Summary: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes
    Geraldine Butler
    UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Nature 459:657-62. 2009
  2. ncbi The small RNA chaperone Hfq and multiple small RNAs control quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae
    Derrick H Lenz
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Cell 118:69-82. 2004
  3. pmc Coronatine promotes Pseudomonas syringae virulence in plants by activating a signaling cascade that inhibits salicylic acid accumulation
    Xiao yu Zheng
    Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 11:587-96. 2012
  4. ncbi Complete genome sequence of a virulent isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    H Tettelin
    The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 293:498-506. 2001
  5. pmc A CRISPR/Cas system mediates bacterial innate immune evasion and virulence
    Timothy R Sampson
    Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Program, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Nature 497:254-7. 2013
  6. ncbi Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus
    William C Nierman
    The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Nature 438:1151-6. 2005
  7. doi The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease
    Aras Kadioglu
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:288-301. 2008
  8. pmc Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group
    O Clermont
    Laboratoire d études de génétique bactérienne dans les infections de l enfant EA3105, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 66:4555-8. 2000
  9. ncbi Insights from the genome of the biotrophic fungal plant pathogen Ustilago maydis
    Jörg Kämper
    Department of Organismic Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Karl von Frisch Strasse, D 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Nature 444:97-101. 2006
  10. pmc Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis
    J P Latge
    Laboratoire des Aspergillus, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France
    Clin Microbiol Rev 12:310-50. 1999

Detail Information

Publications350 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes
    Geraldine Butler
    UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Nature 459:657-62. 2009
    ..cell wall, secreted and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination ..
  2. ncbi The small RNA chaperone Hfq and multiple small RNAs control quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae
    Derrick H Lenz
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Cell 118:69-82. 2004
    ..We propose that Hfq, together with these sRNAs, creates an ultrasensitive regulatory switch that controls the critical transition into the high cell density, quorum-sensing mode...
  3. pmc Coronatine promotes Pseudomonas syringae virulence in plants by activating a signaling cascade that inhibits salicylic acid accumulation
    Xiao yu Zheng
    Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 11:587-96. 2012
    ..We examined the mechanisms underlying coronatine-mediated virulence and show that coronatine activates three homologous NAC transcription factor (TF) genes, ANAC019, ANAC055, and ..
  4. ncbi Complete genome sequence of a virulent isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    H Tettelin
    The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 293:498-506. 2001
    ..Comparative genome hybridization with DNA arrays revealed strain differences in S. pneumoniae that could contribute to differences in virulence and antigenicity.
  5. pmc A CRISPR/Cas system mediates bacterial innate immune evasion and virulence
    Timothy R Sampson
    Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Program, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Nature 497:254-7. 2013
    ..novicida to dampen this host response and promote virulence. Because Cas9 proteins are highly enriched in pathogenic and commensal bacteria, our work indicates that CRISPR/..
  6. ncbi Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus
    William C Nierman
    The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Nature 438:1151-6. 2005
    ..The Af293 genome sequence provides an unparalleled resource for the future understanding of this remarkable fungus...
  7. doi The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease
    Aras Kadioglu
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:288-301. 2008
    ..Through a combination of virulence-factor activity and an ability to evade the early components of the host immune response, this organism can ..
  8. pmc Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group
    O Clermont
    Laboratoire d études de génétique bactérienne dans les infections de l enfant EA3105, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 66:4555-8. 2000
    ..The method, which uses a combination of two genes (chuA and yjaA) and an anonymous DNA fragment, was tested with 230 strains and showed excellent correlation with reference methods...
  9. ncbi Insights from the genome of the biotrophic fungal plant pathogen Ustilago maydis
    Jörg Kämper
    Department of Organismic Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Karl von Frisch Strasse, D 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Nature 444:97-101. 2006
    ..This basidiomycete fungus does not use aggressive virulence strategies to kill its host. U...
  10. pmc Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis
    J P Latge
    Laboratoire des Aspergillus, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France
    Clin Microbiol Rev 12:310-50. 1999
  11. ncbi Plants have a sensitive perception system for the most conserved domain of bacterial flagellin
    G Felix
    Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    Plant J 18:265-76. 1999
    The flagellum is an important virulence factor for bacteria pathogenic to animals and plants...
  12. doi The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile infection
    Sarah A Kuehne
    Clostridia Research Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Nature 467:711-3. 2010
    ..During infection, C. difficile produces two key virulence determinants, toxin A and toxin B...
  13. ncbi The multidrug-resistant human pathogen Clostridium difficile has a highly mobile, mosaic genome
    Mohammed Sebaihia
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK
    Nat Genet 38:779-86. 2006
    ..difficile of an extensive array of genes involved in antimicrobial resistance, virulence, host interaction and the production of surface structures...
  14. ncbi A signaling network reciprocally regulates genes associated with acute infection and chronic persistence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Andrew L Goodman
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Dev Cell 7:745-54. 2004
    ..We identified a gene whose inactivation results in attenuation of virulence due to premature activation of genes involved in biofilm formation and coordinate repression of genes required ..
  15. pmc Identification of a conserved bacterial protein secretion system in Vibrio cholerae using the Dictyostelium host model system
    Stefan Pukatzki
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1528-33. 2006
    ..Using Dictyostelium discoideum as a model host, we have identified a virulence mechanism in a non-O1/non-O139 V...
  16. doi The role of Hfq in bacterial pathogens
    Yanjie Chao
    RNA Biology Group, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:24-33. 2010
    The ubiquitous RNA-binding protein, Hfq, has been shown to be required for the fitness and virulence of an increasing number of bacterial pathogens...
  17. pmc Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on lipoamide dehydrogenase, a member of three multienzyme complexes
    Aditya Venugopal
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 9:21-31. 2011
    ..Mtb deficient in both DlaT and PdhC phenocopies Lpd-deficient Mtb. Thus, Mtb critically requires BCKADH along with PDH and PNR/P for pathogenesis. These findings position Lpd as a potential target for anti-infectives against Mtb...
  18. pmc A dynamic and intricate regulatory network determines Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence
    Deepak Balasubramanian
    Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 41:1-20. 2013
    ..The critical traits contributing to the pathogenic potential of P. aeruginosa are the production of a myriad of virulence factors, formation of biofilms and antibiotic resistance...
  19. pmc Evolutionary dynamics of Clostridium difficile over short and long time scales
    Miao He
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7527-32. 2010
    ..difficile as a human pathogen is unclear. Whole genome sequencing was used to analyze genetic variation and virulence of a diverse collection of thirty C...
  20. ncbi An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
    L Clifford McDonald
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2433-41. 2005
    ..difficile with increased virulence, resistance, or both.
  21. ncbi Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management
    D T Dennis
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    JAMA 285:2763-73. 2001
    ..The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense has developed consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if tularemia is used as a biological weapon against a civilian population...
  22. pmc Virulence and immunomodulatory roles of bacterial outer membrane vesicles
    Terri N Ellis
    Box 3711, Biochemistry Department, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 74:81-94. 2010
    ..Strong experimental evidence exists to categorize OM vesicle production as a type of Gram-negative bacterial virulence factor...
  23. pmc A fine scale phenotype-genotype virulence map of a bacterial pathogen
    Tim van Opijnen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Genome Res 22:2541-51. 2012
    ..are involved in differential carbon source utilization in the host, as well as genes that are involved both in virulence and in resistance against specific in vitro stresses, thereby revealing selection pressures that the pathogen ..
  24. pmc Genomic islands: tools of bacterial horizontal gene transfer and evolution
    Mario Juhas
    Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Nuffield Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 33:376-93. 2009
    ..of bacteria as they are involved in the dissemination of variable genes, including antibiotic resistance and virulence genes leading to generation of hospital 'superbugs', as well as catabolic genes leading to formation of new ..
  25. pmc A sterol-regulatory element binding protein is required for cell polarity, hypoxia adaptation, azole drug resistance, and virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus
    Sven D Willger
    Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000200. 2008
    ..Currently, whether hypoxia adaptation is an important virulence attribute of opportunistic pathogenic molds is unknown...
  26. doi Characterisation of the Escherichia coli strain associated with an outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 2011: a microbiological study
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory for Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:671-6. 2011
    ..We analysed virulence profiles and relevant phenotypes of outbreak isolates recovered in our laboratory.
  27. pmc A single positively selected West Nile viral mutation confers increased virogenesis in American crows
    Aaron C Brault
    Center for Vector Borne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Nat Genet 39:1162-6. 2007
    ..the introduction of a T249P amino acid substitution in the NS3 helicase (found in North American WNV) in a low-virulence strain was sufficient to generate a phenotype highly virulent to AMCRs...
  28. pmc Systematic screens of a Candida albicans homozygous deletion library decouple morphogenetic switching and pathogenicity
    Suzanne M Noble
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Genet 42:590-8. 2010
    ..isogenic null mutants of this diploid organism, which requires sequential gene targeting, allows dissection of virulence mechanisms. Published analyses of such mutants show a near-perfect correlation between C...
  29. ncbi Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V cholerae
    Kozo Makino
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
    Lancet 361:743-9. 2003
    ..The organism is phylogenetically close to V cholerae, the causative agent of cholera...
  30. ncbi Targeting virulence: a new paradigm for antimicrobial therapy
    Anne E Clatworthy
    Department of Molecular Biology and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge St, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 3:541-8. 2007 conventional antibiotics, an alternative approach is to target functions essential for infection, such as virulence factors required to cause host damage and disease...
  31. ncbi Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak
    James A Fraser
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 437:1360-4. 2005
    ..This has implications for the emergence of other microbial pathogens and inbreeding in host range expansion in the fungal and other kingdoms...
  32. doi Basis of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Michael Otto
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 64:143-62. 2010
    ..The basis of their success is the combination of methicillin resistance at low fitness cost and high virulence. Investigation of the virulence potential of CA-MRSA, a key prerequisite for the development of anti-CA-MRSA ..
  33. ncbi Biological and biomedical implications of the co-evolution of pathogens and their hosts
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    Nat Genet 32:569-77. 2002
  34. pmc Epidemiology, genetics, and ecology of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae
    S M Faruque
    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62:1301-14. 1998
    ..cholerae strains and genetic elements that mediate the transfer of virulence genes. The ecosystem comprising V...
  35. pmc Comparative genome and phenotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile 027 strains provides insight into the evolution of a hypervirulent bacterium
    Richard A Stabler
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Genome Biol 10:R102. 2009
    ..difficile (CD196), a recent epidemic and hypervirulent 027 (R20291) and a previously sequenced PCR-ribotype 012 strain (630)...
  36. pmc Quinolone signaling in the cell-to-cell communication system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    E C Pesci
    Department of Microbiology, East Carolina University School of Medicine, Greenville, NC 27858, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:11229-34. 1999
    ..aeruginosa virulence genes. We report here that P...
  37. ncbi Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion
    Maeli Melotto
    Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Cell 126:969-80. 2006
    ..To circumvent this innate immune response, plant pathogenic bacteria have evolved specific virulence factors to effectively cause stomatal reopening as an important pathogenesis strategy...
  38. pmc Transcriptional response of Candida albicans upon internalization by macrophages
    Michael C Lorenz
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 3:1076-87. 2004
  39. pmc Comparative analysis of USA300 virulence determinants in a rabbit model of skin and soft tissue infection
    Scott D Kobayashi
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, and Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:937-41. 2011
    ..rabbits to test the hypothesis that PVL contributes to USA300 pathogenesis and compare it with well-established virulence determinants: alpha-hemolysin (Hla), phenol-soluble modulin-alpha peptides (PSMα), and accessory gene regulator ..
  40. pmc ChLae1 and ChVel1 regulate T-toxin production, virulence, oxidative stress response, and development of the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus
    Dongliang Wu
    Dept of Plant Pathology and Plant Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002542. 2012
    ..Produced by race T, T-toxin promotes high virulence to maize carrying Texas male sterile cytoplasm (T-cms)...
  41. ncbi P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing systems and virulence
    Roger S Smith
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Curr Opin Microbiol 6:56-60. 2003
    ..the absence of one or more components of the quorum-sensing system results in a significant reduction in virulence. Recent advances in the past year have demonstrated that the quorum-sensing signal molecule 3O-C(12)-HSL is also ..
  42. pmc Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms
    M C Maiden
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:3140-5. 1998
  43. pmc The multiple signaling systems regulating virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Pol Nadal Jimenez
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 76:46-65. 2012
    ..In several pathogens, this process triggers the production of virulence factors and/or a switch in bacterial lifestyle that is a major determining factor in the outcome and severity of ..
  44. pmc Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae
    Jun Zhu
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:3129-34. 2002
    The production of virulence factors including cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is strongly influenced by environmental conditions...
  45. pmc Variation in virulence among clades of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with disease outbreaks
    Shannon D Manning
    Microbial Evolution Laboratory, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4868-73. 2008 defined by higher hemolytic uremic syndrome and hospitalization frequencies, suggesting that increased virulence has evolved...
  46. ncbi RIN4 interacts with Pseudomonas syringae type III effector molecules and is required for RPM1-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis
    David Mackey
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Cell 108:743-54. 2002
    ..This may enhance RIN4 activity as a negative regulator of plant defense, facilitating pathogen growth. RPM1 may "guard" against pathogens that use AvrRpm1 and AvrB to manipulate RIN4 activity...
  47. pmc Virulence-associated substitution D222G in the hemagglutinin of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus affects receptor binding
    Salin Chutinimitkul
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    J Virol 84:11802-13. 2010
    ..pdmH1N1 with D222G caused ocular disease in mice without further indications of enhanced virulence in mice and ferrets...
  48. pmc The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system displays antimicrobial properties
    Dana L MacIntyre
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2H7
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19520-4. 2010
    ..cholerae and is used by this organism to confer virulence toward phagocytic eukaryotes, such as J774 murine macrophages and Dictyostelium discoideum...
  49. pmc Adaptation of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice
    Natalia A Ilyushina
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 3678, USA
    J Virol 84:8607-16. 2010
    ..To address this problem, we assessed the genetic basis for increased virulence of A/CA/04/09 (H1N1) and A/TN/1-560/09 (H1N1) isolates, which are not lethal for mice, in a new mammalian host ..
  50. pmc A Yersinia effector protein promotes virulence by preventing inflammasome recognition of the type III secretion system
    Igor E Brodsky
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:376-87. 2010
    Bacterial pathogens utilize pore-forming toxins or specialized secretion systems to deliver virulence factors to modulate host cell physiology and promote bacterial replication...
  51. pmc Toxin B is essential for virulence of Clostridium difficile
    Dena Lyras
    Australian Bacterial Pathogenesis Program, Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Nature 458:1176-9. 2009
    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitals worldwide, because of its virulence, spore-forming ability and persistence. C...
  52. pmc sigmaB modulates virulence determinant expression and stress resistance: characterization of a functional rsbU strain derived from Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4
    Malcolm J Horsburgh
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, England S10 2TN
    J Bacteriol 184:5457-67. 2002
    ..general stress response that is thought to be important for Staphylococcus aureus survival and may contribute to virulence. The strain of choice for genetic studies, 8325-4, carries a small deletion in rsbU, which encodes a positive ..
  53. ncbi Genome sequence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7
    N T Perna
    Genome Center of Wisconsin, and Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Nature 409:529-33. 2001
    ..These include candidate virulence factors, alternative metabolic capacities, several prophages and other new functions--all of which could be ..
  54. ncbi Virulence factors of Yersinia pestis are overcome by a strong lipopolysaccharide response
    Sara W Montminy
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:1066-73. 2006
    ..To address the effect of weak TLR4 stimulation on virulence, we modified Y. pestis to produce a potent TLR4-stimulating LPS. Modified Y...
  55. pmc Phosphorylation of mouse immunity-related GTPase (IRG) resistance proteins is an evasion strategy for virulent Toxoplasma gondii
    Tobias Steinfeldt
    Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000576. 2010
    b>Virulence of complex pathogens in mammals is generally determined by multiple components of the pathogen interacting with the functional complexity and multiple layering of the mammalian immune system...
  56. pmc Identification of a pathogenicity island required for Salmonella survival in host cells
    H Ochman
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:7800-4. 1996
    We have identified a region unique to the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome that is essential for virulence in mice...
  57. pmc Horizontal gene transfer of the secretome drives the evolution of bacterial cooperation and virulence
    Teresa Nogueira
    Institut Pasteur, CNRS, URA, Paris, France
    Curr Biol 19:1683-91. 2009
    ..behaviors, secreting shared proteins that are essential for foraging, shelter, microbial warfare, and virulence. These proteins are costly, rendering populations of cooperators vulnerable to exploitation by nonproducing ..
  58. ncbi Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA
    Tadashi Baba
    Department of Bacteriology, Juntendo University, 2 1 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
    Lancet 359:1819-27. 2002
    ..By contrast with hospital-acquired MRSA, community-acquired MRSA is more susceptible to non b-lactam antibiotics. We investigated the high virulence potential of certain strains of this bacterium.
  59. doi Virulence evolution and the trade-off hypothesis: history, current state of affairs and the future
    S Alizon
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Queen s University, Kingston, Canada
    J Evol Biol 22:245-59. 2009
    ..The trade-off hypothesis states that virulence is an unavoidable consequence of parasite transmission; however, since the 1990s, this hypothesis has been ..
  60. pmc The cluster 1 type VI secretion system is a major virulence determinant in Burkholderia pseudomallei
    Mary N Burtnick
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688, USA
    Infect Immun 79:1512-25. 2011
    ..We also constructed six hcp deletion mutants (Δhcp1 through Δhcp6) and tested them for virulence in the Syrian hamster model of infection...
  61. pmc Polymorphonuclear leukocytes mediate Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin-induced lung inflammation and injury
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5587-92. 2010
    ..Therefore, we developed a rabbit model of necrotizing pneumonia to compare the virulence of a USA300 wild-type strain with that of isogenic PVL-deletion mutant and -complemented strains...
  62. pmc Evolution of virulence in epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Min Li
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5883-8. 2009
    ..into the evolution of the exceptional potential of USA300 to cause disease, we compared the phylogeny and virulence of USA300 with that of closely related MRSA clones...
  63. pmc A multifunctional mannosyltransferase family in Candida albicans determines cell wall mannan structure and host-fungus interactions
    Hector M Mora-Montes
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
    J Biol Chem 285:12087-95. 2010
    ..We showed previously that Mnt1 and Mnt2 are involved in O-linked mannosylation and are required for virulence. Here, the role of C...
  64. doi Protein secretion systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A wealth of pathogenic weapons
    Sophie Bleves
    CNRS, Aix Marseille Universite, Institut de Microbiologie de la Mediterranee, France
    Int J Med Microbiol 300:534-43. 2010
    ..Unfortunately, they can cope with it and have evolved a number of complex secretion systems, which direct virulence factors either at the bacterial cell surface into the environmental extracellular milieu or into the host cell ..
  65. pmc The PB2 subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase affects virulence by interacting with the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein and inhibiting expression of beta interferon
    Katy M Graef
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3203, USA
    J Virol 84:8433-45. 2010
    The PB2 subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase is a major virulence determinant of influenza viruses. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown...
  66. pmc A new influenza virus virulence determinant: the NS1 protein four C-terminal residues modulate pathogenicity
    David Jackson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4381-6. 2008
    The virulence of influenza virus is a multigenic trait. One determinant of virulence is the multifunctional NS1 protein that functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune response...
  67. ncbi Autoinduction and signal transduction in the regulation of staphylococcal virulence
    Richard P Novick
    Program in Molecular Pathogenesis, Skirball Institute, Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 10016, USA
    Mol Microbiol 48:1429-49. 2003
    ..internal metabolic machinery of the cell, in order to achieve the production of particular subsets of accessory/virulence factors at the time and in quantities that are appropriate to the needs of the organism at any given location...
  68. doi The population genetics of commensal Escherichia coli
    Olivier Tenaillon
    INSERM U722 and Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris 75018, France
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:207-17. 2010
    ..coli is shaped by multiple host and environmental factors, and the determinants involved in the virulence of the bacteria may in fact reflect adaptation to commensal habitats...
  69. ncbi Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains evade apoptosis of infected alveolar macrophages
    J Keane
    Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston MA 02118, USA
    J Immunol 164:2016-20. 2000
    ..The present study compared AMphi apoptosis following infection by M. tuberculosis complex strains of differing virulence and by Mycobacterium kansasii. Avirulent or attenuated bacilli (M...
  70. doi The arginine catabolic mobile element and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec linkage: convergence of virulence and resistance in the USA300 clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco 94110, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1523-30. 2008
    ..These data are consistent with a model in which ACME enhances growth and survival of USA300, allowing for genetic "hitchhiking" of SCCmec. SCCmec in turn protects against exposure to beta-lactams...
  71. pmc Pyrosequencing-based comparative genome analysis of the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium and identification of a large transferable pathogenicity island
    Willem van Schaik
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
    BMC Genomics 11:239. 2010
    ..The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecium is an important cause of nosocomial infections in immunocompromized patients...
  72. pmc Sub-telomere directed gene expression during initiation of invasive aspergillosis
    Andrew McDonagh
    Department of Microbiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000154. 2008
    ..Recent genome sequencing of several Aspergillus species provides an exceptional opportunity to analyse fungal virulence attributes within a genomic and evolutionary context...
  73. pmc Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and phytophthora infestans avirulence genes
    Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers
    Wageningen UR Plant Breeding, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 3:e2875. 2008
    ..Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties...
  74. doi Vaccinia virus immune evasion: mechanisms, virulence and immunogenicity
    Geoffrey L Smith
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    J Gen Virol 94:2367-92. 2013
    ..In this review, these VACV immunomodulatory proteins are described and the potential to create more immunogenic VACV strains by manipulation of the gene encoding these proteins is discussed...
  75. pmc Distinctive expansion of potential virulence genes in the genome of the oomycete fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica
    Rays H Y Jiang
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 9:e1003272. 2013
  76. doi Iron availability and infection
    Eugene D Weinberg
    Department of Biology and Program in Medical Sciences Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, IN 47405 USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:600-5. 2009
    ..To successfully sustain an infection, nearly all bacteria, fungi and protozoa require a continuous supply of host iron...
  77. pmc SreA-mediated iron regulation in Aspergillus fumigatus
    Markus Schrettl
    Divisions of Molecular Biology Biocenter, Medical University Innsbruck, Fritz Pregl Str 3, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Mol Microbiol 70:27-43. 2008
    ..Siderophore biosynthesis, which is essential for virulence, is repressed by iron. Here we show that this control is mediated by the GATA factor SreA...
  78. pmc Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000
    Helene Feil
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11064-9. 2005
    ..are unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity...
  79. ncbi Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
    Michel Warny
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
    Toxins A and B are the primary virulence factors of Clostridium difficile. Since 2002, an epidemic of C difficile-associated disease with increased morbidity and mortality has been present in Quebec province, Canada...
  80. pmc Calcineurin controls drug tolerance, hyphal growth, and virulence in Candida dubliniensis
    Ying Lien Chen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 10:803-19. 2011
    ..C. dubliniensis calcineurin and crz1/crz1 mutants exhibit attenuated virulence in a murine systemic infection model, likely attributable to defects in cell wall integrity, hyphal growth, and ..
  81. pmc Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi from agricultural and natural ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their virulence towards thrips and whiteflies
    Sergio R Sánchez-Peña
    Departamento de Parasitología Agrícola, Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico
    J Insect Sci 11:1. 2011
    ..anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol.
  82. doi Expanding fungal pathogenesis: Cryptococcus breaks out of the opportunistic box
    James W Kronstad
    The Michael Smith Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:193-203. 2011
  83. ncbi Anthrax
    M Mock
    Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, CNRS URA 2172, Institut Pasteur, Paris Cedex 15, France
    Annu Rev Microbiol 55:647-71. 2001
    ..The link between plasmids and major virulence factors of B. anthracis was not discovered until the 1980s...
  84. pmc An ancestral oomycete locus contains late blight avirulence gene Avr3a, encoding a protein that is recognized in the host cytoplasm
    Miles R Armstrong
    Plant Pathogen Interactions Programme, Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, DD2 5DA Dundee, UK
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7766-71. 2005
    ..We suggest that Avr3a has undergone gene duplication and that an allele evading recognition by R3a arose under positive selection...
  85. pmc Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by quorum sensing inhibitors
    Morten Hentzer
    BioCentrum DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    EMBO J 22:3803-15. 2003
    ..The discovery of communication systems (quorum sensing systems) regulating bacterial virulence has afforded a novel opportunity to control infectious bacteria without interfering with growth...
  86. pmc Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases in virulence and pathogenesis
    Julian R Naglik
    Department of Oral Medicine, Pathology and Immunology, GKT Dental Institute, Kings College London, London, United Kingdom
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:400-28, table of contents. 2003
    ..albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans and has developed an extensive repertoire of putative virulence mechanisms that allows successful colonization and infection of the host under suitable predisposing conditions...
  87. ncbi Population biology of multihost pathogens
    M E Woolhouse
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    Science 292:1109-12. 2001
    ..Generalism also has consequences for the evolution of virulence and for pathogen epidemiology, making both much less predictable...
  88. ncbi The ecology of genetically diverse infections
    A F Read
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Science 292:1099-102. 2001
    ..Indeed, much of the theory in this area is based on assumptions contradicted by the available data...
  89. doi Comparison of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pulsotypes USA300 and USA400 in a rat model of pneumonia
    Christopher P Montgomery
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:561-70. 2008
    ..The explanation for this shift is unclear. We hypothesized that USA300 must be more pathogenic--specifically, that USA300 would have increased virulence when compared with USA400 in an animal model.
  90. doi A trans-acting riboswitch controls expression of the virulence regulator PrfA in Listeria monocytogenes
    Edmund Loh
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, 90187 Umea, Sweden
    Cell 139:770-9. 2009
    ..SreA and SreB control expression of the virulence regulator PrfA by binding to the 5'-untranslated region of its mRNA...
  91. pmc Rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance in the emerging zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis
    Matthew T G Holden
    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e6072. 2009
    ..suis infections occur sporadically in human Europe and North America, but a recent major outbreak has been described in China with high levels of mortality. The mechanisms of S. suis pathogenesis in humans and pigs are poorly understood...
  92. pmc Genomic analysis reveals that Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence is combinatorial
    Daniel G Lee
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Genome Biol 7:R90. 2006
    ..We therefore sequenced a highly virulent strain of P. aeruginosa, PA14, and compared it with a previously sequenced (and less pathogenic) strain, PAO1, to identify novel virulence genes.
  93. ncbi Multidrug-resistance efflux pumps - not just for resistance
    Laura J V Piddock
    Antimicrobial Agents Research Group, Division of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:629-36. 2006
    ..Here, I present the accumulating evidence that multidrug-resistance efflux pumps have roles in bacterial pathogenicity and propose that these pumps therefore have greater clinical relevance than is usually attributed to them...
  94. doi Anti-virulence strategies to combat bacteria-mediated disease
    David A Rasko
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 9:117-28. 2010
    ..Interference with bacterial virulence and/or cell-to-cell signalling pathways is an especially compelling approach, as it is thought to apply less ..
  95. pmc RXLR effector reservoir in two Phytophthora species is dominated by a single rapidly evolving superfamily with more than 700 members
    Rays H Y Jiang
    Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4874-9. 2008
    ..The superfamily includes all experimentally identified oomycete effector and avirulence genes, and its rapid pace of evolution is consistent with a role for Avh proteins in interaction with plant hosts...
  96. ncbi The glyoxylate cycle is required for fungal virulence
    M C Lorenz
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 412:83-6. 2001
    ..findings in fungi, in conjunction with reports that isocitrate lyase is both upregulated and required for the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrate the wide-ranging significance of the glyoxylate cycle in microbial ..
  97. pmc Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague
    R D Perry
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 10:35-66. 1997
    ..Studies characterizing virulence determinants of Y. pestis have identified novel mechanisms for overcoming host defenses...
  98. pmc Structure and dynamics of the pan-genome of Streptococcus pneumoniae and closely related species
    Claudio Donati
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Genome Biol 11:R107. 2010
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important causes of microbial diseases in humans. The genomes of 44 diverse strains of S. pneumoniae were analyzed and compared with strains of non-pathogenic streptococci of the Mitis group...
  99. ncbi Nonfilamentous C. albicans mutants are avirulent
    H J Lo
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02142, USA
    Cell 90:939-49. 1997
    ..This Candida cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1 double mutant, locked in the yeast form, is avirulent in a mouse model...
  100. pmc Importance of toxin A, toxin B, and CDT in virulence of an epidemic Clostridium difficile strain
    Sarah A Kuehne
    Clostridia Research Group, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 209:83-6. 2014
    ..In addition to the main virulence factors toxin A and B, epidemic, PCR Ribotype 027 strains, such as R20291, produce a third toxin, CDT...
  101. ncbi Identification of novel cytolytic peptides as key virulence determinants for community-associated MRSA
    Rong Wang
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Nat Med 13:1510-4. 2007
    ..Our study reveals a previously uncharacterized set of S. aureus virulence factors that account at least in part for the enhanced virulence of CA-MRSA.

Research Grants79

  1. Variation in M. tuberculosis in response to host selection
    Sarah Fortune; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In these studies, we expect to provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms and targets of diversifying immune selection in M. tuberculosis. ..
  2. Inhibition of human neutrophil function by Francisella tularensis
    Lee Ann H Allen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Because of its extreme virulence via the aerosol route, Ft is a potential bioweapon and has been classified as a Category A Select Agent...
  3. Metabolic Engineering of Bacteria for Cancer Immunotherapy by Gamma Delta T Cells
    Craig T Morita; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..vaccine bacteria to overproduce HMBPP, (2) test engineered bacteria in vitro for HMBPP levels, growth rates, virulence, and ability to infect and proliferate in human cells, (3) test engineered bacteria in vivo in monkeys, and (4) ..
  4. Group A Streptococcus responses to oxidative stress
    Ioannis Gryllos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..DNA polymerase I, which has been implicated in DNA damage repair in several bacterial species, as well as in virulence of Salmonella typhimurium. Transcriptional linkage of polA.1 with perR raises the possibility that PolA...
  5. Fatty acid related regulation of enteric infectious disease
    FREDRICK JON KULL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Once ingested by the host, environmental signals in the gut initiate a virulence gene cascade leading to the production of virulence factors...
  6. A unique approach to identify markers for congenital syphilis and neurosyphilis
    Nikhat Parveen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pallidum pathogenesis will help us achieve our objective to identify critical virulence factors of T. pallidum and determine their potential as diagnostic markers and novel vaccine candidates...
  7. Global regulatory interactions in bacterial pathogenesis
    BRIAN AKERLEY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..influenzae senses and responds to redox conditions, such as oxygen availability, to control critical virulence properties including the structure of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and resistance to hydrogen peroxide...
  8. Analysis of gene regulation of Vibrio cholerae during infection
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Extensive in vitro studies have identified a number of virulence factors required to produce disease during infection. However, how V...
  9. Human neutrophils, phospholipase A2 and S.aureus: microbial targets and responses
    William M Nauseef; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..allow SA to survive in PMN, and in some cases escape, may reveal genes and their products that contribute to virulence but are not required for viability per se, thus eluding more conventional assays to identify antibiotic targets...
  10. Regulation of the Vibrio cholerae intestinal exit plan
    ANISIA J SILVA BENITEZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Vibrios that overcome the gastric acid barrier swim toward and adhere to the intestinal mucosa and express major virulence factors such as the toxin co-regulated pilus and cholera toxin, which is largely responsible for the profuse ..
  11. Development of Vaccines against Clostridium difficile Infection
    SAUL R TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CDI was shown to be mediated through systemic and mucosal antibodies against the 2 key toxins, although other virulence attributes are known to exist which may also contribute to the manifestation of CDI...
  12. The Role of Interleukin-10 During Fatal Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis
    KIRSTEN KULCSAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SV causes mild disease in humans, but has a neuronal tropism and causes encephalomyelitis in mice. The virulence of SV is age-dependent and virus-strain dependent...
  13. 4th ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Cell Biology and Development
    Susan S Golden; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Furthermore, the cell-cell signaling mechanisms that coordinate cell behavior are vitally important virulence determinants and disrupting these signaling networks is an outstanding strategy for the development of novel ..
    L Jeannine Brady; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A major virulence factor is demineralization of teeth by generation of lactic acid from dietary carbohydrates and bacterial ..
  15. Diverse Roles for RIC8 During G Protein Signaling in Fungi
    Katherine A Borkovich; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Moreover, because RIC8 is conserved in filamentous fungi and G proteins are required for virulence in this class of organisms, the studies will also reveal new targets for antifungal agents that can be used to ..
  16. Colitis Induced by immune responses to luminal bacteria-mouse
    Ryan B Sartor; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Ileal Crohn's disease mucosa is colonized enteroadherent/ invasive E. coli that contain virulence genes that mediate invasion and intracellular persistence/ replication. The murine E...
  17. Regulatory Oxygenases in Vasculopathic Rickettsioses
    SANJEEV SAHNI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..prowazekii, R. typhi) as independent model systems. Employing Rickettsia strains with varying degree of virulence, cell imaging, isozyme-specific inhibitors/activators or dominant- negative mutants, siRNA-based knockdown, ..
  18. DlaT as a transcriptional regulator in non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Ruslana Bryk; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and peroxynitrite reductase, in this pathway for the following reasons: DlaT is required for Mtb's full virulence in mice and survival in guinea pigs;dlaT's chromosomal location outside the PDH operon suggests a function ..
  19. Ibis T-6,000 Biosensor System
    CYNTHIA SEARS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, nosocomial multidrug resistant gram negative rods, influenza virus), their virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance determinants in different clinical settings;and 3) identification of ..
  20. OmpR and SsrB Regulation of Salmonella Virulence
    Linda J Kenney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The present proposal focuses on the control of SPI-2 gene expression. It is one of the most critical virulence determinants of Salmonella, yet the complex molecular biology of its transcriptional regulation, in particular ..
  21. Role of Vimentin in Pathogenesis of CNS Inflammation
    Sheng He Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The ibeA locus is able to modulate expression of several virulence factors (e.g., fim, ibeB, ompA and biofilm-associated genes) and predominantly contribute to E...
  22. 5500 QTRAP
    John W Turk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..research, and to characterizing components of cell envelopes of pathogenic microorganisms that govern their virulence. A specific aim is to further the NIH-funded research of the many users of our MS facility who study ..
  23. Fic-mediated Adenylylation
    CAROLYN ANN WORBY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As such, the presence of IbpA directly correlates with H. somni virulence. The COOH-terminus of IbpA is homologous to the Yersinia type III effector protein, YopT, one of several ..
  24. Delineation of the molecular mechanisms underlying group A Streptococcus virulenc
    Paul Sumby; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of GAS to cause such disease diversity is in part due to the coordinated expression of specific subsets of virulence factors...
  25. Analogs of GTP as novel inhibitors of bacterial c-di-GMP-synthesizing enzymes
    George E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Second, lead generation for drugs that can be developed to interfere with biofilms and virulence of important pathogenic bacteria will be developed...
  26. Inhibitors of the Y. pestis cell surface plasminogen activator for biodefense
    Marjorie H Barnes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This bacterium employs multiple non-redundant virulence factors to evade the innate immune system and the ensuing proinflammatory response in order to grow rapidly in ..
  27. Studies on the virulence of Fillifactor alocis
    Hansel M Fletcher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In silico analysis revealed molecular relatedness of several virulence factors from F. alocis and P. gingivalis. F...
    William M Nauseef; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..subvert pulmonary innate defenses, resulting in blunted host response in the lung and consequently the observed virulence of aerosolized F. tularensis...
  29. Varicella zoster virus: molecular controls of cell fusion-dependent pathogenesis
    Ann Arvin; Fiscal Year: 2013 assess the effects of acetylation and ubiquitination posttranslational modifications on VZV fusion and virulence. Finally, Aim 3 will establish whether the gBcyt modulates polykaryocyte formation to optimize VZV infection of ..
    Shiou Chuan Tsai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of tuberculosis (TB), has a cell envelope with chemically complex lipids that are closely related with its virulence and multi-drug resistance...
  31. Biosynthesis of Microbial Isoprenoids
    David E Cane; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..synthases of currently unknown function that are implicated in biologically important processes such as fungal virulence. The mechanistic focus will be on discovering new cyclases and on unraveling the protein structural basis for ..
  32. Adherent Escherichia coli and associated virulence genes in children with IBD
    Sandra C Kim; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We also have shown that several bacterial virulence factors shared by uropathogenic E. coli strains are increased in our colitogenic NC101 E...
  33. Characterize functions of T. brucei RAP1 and TRF in antigenic variation and telom
    Bibo Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..falciparum and C. glabrata, in which telomeric silencing plays an important role in regulation of virulence gene expression...
  34. X-ray Studies of Sugar-Modifying Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies have shown that these sugars are highly immunogenic, play roles in the virulence of the bacterium, and help the organism to evade therapeutic agents...
  35. Cyclic AMP Signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence
    Matthew C Wolfgang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Our long-term goal is to understand how this ubiquitous environmental bacterium activates a coordinated virulence program upon introduction into the human host...
    Yoshio Yamaoka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will use human gastric cells and animal models to identify the molecular mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori virulence factors cause gastric inflammation and subsequent disease...
  37. A common denominator of pathogenesis;a rare opportunity for novel therapeutic de
    DOUGLAS ALAN MITCHELL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..increasing threat posed by bacterial pathogens, more effort is needed to uncover the molecular underpinnings of virulence. Our group specializes in the use of bioinformatics, in vitro reconstitution, and genetic manipulation to ..
  38. Transcriptional Control by the Global Regulator Spx
    PETER A ZUBER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These systems regulate important virulence determinants, which are targets of drugs designed to alleviate infectious disease...
  39. Role of surface proteins in sand fly colonization by Bartonella bacilliformis
    Michael F Minnick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Little is known about Bb's molecular pathogenesis, virulence determinants and its association with the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia verrucarum...
  40. Pathogenesis of Oxidative Stress in Chagas Disease
    Nisha Jain Garg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cruzi expression of antioxidants enhanced parasite virulence, (2) host sustains chronic oxidative/inflammatory stress that was contributory to impaired LV function during ..
  41. Mechanisms of Haemophilus influenzae pathogenesis in the lung
    Hao Shen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of NTHi contributes to virulence in models of bacteremia and otitis media yet its function in the lung is not well understood...
  42. Identification of new compounds against fungal microbes
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further studies in our lab showed that the mechanism by which GlcCer promotes virulence of Cn is by allowing fungal growth in a neutral/alkaline environment, such as that present in the alveolar ..
  43. Metal-dependent phosphohydrolase activity of CvfA from Streptococcus pyogenes
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Conserved virulence factor A (CvfA) contains a metal-dependent phosphohydrolase domain and regulates the expression of glycolytic enzymes and virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes in response ..
  44. Microbial Diversity in Mechanisms of Disulfide Bond Formation and Reduction
    Dana Boyd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Also, since disulfide-bonded proteins are found in many of the most prominent bacterial virulence factors, these studies may contribute to antibiotic development.
  45. High-throughput Screenings to Identify Host Receptors for Staphylococcal Adhesins
    Renata Pasqualini; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mechanism of staphylococcal infections is incompletely understood, but it seemingly involves a large number of virulence factors such as adhesins, toxins and immunomodulators...
  46. Moraxella catarrhalis: virulence-based prevention
    Timothy F Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a solute binding protein of an ABC transporter system, as a promising vaccine antigen and also as a potential virulence factor. M. catarrhalis has a strict growth requirement for arginine...
  47. Contribution of the Streptococcus mutans cid and lrg Murein Hydrolase Regulator H
    KELLY CHRISTINE RICE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..S. mutans virulence is intimately related to its ability to form biofilm, but the molecular mechanisms facilitating its initial ..
  48. Cellular functions of the essential PcrA helicase in Staphylococcus aureus
    Saleem A Khan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..role of PcrA in UV DNA repair and the SOS response, which is known to promote the horizontal transfer of virulence genes and pathogenicity islands in S. aureus...
  49. Programming of Protective CD8 T-Cell Memory by Live and Adjuvanted Subunit Vaccin
    Marulasiddappa Suresh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..their effectiveness, there are disadvantages of using live attenuated vaccines, which include reversion to virulence, severe adverse effects, and contraindication in pregnant and immunocompromised individuals...
  50. Role of Coxiella burnetii group I introns in growth modulation
    Michael F Minnick; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..burnetii's developmental cycle, slow growth rate, and persistence in the environment. three interwoven virulence attributes...
  51. Dysregulation of the inflammatory response by Francisella tularensis
    Lee Ann H Allen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tularensis to act at multiple levels to disrupt NADPH oxidase assembly and activity, and identified relevant virulence factors. We were also the first to show that F...
  52. Global Regulation of Gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Bernard Weisblum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Serine/Threonine kinases and phosphatases are also necessary for virulence in S. pneumoniae...
    NINA REDA SALAMA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Descriptions of H. pylori virulence include a widely accepted hypothesis that the bacterium's spiral shape enhances its ability to swim through ..
  54. Enzymology of Chlamydia Pathogenesis
    Dewey G McCafferty; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the serine protease chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) is an enzyme that has emerged as a central virulence factor due to its multivariable roles in modifying host or bacterial proteins involved in lipid and membrane ..
  55. Pathogenesis of Subtype IE Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus
    ALISON PAIGE ADAMS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of VEE emergence in human populations and what little we know about its ability to amplify in equids and alter virulence via mutations...
  56. Transcriptional Regulation by a Deacetylase, CobB, in a Periodontopathogen
    DAVID J KOLODRUBETZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our efforts have focused on defining novel regulatory pathways in Aa that accurately control expression of the virulence factors needed to thrive in different conditions, with the long term goal of developing therapeutic protocols to ..
  57. Quorum sensing regulation of EHEC virulence genes
    Vanessa Sperandio; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We previously reported that EHEC senses three chemical signals to activate transcription of virulence genes: a bacterial aromatic autoinducer (AI-3) produced by the normal gastrointestinal flora, and two hormones (..
  58. Analyzing Anthrax Toxins in Drosophilia
    Ethan Bier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the past granting period we made a paradigm shifting discovery in which we showed that the two key virulence factors from Bacillus anthracis, edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) act cooperatively to inhibit protein ..
  59. Regulation of Bacteroides fragilis multidrug efflux pumps
    Hannah Wexler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..fragilis are similarly regulated by TFs. These TFs, and the pumps they regulate, may also regulate other virulence factors. VA patients are particularly at risk for anaerobic infections...
  60. Haemophilus influenzae iron/heme regulon
    Terrence L Stull; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..genes whose expression is regulated by iron and heme levels (the FeHm regulon) and to determine their role in virulence in animal models of disease. The FeHm regulon has been defined in one sequenced H...
    JANET L YOTHER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed studies will further our understanding of how the bacterium synthesizes its major virulence determinant, the capsular polysaccharide...
  62. Clinical Impact of Human Coronaviruses and Viral Diversity
    Geoffrey J Gorse; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Re-evaluations of the spectrum of HCoV-associated illness and virulence of new viral strains are needed...
  63. Mechanisms to restrain social cheating from quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aerugin
    AJAI DANDEKAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intercellular signaling mechanism that coordinates group behaviors including production of virulence factors and secreted proteases. P...
  64. Protective orthopox immunization in normals and patients with cancer or eczema
    Ellis Reinherz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Project 4 will use contemporary molecular genetics to mutate vaccinia virus-Wyeth strain to lower virulence by deleting immune escape functions but maintaining host range, replication and immunogenicity...
    Stephen M Beverley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..metabolism have revealed roles in growth, differentiation to infective forms in vitro and in the sand fly, virulence in animal infections, and in a novel pathway of oxidant resistance and susceptibility...
  66. The effect of inter-species interactions on the virulence of Streptococcus mutans
    Bing yan Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Project summary: Streptococcus mutans is the primary cariogen that produces several virulence factors. The long-term goal of the proposed studies is to characterize specific interactions of S...
  67. Virulence Factor Trafficking in Cryptococcus
    Peter Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..neoformans in vitro and virulence of the organism in experimental animals...
    DARREN SLEDJESKI; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..H-NS is an important regulator of virulence factors and other genes in E. coli and related bacteria. In Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive E...
    William F Stenson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this renewal we will return our focus to the parasite, and will look at what we have termed the amebic virulence program: E...
  70. Functional analysis of the Francisella capBCA gene locus
    Jing Ren Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Because of its extreme infectivity, high virulence, and ease of dissemination, F. tularensis is considered as a category A potential agent of bioterrorism...
  71. Genetic Basis of Virulence of Community MRSA Clone USA300
    Henry F Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our research objective is to identify genes that contribute to virulence of USA300...
  72. MtaR-regulated virulence in Streptococcus agalactiae
    Daniel Shelver; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..GBS is also an emerging cause of disease among the immunocompromised and elderly. Regulation of virulence determinants and factors important for survival within the host most likely occurs as GBS transitions through ..
  73. Impact of Fluoroquinolone resistance on Pseudomonas virulence and patient outcome
    Annie Wong Beringer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..public health because of its leading role in causing nosocomial infections, emergence of multidrug-resistance, virulence potential, and the lack of new drugs targeting this pathogen in the development pipeline...
    Harry Greenberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..gene structure and function, we still do not have a clear understanding of the basis of rotavirus immunity, virulence or host tropism...
  75. Study of S pneumoniae Virulence Gene Regulation
    Andrew Camilli; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..pneumoniae morbidity. Despite more than a century of research, understanding of S. pneumoniae virulence factors is limited. Furthermore, almost nothing is known concerning the regulation of S...
    Karen Skorupski; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the applicant's abstract): Virulence gene expression in many pathogenic bacteria is controlled by environmental stimuli both inside and outside of the host...
  77. Determine the relative virulence and the temporal expression of sarA paralog gen
    Adhar C Manna; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The pathogenesis of Staphylococcus is a complex process that involves multiple virulence factors;therefore, it is not surprising that an effective therapeutic strategy directed against a single factor ..
  78. Elucidation of colonization and virulence through a novel comparative approach
    CHERYL WHISTLER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Although some virulence mechanisms have been identified, these do not fully explain the ability of this pathogen to cause disease...
  79. RovA regulon of Yersinia pestis
    VIRGINIA MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Currently, aside from studies of the type III secretion system and effectors encoded on the virulence plasmid, very little is known about the pathogenesis of Y. pestis at the molecular level...