioactive Compounds from Acylnitroso Cycloadducts
    Marvin Miller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. Chemistry-Biochemistry-Biology Interface Training Program at Notre Dame
    Marvin Miller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Excellent research facilities equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation Strong institutional commitment, with the University of Notre Dame providing a fellowship match in a 1:1 ratio and stipend supplementation of trainees ..