Genomes and Genes
Summary: Functions, activities, and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Publications218 found, 100 shown here
- MMPs in the eye: emerging roles for matrix metalloproteinases in ocular physiologyJeremy M Sivak
Vision Research Laboratories, New England Eye Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Center for Vision Research, Tufts University, 750 Washington Street, Box 450, 02111, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Prog Retin Eye Res 21:1-14. 2002..For the cornea, we present recent work on the roles of MMPs during various aspects of wound healing. For the retina, we describe the activities of MMPs in specific disease states from which common principles may emerge...
- Melatonin receptors in the eye: location, second messengers and role in ocular physiologyPilar Alarma-Estrany
Departamento de Bioquimica, E U Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, c Arcos de Jalon s n, 28037 Madrid, Spain
Pharmacol Ther 113:507-22. 2007....
- Role of aquaporin water channels in eye functionA S Verkman
Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, 1246 Health Sciences East Tower, San Francisco, CA 94143 0521, USA
Exp Eye Res 76:137-43. 2003..Pharmacological alteration of AQP function may provide a new approach for therapy of glaucoma, corneal edema, and other diseases of the eye associated with abnormalities in IOP or tissue hydration...
- The geomagnetic field influences the sensitivity of our eyesFranz Thoss
Carl Ludwig Institute of Physiology of University Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 27, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Vision Res 47:1036-41. 2007..The experiments show that the geomagnetic field increases this sensitivity by 6-7%, depending on the stimulated area. Based on this increase the probable change in perception of the background luminance was calculated by the Weber-law...
- Retinal morphology and electrophysiology of two caprimulgiformes birds: the cave-living and nocturnal oilbird (Steatornis caripensis), and the crepuscularly and nocturnally foraging common pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis)L M Rojas
Instituto de Investigaciones en Biomedicina y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad de Oriente, Cumana, Sucre, Venezuela
Brain Behav Evol 64:19-33. 2004..In addition, common pauraques also have a tapetum. These features, combined with a higher proportion of cones, show that common pauraques are well equipped for crepuscular and nocturnal foraging on flying insects in an open environment...
- Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology in hemoglobinless Antarctic icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Channichthyidae)Joseph T Eastman
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 2979, USA
J Morphol 260:117-40. 2004..Neural morphology gives the impression that channichthyids are a homogeneous and little diversified group...
- Eye-neck coupling during optokinetic responses in head-fixed pigeons (Columba livia): influence of the flying behaviourM Maurice
Laboratoire de Neurobiologie des Reseaux Sensorimoteurs, UMR 7060, CNRS Université René Descartes, 45 Rue des Saints Peres, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France
Neuroscience 125:521-31. 2004..resting'). This strategy could help pigeons in reorienting their gaze during the flight...
- Anatomy and function of the eyeHenry J Kaplan
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
Chem Immunol Allergy 92:4-10. 2007..The focus of this chapter is to provide a concise description of both the function and anatomy of the normal eye...
- A quantitative description of lens eye morphology and its implicationsRichard A Clement
Visual Sciences Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 24:242-5. 2004..The quantitative description of the two different eye shapes can be used to identify the relative importance of image illumination and resolution to an animal from a cross-section of its eye...
- Eyes of a lower vertebrate are susceptible to the visual environmentWei Shen
School of Optometry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:4829-37. 2007..This study examined the sensitivity of the tilapia eye to positive and negative lenses. It further investigated the sensitivity of the fish eye to form deprivation by examining the effect of fish weight...
- An automated tool for face recognition using visual attention and active shape models analysisA Faro
Dipt di Ingegneria Informatica e Telecomun, Catania Univ, Italy
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 1:4848-52. 2006..The advantages of this approach and opportunities for further improvements are discussed...
- Influence of axial length of normal eyes on PERGRudy Hidajat
Department of Ophthalmology, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand
Doc Ophthalmol 107:195-200. 2003..This confirms the current hypothesis that the PERG amplitude is inversely related to axial length and means that AL should be considered when interpreting PERG amplitudes...
- The spatial resolution of the pinhole eyes of giant clams (Tridacna maxima)Michael F Land
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
Proc Biol Sci 270:185-8. 2003..This gives an angular acceptance angle for single receptors of 16.5 degrees, which is completely consistent with the behavioural measurements...
- Developmental basis of nanophthalmos: MFRP Is required for both prenatal ocular growth and postnatal emmetropizationOlof H Sundin
Wilmer Eye Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 92889, USA
Ophthalmic Genet 29:1-9. 2008..Recessive nanophthalmos is caused by severe mutations in the MFRP gene, which encodes a Frizzled-related transmembrane protein that is selectively expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and ciliary body...
- Bullwhip neurons in the retina regulate the size and shape of the eyeAndy J Fischer
Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 1239, USA
Dev Biol 317:196-212. 2008..Although the bullwhip and mini-bullwhip cells are not abundant, less than 1000 cells per retina, their influence on the development of the eye is substantial and includes vision-guided ocular growth...
- Visual sensitivity in the crepuscular owl butterfly Caligo memnon and the diurnal blue morpho Morpho peleides: a clue to explain the evolution of nocturnal apposition eyes?Rikard Frederiksen
Lund University, Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Helgonavagen 3, S 22362 Lund, Sweden
J Exp Biol 211:844-51. 2008..memnon than in M. peleides, showing that adaptations that improve sensitivity can be found not only in nocturnal apposition eyes, but also on a smaller scale in crepuscular apposition eyes...
- The unusual visual system of the Strepsiptera: external eye and neuropilsE K Buschbeck
Neurobiology and Behavior, Mudd Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 189:617-30. 2003..The size and shape of the rhabdoms, as well as a relatively slow flicker-fusion frequency could suggest that these eyes evolved through a nocturnal life stage...
- Ray tracing through a schematic eye containing second-order (quadric) surfaces using 4 x 4 matrix notationAchim Langenbucher
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 26:180-8. 2006..This calculation strategy may be helpful for evaluating the image distortion of decentred or tilted spherical or aspheric artificial intra-ocular lenses...
- The optokinetic response in zebrafish and its applicationsYing Yu Huang
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, Department of Biology, Zurich, Switzerland
Front Biosci 13:1899-916. 2008..A case in point is the belladonna mutation, where an axonal misrouting effect at the optic chiasm leads to a reversed OKR with a number of interesting properties...
- Modeling of an eye-imaging system for optimizing illumination schemes in an eye-tracked head-mounted displayHong Hua
3DVIS Laboratory, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
Appl Opt 46:7757-70. 2007..We present details on the modeling process and simulation results...
- Eye ultrastructure in the pollen-feeding beetle, Xanthochroa luteipennis (Coleoptera: Cucujiformia: Oedemeridae)Monalisa Mishra
International University Bremen from February 2007 Jacobs University, School of Engineering and Science, Research II Campus Ring 6 D 28759 Bremen, Germany
J Electron Microsc (Tokyo) 55:289-300. 2006....
- Octopus arm choice is strongly influenced by eye useRuth A Byrne
Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research, A 3422 Altenberg, Austria
Behav Brain Res 172:195-201. 2006..Although results point towards strong eye/arm coordination, we did not find lateralized behavior in this experiment. Results are discussed from a neuro-anatomical, behavioral and ecological perspective...
- Casting a genetic light on the evolution of eyesRussell D Fernald
Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5020, USA
Science 313:1914-8. 2006..A major challenge now is understanding how newly discovered pathways for processing light evolved and how they collaborate with eyes to harvest information from light...
- The phase relationships between the diurnal rhythms in axial length and choroidal thickness and the association with ocular growth rate in chicksDebora L Nickla
Bioscience Department, The New England College of Optometry, 424 Beacon St, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 192:399-407. 2006..There is a positive correlation between the phase difference and growth rate. In conclusion, there is a consistent association between growth rate and phase relationships of the rhythms in axial elongation and choroidal thickness...
- The visual ecology of fiddler crabsJochen Zeil
Centre for Visual Sciences, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, PO Box 475, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 192:1-25. 2006..Studying vision in fiddler crabs reminds us that vision has a topography, that it is context-dependent and pragmatic and that there are perceptual limits to what animals can know and therefore care about...
- Physiological characterization of the compound eye in monarch butterflies with focus on the dorsal rim areaJulia Stalleicken
VW Nachwuchsgruppe Animal Navigation, IBU, University of Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg, Germany
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 192:321-31. 2006..The data are discussed in the light of present knowledge about polarized skylight navigation in Lepidopterans...
- Axial growth and changes in lenticular and corneal power during emmetropization in infantsDonald O Mutti
Ohio State University College of Optometry, 338 West Tenth Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 1240, USA
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:3074-80. 2005..To evaluate the contribution made by the ocular components to the emmetropization of spherical equivalent refractive error in human infants between 3 and 9 months of age...
- The spatial resolutions of the apposition compound eye and its neuro-sensory feature detectors: observation versus theoryAdrian Horridge
Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, P O Box 475, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
J Insect Physiol 51:243-66. 2005..During the long history of this topic, the belief that the resolution ought to be Deltaphi has frequently been overturned by experimental measurement...
- Exposure geometry and spectral environment determine photobiological effects on the human eyeDavid H Sliney
U S Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Laser Optical Radiation Program, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5403, USA
Photochem Photobiol 81:483-9. 2005....
- Dietary lutein and zeaxanthin: possible effects on visual functionJames M Stringham
Vision Science Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens 30602 3013, USA
Nutr Rev 63:59-64. 2005..This paper reviews recent studies investigating the influence of macular pigments on human visual performance. Such studies have offered insight into why lutein and zeaxanthin are uniquely concentrated in ocular tissues...
- Higher order monochromatic aberrations of the human infant eyeJingyun Wang
Indiana University School of Optometry, Bloomington, IN, USA
J Vis 5:543-55. 2005..The data are discussed in the context of infants' visual performance and the signals available for controlling growth of the eye...
- Central visual system of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)Samuel D Crish
Department of Biological Sciences and Neuroscience Program, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA
Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 288:205-12. 2006..Taken together, these data suggest that light detection may still play an important role in the lives of these "blind" animals: most likely for circadian entrainment or setting seasonal rhythms...
- Visual function and ocular features in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, with and without treatment with stimulantsM A Grönlund
Section of Ophthalmology, Institute of Clinical Neuroscience, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
Eye (Lond) 21:494-502. 2007..To investigate visual function and ocular features in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and establish whether treatment with stimulants is reflected in functioning of the visual system...
- Circadian photoreception: spotlight on the brainSteven W Lockley
Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Curr Biol 16:R795-7. 2006..Recent studies have begun to shed light on the areas of the brain that respond to such 'non-visual' photoreception in the human eye...
- Eyes: variety, development and evolutionRussell D Fernald
Neuroscience Program, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif 94305, USA
Brain Behav Evol 64:141-7. 2004..Throughout evolution, particular genes have become associated with distinct aspects of eye development, and these suites of genes have been recruited repeatedly as new eyes evolved...
- Vision in the dimmest habitats on earthEric Warrant
Vision Group, Department of Cell and Organism Biology, University of Lund, Helgonavagen 3, 22362 Lund, Sweden
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 190:765-89. 2004..The same is certainly true of deep-sea animals, as future research will no doubt reveal...
- Light dependence of oxygen consumption by blowfly eyes recorded with a magnetic diver balanceTina Pangrsic
Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, P O Box 2995, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 191:75-84. 2005..The dependence of the O2 consumption peak on stimulus duration at high light intensity has a hump with stimulus durations of 10-20 ms, coinciding with the stimulus durations that start to induce the adaptation of the receptor potential...
- Evolving eyesRussell D Fernald
Biological Sciences and Neuroscience Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Int J Dev Biol 48:701-5. 2004..However, detailed comparison of developmental programs may offer clues about multiple origins...
- Historical perspective on the development and evolution of eyes and photoreceptorsWalter J Gehring
Dept Cell Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Switzerland
Int J Dev Biol 48:707-17. 2004....
- Normal development of refractive state and ocular dimensions in guinea pigsXiangtian Zhou
School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, 82 Xueyuan Road, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003, China
Vision Res 46:2815-23. 2006..This study investigated changes in refraction, corneal curvature, axial components and weight of posterior sclera in guinea pig eyes during the normal development from birth...
- Postnatal refractive development in the Brown Norway rat: limitations of standard refractive and ocular component dimension measurement techniquesJeremy A Guggenheim
School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, UK
Curr Eye Res 29:369-76. 2004..This study aimed to provide normative data in the strain of rat being used for the rat genome sequencing project whilst also evaluating standard measurement techniques...
- Advanced optics in a jellyfish eyeDan E Nilsson
Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Zoology Building, Helgonavagen 3, 22362 Lund, Sweden
Nature 435:201-5. 2005..We argue that this may be useful in eyes serving a single visual task. The findings indicate that tailoring of complex receptive fields might have been one of the original driving forces in the evolution of animal lenses...
- Angular and spectral sensitivity of fly photoreceptors. I. Integrated facet lens and rhabdomere opticsD G Stavenga
Department of Neurobiophysics, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 189:1-17. 2003..The angular sensitivity of fly photoreceptors is robust to defocus and largely wavelength independent for all except very slender rhabdomeres...
- Light-induced and circadian changes in the compound eye of the haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)Carolina E Reisenman
Laboratorio de Fisiologia de Insectos, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EHA Buenos Aires, Argentina
J Exp Biol 205:201-10. 2002..In this species, the circadian rhythm of photonegative behaviour persists in both DD and LL conditions, suggesting that these two rhythms, in retinal morphology and visual behaviour, may be generated by different circadian oscillators...
- Visual field structure in the Empress Leilia, Asterocampa leilia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae): dimensions and regional variation in acuityRonald L Rutowski
Department of Biology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1501, USA
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 188:1-12. 2002..This study also suggests that perched males direct their most acute vision where females are likely to appear but show no eye modifications that appear clearly related to a mate-locating tactic...
- Image processing and 3D reconstruction of serial section micrographs from Musca Domestica's biological cells responsible for visual processingJeffrey R Anderson
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
Biomed Sci Instrum 38:363-8. 2002..Much of this research is funded by the Navy Air Warfare Center in an effort to design an analog visual system with real-time target identification and tracking capabilities...
- Cell diversity in the retina: more than meets the eyeTiffany Cook
New York University, New York NY 10003, USA
Bioessays 25:921-5. 2003..As Prospero, the Drosophila homolog of Prox1, also participates in retinal cell specification, these data provide a forum for asking new questions concerning pathways that may regulate retinogenesis across evolution...
- Light reception: discovering the clock-eye in mammalsTill Roenneberg
Institute for Medical Psychology, University of Munich, Goethestrasse 31, 80336, Munich, Germany
Curr Biol 12:R163-5. 2002..Mammals receive this signal exclusively through the eyes, but not just via rods and cones. New evidence has been uncovered for a novel photoreceptor that may be responsible for more than just adjusting the clock...
- Endophilin is critically required for synapse formation and function in Drosophila melanogasterRicha Rikhy
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 India
J Neurosci 22:7478-84. 2002..Immunofluorescence studies show colocalization of endophilin with dynamin consistent with a possible role in synaptic vesicle recycling...
- Adaptive visual metamorphosis in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent crabRobert N Jinks
Department of Biology, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania 17604 3003, USA
Nature 420:68-70. 2002..As hydrothermal vents produce light, vision may supplement thermal and chemical senses to orient postlarval settlement at vent sites...
- Synaptic pharmacology in the turtle accessory optic systemNaoki Kogo
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, St Louis University School of Medicine, MO, USA
Exp Brain Res 147:464-72. 2002..These results indicate that the BON is a site of complex visual processing of competing visual signals and provide insight into how an interaction of excitation and inhibition creates a retinal slip signal in the accessory optic system...
- Random noise paradoxically improves light-intensity encoding in Hermissenda photoreceptor networkChristopher R Butson
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Utah, 20 S 2030 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 9458, USA
J Neurophysiol 99:146-54. 2008..These results suggest that noise plays a constructive role in neural information processing, a concept that could have important implications for understanding neural information processing or designing neural interface devices...
- Hepatocyte growth factor is increased in the aqueous humor of glaucomatous eyesD N Hu
Tissue Culture Center, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York 10003, USA
J Glaucoma 10:152-7. 2001..To assess the concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the aqueous humor of eyes with glaucoma compared with control eyes with cataract only...
- [Electroretinographic study of chromatic vision]Daniela Cavalcanti Ferrara de Almeida Cunha
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Euzébio Naylor 155, Rio de Janeiro, RJ CEP 22793 770, Brazil
Arq Bras Oftalmol 69:857-63. 2006..The electroretinogram represents the combination of electric activity of many different cells and varies according to retinal physiology and examination methods...
- The HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope in the eye: basic science and functional implicationsM Uusitalo
Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, PO Box 220 Haartmaninkatu 4C, Helsinki, FIN 00029, HUS, Finland
Prog Retin Eye Res 20:1-28. 2001..Eventual identification of molecules that bear the HNK-1 epitope in the eye will likely shed light on many aspects of ocular physiology and pathobiology
- Visual physiology underlying orientation and diel behavior in the sand beach amphipod Talorchestia longicornisJonathan H Cohen
Department of Biology, Eckerd College, St Petersburg, FL 33711, USA
J Exp Biol 213:3843-51. 2010....
- Modulation of tear film protein secretion with phosphodiesterase inhibitorsV Evans
Cooperative Research Centre for Eye Research and Technology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 28:208-11. 2000..b>Ocular physiology, ocular comfort and tear volume were assessed...
- [Cataract surgery. Effect on the posterior segment of the eye]W A Herrmann
Augenklinik, Universitatsklinikum Regensburg, Franz Josef Strauss Allee 11, 93042, Regensburg, Deutschland
Ophthalmologe 107:975-84; quiz 985-6. 2010..Awareness of special risk factors can make cataract surgery, one of the most effective procedures in medicine, even safer...
- Nitric oxide amplifies the rat electroretinogramAlex Vielma
Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencia de Valparaíso, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso, Chile
Exp Eye Res 91:700-9. 2010..To better understand the function of NO in ocular physiology, we investigated the effects of exogenous NO, produced by NO donors with different release kinetics, on the ..
- Objective clinical performance of 'comfort-enhanced' daily disposable soft contact lensesJames S Wolffsohn
Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Cont Lens Anterior Eye 33:88-92. 2010..To examine the objective clinical performance of 'comfort-enhanced' daily disposable contact lenses over a 16-h day...
- Synthesis and secretion of transferrin by a bovine trabecular meshwork cell lineR Bertazolli-Filho
Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brasil
Braz J Med Biol Res 40:1345-51. 2007..The results obtained in all of these experiments indicated that the TM is capable of synthesizing and secreting transferrin. The possible implications for the physiology of the eye are discussed...
- Effects of embryonic exposure to ethanol on zebrafish visual functionJoseph Bilotta
Department of Psychology and Biotechnology Center, Western Kentucky University, 1 Big Red Way, Bowling Green 42101, USA
Neurotoxicol Teratol 24:759-66. 2002..In addition, these findings illustrate the usefulness of the zebrafish as a viable animal model for studying Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)...
- Characterization of alpha 2-macroglobulin binding to human trabecular meshwork cells: presence of the alpha 2-macroglobulin signaling receptorG C Howard
Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Arch Biochem Biophys 333:19-26. 1996..These studies present the first characterization of alpha 2M* and RBF signaling in a primary human cell type and suggest a role for alpha 2M* in the physiology of the eye...
- Courtship and visual defects of cacophony mutants reveal functional complexity of a calcium-channel alpha1 subunit in DrosophilaL A Smith
Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02254, USA
Genetics 149:1407-26. 1998....
- CYP1B1, a developmental gene with a potential role in glaucoma therapyD Choudhary
Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
Xenobiotica 39:606-15. 2009..This suggests a wide role for CYP1B1 in ocular physiology. Histochemical studies of eyes from individuals with primary congenital glaucoma revealed abnormalities in ..
- Standardized electroretinography in primates: a non-invasive preclinical tool for predicting ocular side effects in humansW H Bee
Sierra Biomedical, A Charles River Company, 587 Dunn Circle, Sparks, NV 89431, USA
Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 4:81-91. 2001..The technique is non-invasive, painless, and confers no adverse effects or damage to the eye...
- Ectopic expression of ultraviolet-rhodopsins in the blue photoreceptor cells of Drosophila: visual physiology and photochemistry of transgenic animalsR Feiler
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0649
J Neurosci 12:3862-8. 1992..These findings open up the possibility of tuning an animal's visual behavior by targeted expression of combinations of opsin genes to selective types of photoreceptors...
- Anatomy of the eye from the view of Ibn Al-Haitham (965-1039). The founder of modern opticsNedim Unal
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Meselik, Eskisehir, Turkey
Saudi Med J 30:323-8. 2009..It is understood that he mastered all knowledge on the structure of the eye in his century. The best proof of this is the eye picture that he drew...
- Identification of a zebrafish cone photoreceptor-specific promoter and genetic rescue of achromatopsia in the nof mutantBreandan N Kennedy
UCD Conway Institute and UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:522-9. 2007..This promoter subsequently enables GFP labeling of cones for facile morphologic analysis and purification and genetic rescue of achromatopsia...
- Visual physiology of the Antarctic amphipod Abyssorchomene plebsJonathan H Cohen
Department of Visual Ecology, Division of Marine Science, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, 5600 US 1 North, Fort Pierce, Florida 34946, USA
Biol Bull 211:140-8. 2006..A. plebs photoreceptors are physiologically adapted for a slow lifestyle in a low-light environment, where maximizing photon capture occurs at the expense of detecting fast events in the visual scene...
- Targeted skin overexpression of the mineralocorticoid receptor in mice causes epidermal atrophy, premature skin barrier formation, eye abnormalities, and alopeciaYannis Sainte Marie
INSERM U772, College de France, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
Am J Pathol 171:846-60. 2007..This new mouse model reveals novel biological roles of MR signaling and offers an instructive tool for dissecting nonclassical functions of MR signaling in epidermal, hair follicle, and ocular physiology.
- Might and magic, lust and language--the eye as a metaphor in literature. Notes on the hierarchy of the sensesM Amm
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kiel, Germany
Doc Ophthalmol 101:223-32. 2000..In the following a few references to the international non-medical literature may explain and illustrate the functions of the eye as a metaphor for the mind and describe the past and the prospects of visual perception...
- Does new technology inspire new directions? Examples drawn from pelagic visual ecologySonke Johnsen
Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Integr Comp Biol 47:799-807. 2007..While the ability to study pelagic species still lags far behind what is possible in terrestrial and coastal environments, a renaissance may be developing in the study of the integrative biology of pelagic species...
- Potential therapeutic application of antisense oligonucleotides in the treatment of ocular diseasesR P Danis
University of Indiana Medical Center, 702 Rotary Circle, Room 349, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
Expert Opin Pharmacother 2:277-91. 2001..There are already a number of examples where antisense oligonucleotides have been applied to the study of ocular physiology and disease and there is an antisense oligonucleotide approved for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) ..
- Visual function thresholds in childrenA J Simmers
Department of Psychology, Visual Perception Unit, University of Essex, Colchester, UK
Curr Eye Res 21:616-26. 2000..The aim of the present study was to establish a range of values for individual visual function measurements in Primary 1 schoolchildren...
- The visual physiology of the wild type mouse determined with pattern VEPsV Porciatti
Istituto di Neurofisiologia del CNR, Pisa, Italy
Vision Res 39:3071-81. 1999..VEPs showed contribution from both eyes, although biased strongly towards the eye contralateral to the recorded cortex. Results provide a comprehensive framework for characterizing visual phenotypes of a variety of transgenic mice...
- Visual physiology: perceived size looms largeSean P MacEvoy
Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3209, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Curr Biol 16:R330-2. 2006..Now, a new study shows that perceived size is reflected in activity as early as the primary visual cortex...
- Eye position compensation improves estimates of response magnitude and receptive field geometry in alert monkeysYamei Tang
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
J Neurophysiol 97:3439-48. 2007..Our results imply that eye coil signals can be highly accurate and useful for optimizing visual physiology when rigorous precautions are observed...
- Drosophila insulin pathway mutants affect visual physiology and brain function besides growth, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolismJuan M Murillo-Maldonado
Departamento de Neurobiología del Desarrollo y Neurofisiología, Instituto de Neurobiologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Queretaro, Mexico
Diabetes 60:1632-6. 2011..Given this problem, genetic model systems, such as in flies where type 2 diabetes can be modeled and studied, offer distinct advantages...
- Physiology and biochemistry of the pseudobranch: an unanswered question?C R Bridges
Institut fur Zoophysiologie, Lehrstuhl für Stoffwechselphysiologie, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Dusseldorf, Germany
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 119:67-77. 1998..Most evidence now available indicates that the pseudobranch is integrally linked with the choroid rete and the supply of oxygen to the retina of the fish eye...
- Diurnal variation of visual function and the signs and symptoms of dry eyePamela M Walker
Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA
Cornea 29:607-12. 2010..To clinically substantiate these reports of diurnal variations, the present study tested subjects with dry eye on a series of visual function and ocular physiology measures.
- Vestibulo-ocular physiology underlying vestibular hypofunctionMichael C Schubert
Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, 710 Ross Bldg, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Phys Ther 84:373-85. 2004..The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy and physiology of the vestibular system and to describe the neurophysiological mechanisms responsible for the vestibulo-ocular abnormalities in patients with vestibular hypofunction...
- Ocular prostaglandin production and morphology in mice lacking a single isoform of cyclooxygenaseLorna M Cryan
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81:401-9. 2009Prostaglandins have many important roles in ocular physiology and are used clinically for the treatment of glaucoma...
- Recent perspectives in ocular drug deliveryRipal Gaudana
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri Kansas City, 5005 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, Missouri 64110 2499, USA
Pharm Res 26:1197-216. 2009..Current momentum in the invention of new drug delivery systems hold a promise towards much improved therapies for the treatment of vision threatening disorders...
- Population variation in opsin expression in the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei: a real-time PCR studyR C Fuller
Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 4340, USA
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 190:147-54. 2004..Understanding this system requires quantitative genetic studies. Real-time PCR is an effective tool for studies requiring inferences of visual physiology in large numbers of individuals...
- Directional sexual selection on chroma and within-pattern colour contrast in Labeotropheus fuelleborniMichael J Pauers
The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Department of Biological Sciences, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
Proc Biol Sci 271:S444-7. 2004..This is the first empirical evidence, to our knowledge, for male colour as a directionally sexually selected trait within a haplochromine cichlid population...
- Parallel processing in the corticogeniculate pathway of the macaque monkeyFarran Briggs
Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95618, USA
Neuron 62:135-46. 2009....
- Finding of endocannabinoids in human eye tissues: implications for glaucomaJune Chen
Department of Biological Sciences, Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 330:1062-7. 2005Cannabinoid CB(1) receptors are involved in ocular physiology and may regulate intraocular pressure (IOP)...
- Allatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the optic lobe of the fly Sarcophaga bullataP Sivasubramanian
Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 6E1 Canada
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 49:641-4. 2003..The positive reaction of specific populations of the optic lobe neurons against allatostain antiserum suggests some role for this neuropeptide in the visual physiology of the fly...
- Interaction of eye protein kinase C and INAD in Drosophila. Localization of binding domains and electrophysiological characterization of a loss of association in transgenic fliesF M Adamski
Department of Pharmacology and Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 6600, USA
J Biol Chem 273:17713-9. 1998....
- Proteases in eye development and diseaseMichael A Wride
School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 78:90-105. 2006..Proteases have diverse roles in ocular physiology and pathophysiology...
- Corneal ectasia after scleral buckling surgeryBruno M Fontes
Oftalmoclinica Meier, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Cornea 25:1257-9. 2006..To describe a case of corneal ectasia with marked asymmetric progression attributable to encircling buckle surgery for retinal detachment...
- [Progress of ophthalmic electrophysiology in China in past 5 years]Zheng Qin Yin
Department of Ophthalmology, Southwest hospital affiliated to The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 46:930-3. 2010..Recently, visual physiology has gained noticeable development in basic research and clinical application. This article summarizes the development in this field...
- Ocular microdialysis: a continuous sampling technique to study pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the eyeSai H S Boddu
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri Kansas City, 2464 Charlotte Street, Kansas City, MO 64108 62718, USA
Bioanalysis 2:487-507. 2010..This review article intends to highlight various aspects of ocular microdialysis and its relevance in examining the disposition of drugs in the anterior and posterior segments...
- The role of cathepsins in ocular physiology and pathologyEunok Im
Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, 20 Staniford Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Exp Eye Res 84:383-8. 2007..The most likely mechanism by which cathepsins contribute to ocular pathologies is via degradation of the extracellular matrix, and/or regulation of angiogenesis...
- Electrophysiology of the postreceptoral visual pathway in miceVittorio Porciatti
Institute of Neurophysiology, CNR, Pisa, Italy
Doc Ophthalmol 104:69-82. 2002..Pattern VEPs provide a means for characterizing the visual phenotype of mutant mice and for the evaluation of the effects induced by experimental manipulation...
- [Application possibilities of modern thermography--first experience with the new Tomey TG 1000]M K J Klamann
Klinik fur Augenheilkunde, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Augustenberger Platz 1, Berlin
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 228:515-9. 2011..of the fundamental characteristics of tissue metabolism and is certainly of major interest to investigate ocular physiology. Current instrumentation offers the potential to measure the ocular surface temperature (OST) with high ..
- Intrinsic circadian clock of the mammalian retina: importance for retinal processing of visual informationKai Florian Storch
Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Cell 130:730-41. 2007..Our findings indicate that the intrinsic circadian clock of the retina regulates retinal visual processing in vivo...
- Delivery of celecoxib for treating diseases of the eye: influence of pigment and diabetesAniruddha Amrite
Quinitles, Inc, Clinical Pharmacology, Overland Park, KS 66211, USA
Expert Opin Drug Deliv 7:631-45. 2010..Thus, there is a need to develop safe, sustained release therapeutic approaches for treating AMD and DR...
- The role of endothelin in the pathophysiology of glaucomaTravis J Good
University of Colorado, Denver School of Medicine, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, 1675 Aurora Court, PO Box 6510 Mail Stop F 731, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Expert Opin Ther Targets 14:647-54. 2010..Endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor, is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy...
- Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancerGena Glickman
Department of Neurology, Jefferson Medical College, 1015 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
Neuro Endocrinol Lett 23:17-22. 2002..exposure, melatonin suppression and cancer risk, it is important to continue to identify the basic related ocular physiology. Visual performance, rather than circadian function, has been the primary focus of architectural lighting ..
- Human circadian sensitivity to very short light pulsesElizabeth B Klerman; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Safety and Toxicology Studies of CLT-005 as a Therapeutic for Diabetic Macular EdRAFAL A FARJO; Fiscal Year: 2013..Although we intend to seek an initial indication for DME, it is likely that CLT-005 will also confer a significant therapeutic benefit to patients suffering from Diabetic Retinopathy and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. ..
- CORE GRANT FOR VISION RESEARCHCurtis R Brandt; Fiscal Year: 2013..in using animal models (primate, cat, rabbit and rodent), experimental glaucoma induction, imaging and ocular physiology. This expertise will aid the efforts of core users in assisting the effects of their infectious agents, ..
- Subcortical Luminance PathwaysPAUL GAMLIN; Fiscal Year: 2006..Finally, beside their roles in pupil control and circadian rhythms, these ganglion cells project to the lateral geniculate nucleus and are likely to have very broad-reaching effect on other human visual behaviors. ..
- IMAGE REPRESENTATION IN THE PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEXAllan Gottschalk; Fiscal Year: 2002..In addition, this material provides an important quantitative link between biologic and synthetic methods of image representation. ..
- Identification and Preclinical Evaluation of New Brain Tumor TherapiesDavid Gutmann; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- VISUAL CORTEX: CELLULAR BASIS FOR NORADRENERGIC ACTIONSChiye Aoki; Fiscal Year: 1993..This information is important for understanding the mechanism of vision and other modalities of sensory perception and may be of clinical relevance in understanding the consequences of sensory deprivation during development...
- Non-invasive assessment of murine intraocular pressureJohn Danias; Fiscal Year: 2003..It will allow for repetitive measurement of IOP without affecting ocular physiology. To refine the 1/1 method specifically for use in mouse IOP measurement, we will conduct experiments ..
- GENETIC & MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF DROSOPHILA OLFACTIONJohn Carlson; Fiscal Year: 1993....
- RETINAL SPECTROFLUOROMETERBRUCE ISHIMOTO; Fiscal Year: 2000..It will also be possible to measure macular pigment which is thought to have a protective role in ocular physiology. We see a market for such a device among retinal researchers and pharmaceutical companies...
- STUDY OF EYE PHYSIOLOGY AND DISEASE BY ULTRASOUNDEDWARD PURNELL; Fiscal Year: 1980....
- In Silico Analysis of Ocular Genes and ProteinsJohn Michon; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- PROCESSING OF VISUAL SCENES BY THE LGNR Reid; Fiscal Year: 2004..Only by exploring the normal activity of multiple thalamic inputs to cortical neurons can we begin to understand functional disorders of this pathway, such as in certain forms of epilepsy. ..
- BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE BLOOD-VITREOUS BODY BARRIERWILLIAM FOWLKS; Fiscal Year: 1980..The data obtained should be useful basic data on the B-V barrier important both to clinicians interested in glaucoma and the "internal milieu" of the retina and vitreous body and to others interested in eye physiology. ..
- BIOLOGICAL ROLES OF NOVEL FGF FAMILY MEMBERSPatrick Tong; Fiscal Year: 2001..Because of their preferential expression in the retina, these novel factors may be important in ocular physiology, pathophysiology and therapeutics...
- INHIBITION OF DEHYDROGENASES FOR GLAUCOMA TREATMENTHugo Villar; Fiscal Year: 2005..The second phase of these studies will evaluate the compounds in ex-vivo and in-vivo studies, with the ultimate purpose of identifying candidates for drug development. ..
- NEUROGENESIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE VISUAL SYSTEMRUSSELL FERNALD; Fiscal Year: 2004..Since in our retinal model new rod photoreceptors are integrated into fully functional retinal tissue, this may serve as a particularly useful model for understanding adult neurogenesis. ..
- SOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATION OF MATURATIONRUSSELL FERNALD; Fiscal Year: 2007..are active in the transition between dominant and non-dominant states? 4) What are the anatomical connections to the GnRH neurons? 5) Are the neuronal firing patterns different between dominant and non-dominant males? ..
- ADJUNCT VITAMIN A THERAPY FOR TUBERCULOSIS AND HIV/AIDSRichard Semba; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Long-term Ambulatory Gait Monitor for Parkinson's DiseaseSteven Moore; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- PLASTICITY OF MAMMALIAN CIRCADIAN AXISGianluca Tosini; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- Phase Transition Models of Oculomotor ControlMark Shelhamer; Fiscal Year: 2003..The work represents a new direction for the PI because his past work has not dealt with the unique mathematical formulations required for this study. ..
- VOR adaptation/utility of saccades as rehab strategiesMichael Schubert; Fiscal Year: 2008..This is important for the long-term goals of this project, which are to determine the adaptive preferences that individuals with vestibular loss use to improve gaze stability. ..
- Photic and Nonphotic Input to the Human Circadian SystemSTEVEN LOCKLEY; Fiscal Year: 2008..limits of entrainment for non-photic synchronizers in order to potentially evaluate the efficacy of such time cues for treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders in both the blind and sighted populations [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Development of Motion Processing in Human InfantsKaren Dobkins; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- BINOCULAR RIVALRY IN HUMAN VISIONRobert Blake; Fiscal Year: 2009..Finally, results from these experiments will guide neurophysiologists and cognitive neuroscientists seeking to discover the actual neural concomitants of multi-stable perception. ..
- Muller glia and neuronal regeneration in the retinaAndy Fischer; Fiscal Year: 2009..This information could be applied to not only stimulate neural regeneration to treat sight-threatening diseases of the retina, but also to control gliosis that may be detrimental to the pathogenesis of retinal disorders. ..
- Oxidative Stress and the Pathogenesis of Sarcopenia and Disability in Older WomenRichard Semba; Fiscal Year: 2008..AGEs are a potentially modifiable risk factor, as circulating AGEs can be lowered by dietary modification and by pharmacological intervention. ..
- MULTISENSORY PROCESSING IN THE BEHAVING PREPARATIONLuis C Populin; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Hepcidin and the pathogenesis of anemia in older adults.Richard D Semba; Fiscal Year: 2010..This study should provide new insight into the epidemiology and biological mechanisms of anemia among older adults and help identify strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of anemia. ..
- OPTICAL AND RETINAL LIMITS TO HUMAN VISUAL PERFORMANCELarry N Thibos; Fiscal Year: 2010..Project 6. Develop a new concept of wavefront tomography to characterize the 3-dimensional structure of the eye's optical system from a series of wavefront measurements along multiple lines-of-sight. ..
- TREATMENT OF CIRCADIAN SLEEP DISORDERS WITH BRIGHT LIGHTSteven W Lockley; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- MICRONUTRIENTS AND MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HIVRichard Semba; Fiscal Year: 2001..The relationship between mastitis and breastmilk HIV load and the epidemiology and microbiology of mastitis will be examined in a new cohort of HIV-infected lactating women. ..
- EAAU--ANTIGEN STRUCTURE AND THERAPYHenry Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2001..abstract_text> ..
- Mechanism Underlying the Effects of Blue Light in HumansSTEVEN LOCKLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Improved Search Coil Method for Measuring Eye MovementsMark Shelhamer; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Illumination/Display Technologies in Vision ResearchRobert Webb; Fiscal Year: 2005..This proposal therefore addresses three apparently quite different areas of ophthalmic investigation, linked by the technologies that will enable them. ..
- Thymosin beta 4 and Corneal Wound HealingGabriel Sosne; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- MECHANISMS OF PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION IN HUMAN VISIONRobert Blake; Fiscal Year: 2005..In addition, the work on spatial structure from temporal synchrony may have implications for understanding clinical disorders involving disruptions in temporal processing, including dyslexia. ..
- Thymosin beta 4 and Autoimmune Ocular Surface DiseaseGabriel Sosne; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Processing of Contour Junctions in Area V1SEAN MACEVOY; Fiscal Year: 2005..These experiments explore the way in which line intersections are represented in V1, providing insights into the capacity of V1 to process complex stimuli, as well as their role in the conscious perception of orientation. ..
- Iron Deficiency and Anemia in HIV and HCV-Infected WomenRichard Semba; Fiscal Year: 2005..S. and elsewhere. ..
- Scaling in Reflexive and Volitional Eye MovementsMark Shelhamer; Fiscal Year: 2006..Since scaling changes with pathology, new means to assess vestibular or oculomotor pathology may result. ..
- MOLECULAR GENETICS OF PHOTOTRANSDUCTIONBih Hwa Shieh; Fiscal Year: 2006..Un-regulated signaling may lead to hyperactivity or degeneration of neurons, which has been implicated in mans pathophysiological conditions such as epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases. ..
- MEIBOMIAN KERATOCONJUNCTIVITISJames McCulley; Fiscal Year: 2003..Methods include non-destructive HPLC as well as GC-MS to analyze patient meibum, and standard lipid mixtures based on the composition of patient meibum for physical measurements. ..
- EFFECTIVE CONNECTIVITY IN BRAIN IMAGING OF VISIONRobert Blake; Fiscal Year: 2005..The present proposal has this potential. ..
- Human Sensory Irritation From Volitile Organic CompoundsWilliam Cain; Fiscal Year: 2006..F) The effect of inflammation upon chemesthetic sensitivity. G) Through measurement of the NMP, confirmation of the peripheral basis for a) temporal phenomena, b) differences in potency, and c) effects of inflammation. ..
- OCULAR DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY/EARLY CHILDHOODDonald Mutti; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Motor Learning & Neural Plasticity in Vestibular SystemWu Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2006..This research will provide important knowledge for understanding the fundamental vestibular and oculomotor neurophysiology and improving the diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders in humans. ..
- Targeting drug-delivery nanoparticles to sites of inflammationHenry Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Effector Specificity and the Frontal Eye FieldsBONNIE LAWRENCE; Fiscal Year: 2004..Finally, will examine how and where spatial information is integrated with information about the selection of an effector in FEF and the lateral intraparietal sulcus (LIP). ..
- Vision Research Infrastructure DevelopmentHenry Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2008..These services and resources will enhance vision research at the University of Louisville by extending the capability of NEI funded scientists, promoting collaboration and attracting new scientist to vision research. ..