microbial drug resistance

Summary

Summary: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).

Top Publications

  1. pmc Genetic and functional analysis of a PmrA-PmrB-regulated locus necessary for lipopolysaccharide modification, antimicrobial peptide resistance, and oral virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium
    J S Gunn
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
    Infect Immun 68:6139-46. 2000
  2. ncbi Campylobacter jejuni Infections: update on emerging issues and trends
    B M Allos
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1201-6. 2001
  3. ncbi Nucleotide substitutions in Staphylococcus aureus strains, Mu50, Mu3, and N315
    Toshiko Ohta
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1 1 1 Tennohdai, Tukuba, Ibaraki 305 8575, Japan
    DNA Res 11:51-6. 2004
  4. ncbi Class restriction of cephalosporin use to control total cephalosporin resistance in nosocomial Klebsiella
    J J Rahal
    Department of Medicine, New York Hospital Medical Center of Queens and Cornell University Medical College, Flushing 11355, USA
    JAMA 280:1233-7. 1998
  5. pmc Ethionamide activation and sensitivity in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    A E DeBarber
    Tuberculosis Research Section, Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:9677-82. 2000
  6. pmc Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Campylobacter jejuni gyrA gene and characterization of quinolone resistance mutations
    Y Wang
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37:457-63. 1993
  7. pmc The relationship between the volume of antimicrobial consumption in human communities and the frequency of resistance
    D J Austin
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:1152-6. 1999
  8. pmc Vaccine escape recombinants emerge after pneumococcal vaccination in the United States
    Angela B Brueggemann
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 3:e168. 2007
  9. pmc Multiple antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evidence for involvement of an efflux operon
    K Poole
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    J Bacteriol 175:7363-72. 1993
  10. pmc DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones
    K Drlica
    Public Health Research Institute, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61:377-92. 1997

Research Grants

  1. ENZYMOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobials Targeting the D-Alanine Pathway
    KAREN G ANTHONY; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. TRAINING IN GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES
    JAMES WALTER KAZURA; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Advanced Infection Control methods for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance and Pathogen
    Christopher N Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. Pan Genomic Discovery of Genes Toxic to Bacteria
    Edward M Rubin; Fiscal Year: 2012
  6. Genetic Variation and Evolution of Artemisinin Resistance
    Dyann F Wirth; Fiscal Year: 2013
  7. Pneumococcal transmission in urban environments
    Joshua Metlay; Fiscal Year: 2009
  8. Molecular Basis of Microbial Pathogenesis
    Randall Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2007
  9. SYNTHETIC ANTIBACTERIAL PEPTIDES
    Gennadi Glinsky; Fiscal Year: 2000
  10. Metabolic Drug Targeting in Haemophilus influenze
    CHRISTOPHE SCHILLING; Fiscal Year: 2004

Detail Information

Publications239 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Genetic and functional analysis of a PmrA-PmrB-regulated locus necessary for lipopolysaccharide modification, antimicrobial peptide resistance, and oral virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium
    J S Gunn
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
    Infect Immun 68:6139-46. 2000
    ....
  2. ncbi Campylobacter jejuni Infections: update on emerging issues and trends
    B M Allos
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1201-6. 2001
    ..jejuni infection, but its incidence is <1 per 1000 infections. Careful food preparation and cooking practices may prevent some Campylobacter infections...
  3. ncbi Nucleotide substitutions in Staphylococcus aureus strains, Mu50, Mu3, and N315
    Toshiko Ohta
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1 1 1 Tennohdai, Tukuba, Ibaraki 305 8575, Japan
    DNA Res 11:51-6. 2004
    ..All of the diverse genes and the high quality sequence of Mu50 can be viewed at the web site (http://133.5.48.239/VRSA/)...
  4. ncbi Class restriction of cephalosporin use to control total cephalosporin resistance in nosocomial Klebsiella
    J J Rahal
    Department of Medicine, New York Hospital Medical Center of Queens and Cornell University Medical College, Flushing 11355, USA
    JAMA 280:1233-7. 1998
    ..Resistance to most or all cephalosporin antibiotics in Klebsiella species has developed in many European and North American hospitals during the past 2 decades...
  5. pmc Ethionamide activation and sensitivity in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    A E DeBarber
    Tuberculosis Research Section, Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:9677-82. 2000
    ..These isolates showed broad cross-resistance to thiocarbonyl containing drugs including ETA, thiacetazone, and thiocarlide...
  6. pmc Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Campylobacter jejuni gyrA gene and characterization of quinolone resistance mutations
    Y Wang
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37:457-63. 1993
    ..The mutation at Thr-86, which is homologous to Ser-83 in Escherichia coli, was associated with high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in C. jejuni...
  7. pmc The relationship between the volume of antimicrobial consumption in human communities and the frequency of resistance
    D J Austin
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:1152-6. 1999
    ..These results highlight the need for early intervention once resistance is detected...
  8. pmc Vaccine escape recombinants emerge after pneumococcal vaccination in the United States
    Angela B Brueggemann
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 3:e168. 2007
    ..Vaccine escape by genetic recombination at the capsular locus has the potential to reduce PCV7 effectiveness in the longer term...
  9. pmc Multiple antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evidence for involvement of an efflux operon
    K Poole
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    J Bacteriol 175:7363-72. 1993
    ..These data suggest that ORFA-ORFB-oprK (ORFC)-dependent drug efflux contributes to multiple antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. We propose, therefore, the designation mexAB (multiple efflux) for ORFAB...
  10. pmc DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones
    K Drlica
    Public Health Research Institute, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61:377-92. 1997
    ..Thus, quinolone-topoisomerase biology is providing a model for understanding aspects of host-parasite interactions and providing ways to investigate manipulation of the bacterial chromosome by topoisomerases...
  11. pmc Antifungal agents: mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, and correlation of these mechanisms with bacterial resistance
    M A Ghannoum
    Center for Medical Mycology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 12:501-17. 1999
    ..For example, modification of enzymes which serve as targets for antimicrobial action and the involvement of membrane pumps in the extrusion of drugs are well characterized in both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells...
  12. ncbi The crystal structure of the outer membrane protein VceC from the bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae at 1.8 A resolution
    Luca Federici
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 280:15307-14. 2005
    ..Our analyses of the external surfaces of VceC and other channel proteins suggest that different classes of efflux pumps have distinct architectures. We discuss the implications of these findings for mechanisms of drug and protein export...
  13. pmc The rising impact of mathematical modelling in epidemiology: antibiotic resistance research as a case study
    L Temime
    CNAM, Chaire Hygiène and Sécurité, Paris, France
    Epidemiol Infect 136:289-98. 2008
    ..The results of this analysis, which might be applicable to other emerging public health problems, demonstrate the growing interest in mathematical modelling approaches to evaluate antibiotic resistance...
  14. ncbi The tragedy of the commons in antimicrobial chemotherapy
    F Baquero
    Rev Esp Quimioter 16:11-3. 2003
  15. ncbi AcrAB and related multidrug efflux pumps of Escherichia coli
    H Nikaido
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3206, USA
    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:215-8. 2001
    ..It forms a trimer that interacts with a monomeric AcrB, which was shown by in vitro reconstitution to be a proton antiporter. Details of interaction between the..
  16. ncbi Predicting the emergence of antibiotic resistance by directed evolution and structural analysis
    M C Orencia
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Struct Biol 8:238-42. 2001
    ..Our results demonstrate that directed evolution coupled with structural analysis can be used to predict future mutations that lead to increased antibiotic resistance...
  17. ncbi Staphylococcal multidrug efflux protein QacA
    M H Brown
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:163-70. 2001
    ..QacR, like the multidrug export protein whose expression it regulates, has been shown to interact directly with a number of structurally-dissimilar compounds...
  18. pmc Bypassing the periplasm: reconstitution of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli
    H I Zgurskaya
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3206, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:7190-5. 1999
    ....
  19. ncbi The natural evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes
    R S Gupta
    Department of Biochemistry, McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Crit Rev Microbiol 26:111-31. 2000
    ....
  20. pmc Genetic transformation of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi with coumarin-resistant gyrB
    D S Samuels
    Laboratory of Vectors and Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana 59840
    J Bacteriol 176:6045-9. 1994
    ..burgdorferi. The coumermycin A1-resistant gyrB marker and genetic transformation can now be applied toward dissecting the physiology and pathogenesis of the Lyme disease agent on a molecular genetic level...
  21. ncbi Genetic organization of antibiotic resistance genes (aac(6')-Ib, aadA, and oxa9) in the multiresistance transposon Tn1331
    M E Tolmasky
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology L220, School of Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201 3098
    Plasmid 29:31-40. 1993
    ..Hall, D. Brookes, and H. W. Stokes (1991) Mol. Microbiol. 5, 1941-1959)...
  22. ncbi Rifampicin resistance and mutation of the rpoB gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    H Taniguchi
    Department of Microbiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 144:103-8. 1996
    ..tuberculosis, and the sites of mutations on the rpoB gene will affect the level of resistance to rifampicin...
  23. ncbi Preventing drug access to targets: cell surface permeability barriers and active efflux in bacteria
    H Nikaido
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, 229 Stanley Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 3206, USA
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 12:215-23. 2001
    ....
  24. ncbi A novel family of potentially mobile DNA elements encoding site-specific gene-integration functions: integrons
    H W Stokes
    School of Biological Sciences, Macquarrie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Mol Microbiol 3:1669-83. 1989
    ..This family of elements appears formally distinct from other known mobile DNA elements and we propose the name DNA integration elements, or integrons...
  25. ncbi Sequencing and expression of aadA, bla, and tnpR from the multiresistance transposon Tn1331
    M E Tolmasky
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201 3098
    Plasmid 24:218-26. 1990
    ..Tn1331 has 520-bp direct repeats which include parts of the tnpR and TEM bla genes. Evolutionary models for the genesis of Tn1331 are proposed...
  26. ncbi Pharmacodynamics: relation to antimicrobial resistance
    Michael J Rybak
    Anti Infective Research Laboratory, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    Am J Med 119:S37-44; discussion S62-70. 2006
    ..But, further work needs to be done before this conclusion can be verified...
  27. ncbi A fluoroquinolone resistance protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that mimics DNA
    Subray S Hegde
    Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Science 308:1480-3. 2005
    ..This represents a form of DNA mimicry and explains both its inhibitory effect on DNA gyrase and fluoroquinolone resistance resulting from the protein's expression in vivo...
  28. pmc Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates
    J Engberg
    Department of Gastrointestinal Infections, Division of Diagnostics, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:24-34. 2001
    ....
  29. pmc Role of acid pH and deficient efflux of pyrazinoic acid in unique susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide
    Y Zhang
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Bacteriol 181:2044-9. 1999
    ..tuberculosis to PZA and that the natural PZA resistance of M. smegmatis is due to a highly active efflux pump. These findings may have implications with regard to the design of new antimycobacterial drugs...
  30. ncbi Structure and distribution of an unusual chimeric genetic element encoding macrolide resistance in phylogenetically diverse clones of group A Streptococcus
    David J Banks
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:1898-908. 2003
    ..Together, these data provide new information about the molecular genetic basis of macrolide resistance and dissemination in GAS strains...
  31. pmc Contribution of rpoB mutations to development of rifamycin cross-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    D L Williams
    Gillis W Long Hansen s Disease Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 70894, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:1853-7. 1998
    ....
  32. pmc Nomenclature of major antimicrobial-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae defined by the pneumococcal molecular epidemiology network
    L McGee
    MRC SAIMR Wits Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 39:2565-71. 2001
    ..This network can serve as a prototype for the collaboration of scientists in identifying clones of important human pathogens and as a model for the development of other networks...
  33. ncbi Fluoroquinolone-modifying enzyme: a new adaptation of a common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase
    Ari Robicsek
    Harvard Medical School, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, GRJ 512, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nat Med 12:83-8. 2006
    ....
  34. ncbi PmrA-PmrB-regulated genes necessary for 4-aminoarabinose lipid A modification and polymyxin resistance
    J S Gunn
    University of Washington, Department of Medicine, Seattle 98195, USA
    Mol Microbiol 27:1171-82. 1998
    ....
  35. ncbi Dissemination in Japanese hospitals of strains of Staphylococcus aureus heterogeneously resistant to vancomycin
    K Hiramatsu
    Department of Bacteriology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
    Lancet 350:1670-3. 1997
    ..Two important questions need to be answered: (1) what is the prevalence of VRSA, and (2) by what mechanism does vancomycin resistance occur...
  36. ncbi Effect of an intensive care unit rotating empiric antibiotic schedule on the development of hospital-acquired infections on the non-intensive care unit ward
    Michael G Hughes
    Department of Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22908, USA
    Crit Care Med 32:53-60. 2004
    ..We hypothesized that this intervention would decrease infectious complications in the non-ICU ward to which these patients were transferred...
  37. pmc Clinical, cellular, and molecular factors that contribute to antifungal drug resistance
    T C White
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Washington, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 11:382-402. 1998
    ..Since the study of antifungal drug resistance is relatively new, other factors that may also contribute to resistance are discussed...
  38. ncbi General practitioners' perceptions of antimicrobial resistance: a qualitative study
    Sharon A Simpson
    Department of General Practice, Cardiff University, 3rd Floor Neuadd Merionnydd, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:292-6. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was therefore to achieve a deeper understanding of GPs' perceptions of antimicrobial resistance...
  39. pmc Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Escherichia coli strains lacking multidrug efflux pump genes
    M C Sulavik
    Genome Therapeutics Corporation, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1126-36. 2001
    ..The results identify which MDR pumps contribute to intrinsic resistance under the conditions tested and supply practical information useful for designing sensitive assay strains for cell-based screening of antibacterial compounds...
  40. ncbi Invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales: vaccination implications
    K Sleeman
    Oxford Vaccine Group, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 183:239-246. 2001
    ..The data also indicate that IPD varies by serotype, age, and country, emphasizing that the epidemiology of IPD is heterogeneous and requires continued surveillance...
  41. pmc Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria
    P M Bennett
    Bacterial Genetics, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 153:S347-57. 2008
    ..These various aspects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will be explored in this presentation...
  42. ncbi Korean nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in 2000 with special reference to vancomycin resistance in enterococci, and expanded-spectrum cephalosporin and imipenem resistance in gram-negative bacilli
    Kyung Won Lee
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Research Institute of Bacterial Resistance, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon dong, Seodaemun gu, Seoul 120 752, Korea
    Yonsei Med J 44:571-8. 2003
    ..In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria indicates that more concerted effort is required to conserve the usefulness of precious new antimicrobial agents...
  43. ncbi In vitro activity of mezlocillin, meropenem, aztreonam, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ribostamycin and fusidic acid against Borrelia burgdorferi
    K P Hunfeld
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 40, 60596 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 17:203-8. 2001
    ..burgdorferi complex. The excellent in vitro effectiveness of acylamino-penicillin derivatives and their suitability for the therapy of Lyme disease is emphasised...
  44. ncbi Single or double mutational alterations of gyrA associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli
    R Bachoual
    , Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri Mondor, , France
    Microb Drug Resist 7:257-61. 2001
    ..In contrast with the results obtained with clinical isolates, a variety of gyrA mutations were obtained in vitro...
  45. pmc FK 506-binding protein proline rotamase is a target for the immunosuppressive agent FK 506 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    J Heitman
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Basel, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:1948-52. 1991
    ..However, FKBP is only one of at least two targets because strains lacking FKBP are only partially resistant to FK 506...
  46. pmc A small protein that mediates the activation of a two-component system by another two-component system
    L F Kox
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110 1093, USA
    EMBO J 19:1861-72. 2000
    ..A pmrD mutant is sensitive to polymyxin if grown in low magnesium, but resistant if grown in high iron. The PmrD protein controls the activity of the PmrA-PmrB system at a post-transcriptional level...
  47. pmc Need for annual surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States: 2-year longitudinal analysis
    D F Sahm
    MRL, Herndon, Virginia 20171 4603, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1037-42. 2001
    ..This longitudinal surveillance study of resistance in S. pneumoniae revealed that significant changes do occur in just a single year and supports the need for surveillance at least on an annual basis, if not continuously...
  48. ncbi Cloning and primary structure of Staphylococcus aureus DNA topoisomerase IV: a primary target of fluoroquinolones
    L Ferrero
    Departement des Biotechnologies, Rhone Poulenc Rorer S A, Centre de Recherche de Vitry Alfortville, Vitry sur Seine, France
    Mol Microbiol 13:641-53. 1994
    ..coli GyrA, is substituted to Phe or Tyr in both high- and low-quinolone-resistant isolates. We propose that DNA topoisomerase IV is a primary target of fluoroquinolones in S. aureus...
  49. ncbi Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, an opportunistic pathogen
    C K Stover
    PathoGenesis Corporation, Seattle, Washington 98119, USA
    Nature 406:959-64. 2000
    ..We propose that the size and complexity of the P. aeruginosa genome reflect an evolutionary adaptation permitting it to thrive in diverse environments and resist the effects of a variety of antimicrobial substances...
  50. ncbi Inadequate antimicrobial treatment: an important determinant of outcome for hospitalized patients
    M H Kollef
    Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 31:S131-8. 2000
    ..Further study evaluating the use of antibiotic practice guidelines and strategies to reduce inadequate treatment is necessary to determine their impact on patient outcomes...
  51. ncbi Antibiotic combination therapy in patients with chronic, treatment-resistant pouchitis
    P Gionchetti
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Gastroenterologia, Italy
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 13:713-8. 1999
    ..Pouchitis is the major long-term complication after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. About 15% of patients have a chronic, treatment-resistant disease...
  52. ncbi The spread of multiply resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae at a day care center in Ohio
    M R Reichler
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia 30333
    J Infect Dis 166:1346-53. 1992
    ..001). Strategies to limit the spread of highly resistant pneumococcal strains should include encouraging judicious use of antimicrobic agents and reevaluating indications for prophylactic use of antimicrobic agents...
  53. pmc Emergence of the M phenotype of erythromycin-resistant pneumococci in South Africa
    C A Widdowson
    South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Emerg Infect Dis 4:277-81. 1998
    ..These data suggest that, although macrolide resistance in pneumococci remains low in the public sector, the mefE gene is rapidly emerging in South Africa...
  54. pmc Tracking drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Oregon: an alternative surveillance method
    A E Chin
    Oregon Health Division, Portland, Oregon, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 5:688-93. 1999
    ..Although yielding fewer data than active surveillance, antibiograms provided accurate, community-specific drug-resistant S. pneumoniae data in Oregon...
  55. ncbi Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a novel macrolide-resistance determinant, mefA, from Streptococcus pyogenes
    J Clancy
    Central Research Division, Pfizer Incorporated, Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA
    Mol Microbiol 22:867-79. 1996
    ..The gene appears to be widely distributed in S. pyogenes strains, as demonstrated by primer-specific synthesis using the polymerase chain reaction...
  56. pmc Efficient targeted mutagenesis in Borrelia burgdorferi
    J L Bono
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Bacteriol 182:2445-52. 2000
    ..The kanamycin resistance marker allows efficient direct selection of mutants in B. burgdorferi and hence is a significant improvement in the ability to construct isogenic mutant strains in this pathogen...
  57. ncbi inhA, a gene encoding a target for isoniazid and ethionamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    A Banerjee
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461
    Science 263:227-30. 1994
    ..These results suggest that InhA is likely a primary target of action for INH and ETH...
  58. ncbi The catalase-peroxidase gene and isoniazid resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Y Zhang
    MRC Tuberculosis and Related Infections Unit, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nature 358:591-3. 1992
    ..Deletion of katG from the chromosome was associated with INH resistance in two patient isolates of M. tuberculosis...
  59. pmc Naturally occurring Staphylococcus epidermidis plasmid expressing constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance contains a deleted attenuator
    B C Lampson
    J Bacteriol 166:479-83. 1986
    ..Constitutive expression of ermM is due to the deletion of 107 base pairs relative to ermC; the deletion removes critical sequences for attenuation, resulting in constitutive methylase expression...
  60. pmc Three efflux pumps are required to provide efficient tolerance to toluene in Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E
    A Rojas
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology of Plants, Estacion Experimental del Zaidin, CSIC, E 18008 Granada, Spain
    J Bacteriol 183:3967-73. 2001
    ..The triple mutant was hypersensitive to toluene, as shown by its inability to grow with toluene supplied via the vapor phase...
  61. ncbi A signal transduction system that responds to extracellular iron
    M M Wösten
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Cell 103:113-25. 2000
    ..A pmrA mutant was hypersensitive to killing by iron but displayed wild-type resistance to a variety of oxidants, suggesting PmrA/PmrB controls a novel pathway mediating the avoidance of iron toxicity...
  62. pmc A novel erythromycin resistance methylase gene (ermTR) in Streptococcus pyogenes
    H Seppala
    Antimicrobial Research Laboratory, National Public Health Institute, Turku, Finland
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:257-62. 1998
    ..5% identical to ermA, previously found, for example, in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Our finding provides the first sequence of an erm gene other than ermAM that mediates MLSB resistance in S. pyogenes...
  63. ncbi Standard short-course chemotherapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: treatment outcomes in 6 countries
    M A Espinal
    World Health Organization, Communicable Diseases Programme, Ave Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    JAMA 283:2537-45. 2000
    ....
  64. ncbi The frost gene of Neurospora crassa is a homolog of yeast cdc1 and affects hyphal branching via manganese homeostasis
    T Sone
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Fungal Genet Biol 28:227-37. 1999
    ..The fr mutant was also sensitive to calcineurin inhibitors. These results suggest that fr is involved in Mn(2+) homeostasis and point to a role for Mn(2+) in Neurospora branching...
  65. ncbi Epidemiology of emerging pneumococcal drug resistance: implications for treatment and prevention
    J C Butler
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Vaccine 16:1693-7. 1998
    ..However, the vaccine is underutilized, and a substantial reduction in the morbidity and mortality associated with invasive pneumococcal infections is unlikely until the vaccine is used more widely among persons at risk for disease...
  66. ncbi Detection of rifampicin-resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    A Telenti
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, University of Berne, Switzerland
    Lancet 341:647-50. 1993
    ..These findings provide the basis for rapid detection of rifampicin resistance, a marker of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
  67. ncbi Thermoanaerobacter mathranii sp. nov., an ethanol-producing, extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium from a hot spring in Iceland
    L Larsen
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bldg 115, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    Arch Microbiol 168:114-9. 1997
    ..Genotypic and phenotypic differences between strain A3 and other related species indicate that strain A3 can be assigned to a new species, and the name Thermoanaerobacter mathranii is proposed...
  68. pmc Contributions of the 8-methoxy group of gatifloxacin to resistance selectivity, target preference, and antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae
    H Fukuda
    Central Research Laboratories, Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2399 1, Mitarai, Nogi, Shimotsuga, Tochigi 329 0114, Japan
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1649-53. 2001
    ....
  69. ncbi Antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit
    M H Kollef
    Campus Box 8052, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Ann Intern Med 134:298-314. 2001
    ..Careful, focused attention to this problem at the local ICU level, using a multidisciplinary approach, will have the greatest likelihood of limiting the development and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant infections...
  70. ncbi Regional trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States: results from the TRUST Surveillance Program, 1999-2000
    Clyde Thornsberry
    Focus Technologies Inc, Nashville, TN, USA answers com
    Clin Infect Dis 34:S4-S16. 2002
    ..6%) and M. catarrhalis (86.2%-96.8%) also varied by region. Notable variation in regional antimicrobial resistance rates (S. pneumoniae) and beta-lactamase production (H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis) exists throughout the United States...
  71. pmc Treatment outcome of new culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Norway
    Mohamed Guled Farah
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    BMC Public Health 5:14. 2005
    ..The aims of this study were to evaluate the treatment outcome for new cases of culture positive pulmonary TB registered in Norway during the period 1996-2002 and to identify factors associated with non-successful treatment...
  72. pmc Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter isolates from conventional and antibiotic-free chicken products
    Lance B Price
    Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Suite W6114, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:557-60. 2005
    ..These results suggest that FQ resistance may persist in the commercial poultry environment in the absence of FQ-selective pressure and that these strains contaminate a larger proportion of foods than reported previously...
  73. ncbi Associations between the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs in Denmark, Finland, and Norway
    F M Aarestrup
    Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen
    Microb Drug Resist 6:63-70. 2000
    ..This study indicates that the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion in Denmark, Finland, and Norway have selected for resistance to most of these drugs among E. faecium in food animals...
  74. pmc Cross-linked complex between oligomeric periplasmic lipoprotein AcrA and the inner-membrane-associated multidrug efflux pump AcrB from Escherichia coli
    H I Zgurskaya
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3206, USA
    J Bacteriol 182:4264-7. 2000
    ..We show that AcrA protein forms oligomers, most probably trimers. In this oligomeric form, AcrA interacts specifically with AcrB transporter independently of substrate and TolC...
  75. pmc A protease-resistant catalase, KatA, released upon cell lysis during stationary phase is essential for aerobic survival of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa oxyR mutant at low cell densities
    D J Hassett
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0524, USA
    J Bacteriol 182:4557-63. 2000
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that inactivation of OxyR renders P. aeruginosa exquisitely sensitive to both H(2)O(2) and aminoglycosides, which are clinically and environmentally important antimicrobials...
  76. pmc Pentapeptide repeat proteins
    Matthew W Vetting
    Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Biochemistry 45:1-10. 2006
    ..MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable similarity in size, shape, and electrostatics to DNA...
  77. pmc The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump contributes to multidrug resistance in the nosocomial pathogen Enterobacter aerogenes
    Elizabeth Pradel
    INSERM CJF9606 EA2197, IFR48, Faculte de Medecine, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2640-3. 2002
    ..Both derivatives were more susceptible to antibiotics than the parental strain. Sequence analysis and complementation experiments revealed that the multidrug-resistant isolate is an acrR mutant...
  78. pmc Contribution of exogenous genetic elements to the group A Streptococcus metagenome
    Stephen B Beres
    Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e800. 2007
    ..The data provide new information about the GAS metagenome and will assist studies of pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance, and population genomics...
  79. pmc Tensions in antibiotic prescribing: pitting social concerns against the interests of individual patients
    Joshua P Metlay
    Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 712 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 17:87-94. 2002
    ..However, optimal use from the perspective of the community (reserving newer agents for future use) is not always consistent with optimal use from the perspective of the individual patient (prescribing newer, broader agents)...
  80. ncbi Temperature-regulated efflux pump/potassium antiporter system mediates resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides in Yersinia
    J A Bengoechea
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN 20520 Turku, Finland
    Mol Microbiol 37:67-80. 2000
    ..It is proposed that the RosA/RosB system protects the bacteria by both acidifying the cytoplasm to prevent the CAMPs action and pumping the CAMPs out of the cell...
  81. ncbi Mutations in the ss subunit of the Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase that confer both rifampicin resistance and hypersensitivity to NusG
    C J Ingham
    School of Biological Sciences, University Park, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Microbiology 146:3041-9. 2000
    ..Autoregulation required sequences within the 5' coding sequence of the nusG gene or immediately upstream. This is the first evidence from any bacterium that Rif(r) RNA polymerases can display altered transcription regulation by NusG...
  82. ncbi A model of a transmembrane drug-efflux pump from Gram-negative bacteria
    Juan Fernandez-Recio
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK
    FEBS Lett 578:5-9. 2004
    ..coli, and for the AcrA homologue MexA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on homology modelling and molecular docking, we show how AcrA, AcrB and TolC might assemble to form a tripartite pump, and how allostery may occur during transport...
  83. ncbi Protein export and drug efflux through bacterial channel-tunnels
    C Andersen
    Cambridge University Department of Pathology, Tennis Court Road, CB2 1QP, Cambridge, UK
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 13:412-6. 2001
    ..TolC and its homologues thus provide large exit ducts for a wide range of substrates, including protein toxins and antibacterial drugs, that are engaged by specific recognition proteins in the cytosolic membrane...
  84. ncbi A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment
    Ajit K Sarmah
    Landcare Research New Zealand Limited, Private Bag 3127, Hamilton, New Zealand
    Chemosphere 65:725-59. 2006
    ..The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention...
  85. ncbi The epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections: a call to action for the medical community from the Infectious Diseases Society of America
    Brad Spellberg
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Harbor University of California Los Angeles UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:155-64. 2008
    ..If we are to address the antimicrobial resistance crisis, a concerted, grassroots effort led by the medical community will be required...
  86. pmc Biofilm induced tolerance towards antimicrobial peptides
    Anders Folkesson
    Infection Microbiology Group, BioCentrum DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
    PLoS ONE 3:e1891. 2008
    ....
  87. pmc Intrinsic resistance of Mycobacterium smegmatis to fluoroquinolones may be influenced by new pentapeptide protein MfpA
    C Montero
    , , Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:3387-92. 2001
    ..smegmatis mutant strain lacking an intact mfpA gene than for the WT strain, suggesting that, by some unknown mechanism, the gene product plays a role in determining the innate level of FQ(R) in M. smegmatis...
  88. pmc Molecular analysis of antibiotic resistance gene clusters in vibrio cholerae O139 and O1 SXT constins
    B Hochhut
    Division of Geographic Medicine/Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:2991-3000. 2001
    ..These studies indicate that there is considerable flux in the antibiotic resistance genes found in the SXT family of constins and point to a model for the evolution of these related mobile elements...
  89. pmc The Rcs phosphorelay is a cell envelope stress response activated by peptidoglycan stress and contributes to intrinsic antibiotic resistance
    Mary E Laubacher
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:2065-74. 2008
    ..We propose that the Rcs pathway responds to peptidoglycan damage and contributes to the intrinsic resistance of E. coli to beta-lactam antibiotics...
  90. ncbi Transient intestinal carriage after ingestion of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium from chicken and pork
    T L Sørensen
    Department of Microbiological Research and Development, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    N Engl J Med 345:1161-6. 2001
    ..Antibiotic-resistant enterococci are often present in retail meats, but it is unclear whether the ingestion of these contaminants leads to sustained intestinal carriage...
  91. ncbi The impact of antimicrobial resistance on health and economic outcomes
    Sara E Cosgrove
    Division of Infectious Disease, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:1433-7. 2003
    ....
  92. ncbi Treatment of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis in southeastern Texas
    P Escalante
    Sections of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Institute for the Study of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
    Chest 119:1730-6. 2001
    ..Isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (INHr-TB) can be treated successfully with several treatment regimens. However, the optimal regimen and duration are unclear...
  93. pmc Distribution of mef(A) in gram-positive bacteria from healthy Portuguese children
    Vicki A Luna
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2513-7. 2002
    ..isolate, and an Enterococcus sp. isolate had their mef(A) genes completely sequenced and showed 100% identity at the DNA and amino acid levels with the mef(A) gene from S. pneumoniae...
  94. ncbi Veterinary drug usage and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin
    Frank M Aarestrup
    Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Copenhagen V, Denmark
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 96:271-81. 2005
    ..Programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of antimicrobial agents are strongly desirable, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine...
  95. ncbi A formyltransferase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli and the modification of lipid A with 4-Amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. Identification and function oF UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose
    Steven D Breazeale
    Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:14154-67. 2005
    ..Because the L-Ara4N unit attached to lipid A is not derivatized with a formyl group, we postulate the existence of a deformylase, acting later in the pathway...
  96. ncbi Clindamycin treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in children
    Arthur L Frank
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:530-4. 2002
    ..There is a risk for the appearance of resistance during clindamycin therapy of erythromycin-resistant MRSA infections because of the linked resistance mechanisms...
  97. ncbi Comparison of SXT and R391, two conjugative integrating elements: definition of a genetic backbone for the mobilization of resistance determinants
    J W Beaber
    Division of Geographic Medicine Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center, NEMC 041, 750 Washington St, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 59:2065-70. 2002
    ..This backbone represents a scaffold for the mobilization of genetic material between a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, allowing for rapid adaptation to changing environments...
  98. ncbi Mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics
    Gerard D Wright
    Department of Biochemistry, McMaster University, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Curr Opin Chem Biol 7:563-9. 2003
    ....
  99. ncbi Overcoming antimicrobial resistance: profile of a new ketolide antibacterial, telithromycin
    R Leclercq
    CHU de Caen, Service de Microbiologie, Avenue Cote de Nacre, 14033 Caen Cedex, France
    J Antimicrob Chemother 48:9-23. 2001
    ..Telithromycin therefore represents an important addition to the therapeutic armamentarium in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, with an expected low likelihood of the development of resistance in clinical use...
  100. pmc Horizontal transfer of a multi-drug resistance plasmid between coliform bacteria of human and bovine origin in a farm environment
    H Oppegaard
    Department of Pharmacology, Microbiology, and Food Hygiene, The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, N 0033 Oslo, Norway
    Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3732-4. 2001
    ..Isolates from both cattle and humans harbored an R plasmid of 65 kb (pTMS1) that may have been transferred between them due to selective antibiotic pressure in the farm environment...
  101. ncbi The effect of a community intervention trial on parental knowledge and awareness of antibiotic resistance and appropriate antibiotic use in children
    M J Trepka
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, State Branch, Division of Applied Public Health Training, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Pediatrics 107:E6. 2001
    ..Overuse of antibiotics for children's upper respiratory infections is widespread and contributes to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria...

Research Grants69

  1. ENZYMOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These investigations will establish the bases for the design of new drugs to counter resistance to fosfomycin that is encoded in the genomes of select human pathogens. ..
  2. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobials Targeting the D-Alanine Pathway
    KAREN G ANTHONY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Accomplishing this goal would enhance our national preparedness for natural, accidental and intentional exposure to several pathogens, and help address emerging microbial drug resistance.
  3. TRAINING IN GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES
    JAMES WALTER KAZURA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  4. Advanced Infection Control methods for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance and Pathogen
    Christopher N Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research will increase our understanding of microbial drug resistance, enable the tracking of new drug resistant organisms, and provide a measurement and surveillance utility ..
  5. Pan Genomic Discovery of Genes Toxic to Bacteria
    Edward M Rubin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This approach will be used to detect and develop new antimicrobial agents as well as study a new class of RNA molecules that are toxic to bacteria. ..
  6. Genetic Variation and Evolution of Artemisinin Resistance
    Dyann F Wirth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..project will expand our fundamental understanding of both the genetic variation of malaria and microbial drug resistance among malaria parasites by confirming artemisinin resistance phenotypes, identify the gene (or genes) ..
  7. Pneumococcal transmission in urban environments
    Joshua Metlay; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  8. Molecular Basis of Microbial Pathogenesis
    Randall Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b>Microbial drug resistance, emerging infections, use of microbes as bioterrorism weapons, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (..
  9. SYNTHETIC ANTIBACTERIAL PEPTIDES
    Gennadi Glinsky; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..It is further proposed that Phase II methodology will address the selected analog's ability to treat bacterial infections in vivo. PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: NOT AVAILABLE ..
  10. Metabolic Drug Targeting in Haemophilus influenze
    CHRISTOPHE SCHILLING; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..influenzae infections; 5) and enhanced validation of existing targets in H. influenzae. ..
  11. Study design importance in analyzing emerging pathogens
    Anthony Harris; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The second aim will be done by combining epidemiological relatedness and molecular relatedness through pulse-field gel electrophoresis of ESBL cultures to quantify the importance of patient to patient transmission. ..
  12. Epidemiologic Methods: Resistant Nosocomial Infections
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This will in turn lead to better practices to reduce the incidence of ARNI. ..
  13. New Nosocomial Interventions to Decrease Antimicrobial Resistance Transmission
    Anthony Harris; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  14. Hepatitis C Virus Induced IL-8 & Inhibition of Interferon
    STEPHEN POLYAK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Moreover, IL-8 or its receptors may prove to be suitable targets for therapeutic intervention in chronic hepatitis C. ..
  15. Impact of Hand Hygiene Guideline on Infections and Costs
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. HOME HYGIENE INTERVENTION
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Logistic regression, Liang-Zeger regression, and Chi Square analyses will be used to test differences in rates of transmission of symptoms and changes in quantity, types and resistance patterns of microbial flora of the hands. ..
  17. HUMAN RETROVIRUS-5 AND ARTHRITIS
    Robin Patel; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Identification of a specific infectious agent associated with these arthritides would potentially allo for the development of preventive strategies such as vaccination and novel therapeutic approaches. ..
  18. Antivirals directed to novel targets in the virus-coded proteinase of adenovirus
    WALTER MANGEL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. Detection of Biofilm Bacteria using GloBac
    Robin Patel; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The goal of the proposed studies is to develop a rapid test for detection of bacteria on artificial joints that can be used in the operating room to diagnose infected artificial joints. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  20. 9th Annual International Mtg on HIV Dynamics & Evolution
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Participants in the 9th Meeting will include leading figures in virology, biomathematics, and evolution, as well as junior workers actively involved in research in these areas. ..
  21. Interdisciplinary Research:Antimicrobial Resistance(RMI)
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In the final year, plans for a sustainable Consortium on antimicrobial resistance will be formalized. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. QUINOLONE RESISTANCE MECHANISMS IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
    David Hooper; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. Enhancement of antimicrobics by electrical current
    Robin Patel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This novel but simple resistance reversing strategy may generalize to a wide variety of antimicrobics and microorganisms and a wide variety of biofilm-associated human infections. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  24. ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Douglas Richman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  25. Novel inhibitors of M. tuberculosis RNA Polymerase
    Anthony Lynch; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Phase II studies would thereafter be addressed toward systematic optimization of the series as an antitubercular agent. ..
  26. The impact of early antiretroviral therapy on HIV persistence and inflammation
    STEVEN GRANT DEEKS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our work may also provide important insights in the role of chronic inflammation in driving viral persistence, and hence may lead to the development of novel interventions. ..
  27. Treatment Intensification for Drug-Resistant HIV
    Steven Deeks; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Funding for the pilot clinical trial has been obtained from other sources; funding is requested in this proposal only for costs associated with the measurements of immunologic response to drug-resistant HIV-1. ..
  28. Immunologic Control of Drug-resistant HIV-1
    Steven Deeks; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Finally, since we will estimate the relative in vivo thresholds for HIV-mediated immunogenicity and pathogenicity, these studies may also have implications for vaccine development. ..
  29. Hepatitis C Virus Proteins and Ethanol
    STEPHEN POLYAK; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  30. Role of Genomic Imprinting in Developmental Neurotoxici*
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..2. To utilize high throughput methods to examine patterns of DNA methylation in candidate genes in sperm and zygote in order to detect the presence of male-mediated effects on imprinted genes involved in early development. ..
  31. DNA GYRASE AND QUINOLONE RESISTANCE IN TUBERCULOSIS
    Karl Drlica; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. Calcineurin and Aspergillus fumigatus Pathogenesis
    WILLIAM STEINBACH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..I will also test the non-immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitor analogs to decrease the total level of immunosuppression and therefore increase the overall antifungal efficacy of exploiting the calcineurin pathway. ..
  33. Staff Hand Hygiene and Nosocomial Infections in Neonates
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  34. Stopping URIs and FLU in the Family: the Stuffy Trial
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  35. THE ROLE OF MYCOBACTERIA IN CROHN'S DISEASE
    David Graham; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of this study should either confirm or refute the proposed etiologic association of M. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease as well as the identification of patients with Crohn's disease and M. paratuberculosis. ..
  36. REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE AND OTHER HIV MOLECULAR STRUCTURES
    Thomas Steitz; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Crystallographic studies of both full length HIV integrase and the homologous transposase, TN552, complexed with suitable DNA substrates are aimed to produce mechanistic insights. ..
  37. Device use in Nursing Homes: Reducing Risk of Infection
    Lona Mody; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. Genetic Susceptibility to Mercury-Induced Immune Dysfunction in Autism & ASD
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  39. 2008 Bacterial Cell Surfaces Gordon Research Conference
    ANNE DELCOUR; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Success in these research endeavors is enhanced by the exchange of information and ideas promoted by the Bacterial Cell Surfaces Gordon Conference. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. Infection, Inflammation and Preeclampsia
    Catherine Haggerty; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, cytokine and CRP testing may prove to be effective tools for identifying women at risk for developing preeclampsia. ..
  41. Clinical Significance of HIV Replication Fitness
    Lisa Demeter; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..If these studies are successful, they could identify tests that could help predict clinical outcomes for HIV-infected patients. ..
  42. DEVELOPMENT OF STAPHYLOCOCCALCIDAL HUMAN PEPTIDES
    William Shafer; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This information should help in the development of new effective peptide-based drugs that could be used in the future to combat staphylococcal diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant strains. ..
  43. Novel Targets for Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Philip Lister; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. Sexually Transmitted Infections & Antimicrobial Peptides
    William Shafer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. Hospital-Acquired Infections in the Elderly
    Keith Kaye; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The risk factor identified for SSI and MDRB and the impact of SSI and MDRB on health outcomes will be used to design and implement future preventive interventions. ..
  46. HIV Outcomes Research and Training in Uganda
    David Bangsberg; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. METALLO BETA LACTAMASE FROM X MALTOPHILIA
    Michael Crowder; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  48. NATURAL SUBSTRATES AND INHIBITORS OF MICROBIAL MDR PUMPS
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..MDR inhibitors will potentiate the action of conventional antibiotics, aiding eradication of multidrug resistant human pathogens. ..
  49. DISEASE ON NEW HOSTS: MICROBOTRYUM AS A MODEL SYSTEM
    Janis Antonovics; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Determine the role of genetic factors in the transmission of a pathogen to a new host, c. Determine the role of pathogen specialization in persistence on new hosts. ..
  50. Safety and Efficacy of C31G for Ocular Infections
    Richard Bax; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Upon achievement of these specific aims, the lead formulation will be advanced through preclinical FDA required studies via a Phase II SBIR. ..
  51. GENETIC RECOMBINATION IN MYCOPLASMAS
    Kevin Dybvig; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In aim 2, mutants with defects in putative DNA recombinases and V-I protein production will be examined to study the mechanisms of gene rearrangements and phenotypic switching. ..
  52. Phase II SBIR: WHI-07: A Novel Dual-Function Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  53. Hemin Receptor Gene Family of Bartonella quintana
    MICHAEL MINNICK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. X-ray Structures of Small MDR Efflux Pumps
    Geoffrey Chang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..3. X-ray structure determination and refinement of SMR transporters.4. Structural studies of SMR transporters concerning substrate translocation.5. Structural studies of SMR transporters concerning substrate recognition. ..
  55. EFFLUX-MEDIATED RESISTANCE TO TETRACYCLINES
    Stuart Levy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Such understanding will also enhance[unreadable] efforts to reverse efflux of other antibiotics and drugs used to treat infectious diseases, including[unreadable] bacteria, fungi and parasites, and cancer. ..
  56. Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptive Hypersensitivity
    Nancy Shulman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  57. Infection Risk of Urinary Collection Strategies
    Sanjay Saint; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Since approximately 40% of elderly Americans will enter a nursing home at some point, identification of those at risk of infection could have considerable health, quality of life, and economic consequences. ..
  58. Role of fitness in HIV protease inhibitor resistance
    Ronald Swanstrom; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, we will develop SIVsm as a resistance/fitness model to prepare for future studies that will allow a formal test of the contribution of attenuated replication capacity to reduced pathogenicity. ..
  59. Mycoplasma Genitalium and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
    Catherine Haggerty; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Exploring the role of M. genitalium in PID is imperative to optimize diagnosis and treatment and prevent reproductive morbidity among women with nongonococcal/nonchlamydial PID. ..
  60. A randomized trial of influenza vaccination of Hutterite children
    Mark Loeb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We believe that the trial we propose will lead to important data that can inform policy on influenza immunization strategy. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. Bioactive Compounds from Acylnitroso Cycloadducts
    Marvin Miller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. Derivatization/Functionalization of Natural Product(RMI)
    Marvin Miller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3. Broadly test the scaffold and derived libraries of novel compounds using the extensive set of assays in place at the Hans-Knoll Institute for Natural Products Research (HKI). ..
  63. Clinical Approaches to Ileal Pouch Dysfunction
    Bo Shen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The AIMS of study are to 1) investigate visceral hypersensitivity using barostat examination of the pouch; 2) conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating the use of amitriptyline in IPS. ..
  64. REDUCING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL
    Jonathan Finkelstein; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Cost-effectiveness analysis will estimate the financial and other costs per resistant infection avoided. ..
  65. Improving Antibiotic Use in Acute Care Settings
    Ralph Gonzales; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Specific Aim 2: To evaluate the impact of a rapid diagnostic test for c-reactive protein on antibiotic use for adults with acute cough illness when added to a multidimensional intervention. ..
  66. Minimizing Antibiotic Resistance in Colorado (MARC)
    Ralph Gonzales; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..pneumoniae infections in and outside the intervention communities. Specific Aim IIIC: Conduct a net-cost analysis of the different levels of community education. ..