- Flying and swimming animals cruise at a Strouhal number tuned for high power efficiency
Graham K Taylor
Zoology Department, University of Oxford, Tinbergen Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
Nature 425:707-11. 2003
..4. Here we show that birds, bats and insects also converge on the same narrow range of St, but only when cruising. Tuning cruise kinematics to optimize St therefore seems to be a general principle of oscillatory lift-based propulsion...
- Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird
Douglas R Warrick
Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, 3029 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA
Nature 435:1094-7. 2005
..Hummingbird hovering approaches that of insects, yet remains distinct because of effects resulting from an inherently dissimilar-avian-body plan...
- Honeybee odometry: performance in varying natural terrain
, , , Germany
PLoS Biol 2:E211. 2004
..The bee's perception of distance flown is therefore not absolute, but scene-dependent. These findings raise important and interesting questions about how these animals navigate reliably...
- Contrast enhancement of stimulus intermittency in a primary olfactory network and its behavioral significance
University of Arizona, Tucson, 85721 0077, USA
J Biol 8:21. 2009
- Bumblebee flight distances in relation to the forage landscape
Juliet L Osborne
Department of Plant and Invertebrate Ecology, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, UK
J Anim Ecol 77:406-15. 2008
..terrestris foraging was large enough to buffer against effects of forage patch and flowering crop heterogeneity, but bee species with shorter foraging ranges may experience highly variable colony success according to location...
- Insight into the evolution of avian flight from a new clade of Early Cretaceous ornithurines from China and the morphology of Yixianornis grabaui
Julia A Clarke
Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 27695, USA
J Anat 208:287-308. 2006
- A GPS-based system for recording the flight paths of birds
K von Hünerbein
J W Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Naturwissenschaften 87:278-9. 2000
..Prototypes were tested on homing pigeons. The records of complete flight paths with surprising details illustrate the potential of this new method that can be used on a variety of medium-sized and large vertebrates...
- Local and global motion preferences in descending neurons of the fly
Department of Systems and Computational Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 195:1107-20. 2009
..In addition, the superlinear integration of V2 output is necessary for DNOVS2 to differentiate between a roll rotation and a lift translation of the fly...
- Long-distance pollen flow assessment through evaluation of pollinator foraging range suggests transgene escape distances
Rémy S Pasquet
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P O Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:13456-61. 2008
..However, most between-flower flights occur within plant patches, while very few occur between plant patches...
- Isolation and characterization of flightless mutants in Drosophila melanogaster
J Embryol Exp Morphol 45:123-43. 1978
..It was postulated that a possible factor which controls size of myofibrils is defective in this mutant. These examples indicate the advantage of combining ultrastructural examination with genetic mosaic mapping technique...
- Animal flight dynamics I. Stability in gliding flight
A L Thomas
Department of Zoology, Oxford University, UK
J Theor Biol 212:399-424. 2001
..Birds may therefore resemble tailless aircraft more closely than conventional aircraft with a tailplane...
- Optimizing the success of random searches
G M Viswanathan
Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nature 401:911-4. 1999
..We test the theory by analysing experimental foraging data on selected insect, mammal and bird species, and find that they are consistent with the predicted inverse square power-law distributions...
- Biplane wing planform and flight performance of the feathered dinosaur Microraptor gui
Department of Geosciences, Museum of Texas Tech University, P O Box 43191, Lubbock, TX 79401 3191, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1576-80. 2007
..Like the Wright 1903 Flyer, Microraptor, a gliding relative of early birds, took to the air with two sets of wings...
- Mysterious Mystacina: how the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) locates insect prey
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK
J Exp Biol 206:4209-16. 2003
..We experimentally removed cues available to the bats and showed that bats located mealworms in leaf litter by listening for prey-generated noises and possibly by olfaction...
- Adaptations to migration in birds: behavioural strategies, morphology and scaling effects
Department of Theoretical Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:287-99. 2008
..I also briefly discuss how the optimal policy may be implemented by the bird by applying a set of simple rules. The time constraints on migrants increase with increasing body size. Some consequences of this are discussed...
- Allometry of maximum vertical force production during hovering flight of neotropical orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini)
Michael E Dillon
Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
J Exp Biol 207:417-25. 2004
..These findings suggest an adverse scaling of vertical force production at greater body mass even if flight muscle mass scales isometrically...
- The spatial, temporal and contrast properties of expansion and rotation flight optomotor responses in Drosophila
Brian J Duistermars
Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
J Exp Biol 210:3218-27. 2007
- Dynamic flight stability in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria
Graham K Taylor
Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Tinbergen Building, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK
J Exp Biol 206:2803-29. 2003
..This is identified as a general constraint on flight control in flying animals...
- Proline can be utilized as an energy substrate during flight of Aedes aegypti females
P Y Scaraffia
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and Center for Insect Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721, USA
J Insect Physiol 49:591-601. 2003
- The aerodynamics of free-flight maneuvers in Drosophila
Steven N Fry
Institute of Neuroinformatics, , Winterthurerstr. 190, , Switzerland
Science 300:495-8. 2003
..The magnitude and time course of the torque and body motion during rapid turns indicate that inertia, not friction, dominates the flight dynamics of insects...
- FliMax, a novel stimulus device for panoramic and highspeed presentation of behaviourally generated optic flow
J P Lindemann
, , , Postfach 100131, D-33501, Bielefeld, Germany
Vision Res 43:779-91. 2003
- Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity: a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus)
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Von der Tann Str 7, 82346, Andechs, Germany
J Comp Physiol B 176:415-27. 2006
..741 M(0.554). WBF changed slightly with speed, but correlated better with body mass. Birds showed both types of intermittent flight, undulating and bounding, but their frequencies did not systematically change with flight speed...
- Polarized light helps monarch butterflies navigate
Steven M Reppert
Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, LRB 728, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
Curr Biol 14:155-8. 2004
..The existence of polarized-light detection could allow migrants to accurately navigate under a variety of atmospheric conditions and reveals a critical input pathway into the sun compass mechanism...
- The aerodynamic benefit of wing-wing interaction depends on stroke trajectory in flapping insect wings
Fritz Olaf Lehmann
Biofuture Research Group, Institute of Neurobiology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
J Exp Biol 210:1362-77. 2007
..We hypothesize that these dependencies may have shaped the evolution of wing kinematics in insects that are limited by aerodynamic lift rather than by mechanical power of their flight musculature...
- The flight paths of honeybees recruited by the waggle dance
J R Riley
Plant and Invertebrate Ecology Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK
Nature 435:205-7. 2005
..Using harmonic radar to record the actual flight paths of recruited bees, we now provide that description...
- Function of a fly motion-sensitive neuron matches eye movements during free flight
Department of Neurobiology, Faculty for Biology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany
PLoS Biol 3:e171. 2005
- Dragonfly flight: free-flight and tethered flow visualizations reveal a diverse array of unsteady lift-generating mechanisms, controlled primarily via angle of attack
Adrian L R Thomas
Department of Zoology, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK
J Exp Biol 207:4299-323. 2004
- Scaling of body frontal area and body width in birds
R L Nudds
Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, L C Miall Building, Faculty of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
J Morphol 267:341-6. 2006
..Furthermore, the relations between bird body shape and axial skeleton dimensions, with reference to aerodynamic adaptation, warrant further investigation...
- The relationship between wingbeat kinematics and vortex wake of a thrush nightingale
Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE 223 62 Lund, Sweden
J Exp Biol 207:4255-68. 2004
..More complex interactions between the wake and wings and/or body are implied...
- The energetic cost of variations in wing span and wing asymmetry in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata
Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland, UK
J Exp Biol 207:3977-84. 2004
..12 W), neither of which reached statistical significance. There was, however, a significantly increased flight cost when the wing span was reduced without causing asymmetry (increase of 0.45 W; paired t-test T=2.3, P=0.03)...
- Overexpression of troponin T in Drosophila muscles causes a decrease in the levels of thin-filament proteins
Departamento de Bioquímica and Instituto Investigaciones Biomédicas, UAM CSIC, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Arzobispo Morcillo 4, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Biochem J 386:145-52. 2005
..We propose that the high levels of unassembled protein might act as a sensor in this process...
- Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel
Department of Theoretical Ecology Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
J R Soc Interface 3:263-76. 2006
..The measured circulations of the largest structures in the wake can be predicted quite well by simple models, and expressions are given to predict these and other measurable quantities in future bird flight experiments...
- How and why do insects migrate?
Richard A Holland
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544, USA
Science 313:794-6. 2006
..In the future, advances in tracking methods may enable the global surveillance of large insects such as desert locusts...
- Energy expenditure and wing beat frequency in relation to body mass in free flying Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica)
Carola A Schmidt-Wellenburg
Department of Biological Rhythms and Behaviour, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Von der Tann Str 7, 82346 Andechs, Germany
J Comp Physiol B 177:327-37. 2007
- Allometric scaling of flight energetics in orchid bees: evolution of flux capacities and flux rates
Charles A Darveau
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
J Exp Biol 208:3593-602. 2005
..Fractional velocity is highly conserved across species at the HK step, but varied at all other steps examined. These results are discussed in the context of the regulation and evolution of pathways of energy metabolism...
- Long flights do not influence immune responses of a long-distance migrant bird: a wind-tunnel experiment
Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S 22362 Lund, Sweden
J Exp Biol 210:1123-31. 2007
..Whether this also applies in the wild, where the migrating birds may face adverse weather and food conditions, remains to be investigated...
- Positional entropy during pigeon homing I: application of Bayesian latent state modelling
Machine Learning Research Group, University of Oxford, UK
J Theor Biol 227:39-50. 2004
..The first of these two papers details the novel technical developments associated with this work and the second paper contains a navigational interpretation of the results particularly with respect to visual features of the landscape...
- Four-winged dinosaurs from China
Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P O Box 643, Beijing 100044, China
Nature 421:335-40. 2003
..The new discovery conforms to the predictions of early hypotheses that proavians passed through a tetrapteryx stage...
- Prey pursuit and interception in dragonflies
R M Olberg
Department of Biological Sciences, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308, USA
J Comp Physiol A 186:155-62. 2000
..We found a peak in angular velocity of the prey shortly before take-off which might cue the dragonfly to nearby flying targets. Parallax information from head movements was not required for successful prey pursuit...
- Genetics of the Drosophila flight muscle myofibril: a window into the biology of complex systems
J O Vigoreaux
Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 USA
Bioessays 23:1047-63. 2001
- Differential catabolism of muscle protein in garden warblers (Sylvia borin): flight and leg muscle act as a protein source during long-distance migration
Research Centre for Ornithology of the Max Planck Society, Andechs, Germany
J Comp Physiol B 171:293-301. 2001
..05), being comparably low in both muscles. The ratio of non-contractile to contractile proteins in the flight muscle is one of the highest observed in muscles of a vertebrate...
- Assembly of thick filaments and myofibrils occurs in the absence of the myosin head
R M Cripps
Department of Biology and Molecular Biology Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 4614, USA
EMBO J 18:1793-804. 1999
..However, interaction of the myosin head with other myofibrillar components is necessary for defining filament length and myofibril dimensions...
- Metabolic power, mechanical power and efficiency during wind tunnel flight by the European starling Sturnus vulgaris
Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, Department of Zoology, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, UK
J Exp Biol 204:3311-22. 2001
..18. A flight muscle efficiency of 0.18 rather than 0.23 should be used to calculate the flight costs of birds in the size range of starlings (approximately 0.1 kg) if P(met) is calculated from P(mech) derived from aerodynamic models...
- Expression and function of the Drosophila ACT88F actin isoform is not restricted to the indirect flight muscles
Department of Biology, University of York, UK
J Muscle Res Cell Motil 22:111-9. 2001
..The implications of these results for the functions and developmental expression of the Drosophila ACT88F isoform are discussed...
- Experience- and age-related outgrowth of intrinsic neurons in the mushroom bodies of the adult worker honeybee
S M Farris
Department of Entomology and the Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
J Neurosci 21:6395-404. 2001
- Wing rotation and the aerodynamic basis of insect flight
M H Dickinson
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Science 284:1954-60. 1999
..A comprehensive theory incorporating both translational and rotational mechanisms may explain the diverse patterns of wing motion displayed by different species of insects...
- A shot in the dark: the silent quest of a free-flying phonotactic fly
Laboratory for Bioacoustics, Institute of Zoology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
J Exp Biol 204:1039-52. 2001
..The present data illustrate the fly's surprising ability to gauge the direction and distance of a sound source in three dimensions and, subsequently, to find it in darkness and silence...
- Flightin is essential for thick filament assembly and sarcomere stability in Drosophila flight muscles
M C Reedy
Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
J Cell Biol 151:1483-500. 2000
..Our results indicate that flightin is required for the establishment of normal thick filament length during late pupal development and thick filament stability in adult after initiation of contractile activity...
- Asynchronous muscle: a primer
R K Josephson
School of Biological Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
J Exp Biol 203:2713-22. 2000
..The synchronous locust muscle, subjected to similar stimulation and length change, absorbs rather than produces work...
- Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere
J H Rappole
Conservation and Research Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, Virginia, 22630 USA
Emerg Infect Dis 6:319-28. 2000
..If so, West Nile virus has the potential to cause outbreaks throughout both temperate and tropical regions of the Western Hemisphere...
- Honeybee navigation: nature and calibration of the "odometer"
M V Srinivasan
Centre for Visual Science, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
Science 287:851-3. 2000
..The results show that the honeybee's "odometer" is visually driven. They also provide a calibration of the dance and the odometer in visual terms...
- Optimal stopover decisions under wind influence: the effects of correlated winds
T P Weber
Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, Lund, S 223 62, Sweden
J Theor Biol 205:95-104. 2000
..An analysis of six years of wind data from two sites in Sweden shows that wind directions on successive days are in fact correlated in all years...
- Worker piping in honey bee swarms and its role in preparing for liftoff
T D Seeley
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
J Comp Physiol A 187:667-76. 2001
..We call the two forms "wings-together piping" (in swarms) and "wings-apart piping" (in hives)...
- Association of kettin with actin in the Z-disc of insect flight muscle
M van Straaten
European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, 69012, Germany
J Mol Biol 285:1549-62. 1999
..We propose a model for the association of kettin with actin in which the molecule follows the genetic helix of actin and Ig domains, separated by linker sequences, bind to each actin protomer...
- Consequences of load carrying by birds during short flights are found to be behavioral and not energetic
Robert L Nudds
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283:R249-56. 2002
..Here, the costs of carrying additional mass during routine short flights were revealed to be behavioral and not energetic...
- Sexual dimorphism in the hoverfly motion vision pathway
Discipline of Physiology, School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, The University of Adelaide, SA, Australia
Curr Biol 18:661-7. 2008
..Responses to a target moving against a plain or textured background suggest that the male HSN could potentially play a role in target pursuit under some conditions...
- Ifm(2)2 is a myosin heavy chain allele that disrupts myofibrillar assembly only in the indirect flight muscle of Drosophila melanogaster
Department of Molecular Genetics, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210
J Cell Biol 107:2613-21. 1988
..In contrast, thin filament and Z disc assembly are marginally affected. We discuss a working hypothesis for sarcomere assembly and define and experimental approach to test the predictions of this proposed pathway for sarcomere assembly...
- Molecular and ultrastructural defects in a Drosophila myosin heavy chain mutant: differential effects on muscle function produced by similar thick filament abnormalities
P T O'Donnell
Biology Department, San Diego State University, California 92182
J Cell Biol 107:2601-12. 1988
- Flightin, a novel myofibrillar protein of Drosophila stretch-activated muscles
J O Vigoreaux
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139
J Cell Biol 121:587-98. 1993
..These features suggest a role for flightin in the regulation of contraction, possibly by modulating actin-myosin interaction...
- The influence of visual landscape on the free flight behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster
Lance F Tammero
UCB UCSF Joint Bioengineering Graduate Group, 3060 Valley Life Science Building, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
J Exp Biol 205:327-43. 2002
..In summary, our data suggest that complex behavioral patterns seen during free flight emerge from interactions between the flight control system and the visual environment...
- Alterations in flight muscle ultrastructure and function in Drosophila tropomyosin mutants
A J Kreuz
Department of Molecular Genetics, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
J Cell Biol 135:673-87. 1996
..In contrast, reduced expression of the TnH isoforms has an unexpectedly mild effect on IFM structure and function...
- Flight and size constraints: hovering performance of large hummingbirds under maximal loading
Department of Zoology, University of Texas, Austin 78712, USA
J Exp Biol 200:2757-63. 1997
..Both size classes have evolved to cope with the multi-dimensional effects of size constraining their aerodynamics, muscle mechanics, metabolism and ecology...
- Wind selection and drift compensation optimize migratory pathways in a high-flying moth
Jason W Chapman
Plant and Invertebrate Ecology Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom
Curr Biol 18:514-8. 2008
..We conclude that nocturnally migrating moths use a compass and an inherited preferred direction to optimize their migratory track...
- Effect of slotted wing tips on yawing moment characteristics
Institute of Flight Mechanics and Flight Control, Technische Universitat Munchen, Boltzmannstr 15, 85747 Garching, Germany
J Theor Biol 239:93-100. 2006
..It may be concluded that this is an essential reason why there is sweep in the slotted tips of bird wings...
- On aerodynamic modelling of an insect-like flapping wing in hover for micro air vehicles
Department of Aerospace, Power and Sensors, Cranfield University, Royal Military College of Science Shrivenham, Swindon SN6 8LA, UK
Philos Transact A Math Phys Eng Sci 360:273-90. 2002
..The second is a nonlinear correction accounting for the bound leading-edge vortex. Connections of the proposed framework with control engineering and aeroelasticity are pointed out...
- A new method to quantify prey acquisition in diving seabirds using wing stroke frequency
International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Otsuchi, Iwate, Japan
J Exp Biol 211:58-65. 2008
- Origin of flight: Could 'four-winged' dinosaurs fly?
Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
Nature 438:E3; discussion E3-4. 2005
..They infer, as did Xu and colleagues from similar feathers on the small non-avian theropod Microraptor found in similar deposits, that these leg feathers had aerodynamic properties and so might have been used in some kind of flight...
- Short-amplitude high-frequency wing strokes determine the aerodynamics of honeybee flight
Douglas L Altshuler
Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 91125, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18213-8. 2005
..We suggest that the peculiar kinematics of bees may reflect either a specialization for increasing load capacity or a physiological limitation of their flight muscles...
- Does the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship vary among geometrically similar birds of different mass?
Matthew W Bundle
Flight Laboratory, Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
J Exp Biol 210:1075-83. 2007
- [Bipedalism in birds, a determining feature for their adaptive success]
Museum national d histoire naturelle, FRE 2696, USM 302, Département E G B, CP 55, 57, rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05
J Soc Biol 200:169-75. 2006
..Depending on the specialization, the gait features of the walk and the kinematics pattern are slightly modified. The functional adaptability of their hind limb structure may be a key to the evolutive success of the birds...
- Near- and far-field aerodynamics in insect hovering flight: an integrated computational study
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
J Exp Biol 211:239-57. 2008
..We also estimated hovering energetics based on the computed aerodynamic and inertial torques, and powers...
- The implications of low-speed fixed-wing aerofoil measurements on the analysis and performance of flapping bird wings
G R Spedding
Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 1191, USA
J Exp Biol 211:215-23. 2008
..Together, the measurements imply a fine control of boundary layer separation on the wings, with implications for control strategies and wing shape selection by natural and artificial fliers...
- Vortex wake and flight kinematics of a swift in cruising flight in a wind tunnel
Department of Theoretical Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
J Exp Biol 211:717-30. 2008
..The total drag was also estimated from the wake alone, and the calculated lift:drag ratio of approximately 13 for flapping flight is the highest measured yet for birds...
- Beyond robins: aerodynamic analyses of animal flight
Department of Theoretical Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
J R Soc Interface 5:595-601. 2008
Recent progress in studies of animal flight mechanics is reviewed...
- Effect of forewing and hindwing interactions on aerodynamic forces and power in hovering dragonfly flight
Z Jane Wang
Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Phys Rev Lett 99:148101. 2007
..We explain the main hydrodynamic interaction that causes this phase dependence...
- Animal locomotion: a new spin on bat flight
Bioengineering and Biology, California Institute of Technology, MC 138 78, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
Curr Biol 18:R468-70. 2008
..The enormous diversity of these groups would suggest they fly using a variety of mechanisms, but a new study shows that hovering bats use the same aerodynamic mechanisms as do moths and other insects...
- Cold rearing improves cold-flight performance in Drosophila via changes in wing morphology
Melanie R Frazier
Department of Biology Box 351800, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 1800, USA
J Exp Biol 211:2116-22. 2008
..melanogaster at cold temperatures, and ultimately, may help D. melanogaster live in a wide range of thermal environments...
- Direct measurements of the kinematics and dynamics of bat flight
Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Bioinspir Biomim 1:S10-8. 2006
..Data synthesis of several discrete realizations suggests a 'cartoon' of the wake structure during the entire wing beat cycle. Considerable work remains to be done to confirm and amplify these results...
- Insects in flight: direct visualization and flow measurements
R J Bomphrey
Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Oxford, UK
Bioinspir Biomim 1:S1-9. 2006
..Specifically, kinematic parameters such as wingbeat frequency and amplitude are discussed, along with some discussion of the investigation of morphological parameters such as wing design...
- On mathematical modelling of insect flight dynamics in the context of micro air vehicles
Department of Aerospace, Power and Sensors, Cranfield University, Defence Academy of the UK, Shrivenham, UK
Bioinspir Biomim 1:R26-37. 2006
..This leads to consideration of the types of solutions of nonlinear equations forced by nonlinear oscillations. In particular, the mechanism of synchronization seems relevant and should be investigated further...
- The evolution of flight in bats: narrowing the field of plausible hypotheses
Kristin L Bishop
Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California Davis, California 95616, USA
Q Rev Biol 83:153-69. 2008
- A two-dimensional aerodynamic model of freely flying insects
Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
J Theor Biol 247:657-71. 2007
..The possible flights are analyzed in terms of bifurcation, and the bifurcation structure is qualitatively explained based on a simple assumption. These results suggest the significance of the effect of CM motion...
- Three-dimensional kinematics of hummingbird flight
Bret W Tobalske
Department of Biology, University of Portland, 5000 N Willamette Boulevard, Portland, OR 97203, USA
J Exp Biol 210:2368-82. 2007
..Although hummingbirds flex their wings slightly at the wrist during upstroke, their average wingtip-span ratio of 93% revealed that they have kinematically ;rigid' wings compared with other avian species...
- Performance trade-offs in the flight initiation of Drosophila
Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
J Exp Biol 211:341-53. 2008
..Thus, we find that the two types of Drosophila flight initiation result in different flight performances once the fly is airborne, and that these performances are distinguished by a trade-off between speed and stability...
- A computational model for estimating the mechanics of horizontal flapping flight in bats: model description and validation
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
J Exp Biol 204:2873-98. 2001
- Approaches to the structural modelling of insect wings
R J Wootton
School of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter EX4 4PS, UK
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358:1577-87. 2003
- The concept of energy height in animal locomotion: separating mechanics from physiology
C J Pennycuick
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UG, UK
J Theor Biol 224:189-203. 2003
..Energy height expresses what an animal or machine can do with its stored energy, not the amount of energy...
- Flexural stiffness in insect wings. II. Spatial distribution and dynamic wing bending
S A Combes
Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
J Exp Biol 206:2989-97. 2003
- Flexural stiffness in insect wings. I. Scaling and the influence of wing venation
S A Combes
Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
J Exp Biol 206:2979-87. 2003
..A finite element model of an insect wing demonstrates that leading edge veins are crucial in generating this spanwise-chordwise anisotropy...
- Effects of load type (pollen or nectar) and load mass on hovering metabolic rate and mechanical power output in the honey bee Apis mellifera
Department of Biology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1501, USA
J Exp Biol 206:1855-65. 2003
..A rise in lift coefficient as bees carry loads without increasing wingbeat frequency or stroke amplitude (and only minimal increases in metabolic rate) suggests an increased use of unsteady power-generating mechanisms...
- How cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) modulate pectoralis power output across flight speeds
Tyson L Hedrick
Concord Field Station, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Old Causeway Road, Bedford, MA 01730, USA
J Exp Biol 206:1363-78. 2003
..Analysis of the variation in muscle force and airflow over the wing suggests that the coefficients of lift and drag of the wing vary 4-fold over the speed range examined in this study...
- Comparative power curves in bird flight
B W Tobalske
Department of Biology, University of Portland, 5000 North Willamette Boulevard, Portland, Oregon 97203, USA
Nature 421:363-6. 2003
..Thus, aspects of morphology, wing kinematics and overall style of flight can greatly affect the magnitude and shape of a species' power curve...
- Flight performance: Frigatebirds ride high on thermals
Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chiz, UPR 1934 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 79360 Villiers en Bois, France
Nature 421:333-4. 2003
- Wing-assisted incline running and the evolution of flight
Kenneth P Dial
Flight Laboratory, Avian Studies Program, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana UM, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
Science 299:402-4. 2003
..WAIR provides insight from behaviors observable in living birds into the possible role of incipient wings in feathered theropod dinosaurs and offers a previously unstudied explanation for the evolution of avian flight...
- Evolutionary biology. Uphill dash may have led to flight
Science 299:329. 2003
- Measuring wing kinematics, flight trajectory and body attitude during forward flight and turning maneuvers in dragonflies
State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
J Exp Biol 206:745-57. 2003
..Two typical flight behaviors, forward flight and turning maneuvers, of dragonflies Polycanthagyna melanictera Selys were measured and analyzed...
- The birds from Las Hoyas
Jose Luis Sanz
Unidad de Paleontologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid 28049, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
Sci Prog 85:113-30. 2002
..Primitive avian life habits are poorly understood. Some evidence from the Las Hoyas bird record indicates that Early Cretaceous birds were present in the trophic chains...
- Fluid-dynamic characteristics of a bristled wing
National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, 1 2 1 Namiki, Ibaraki 305 8964, Japan
J Exp Biol 205:2737-44. 2002
..Fluid-dynamic forces acting on the bristled model wing were a little smaller than those on the solid wing. Therefore, the bristled wing of a thrips cannot be explained in terms of increased fluid-dynamic forces...
- Scaling bat wingbeat frequency and amplitude
R D Bullen
J Exp Biol 205:2615-26. 2002
..92+5.18V+16.06log10S(REF). This equation is based on data up to and including speeds that require maximum wingbeat amplitude to be sustained. For most species, the maximum wingbeat amplitude was 140 degrees...
- The aerodynamics of revolving wings II. Propeller force coefficients from mayfly to quail
James R Usherwood
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
J Exp Biol 205:1565-76. 2002
..The normal force relationship introduced in the accompanying paper is supported for wings over a large range of aspect ratios in both 'early' and 'steady' conditions; local induced velocities appear not to affect the relationship...
- The aerodynamics of insect flight
Sanjay P Sane
Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
J Exp Biol 206:4191-208. 2003
..This review covers the basic physical principles underlying flapping flight in insects, results of recent experiments concerning the aerodynamics of insect flight, as well as the different approaches used to model these phenomena...